Volume 8, Year 2016- Issue 2 

Contents

  1. 1 Varieties and mulching influence on weed growth in wheat under Indo- Gangetic plain of India
  2. 2 Studies on physico–chemical constituents in different cultivars of citrus fruits under Lucknow condition, India
  3. 3 Economic evaluation of conservation tillage options for deciding the feasibility of their adoption
  4. 4 Smothering effect of different crops on weed Malva neglecta Wallr.
  5. 5 Effect of different growth regulators on in vitro micro-propagation of Kufri Frysona
  6. 6 Isolation and screening lactic acid bacteria for riboflavin production and their use for bioenrichment of curd
  7. 7 Effect of farm yard manure, phosphorus and sulphur on yield parameters, yield, nodulation, nutrient uptake and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
  8. 8 Effect of different modes of pollination on yield parameters of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in India
  9. 9 Evaluation of three way cross hybrids and single cross hybrids in sunflower Helianthus annuus
  10. 10 Partial characterization of toxins associated with stem end rot of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae
  11. 11 Evaluation and identification of resistance to powdery mildew in Indian wheat varieties under artificially created epiphytotic
  12. 12 Abscisic acid induced seed dormancy and climate resilience in fox tail millet (Setaria italica L.) genotypes
  13. 13 Influence of integrated nutrient management practices on dry matter production, yield and NPK uptake of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa)
  14. 14 Comparative cost and returns of tractor owned and hired farms in Tungabhadra project (TBP) area of Karnataka, India
  15. 15 Long term impact of different cropping systems on soil quality under silty loam soils of Indo-Gangetic plains of India
  16. 16 Assessment of per se performance, combining ability, hybrid vigour and reaction to major diseases in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]
  17. 17 Implications of hybrid vigour, combining ability and per se performance in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]
  18. 18 Cultural and morphological studies on Ponnampet leaf and neck blast isolates of Magnaporthe grisea (Herbert) barr on rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  19. 19 Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in Manjalar sub-basin of Vaigai in Tamil Nadu using standardized precipitation index
  20. 20 G × E Interaction and path analysis for yield and its attributing traits in advanced genotypes of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]
  21. 21 Heterosis for yield and yield attributes in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  22. 22 Productivity, profitability and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different customized fertilizers and moisture regimes
  23. 23 Evaluation of cultivars and packing materials during preparation and storage of ber candy
  24. 24 Efficacy of dormancy breaking methods in paddy genotypes
  25. 25 Role of micronutrients in few crops production and human health in Lucknow region (U. P.), India
  26. 26 Assessment of herbaceous biomass: A study in Rowghat mining areas of Chhattisgarh, India
  27. 27 Comparative evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes based on distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing using physiological and morphological characters
  28. 28 Screening of Brassica germplasm against Albugo candida (White rust disease) on Brassica species (Rapeseed-mustard)
  29. 29 Chemical weed management in Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson
  30. 30 Understory vegetation in natural and plantation forest ecosystem of Sarguja (C.G.), India
  31. 31 Combining ability and heterosis analysis for drought tolerant traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  32. 32 Effect of different substrates and casing materials on growth and yield of Calocybe indica (P&C) in North Bengal, India
  33. 33 Resource use efficiency of maize production in Jammu Region of J & K State
  34. 34 Effect of foliar spray of zinc, iron and boron on the growth, yield and sensory characters of guava (Psidium guajava L.) Cv. Sardar L-49
  35. 35 Isolation and characterization of mineral potassium solubilizing bacteria from rhizosphere soils
  36. 36 Functional fitness: A key to independent and active living in the later age
  37. 37 Response of bio-regulators to morphology and yield of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] under different sowing environments
  38. 38 Status of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.cultivation and pesticide use in Golapar area of Uttarakhand, India
  39. 39 In vitro plant regeneration in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) through epicotyl segments by direct shoot organogenesis
  40. 40 Development of farm pond operational modeling using Neuro-Fuzzy technique
  41. 41 Effect of different potato varieties and tuber sizes on physiological changes under ambient storage performance
  42. 42 Seedling age and nitrogen application affect on dry matter accumulation, partitioning and nutrient status of rice under temperate conditions
  43. 43 Land resource assessment for agricultural development in Seoni district (Madhya Pradesh), India
  44. 44 Germination and emergence of four rattan Calamus species of Western ghats in response to different pre-sowing seed treatments
  45. 45 Mycoparasitic capabilities of diverse native strain of Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici
  46. 46 Production potential and economics of wheat, Triticum aestivum as influenced by different planting methods in Punjab, India
  47. 47 Prospects of Citrus sinensis (masumbi) cultivation in Haryana State, India
  48. 48 Constraints faced by farmers of Haryana state in adoption of masumbi (Citrus sinensis) cultivation
  49. 49 Assessment of heavy metals in the surrounding soils and their bio concentrations in few plants near Kathajodi river, Odisha, India
  50. 50 Impact of overgrazing and documentation of wild fodder plants used by Gujjar and Bakerwal Tribes of district Rajouri (J&K), India
  51. 51 Development of carp fish culture practice under different stocking densities in mid hills of Uttarakhand, India
  52. 52 Economic feasibility of summer squash cultivation using low tunnel and black plastic mulch under tarai condition of Uttarakhand
  53. 53 Effect of boron on growth, nutrition and fertility status of large cardamom in Sikkim Himalaya, India
  54. 54 Correlation and path analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
  55. 55 On-farm impact analysis of resource conservation technology on wheat at Tarai-Teesta Flood plain of Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP)
  56. 56 Morphological, cultural and pathogenic variability in Alternaria brassicae, the causing agent of black spot of rapeseed and mustard
  57. 57 Economics analysis of tomato cultivation under poly house and open field conditions in Haryana, India
  58. 58 Integrated management approaches for controlling root rot of bael caused by Fusarium solani
  59. 59 Biochemical investigations on vigour enhancement in aged seeds upon seed priming in onion
  60. 60 Mungbean yield and nutrient uptake performance in response of NPK and lime levels under acid soil in Vindhyan region, India
  61. 61 Identification of bacterial pathogen associated with red stripe/top rot disease of sugarcane in Punjab, India
  62. 62 Seed anatomical studies on dormancy and germination in Chamaecrista absus
  63. 63 Signature capture of red soil patches and their acidity-A case study of Banka district, Bihar, India
  64. 64 Attitude of rural youth towards agriculture as a means of livelihood
  65. 65 Wild edible fruit tree resources of Arunachal Pradesh, North East India
  66. 66 Management of white fly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) through seed treatment in moth bean
  67. 67 Effect of duration of night interruption on growth and flowering of Chrysanthemum cv. Kikiobiory
  68. 68 Relationship of postpartum interval to estrus, body condition score, milk yield and blood biochemical parameters in Surti buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
  69. 69 Morphological variation in an anopthalmic specimen of Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) from Brahmaputra River, Assam, India
  70. 70 Evaluation of different plant powders as seed protectants against rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton
  71. 71 Plethora (Novaluron + Indoxacarb) insecticide for the management of tomato fruit borer complex
  72. 72 Evaluation of the performance of gum guar varieties in north eastern Karnataka, India
  73. 73 Allelopathic effect of Leucaena leucocephala on Pansy (Viola tricolor L.)
  74. 74 An exploratory study on cultural and health significance of traditional tattooing practices among tribal community in Chhattisgarh state, India
  75. 75 Synergetic effect of onion (Allium cepa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and garlic (Allium sativum) on in vitro iron bioaccessibility from cooked dehusked mungbean
  76. 76 Computation of correlations of fortified vermicompost with sulphur on seed yield and nutrient content of mustard [Brassica juncea]
  77. 77 Eco-friendly fishing methods and techniques practiced in the northern hills zone of Chhattisgarh state, India
  78. 78 A study on innovativeness and regulating conflicts between the fishers and farmers in the Balua wetland
  79. 79 Effects of sowing dates and irrigation regimes on grain quality of wheat grown under semi-arid condition of India
  80. 80 Performance of strawberry cultivars in mid hill region of Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh
  81. 81 Effect of hydropriming and different sowing dates on growth and yield attributes of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
  82. 82 Global positioning system based spatial and temporal distribution of new leaf curl begomovirus disease on sunflower in Northern Karnataka
  83. 83 Relative toxicity of insecticides against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its fortuous parasitod Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)
  84. 84 Evaluation of synergistic potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with Rhizobium in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)
  85. 85 Study of heterosis and combining ability for earliness and vegetative traits in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
  86. 86 Effect of climatic factors on the growth and leaf yield of betelvine (Piperbetle L.)
  87. 87 Quantification of the abundance and diversity of predatory spiders in rice ecosystem of Rajendranagar, Telangana, India
  88. 88 Effect of milling speed on the quality and storage stability of maize flour
  89. 89 Fish diversity of Haryana and its conservation status
  90. 90 Optimization of the choice of molecular markers for identification of commercially used rice varieties in India using rapid DNA extraction protocol
  91. 91 Effect of low cost mole drainage technology on yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under waterlogged vertisols of Maharashtra, India
  92. 92 Role of salt precursors for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and in imparting variable antimicrobial activity
  93. 93 Effect of predrying treatments on the retention of quality characteristics of green peas (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Lincoln during mechanical drying
  94. 94 An evaluation of alternative coating material laminated marble in Turkey
  95. 95 Effect of different levels of citric acid on quality and storage stability of sugar and jaggery based papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit bar
  96. 96 Molecular characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes using sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers
  97. 97 Sugarcane trash chopper cum spreader-A viable machine to avoid trash burning
  98. 98 Status, abundance and population ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus Pallas) in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, India
  99. 99 Fish fauna of Wajoo nullah, an important tributary of the river Ravi in Kathua District, Jammu Region, Jammu and Kashmir State, India
  100. 100 Sundarbans mangrove deltaic system – An overview of its biodiversity with special reference to fish diversity
  101. 101 Advent of Trichoderma as a bio-control agent- A review
  102. 102 Alternaria blight of oilseed brassicas: A review on management strategies through conventional, non-conventional and biotechnological approaches
  103. 103 Pesticides effect on soil microbial ecology and enzyme activity- An overview

Varieties and mulching influence on weed growth in wheat under Indo- Gangetic plain of India

Diwakar Mani, M. K. Singh and S.K. Prasad

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manoj.agro@bhu.ac.in

Received: September 18, 2015; Revised received: February 18, 2016; Accepted: April 8, 2016

Abstract: Weeds are one of the primary factors responsible for reducing wheat yield. Despite, herbicides’ being one of the important components of weed management programme in India, but it was not adopted by resource poor farmers. Keeping these facts in view, a field experiment was carried out at Agricultural research farm, Institute of Agricultural sciences, Banaras Hindu University during the rabi (winter) season of the year 2012-13 to scrutinize the influence of ‘mulching’ and ‘varieties’ on weed control potential as well as growth and yield of wheat. The treatments comprised of five wheat varieties (C-306, K-8027, K-0307, DBW-39 and HD-2888) and four mulching treatments (No -mulch, paddy straw 6t/ha, maize straw 6t/ha, and saw dust 6t/ha). Surface application of paddy straw mulch 6t/ha considerably reduced the density and biomass of broad leafed weeds and grasses and showed higher weed control efficiency over other treatments like maize straw 6t/ha, saw dust 6t/ha and no-mulch. Varieties DBW-39 and K-0307 was highly effective in smothering of the weeds and produced higher dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, number of grain/earhead, biological yield and harvest index of wheat.

Keywords: Cultivars, Maize straw, Paddy straw, Saw dust, Weed control efficiency


Studies on physico–chemical constituents in different cultivars of citrus fruits under Lucknow condition, India

Arun Patel1*, Balveer Singh1, R. B. Ram2 and N. Thirupathi1

1Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia -741252 (W.B.) INDIA

2Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya-Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow- 226025 (U.P.), INDIA

Corresponding author. E-mail: pkarun1987@gmail.com

Received: March 17, 2015; Revised received: January 24, 2016; Accepted: April 8, 2016

Abstract: The physico-chemical studies were conducted on the citrus fruits of sweet orange cv. Mosambi Local-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and Sweet Mandarin cv. Chinese Orange, Kinnow, Nagpur Mandarin, Local Mandarin-1 and Local Mandarin- 2. The Sweet Orange cultivar was highest size in Mosambi Local-3 with maximum fruit volume 204 ml and flesh weight 139.66 g followed by Mosambi Local-4. The juice recovery percent was maximum in Mosambi Local-3 28.63 and the highest specific gravity was found in Mosambi Local-1 (0.99) followed by Mosambi Local-2 (0.94). The different cultivars of Sweet Orange were recorded varies from the total soluble solid 7.60 to 12.66 per cent, reducing sugar 4.13 to 7.08 per cent, total sugar 5.90 to 10.12 per cent, tritrable acidity 0.52 to 0.83 per cent, ascorbic acid 46 to 74.80 mg/100g and pH 3.92 to 4.98. The juice percent was determined in Kinnow 53.20 g after that Nagpur santra 51.30 g. The chemical attributes of Sweet Mandarin were found as total soluble solid varied from 8.96 to 12.20 per cent, reducing sugar 3.22 to 6.60 per cent, total sugar 5.73 to 10.04 per cent, titrable acidity 0.84 to 2.24 per cent, ascorbic acid 25.96 to 36.13mg/100 g and pH 3.84 to 4.60. However, the Sweet Orange cultivars Mosambi Local-3 and Mosambi Local-4 and Sweet Mandarin cv. Local Mandarin-1 were suitable for export, making of non alcoholic beverages, easy for bottling and frozen products grown under Lucknow conditions.

Keywords: Acidity, Citrus fruit, Nutritive value, Sugar


Economic evaluation of conservation tillage options for deciding the feasibility of their adoption

Rakesh Kumar*, Pramila Aggarwal and Amarendra Kumar1

Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New delhi-110012 , INDIA

1Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Bhagalpur- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rbinnu@gmail.com

Received: April 14, 2015; Revised received: December 20, 2015; Accepted: April 3, 2016

Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to evaluate two important conservation tillage practices namely zero tillage in wheat and bed planting for growing vegetables for deciding the economic feasibility of their adoption in Gohana and Kharkhoda block of Sonipat district in Haryana. In first scenario, comparison were made between Puddled transplanted rice followed by conventional tilled wheat (PTR – CTW), and puddled transplanted rice followed by zero till wheat (PTR – ZTW). In second scenario, conventionally tilled Jowar in kharif followed by conventionally tilled wheat system (CTJ – CTW) was compared with vegetables on beds in both seasons (BV-BV). Sowing of wheat by zero till drill in PTR – ZTW system, decreased cost of cultivation by 21% over its value of Rs 20688 in PTR – CTW treatment; increased grain yield by 5% over the grain yield of 5.99 t ha-1 in PTR – CTW treatment. The B: C ratio of PTR – ZTW was 4.65 while that of PTR – CTW treatment was 3.24, which indicated economic viability of zero tillage practice. While in case of cauliflower in BV-BV system, the total cost of cultivation was estimated at Rs 51500/ha and net returns of Rs 38072/ha i.e an increased net return of 5.8 times over the net return of Rs 46223.5 in CTJ – CTW treatment. The B: C ratio of BV-BV was 5.21, while that of CTJ – CTW treatment was 2.35. Thus, it was concluded that in rabi season, cauliflower on beds and zero till wheat are most economically viable options in this temporary waterlogged regions of Yamuna basin.

Key words: Bed planting, Cauliflower, Economics, Wheat, Zero tillage


Smothering effect of different crops on weed Malva neglecta Wallr.

Charanjeet Kaur1 and Sat Paul Mehra2

*1Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Gurdaspur (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, (Ludhiana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E mail: virgocharan@yahoo.com

Received: April 26, 2015; Revised received: February 3, 2016;Accepted: April 3, 2016

Abstract: Field study was conducted at experimental farm of Punjab Agricultural University ,Ludhiana (India) during rabi seasons of 2004-05 and 2005-06. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with fourteen treatments having combination of seven different crops viz. bread wheat, durum wheat, six - rowed barley, two-rowed barley, raya, gobhi sarson, linseed and two weed control treatments i.e. hand weeded and unweeded. The study was planned with an objective to find out the most suitable Rabi crop that can suppress the weeds to maximum extent with minimum reduction in yield as there was no herbicide available which can control the weeds in an effective manner. Minimum weed dry matter accumulation was observed in raya (0.97qha-1 in the weeded plot) whereas maximum dry matter accumulation was observed in bread wheat (8.3qha-1), followed by durum wheat (6.1qha-1), linseed(5.0qha-1), barley (6-row) (4.9qha-1), barley (2-row) (2.6qha-1) and gobhi sarson (2.4qha-1). Raya (Brassica juncea) showed maximum suppressing poten-tial as minimum per cent reduction in crop yield of unweeded over weeded (7.4%) and minimum per cent increase in weed dry matter of unweeded over weeded( 44%) was observed in this crop. Gobhi sarson (Brassica napus) was the next best smothering crop followed by barley (2-row), barley (6-row), linseed, durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively in suppressing the M. neglecta. Two hand weedings treatment proved better in controlling the weeds as compared to unweeded treatment.

Keywords: Hand weedings, Malva neglecta, Rabi crops, Smothering effect, Weed control


Effect of different growth regulators on in vitro micro-propagation of Kufri Frysona

Priyadarshani P. Mohapatra1,2*, V.K. Batra1, Subhash Kajla2, Anil K. Poonia2 and N. Manoj Kumar1

1Department of Vegetable Science, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125001 (Haryana), INDIA

2Centre for Plant Biotechnology, CCS HAU Campus, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lipi.pragati@gmail.com

Received: June 24, 2015; Revised received: January 21, 2015; Accepted: April 4, 2016

Abstract: In the present investigation, experiment was conducted for in vitro micro-propagation with different concentration of growth regulators in different explants Sprouts and Shoot tips of potato cultivar Kufri Frysona. The maximum survival percentage (40) of sprouts and (100%) of shoot tips were obtained when the explants were surface sterilized with 0.2% bavistin & 0.4% streptocyclin (45minutes) and 0.1% mercuric chloride (60seconds). Sterilized explants were inoculated on MS basal supplemented with various growth regulators and established successfully. The maximum shoot induction (62.5±1.44%) in 11.3±0.33 days and (74.0 ± 2.13 %) in 10.0 ± 0.50 days were reported on medium PM1 (BAP 0.25 mg/l) in sprouts and shoot tip explants respectively. The sprouted explants were further sub-cultured on MS media supplemented with various growth regulator alone and in combination for in vitro multiplication. In Kufri Frysona (11.2) shoots were obtained on MS medium fortified with 0.25mg/l BAP + 0.01mg/l IAA on 42th day of subculture. In vitro rooting was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l NAA in Kufri Frysona after 10 days. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened in green house using different types of potting mixture and finally transferred to field. The protocol will be very useful for large-scale production of disease free planting material of potato (S. tuberosum) in future.

Keywords: Growth regulators, In vitro, Kufri Frysona, Micro-propagation, Murashige and Skoog media

Isolation and screening lactic acid bacteria for riboflavin production and their use for bioenrichment of curd

Chaya, S. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh* and A. S. Noor Nawaz

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580005 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jagsbio@gmail.com

Received: July 16, 2015; Revised received: January 1, 2016; Accepted: April 4, 2016

Abstract: As many as 47 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from various vegetables and fruits and raita collected from local households and characterized. All of them were Gram positive and catalase negative. The isolates were screened for riboflavin production. The riboflavin production varied from 0.86 to 10.90 mg L-1. The isolate Ra1 produced the highest riboflavin (10.90 ppm). Incidentally, it also produced 5.6 per cent lactic acid and 21.4 ppm exopolysaccharide (EPS). Similarly, N2 and F2 isolates produced 10.90 and 10.20 ppm riboflavin and 21.17 and 21.24 ppm EPS, respectively. These three selected isolates were used for preparing a functional curd and evaluated. The curd produced by inoculating N2 and Ra1 were of very good quality with excellent flavor, taste and texture and smooth cutting quality. Ra1 produced a functional curd with the highest riboflavin content (13.97 ppm). N2 and RA1 resulted in very high acceptability index of 95.37 and 94.44 per cent, respectively. The better organoleptic parameters of the functional curd may also be due to high lactic acid and exopolysaccharide production by these isolates. Thus, by inoculating riboflavin synthesizing LAB isolates to curd, riboflavin-enriched functional curd with enhanced consumer appeal, can be produced.

Keywords: Exopolysaccharide, Functional curd, Lactic acid bacteria, Riboflavin


Effect of farm yard manure, phosphorus and sulphur on yield parameters, yield, nodulation, nutrient uptake and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

S. K. Das*, B. Biswas and K. Jana

Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani-741235 Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sanjibag@gmail.com

Received: July 24, 2015; Revised received: January 1, 2016; Accepted: April 4, 2016

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted for three years at Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India during rabi 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the effects of farm yard manure (FYM), phosphorus and sulphur on yield parameters, yield, nodulation, nutrient uptake and quality of chickpea. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with three replications having twelve treatment combinations viz. two levels of FYM (F0-0 t ha-1, F1 -5 t ha-1) as factor A , three levels of phosphorus (P0 -0 kg ha-1, P30 -30 kg ha-1, P60 -60 kg ha-1) as factor B and two levels of sulphur (S0 -0 kg ha-1, S20 -20 kg ha-1) as factor C. Experimental results revealed that yield attributing characters, yield and protein content of chickpea were significantly influenced by FYM, phosphorus, sulphur and interaction effects of these three factors. Significantly higher seed yield (2458.03 kg ha-1) was obtained with the application of FYM 5 t ha-1 over it’s non application. Application of 60 kg ha-1 phosphorus recorded significantly higher seed yield (2735.50 kg ha-1) of chickpea cultivar Anuradha. Application of 20 kg ha-1 sulphur recorded significantly higher seed yield (2532.32 kg ha-1) over it’s non application in a sulphur deficient soil. Among the interaction effects application of 60 kg ha-1 phosphorus and 20 kgha-1 sulphur in Farm yard manure(5 t ha-1 ) treated plot recorded highest seed yield (2979.3 kg ha-1) . Application of sulphur 20 kg ha-1 increased the nodule no. by 14.4 %. Application of 60 kg ha-1 phosphorus and 20 kg ha-1 sulphur in Farm yard manure treated plot (5 t ha-1) increased the nodule no. by 62.3%. Varying levels of phosphorus along with sulphur and FYM significantly improved the nutrient uptake by chickpea in a sulphur deficient soil. Application of 60 kg ha-1 phosphorus and 20 kg ha-1 sulphur in Farm yard manure treated plot (5 t ha-1) along with recommended dose of nitrogen and potassium proved to be the best treatment combination for increasing the productivity of chickpea and thereby increasing the pulse production of the country.

Keywords: Chickpea, FYM, Nodulation, Nutrient uptake, Phosphorus, Seed yield, Sulphur


Effect of different modes of pollination on yield parameters of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in India

D. Devika Rani, Sunita Yadav*, H.D. Kaushik and G. Narendra Kumar

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sunitayadav10@rediffmail.com

Received: July 27, 2015; Revised received: January 1, 2016; Accepted: April 15, 2016

Abstract: Effect of different modes of pollination, viz., without insect pollination, hand-pollination, open-pollination and open-pollination + hand-pollination on yield parameters of 4 summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) hybrids viz., Parikrama, Chandra, Chamatkar and Gold Queen was studied at Research Farm of the Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2014. Irrespective of different hybrids, the treatment open-pollination + hand-pollination and open-pollination produced the maximum number of fruits per plant (73.50 and 71.25%, respectively) followed by hand-pollination (59.08%) and no fruits were observed (0% fruit set) under without insect pollination treatment. Average fruit weight, fruit polar diameter and equatorial diameter were maximum (135.30 g, 3.74 cm and 3.47 cm, respectively) under open-pollination + hand-pollination, while these were minimum (94.81 cm, 2.14cm and 2.48 cm, respectively) under hand-pollination treatment. These results indicate that honey bees as well as wild pollinators are utmost essential for pollination of summer squash flowers and thus increasing fruit size and yield. Therefore pollinators conservation practices should be followed in summer squash growing ar-eas for getting higher yield and returns.

Keywords: Fruit weight, Hybrids, Pollination, Summer squash, Yield


Evaluation of three way cross hybrids and single cross hybrids in sunflower Helianthus annuus

Vikas V. Kulkarni*

AICRP on sunflower, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584104 INDIA

E-mail: vik_gene@rediffmail.com

Received: August 26, 2015; Revised received: December 29, 2015; Accepted: April 5, 2016

Abstract: Thirty-two sunflower, Helianthus annuus three way cross hybrids along with five popular single cross hy-brids evaluated for yield and component traits during Kharif-2013. Out of 32 three way cross sunflower hybrids tested, none were significantly superior over single cross best check. However, two three way cross hybrids (CMS- 207A X IB-104)X DOR-R3 (2066 kg/ha) and (CMS-148A X IB-101)XDOR-R3 (20132 kg/ha) recorded on-par seed yield compared to commercial single cross hybrid check RSFH-130. The three-way-cross hybrids were early for 50% flowering compared to single cross hybrids and were on-par for other quantitative characters viz., plant height, head diameter, volume weight and 100 seed weight. Looking into the advantage of reduced seed production cost and on par yield performance, identified two three-way cross hybrids needs to be tested over years and for different locations to find their suitability for commercial cultivation.

Keywords: Sunflower, Single cross hybrid, Seed production cost, Three way cross hybrid, yield performance


Partial characterization of toxins associated with stem end rot of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

S. Parthasarathy*, G. Thiribhuvanamala, P. Mohammed Faisal and K. Prabakar

Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: spsarathyagri@gmail.com

Received: February 9, 2015; Revised received: January 1, 2016; Accepted: April 5, 2016

Abstract: In this study, the toxicity of liquid culture media from different isolates of Lasiodiplodia theobromae was characterized and some properties of the toxic metabolites were distinguished. In this work toxin producing ability of L. theobromae was revealed by studying the physical parameters viz., osmotic potential, toxin concentration, pH, temperature and biological parameter like host specificity and wilting index. The obtained results showed that the optimal toxin-production conditions for L. theobromae in potato dextrose broth under pH 6.0, at 25-35°C for 7 days. The liquid culture from all isolates were toxic to mango plants and induced the rapid wilting. The toxin obtained from the liquid culture has thermal, acid base stability and a broad range of toxicity to main host and non-host plants. Moreover, the direct bioassay for two components of the liquid filtrates precipitated by ethanol showed that the active ingredient of the toxin is a kind of non protein substance, which was further endorsed by the papain hydrolysis analysis. Our results confirmed the chemical nature of toxic compound elucidating the favorable environmental conditions for toxin production of L. theobromae and proved potential role of toxic metabolites in the mechanism of disease development.

Keywords: Bioassay, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Partial characterization, Phytotoxin and Stem end rot


Evaluation and identification of resistance to powdery mildew in Indian wheat varieties under artificially created epiphytotic

Vikas Gupta*, R. Selvakumar, Satish Kumar, C. N. Mishra, V. Tiwari and Indu Sharma

ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vikasdwr@gmail.com

Received: September 10, 2015; Revised received: February 2, 2016; Accepted: April 6, 2016

Abstract: Wheat production is globally weighed down by several biotic factors of which rusts and powdery mildew are the most important. Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is becoming a disease of major importance in the North Western Plains Zone and Northern Hills Zone of the country. In the present context of climate variability, diseases like powdery mildew can assume greater importance in wheat breeding programs. Importance of basic studies on powdery mildew is the need of hour. A set of 370 Indian bread wheat, durum, dicoccum and triticale varieties were screened using mixture of natural occurring pathotypes from four locations (viz., Karnal, Ludhiana, Dhaulakuan and Yamunanagar) under polyhouse conditions. Data were recorded on the severity of infection based on 0-9 scale. Out of 370, only 23 varieties (Amrut, DDK 1025, DWR 1006, DWR 195, GW 1139, HD 4672, HD 4530, HD 2278, HD 1981, DDK 1001, HI 8627, Jay, TL 2942, DT 46, K 8020, DDK 1029, K 9107, K 816, Lok 1, MACS 6145, DDK 1009, NP 111 and NP 200) had shown immune reaction (0) whereas 150, 83 and 114 varieties have shown resistance (1-3), moderately susceptible (4-6) and highly susceptible (>6) response respectively against powdery mildew. Data indicated that there is an urgent need to broaden the genetic base of wheat by identifying and introgressing new sources of powdery mildew resistance. With limited sources of PM resistance available, above identified genotypes can be further used and characterized for resistance breeding programs in India.

Keywords: Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Epiphytotic, Pathotypes, Powdery mildew, Released varieties


Abscisic acid induced seed dormancy and climate resilience in fox tail millet (Setaria italica L.) genotypes

Anil Sebastian1*, S.N. Vasudevan2, B. Kissan3, I. Sangeeta Macha2 and S.R. Doddagoudar2

1Department of Seed Science and Tech., Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003(Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Department of Seed Science and Tech., University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sebastiananil.151@gmail.com

Received: April 14, 2015; Revised received: January 1, 2016; Accepted: April 6, 2016

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted at Department of Seed Science and Technology, UAS Raichur to estimate ABA content in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) using Phytodetek ABA Test Kit. ABA estimation in millets is helpful to trace out the reason behind the dormancy in millets and is less explored. Nine genotypes were studied in the present investigation. Among the foxtail millet genotypes, the highest dormancy duration of 35 days was observed in two genotypes viz., DHFt-4-5 and DHFt-5-3 and slight dormancy was noticed in the genotype DHFt- 35-1. The genotype DHFt-35-1 recorded lowest ABA concentration of 3.199 pmol/g f. w. followed by genotypes DHFt-2-5 and DHFt-2-5-1 (3.266 and 3.291 pmol/g f. w. respectively). Highest ABA concentration was found in DHFt-5-3 (3.404 pmol/g f. w.) followed by DHFt-4-5 (3.396 pmol/g f. w.). Thus it was concluded that ABA in millet seeds makes them ‘climate smart crops’ and during the climate change regime, it is only millets that can ensure India’s food and nutrition needs in future.

Keywords: Abscisic acid (ABA), Climate change, Dormancy, Foxtail millet


Influence of integrated nutrient management practices on dry matter production, yield and NPK uptake of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa)

R. Jeyajothi*1 and S. Nalliah Durairaj2

1Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, INDIA

2Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam-628 252, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jeyajothi.rose@gmail.com

Received: April 21, 2015; Revised received: February 2, 2016; Accepted: April 7, 2016

Abstract: A field investigation was carried out during Rabi season (Pishanam rice) of 2012-2013 at wetland of Central Farm, Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Killikulam, to study the effect of integrated nutrient management practices on dry matter production, yield and NPK uptake of transplanted rice. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice using the rice variety ADT(R) 45. Among the different integrated nutrient management practices, application of GLM @ 6.25 t ha-1 + Azophosmet + 100 % NPK registered significantly the highest (P<0.01) dry matter production at all the stages (Active tillering; 1690, flowering; 9100 and harvest;14490 kg ha-1). The grain yield was increased, when GLM was integrated with 100 % NPK application (6030 kg ha-1). The grain yield was further increased, when Azophosmet was applied through seed and soil application along with GLM and 100 % NPK (6617 kg ha-1). However, it was on par with application of FYM + Azophosmet + 100 % NPK. The same trend was noticed in straw yield also. The uptake of N, P and K nutrients by rice crop at har-vest stages (95.6, 37.7 and 118 kg ha-1) of crop growth was remarkably increased by the application of GLM + Azophosmet + 100 % NPK. Among the various nutrient management practices, application of GLM + Azophosmet + 100 % NPK registered superior growth indicators due to the effective utilization of various nutrients and subsequent accumulation of more assimilates which inturn led to improved vegetative growth and higher yield of transplanted rice.

Keywords: Azophosmet, Farmyard manure, Greenleaf manure, Nutrient uptake, Transplanted rice


Comparative cost and returns of tractor owned and hired farms in Tungabhadra project (TBP) area of Karnataka, India

Parashunath1*, G.M. Hiremath1, Amrutha T. Joshi1, H. Lokesha1 and M. Anantachar2

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104, (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104, (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: parshunathuppar@gmail.com

Received: May 15, 2015; Revised received: February 4, 2016; Accepted: April 7, 2016

Abstract: Mechanization saves time in completing different operations, which gives the crop more time to mature, allows the farmer to be more flexible in his farming operations and facilitates multi cropping. At present in India, trac-tors are being used for tillage on about 22.78 per cent of the total land area and sowing about 21.30 per cent of total area. Custom hiring service (CHS) is a popular method of gaining short-term control of farm machineries. The CHS gained importance mainly due to rise in the cropping intensity and drop in average landholdings. The productivity of major crops is higher on the tractor owning farms due to timely and sufficient availability of tractor services and 61.67 per cent of large farmers and 11.67 per cent of medium farmers own tractors. The net farm income is higher on tractor owning farms but input costs are low on custom hiring farms. It may be due to the high fixed costs and variable costs on tractor owning farms. The tractor charge was relatively same for all tractor drawn implements, it was ranging from 135.15/h to `142.11/h. The cost incurred was highest for rotavator (`574.93/h) followed by cage wheel puddler (`491.58/h) and MB plough (`462.58/h).The small and medium tractor hiring farms earned more net income. This shows that it is better for smaller farms to hire tractor services rather to have their own tractor CHS would constitute a reliable tool for implementing specific farming practices and obtaining a reasonable income.

Keywords: Custom hiring service, Farm machineries, Farming operations, Mechanization


Long term impact of different cropping systems on soil quality under silty loam soils of Indo-Gangetic plains of India

Khusbhoo Srivastava*1, H.S. Jat2, M.D. Meena1, Madhu Choudhary1, A.K Mishra1 and S. K. Chaudhari3

1Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001 (Haryana), INDIA

2Research Platform Coordinator -Karnal, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) New Delhi-110012, INDIA

3Additional Director General (Soil &Water) Natural Resources Management, ICAR, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: khusboo.evs@gmail.com

Received: May 25, 2015; Revised received: January 25, 2016; Accepted: April 9, 2016

Abstract: In a multi-enterprise agriculture model, six different cropping systems have been evaluated at research farm of CSSRI Karnal for nutrient availability in surface soil. All the cropping systems left tremendous effect on soil quality. Among the different cropping systems, sorghum-berseem maintained lowest soil pH (8.14) followed by cowpea-cauliflower-potato cropping system (8.35). Sorghum-berseem cropping system was significantly build-up of soil fertility in terms of available nitrogen, (221.1kg/ha) and soil organic carbon (0.59%) as compared to other cropping systems. However, phosphorus (59.80 kg/ha) availability was higher in vegetable system followed by wheat-green gram cropping systems (48.85 kg/ha) than the other cropping systems. Vegetable system of multi-enterprise agriculture model showed more availability of Ca (3.20 me/L), Mg (2.63 me/L) and S (11.71 me/L) than other cropping systems. Higher amount of Fe (8.44 mg/kg) was observed in maize-wheat-green gram cropping system, whereas higher Mn (6.37 mg/kg) was noticed in sorghum-berseem fodder system than the other cropping system. Zn and Cu availability was relatively higher in vegetable system. Under prevailing climatic conditions of Karnal, sorghum-berseem fodder system was found to be the best with respect to soil quality and ready adaptability by the farmers as it was not much changed by climatic variability over the last 6 years. Vegetable system and fruits + vegetable were more or less similar in accelerating the availability of nutrients. Thus, leguminous crop (green gram) in any cropping system helped in improving the soil health, which is a good indicator of soil productivity.

Keywords: Available nutrient status, Cropping systems, Multi-enterprise model


Assessment of per se performance, combining ability, hybrid vigour and reaction to major diseases in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

Yamanura1*, R. Lokesha2, V. Kantharaju3 and S. Muniswamy1

1Agricultural Research Station, Gulbarga 585101(Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, UAS, Raichur – 584102 (Karnataka), INDIA

3 Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Gangavati-584129 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: yaman3181aug8@gmail.com

Received: June 15, 2015; Revised received: January 18, 2016; Accepted: April 9, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was carried out using seven cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile (CGMS) lines as females and seven diversified testers as males in a line × tester design. The analysis of variance for parents, females x males, hybrids and parents vs hybrids showed significant differences for almost all characters studied indicating the presence of sufficient variability among parents. Analysis of variance for combining ability revealed that mean squares due to females and line x tester interaction were significant for most of the characters. Thereby it is suggested that the variation in hybrids in respect of seed yield may be strongly influenced by the female lines. Analysis of variance revealed that the ratio of variance due to GCA to SCA was less than unity for all the characters indicating that these traits may be under the influence of non additive gene action and these characters are more likely to be improved through heterosis breeding. The gca effects of parents revealed that ICPA-2043, ICPA-2047, ICPA-2078, AKT-9913, BDN-2 and GRG-811 were good general combiners for seed yield and it’s direct compo-nents. The top three crosses exhibiting high specific combing ability effects along with their Per se performance, standard heterosis and gca status of the parents indicated that the cross combinations ICPA-2092 x GRG-811, ICPA-2043 x ICP-7035 and ICPA-2047 x RVKP-261 were good specific combiners for seed yield. These parental combinations are being used for exploitation of hybrid vigour. The good general combiners (ICPA-2043, ICPA-2047, ICPA-2078, AKT-9913, BDN-2 and GRG-811) and promising crosses viz. ICPA-2047 x GRG-811 and ICPA-2047 x BDN-2 were resistant for SMD and Fusarium wilt diseases, having high mean performance, positive sca effects for seed yield were identified from the present investigation and these may be useful in future breeding program.

Keywords: Cajanus cajan, Combining ability, Hybrid vigour, Per se, Line X Testers


Implications of hybrid vigour, combining ability and per se performance in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

Yamanura1*, S. Muniswamy1 and Ramesh2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Univesity of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 102 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Agricultural Research Station, Kalaburagi-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: yaman3181aug8@gmail.com

Received: June 15, 2016; Revised received: January 18, 2016; Accepted: April 11, 2016

Abstract: Three CGMS lines were crossed with 17 testers in a line × tester design during Kharif 2013 and sufficient number of hand pollinated seeds was produced. The resultant 51 hybrids along with their 20 parents and standard check variety (Maruti) were evaluated in RBD design with two replications. Combining ability analysis evinced predominance of non-additive gene effects for 7 characters indicating relevance of heterosis breeding for improving yield attributes. The gca effects of parents revealed that ICPA-2043, GRG-2009, GRG-2009-2, LAXMI, LRG-41 and JKM-197 were good general combiners for seed yield and it’s direct components. The estimates of sca effects revealed that 11 experimental hybrids had significant, desirable and positive sca effects for seed yield/plant. Among these, three best crosses were selected on the basis of per se performance for ascertaining their association with sca effects of seed yield per plant and its attributes. The investigation identified the good general combiners (ICPA -2043, GRG-2009, GRG-2009-2, LAXMI, LRG-41 and JKM-197) and promising crosses (ICPA-2043 X GRG-2009-2, ICPA-2047 X GRG-2OO9 and ICPA-2043 X ICPL-288) showing high mean and significant positive sca effects involved high × high gca effects of parents. These parental combinations may be used in breeding program for exploitation of hybrid vigour.

Keywords: Combining ability, Hybrid vigour, LineX Testers, per se, Pigeonpea


Cultural and morphological studies on Ponnampet leaf and neck blast isolates of Magnaporthe grisea (Herbert) barr on rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Kalavati Teli*, M.K. Prasannakumar, V. Jyothi, S.C. Chandrashekar, M. Bhagyashree, M. Raviteaz and N. Amrutha

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bengaluru - 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: agriunit.kalavati@gmail.com

Received: July 8, 2015; Revised received: February 2, 2016; Accepted: April 11, 2016

Abstract: The study was carried out to standardize the optimal growth, sporulation and production of perfect stage of pathogen on different media. Among different media used such as Potato dextrose Agar (PDA), Oat meal Agar, Ragi flour agar, yeast extract + 2% soluble starch, Host extract + 2% soluble sucrose agar, Potato dextrose agar + Biotin + Thiamine and Rice flour agar, Oat meal agar and potato dextrose agar was found to be best media for radial growth and sporulation of M. grisea. Maximum conidia length (9.46μm) and breadth (7.36μm) was recorded in Oat meal agar followed by Potato dextrose agar and least conidia length (6.15 μm) and breadth (5.11 μm) was recorded in ragi flour media after 20 days of inoculation. Conidial size varied in leaf and neck blast isolates, the maximum mean colony diameter of 88.00mm and 89.16mm in neck and leaf blast was recorded in Oat meal agar respectively. The maximum sporulation mean index was observed in Oat Meal agar of 3.15 μm in leaf and 3.20 μm in neck blast was recorded. The best growth of the pathogen was recorded at optimum pH range from 6.0 - 7.0 and temperature of 27oC. Therefore oat meal agar media was found to be best among all the media used for growth, sporulation, conidial size and colony characters of M. grisea.


Keywords: Blast, Fungus, Isolates, Resistance, Rice


Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in Manjalar sub-basin of Vaigai in Tamil Nadu using standardized precipitation index

S. Janapriya1*, S. Santhana Bosu2, Balaji Kannan3 and S. Kokilavani4

1Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi-642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2&3 Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

4Agricultural Meteorology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jans.priya@gmail.com

Received: August 20, 2015; Revised received: January 11, 2016; Accepted: April 14, 2016

Abstract: Drought is universally acknowledged as a phenomenon associated with scarcity of water. Drought characterization is essential for drought management operations. Using drought indices is a pragmatic way to assimilate large amounts of data into quantitative information that can be used in applications such as drought forecasting, declaring drought levels, contingency planning and impact assessment. Using monthly mean precipitation data for a period of 1982-2012 from 12 raingauge stations in the Manjalar sub-basin of Vaigai using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is produced for the drought analysis with the time scale of 3 months (SPI-3), 6 months (SPI-6) and 12 months (SPI-12) as they are applicable for agriculture and hydrological aspects, respectively. It was observed that the basin experienced frequent droughts for all months of the year. The highest percentage of occurrence of drought was observed in the month of July (15.3), May (15.4) and August (15.6) at SPI-3, SPI-6 and SPI-12 respectively. On an average we observed 32.6, 8.6, 5.6 and 2.3 percentages of drought occurred by mild, moderate, severe and extreme drought respectively with respect to SPI-12. The results showed that mild droughts occur most frequently and extreme droughts occur least frequently and the basin suffered severe drought during the year of 1985, 2004 and 2006. The central and south eastern parts of the basin had more potential sensitivity to the droughts in comparison with the other areas of the basin.

Keywords: Drought, Spatial and temporal analysis, SPI index


G × E Interaction and path analysis for yield and its attributing traits in advanced genotypes of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

Ramesh1, S. Muniswamy1*, Yamanura2 and Bharathi1

1Agricultural Research Station, Aland Road, Kalaburagi-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

2University of Agriculture Sciences, Krishi nagar, Dharwad - 580005 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: muniswamygpb@gmail.com

Received: September 18, 2015; Revised received: February 5, 2016; Accepted: April 14, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out during kharif-2012, 2013 and 2014 under rain fed condition at the Agricultural Research Station, Kalaburagi located in north eastern dry zone (Zone 2) of Karnataka, to know the stability and path analysis of the twenty genotypes of pigeonpea including check WRP-1. Highly significant differences among genotypes were observed for all the characters except primary branches. Environmental + (Genotype × Environment) interaction was significant for days to maturity, primary branch, pod bearing length, and seed yield per plant. The variance due to pooled deviation was highly significant for all the characters except for primary branches, pod length and number of seeds per pod which reflect the presence of sufficient genetic variability in the material. Out of 20 genotypes studied, RVK-275 (X=38.713, bi=1.7 and S2di = -9.67) and AKT-9913 (X =43.397, bi=2.86 and S2di= -7.42) were found to be a stable for seed yield and test weight, across the environments with good stability under rain fed conditions compared to local check. Path analysis revealed that days to flower initiation (3.942 and 1.123), days to maturity (1.493 and 0.960), primary branches (0.667 and 0.045), pod bearing length (1.153 and 0.394), number of pods per plant (0.661 and 0.463) and 100 seed weight (0.352 and 0.426) had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield both at genotypic and phenotypic level. For maximizing the grain yield per plant emphasis should be given in selection of such characters for further improvement in pigeonpea.

Keywords: Genotype × Environment (G × E), Path coefficient analysis, Pigeonpea, Stability


Heterosis for yield and yield attributes in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

T. Sravan*, H.K. Jaiswal, Showkat A. Waza and Kumari Priyanka

Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sravan.agrico37@hotmail.com

Received: September 19, 2015; Revised received: January 27, 2016; Accepted: April 17, 2016

Abstract: The present study was carried out to study the extent of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for yield and yield parameters in rice. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference among the genotypes for various traits. Estimation of heterosis for various yield contributing traits indicated that out of nine crosses studied, Pusa sugandh-2 X BPT-5204 (27.93) and Pusa sugandh-2 X Kasturi (24.71) were identified as promising. These hybrids may be recommended for commercial cultivation after further evaluation.

Keywords: Hybrids, Heterosis, Rice,Yield, Yield parameters


Productivity, profitability and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different customized fertilizers and moisture regimes

Dheeraj K. Tiwari1*, G. R. Singh1, S. P. Singh2, S. K. Pandey3 and V. D. Yadav4

1Department of Agronomy, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad -224229 (U. P.), INDIA

2Research and Development Division, Indogulf Fertilizers Ltd. Jagdishpur-227817 (U. P.), INDIA

3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chandauli- 232104 (U. P.), INDIA

4Department of Agronomy, SVBPUAT, Meerut- 250110 (U. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dk9hau@gmail.com

Received: May 6, 2015; Revised received: February 14, 2016; Accepted: April 17, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conduct during the winter (rabi) season of 2010-2011 on silty loam soil at Faizabad (Uttar Pradesh), India to develop suitable dose of customized fertilizers (CF) and moisture regime for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Productivity of grain and straw of wheat increased with increasing level of nutrient. Highest grain yield (53.13 q ha-1) was recorded under the application of CF 12 : 30 : 16 : 0.5 : 0 : 5 (NPK 150 : 75 : 40) which was accounted increases of 18.22%, 14.55% and 10.88% more yield than F1, F4 and F6 treatment respectively. Highest water use efficiency was recorded with 6 cm irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio and customize fertilizer 12: 30: 16: 0.5: 0: 5(NPK 150: 75: 40). The highest net returns (Rs. 61324 ha-1) and B:C (2.29) were recorded under the treatment combination of 1.0 IW/CPE ratio + customize fertilizer 12: 30: 16: 0.5: 0: 5 (NPK 150: 75: 40). The increased dose of fertilization in the form of CF with proper irrigation scheduling in wheat has a high scope for the maximization of yield as well as profitability in wheat growing regions of Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: Customized fertilizer, IW/CPE ratio, Water use efficiency, Wheat, Yield attributes


Evaluation of cultivars and packing materials during preparation and storage of ber candy

Balveer Singh1* and Sanjay Pathak2

1Department of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalay, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (W.B.), INDIA

2Department of Post Harvest Technology, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: balveer048@gmail.com

Received: March 17, 2015; Revised received: February 8, 2016; Accepted: April 17, 2016

Abstract: Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana) is known as poor man’s fruit and is rich in protein, phosphorus, calcium, carotene and vitamin-C. The present investigation was conducted at laboratory Department of Post Harvest Technology collage of Horticulture and forestry, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) during the year 2010-11. The physico-chemical characteristics were evaluated for different caltivars viz., Illaichi, Ponda, Umran, Gola, Banarsi Karaka and Narendra Ber Sel-2. The cultivars physico-chemical composition of ber fruit and organoleptic quality of candies Banarsi Karaka was found best suited among all cultivars for making of candy. Storage studies indicated that LDPE film was better in comparison to glass jar and plastic jar for packaging of ber candy at ambient temperature and candy was found in good condition after 9 months of storage period in LDPE film. The maximum cost benefit ratio of ber candy was found to be 1: 1.25 than packed in LDPE film followed by plastic jar and glass jar.

Keywords: Ber candy, Fruits, organoleptic quality, Sugar


Efficacy of dormancy breaking methods in paddy genotypes

D. Hanumanthappa*1, S.N. Vasudevan2, K. Maruthi1, J.B. Maruthi1 and Anil Sebastian3

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur – 584 104, (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur – 584 104, (Karnataka) , INDIA

3Department of Seed Science and Technology ,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu) , INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dasah4508@gmail.com

Received: August 15, 2015; Revised received: January 13, 2016; Accepted: April 20, 2016

Abstract: Paddy plays a pivotal role in Indian agriculture. It also possesses dormancy which needs to be studied thoroughly. Duration of dormancy usually ranges from 7 to 35 days. Environmental conditions that facilitate after-ripening in paddy is generally cool, moist substrate conditions referred to as stratification, chilling, or moist chilling, oxygen and other gases. 12 paddy genotypes were selected for the present investigation with various physical and chemical dormancy, breaking methods for freshly harvested seeds and the standard germination test was conducted thereafter. At 1% level of significance, heat treatment at 45°C for 72 h showed significantly highest mean germination (82.86%), seedling vigour index (2753), dehydrogenase activity (0.0449) and alpha amylase activity (12.14 mm) compared to other treatments and control.. The vigour index increased to 2753 (GA3 @ 50 ppm) from 985 in control. Significantly higher EC leachates was recorded in control (0.602) and lowest in heat treatment at 45°C for 72 hr (0.182) followed by HNO3 @ 1.5% (0.202) and GA3 @ 50 ppm (0.250) irrespective of the genotypes at 1% level of significance. Pre-heat treatment was followed by, HNO3 @ 1.5% and GA3 @ 50 ppm for germination (80.75%, 77.72%), dehydrogenase activity (0.0446,0.0443) and alpha amylase activity (12.10 cm,11.60 cm) respectively. The study is an exploration of cost effective treatment to alleviate seed dormancy in paddy with the background of biochemical observations for scientific explanation.

Keywords: Dormancy, Ethrel,Germination, Heat treatment, Paddy


Role of micronutrients in few crops production and human health in Lucknow region (U. P.), India

Pradip Kumar Maurya1*, Hemant Kumar1, Manoj Singh Rawat2

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangari Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar-249404(Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Quality Control Lab, Biotech park, Sec-G, Jankipuram , Kursi Road, Lucknow-226021 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hemantjam@gmail.com

Received: April 9, 2015; Revised received: March 11, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstracts: Accumulation of nutrients like Ca, Mn, Cu, N, P, and K were determined in root, stem, and leaves of different crops. The selected crop is uses for different nutrients for the body growth, in all of the six crop plant were selected like Cajanus cajan (Arhar-A) Pisum sativum (Pea-B), Solanum tuberosum (Potato-C), Brassica juncea (Mustard-D), Cicer arietinum (Gram-E), and Triticum aestivum (Wheat-F). The present study indicated that the concentration of Cu highest in the potato leaf (9.6 mg/kg), Arhar stem (9.6 mg/kg) and Gram leaves (8.8 mg/kg). The concentration of cupper was found toxic to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration of nutrients specially cupper maximum in leaf of potato. These nutrients deficiencies in crop are not only hampering the crop productivity but also are deteriorating produce quality. High consumption of cereal based foods with low contents of nutrients is causing health hazards in humans. The contents of nutrients in food can be elevated either by supplementation, fortification or by agricultural strategies i.e., biofortification and nutrients containing fertilizers.


Keywords: Crop, Leaf, Nutrients, Root, Stem


Assessment of herbaceous biomass: A study in Rowghat mining areas of Chhattisgarh, India

M. K. Jhariya1*, B. H. Kittur2 and S. S. Bargali3

1Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur -497001 (Chhattisgarh), INDIA

2Department of Forest Products and Utilization, College of Forestry, Sirsi-581401 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital -263001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manu9589@gmail.com

Received: May 19, 2015; Revised received: February 11, 2016; Accepted: April 20, 2016

Abstract: We studied Rowghat sites of Chhattisgarh, India, with the objective to assess herbaceous layer composition, biomass and to prepare management implications for conservation of ecologically sensitive species in mined areas. Ten sites (Anjrel, Khodgaon, Khadkagaon, Takrel, Rav Dongri, Tarhur, Godenmar Dongri, Parmad Dongri, Bhusujkun Dongri and Bedhiyar Nala) were selected for the study. We randomly placed quadrats of 1x1 m size in each site. A sum of 36 species distributed in 15 families were encountered in Rowghat mining site. The total density of all herbs was highest (724000) in Bhusujkun Dongri followed by Khadkagaon (678000), Rav Dongri (662000) and lowest was recorded from Godenmar Dongri (502000). The density of herbs across the study area ranged from 9,000 (D. ciliaris) to 2,50,000 (S. viridis) in the areas of Tarhur and Bediyar Nala. The herb species were unevenly distributed across mined areas. The Chlorophytum tuberosum and Cassia tora were recorded only from Tarkel and Godenmar Dongri sites, respectively. The total belowground biomass ranged between 0.097 t/ha in Godenmar Dongri to 0.18 t/ha in Rav Dongri. An ecological approach is must to restore the collieries. Protection of ecologically sensitive herbs is necessary. Prolonged ban on mining activity in Rowghat forest area is needed to restore degraded forest.

Keywords: Biomass, Herbaceous, Mined areas, Rowghat

Comparative evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes based on distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing using physiological and morphological characters

Divya Prakash Singh* and Shailesh Marker

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: d.p.singhag@gmail.com

Received: July 24, 2015; Revised received: February 6, 2016; Accepted: April 21, 2016

Abstract: A major challenge facing those involved in the testing of new plant varieties for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) is the need to compare them against all those of ‘common knowledge’. A set of maize inbred lines was used to compare how morphological and physio- logical characterization described variety relationships. An experiment was carried out to evaluate test of Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability using 26 physiological and 12 morphological characters. Minimum days for 50 % tasseling (50.66 and 50.66 days), minimum days for 50 % silking (53.66 and 53.66 days), minimum days for anthesis silking interval (3.0 and 2.6 days), maximum tassel branching (22.66 and 21.66), maximum cob height (89.70 and 89.16 cm) and maximum cob length (16.96 and 17.75 cm) were recorded in genotype AAIMS-1 in both experiments (2011 and 2012 respectively) and maximum cob width (12.51 and 13.11 cm) and maximum number of grain rows per cob (12.66 and 12.66) were recorded in genotype AAIMS-2 in both experiments (2011 and 2012 respectively). But maximum plant height (155.13 and 153.71cm), minimum days for maturity (86.00 and 88.00 days), maximum grain yield per plant (72.80 and 72.00 g) and maximum 100 seed weight (21.51 and 20.96 g) were recorded in genotype AAIMS-2 and AAIMS-1 respectively in both experiments conducted at experimental farm of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences during the year 2011 and 2012 respectively.

Keywords: DUS, Genotypes, Maize, Morphological characters, Physiological characters


Screening of Brassica germplasm against Albugo candida (White rust disease) on Brassica species (Rapeseed-mustard)

K.S. Bisht*, A.K. Tewari and Pooja Upadhyay

Centre of Advance studies, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar - 263 145, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ksbisht1972@gmail.com

Received: August 31, 2015; Revised received: January 21, 2016; Accepted: April 23, 2016

Abstract: White rust distributed worldwide, caused by Albugo candida (Pers. Ex. Lev.) Kuntze. (A. Cruciferarum S. F. Gray) is one of the major disease responsible in reducing the yield of rapeseed-mustard. Among various management approaches use of resistant varities is consider best, as it is cost effective and environment friendly. However, till now only few resistant sources against the disease has been reported. Therefore, in the present investigation 70 rapeseed-mustard germplasm have been evaluated in field under epiphytotic conditions during 2011-12 and 2012-13 crop seasons. All the germplasms showed similar disease reaction after screening in both the years. Among 70 germplasm, seven germpalsms i.e. DLDC-1, DRMR-100, DRMR-312, EC-339000, GSL-1, NPJ-158 and RH-0644 were found free from the disease with 0% disease severity. These germplasms could be used in breeding programmes for the development of resistant genotypes having high yield potential.

Keywords: Albugo candida, Pathogen, Resistance, Rapeseed-mustard, Screening


Chemical weed management in Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson

S. K. Das

AICRP on Potato, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani- 741235, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

Email: sanjibag@gmail.com

Received: September 9, 2015; Revised received: January 24, 2016; Accepted: April 26, 2016

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted for three years at Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station, Berhampore, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India during rabi 2008, 2009 and 2010 to develop an efficient chemical weed management practice with newer herbicidal molecules in yellow sarson. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications having eleven treatments. Experimental results revealed that highest seed yield (1456 kg ha-1) was recorded under the treatment twice hand weeding and lowest with weedy check (910 kg ha-1). Twice hand weeding recorded 60% higher seed yield over weedy check. Application of chemical herbicides significantly improved the seed yield over W0 at 5% level of significance.. Among the chemical weed control measures, application of Pendimathalin @ 1 kg a.i./ha (PE) recorded highest seed yield (1320 kg ha-1) of yellow sarson, which was found at par with application of Pendimathalin @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha (PE), Fluchloralin @ 1.5 kg a.i/ha (PPI) and Clodinafop @ 0.06 kg a.i./ha ( 25-30 DAS). Chemical weed management practices increased the seed yield of yellow sarson by 25.3 to 45.1% over weedy check. Highest weed control efficiency (86.4%) was recorded with hand weeding twice. Significant reduction in the total weed density and total weed dry weight were found with the application of chemical herbicides at 5% level of significance. Among the chemical herbicides Pendimathalin @ 1 kg a.i./ha (PE) recorded highest weed control efficiency (81.7%). Chemical weed control measures increased the total microbial population by 26.5 to 89.4% over weedy check and 6.6 to 59.6% over twice hand weeding and thus proved to be environmentally safe and economic for managing weeds in yellow sarson.

Keywords: Chemical weed management, Microbial population, Seed yield, Weed control efficiency, Yellow sarson


Understory vegetation in natural and plantation forest ecosystem of Sarguja (C.G.), India

M. K. Jhariya* and D. K. Yadav

Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001 (C.G.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manu9589@gmail.com

Received: May 19, 2015; Revised received: February 11, 2016; Accepted: April 26, 2016

Abstract: Understory vegetation serves a special role in maintaining the structure and function of forest ecosystem as they strongly influence regeneration, seedling establishment, growth, nutrient cycling and thus the dynamics of the whole forest ecosystem. The present investigation is aimed to study the composition, structure and diversity of understory vegetation in natural forests and teak plantation of Sarguja forest division of Chhattisgarh. A total of 23 species comprising 5 shrubs and 18 herbs were recorded in natural forest while in teak plantation 3 shrub and 20 herb species were found. In natural forest a total of 4500 shrubs/ha and 8,32,000 herbs/ha were recorded while in plantation site it was 5500 shrubs/ha and 6,96,000 herbs/ha, respectively. In shrub layer the value of species diversity was 1.10 for teak plantation and 2.20 for natural forest. Simpson index was 0.23 for natural forest and 0.57 for teak plantation. The Margalef’s index of richness varied from 0.23-0.48, least in plantation site and peak in natural forest, Equitability index varied from 1.00 to 1.37, lowest in plantation site and higher in plantation site and β diversity was 1.20 in natural forest and 2.00 in plantation site. In case of herb layer the value of Shannon index, species richness and equitability values were higher in teak plantation while the Simpsons index and beta diversity were found more in natural forest.

Keywords: Composition, Diversity, Herb, Structure, Shrub, Understory

Combining ability and heterosis analysis for drought tolerant traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

V. Karpagam*1, S. Jebaraj2 and S. Rajeswari3

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi- 642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai- 625104 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

3Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: priyatnau2007@yahoo.co.in

Received: August 5, 2015; Revised received: January 21, 2016; Accepted: April 30, 2016

Abstract: Rice is the most important staple food for more than half of the world’s population and also for most of the countries. A Line x Tester analysis was undertaken to study the nature of gene action for yield and drought tolerant traits. The ratio of SCA and GCA was less than unity for all the characters which revealed that the preponderance of non- additive gene action governing the traits concerned. The lines viz., ADT 43, ADT (R) 49, CO (R) 50 and the testers viz., PMK (R) 3, Chandikar and Anna (R) 4 were adjudged as the best general combiners for drought tolerant traits. The cross combinations viz., ADT 39 x Vellaichitraikar had exhibited significant values for dry root weight (9.66), root/shoot ratio (0.31), root length (3.82), number of roots per plant (37.08), root thickness (0.11), root volume (4.27) and root length density (0.03) ADT (R) 49 x Chandikar for 70 percent relative water content (8.85), dry root weight (18.03), dry shoot weight (40.55), root length (3.10), number of roots per plant (140.16) root thick-ness (0.38) and root volume (23.14) were found to be specific combiners for most of the drought tolerant traits. The cross combinations, viz., ADT 43 x Anna (R) 4, ADT (R) 49 x Chandikar and ADT 43 x PMK (R) 3 had highly significant standard heterosis. Breeding for drought tolerance in rice would be of immense value to the farmers economic health, family well-being and harmony in the society.

Keywords: Combining, Drought, GCA, Heterosis and SCA


Effect of different substrates and casing materials on growth and yield of Calocybe indica (P&C) in North Bengal, India

Bishwanath Chakraborty*, Usha Chakraborty, Shibu Barman and Somnath Roy

Immuno-Phytopathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of North Bengal, Siliguri -734013, (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bncnbu@gmail.com

Received: September 10, 2015; Revised received: February 2, 2016; Accepted: April 30, 2016

Abstract: Cultivation of Calocybe indica was undertaken with locally available substrates viz. paddy straw, maize stalk waste, bamboo leaves and young coconut fibre alone and various combinations with paddy straw + maize stalk (1:1 v/v), paddy straw+ saw dust (1:1 v/v), and paddy straw+ saw dust (1:2 v/v)and different casing materials such as vermicompost, soil+ sand (1:1v/v), dried saw dust, hard paper (wet condition) and combination of tea waste +soil+ sand, saw dust +sand (1:1 v/v), tea waste+ sand (1:1 v/v) in paddy straw cultivating condition. Among the substrates, paddy straw was the best with 196.12 % biological efficiency (BE) followed by different substrate combinations but the bamboo leaves alone was recorded as substrate with lowest potential (84%) for cultivation. As casing material the spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Agaricus bisporus resulted in the highest biological efficiency (207%) followed by soil+ sand (196%), sand +saw dust (163%) but combination of tea waste+ soil + sand was inferior (151%). Saw dust gave the lowest (96.8%) biological efficiency. In conclusion the maximum biological efficiency of C. indica can be obtained by using paddy straw as a substrate encased with spent compost of button mushroom.

Keywords: Biological efficiency, Calocybe indica, Casing, Coconut fibre, Spent mushroom compost, Vermicompost


Resource use efficiency of maize production in Jammu Region of J & K State

Arti Sharma1, Jyoti Kachroo2, Anil Bhat2, Dileep Kachroo3 and Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer4*

1Division of Agricultural Economics and ABM, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technol-ogy of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA

2 Division of Agricultural Economics and ABM, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA

3Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA

4 Division of Agricultural Statistics, Economics and Extension, FOA, Wadura, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: qadrijavid2008@gmail.com

Received: August 24, 2014; Revised received: February 8, 2016; Accepted: April 30, 2016

Abstract: Maize one of the important crops of rainfed agriculture is grown in low, mid and high hill altitudes. The study was conducted on resource use efficiency of maize production in Jammu Region of J&K state during the year 2007-08. Jammu region of state observed a positive trend for area but negative for yield of maize. In sampled districts, area under maize cultivation contributed positively in production but yield and interaction effect of both factors contributed negatively during the overall period of twenty years. The allocative efficiency was 0.014, 0.668, 1.019, 3.244 and 13.38 respectively for labour, capital, irrigation and fertilizers (N and K), respectively and the allocative efficiency of fertilizer (P) was negative (-1.732). Maximum likelihood estimates showed that the value of variance parameters lambda (λ) was 4.219 and that of sigma (σ) was 0.455, which were significantly different from zero indicating a good fit and the correctness of the distributional assumptions specified and the value of gamma ( γ) was 0. 946 indicating 94 per cent of variation between the observed output and frontier output The estimated elasticities of the explanatory variables like labour (0.378), capital (0.336), irrigation (0.225), nitrogen (0.244) and potash (0.292) were positive while the value of phosphate (-0.383) was negative. The analysis of results showed that the returns to scale (RTS) was 1.092. Factors that affected on technical efficiency predicted the regression coefficient for education as 0.023 and farm size as 0.878 and for the proportion of female workers (0.062) in the family was also positively significant.

Keywords: Allocative efficiency, Growth analysis, Growth trend, Maize, Technical efficiency


Effect of foliar spray of zinc, iron and boron on the growth, yield and sensory characters of guava (Psidium guajava L.) Cv. Sardar L-49

M. G. Bhoyar1, 3* and M.V. Ramdevputra2

1 Department of Fruit science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2 Polytechnique for Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Dhari - 365640 (Gujarat), INDIA

3 Department of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362001 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mahesh.bhoyar@gmail.com

Received: June 19, 2015; Revised received: February 13, 2016; Accepted: May 2, 2016

Abstract: The field experiment was carried to evaluate the response to the foliar application of micronutrients viz. zinc, iron and boron in single or in different combinations on guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Sardar L-49 for various growth, yield and sensory parameters. From various combinations of micronutrients growth characters were remain uninfluenced. Combination of 0.5% Zinc sulphate + 0.5% Ferrus sulphate + 0.3% Borax significantly influenced fruit per shoot (3.6), overall yield (57.1 kg/tree) and sensory characters like aroma (7.7), taste (8.1), flavour (8.2), texture (7.5) and also overall acceptability (7.9). Application of 0.3% Borax significantly influenced flowers per shoot (5.3). Minimum fruit drop was recorded with application of 0.5% Ferrus sulphate + 0.3% Borax and minimum fruit drop per shoot observed in 0.5% Zinc sulphate + 0.3% Borax foliar application. The present study indicated that combined application of micronutrients enhanced fruit set, minimized fruit drop and overall yield. This has resulted in improved sensory characters in the guava fruit. This will lure consumers with appealing fruit that would enable farmers to earn a decent sum of money.

Keywords: Boron, Foliar application, iron, micronutrients and Zinc


Isolation and characterization of mineral potassium solubilizing bacteria from rhizosphere soils

Arup Sen*, Dhaneshwar Padhan and S.C. Poi

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: arupsen777@gmail.com

Received: July 2, 2015; Revised received: February 8, 2016; Accepted: May 2, 2016

Abstract: Attempts were made to isolate potasium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) from rhizosphere soil of different crops in Nadia district of West Bengal. A total of ten bacteria isolates were tested for K solubilization and characterized up to genus level based on morphological and biochemical characters. Among the ten isolates, six were gram positive rods belonging to genera Bacillus and remaining four isolates was gram negative rod belonging to genera Pseudomonas. The mechanisms involved in K solubilization and other agronomical beneficial traits were also analyzed for selected efficient strains. The diameter of zone of solubilization formed by the isolates on agar media supplemented with mica at 1 per cent ranged from 0.60 to 1.26 cm at 72 hours after incubation. In vitro K solubilization from mica powder by bacteria ranged from 3.23μg/ml to 41.20μg/ml at 20 days after inoculation. Organic acids production by the KSB isolates is the main reason for solubilization of potassium from mica powder. Results further suggested that the use of efficient potassium mobilizers can be a feasible option for meeting the K-requirement of crops.

Keywords: In vitro K-solubilization, Morphological and biochemical characters, Organic acids, Potassium solubilizing bacteria, Rhizosphere soil

Functional fitness: A key to independent and active living in the later age

Sonia Tewari*, Seema Kwatra and Neha Triphati

Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, Govind Bhallabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Pin code-263145, Udham Singh Nagar, (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: soniatewari38334@gmail.com

Received: July 8, 2015; Revised received: February 6, 2016; Accepted: May 4, 2016

Abstract: Aging is a biological process and is associated with decrease in the physical activity level. With the aim of assessing the functional fitness level of senior citizens, sample size comprised of 90 i.e. 45 males and 45 females (15 male and 15 female from each age group viz. 60-64 year 65-69 year and 70-74 year) were chosen conveniently from Haldwani Block of district Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. The Senior Fitness Test was conducted to collect experimental data. With age, lower body strength of males changes but not in case of females. The other functional parameters amongst males and females i.e. upper Body Strength, lower and Upper Body Flexibility, Aerobic Endurance and Balance does not depend on the age. Out of six parameters of functional fitness, it was found that the average mean score of lower body strength (5.96), upper body strength (3.52) and aerobic endurance (4.85) of males and females are highly significant at 1% level of significant while average upper body flexibility (2.52) of males and females were significant at 5 % level of significance. With time, society has witnessed significant changes in lifestyle pattern, arising nuclear family groups, dual-earner families, competitiveness and rural-urban or cross-country immigration among young children. The scenario thus further placed need to lay emphasis on functional fitness of elderly population so that the older parents who are living alone can be functionally active and independent and care and rare themselves. Assessing the functional level of elderly can serve as a preventive measure prior to any functional limitations.

Keywords: Aerobic Endurance, Ageing, Flexibility, Functional Fitness, Strength


Response of bio-regulators to morphology and yield of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] under different sowing environments

Hemraj Meena, Ram Swaroop Meena* , Bhalendra Singh Rajput and Sandeep Kumar

Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221 005 (UP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rsmeenaagro@gmail.com

Received: August 8, 2015; Revised received: February 23, 2016; Accepted: May 5, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2014, aims of the experiment were to investigate suitable sowing environment and bio-regulator and its effect on clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.), experimental treatments were applied foliar spray of thiourea (500, 1000 ppm) and salicylic acid (50, 100 ppm) at 45 and 60 days after sowing under normal (15 July) and late (30 July) sowing environments. Normal sowing performed well as compared to late sowing, in respect to all morphology and yield parameters. Amongst foliar spray, significantly higher plant height (100.17 cm), number of branches per plant (7.99), leaf area index (4.85), seed yield (9.19 q/ha) and harvest index (29.39) were recorded in foliar spray of thiourea 500 ppm as compared to all other bio -regulators spray level. Similarly, salicylic acid 100 ppm found statistically at par with thiourea 500 ppm foliar spray at 45 and 60 DAS. Impacts of climate change have significant reflections on clusterbean productivity. Sowing dates plays a vital role to determining the productivity of clusterbean with bio-regulators spray by controlling the environmental factors.

Keywords: Clusterbean, Salicylic acid, Sowing environments, Thiourea


Status of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.cultivation and pesticide use in Golapar area of Uttarakhand, India

B.C. Kabdwal*, Rashmi Tewari, Roopali Sharma and J. Kumar

Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar – 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail bckabdwal@rediffmail.com

Received: August 26, 2015; Revised received: February 11, 2016; Accepted: May 5, 2016

Abstract: Tomato is one of the most widely grown temperate vegetable crops grown in Himalayas and Tarai region of Northern India. Being the high value crop is important in raising the income of the farmers. However, from past few years, they are facing the problem of numerous diseases in the crop and subsequent yield losses and thus affecting the economic status of the growers. Present study was carried out with the objective to discern the current status of disease occurrence in tomato and management strategies followed by the growers of Golapar area of District Nainital, a major tomato growing area of Uttarakhand state. Purposive sampling was followed for selection of the area and respondents were selected randomly. Data was collected through structured questionnaire. It was found that tomato is the key vegetable in the area and preference of the varieties was largely based on the marketable yield, larger fruit size, higher market price and also depends on the availability of seed with the local distributer. Average loss ranges from 20-80% due to late blight, leaf curl, early blight, wilt and stem rot diseases. Application of pesticides was exceedingly high as number of pesticide sprays was varied in the range of 10-40. However, disease management varied from 5-60% depending on the chemical application by the farmers. This study will be supportive to manipulate adopted strategies to reduce the losses and low cost proven technologies can be introduced for disease management for the benefit of the farmers.

Keywords: Tomato, Diseases, Pesticide use, Survey


In vitro plant regeneration in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) through epicotyl segments by direct shoot organogenesis

Sukhjit Kaur

Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur-143521, (Punjab), INDIA

E-mail: sukhi.rose@gmail.com

Received: September 19, 2015; Revised received: February 9, 2016; Accepted: May 7, 2016

Abstract: The effect of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of growth hormones on direct regeneration from one month old epicotyl segments of in vitro grown rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) seedlings was studied. The earliest bud induction in 7.5 days, highest bud induction frequency (98.50%), percent regeneration(90.53) were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1mglit-1) with an average number of 12.50 buds per explants. The epicotyls segments with proliferated buds were transferred to elongation media in order to improve the recovery of normal shoots. Maximum number of elongated shoots (8.50) was obtained on MS medium having BAP (0.5mglit-1) + Gibberellic Acid (GA3)(1.0 mglit-1).These elongated shoots were then rooted on MS medium containing Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.1mglit-1) + Indole-3-aceticacid(IAA)(0.5mglit-1) with highest rooting percentage(96%) and root number(5.0). Early (10.10 days) rooting was observed in MS medium supplemented with NAA1.0 mglit-1 + IBA0.5 mglit-1.The plantlet survival was 98.52%, when plantlets were transferred to plastic pots containing a mixture of garden soil and vermiculite (1:1). The hardened plants were successfully established in the soil. The present study developed protocol which can be reliably used for in vitro regeneration of rough lemon and for gene transfer studies in rough lemon, especially to induce salinity and Phytophthora tolerance.

Keywords: Citrus jambhiri Lush., Direct regeneration, Epicotyl segments, In vitro, Rooting, Rough lemon


Development of farm pond operational modeling using Neuro-Fuzzy technique

Ashish V. Sonawane1*, Murtaza Hasan2 and Deepak Singh1

1College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dediapada, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari -393040 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Center for Protected Cultivation Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ashishswe@nau.in

Received: September 24, 2015; Revised received: February 9, 2016; Accepted: May 7, 2016

Abstract: Study was conducted to derive operational model for a farm pond of 3000 cubic meter capacity at Center for protected cultivation technology (CPCT), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India which was the important source of irrigation water of the farm of the area 10 ha. The Neuro-Fuzzy approach was used to develop the operational model and to derive operational rules for proper irrigation scheduling of the horticultural crops grown at CPCT. Based upon the inputs like crop water requirement, evaporation losses and farm pond inflow the model predicting outflow of the reservoir was developed. The developed model was having high accuracy and predictability when tested statistically. The coefficient of determination (R2) was found to be 0.96, whereas the model efficiency (E) was 0.97 which shows the high reliability of the model. The operating rules which were of ‘If-Then’ form were also developed which would lead to better management of the farm pond system and would also improve the irrigation scheduling at CPCT farm, IARI, New Delhi.

Keywords: Farm pond, Irrigation scheduling, Neuro-Fuzzy, Operational rules


Effect of different potato varieties and tuber sizes on physiological changes under ambient storage performance

Archana Brar* and M. K. Rana

Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: brararchanaarch@gmail.com

Received: September 10, 2015; Revised received: February 22, 2016; Accepted: May 9, 2016

Abstract: The storability and sprouting behavior of three grades (small, medium and large tubers) from four Indian potato cultivars was studied under ambient conditions to assess the quality changes due to physiological losses and sprouting bhaviour of potato tubers. It was found that physiological loss in weight (%), decay loss on number and weight basis (%), sprout loss on number and weight basis (%), total loss (%), general appearance, presence of black or hollow heart were affected significantly by the different varieties as well as by the size. The loss in weight of tubers due to physiological activities, decaying and sprouting increased with the increased in storage period and the loss was more in larger than smaller and medium tubers. Kufri Badshah showed the best control over sprouting, whereas, 100% sprouting was observed in Kufri Bahar with all possible combinations during storage. The maximum value for cumulative physiological loss in weight was observed in variety Kufri Bahar (12.07%), whereas, minimum was in Kufri Pushkar (7.44%). The maximum decay loss was observed in variety Kufri Pushkar (7.89 and 8.72%) and minimum in Kufri Bahar (0.00 and 4.58%) on 80th and 90th day of storage period. Black or hollow heart was absent completely in all the possible treatments. So far general appearance of the tubers was concerned, the larger tubers shrivelled more and earlier than the medium and small sized tubers. Different varieties behaved differently during the entire storage period.

Keywords: Black/hollow heart, Physiological loss, Potato varieties, Sprout loss


Seedling age and nitrogen application affect on dry matter accumulation, partitioning and nutrient status of rice under temperate conditions

Rubia Rasool1*, Purshotam Singh, Sabia Akhter and Shazia Ramzan2

1Division of Agronomy, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar - 191121, (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA

2Division of Soil Science, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar -191121, (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA

*Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rubiarasool@yahoo.com

Received: June 6, 2015; Revised received: February 19, 2016; Accepted: May 9, 2016

Abstract: Rice is the most important crop at the global level, as it used as a staple food in most of the countries of the world. Transplanting aged seedlings of paddy has a detrimental effect on the crop performance, which needs to be overcome for sustaining the productivity. Leaf colour chart based nitrogen application is an efficient and economical tool for enhancing the rice productivity and nitrogen use efficiency. With this in mind, a field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011, at the Research Farm of SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar (Kashmir) to optimize the seedling age of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under late transplanting conditions and to assess the suitability of using leaf colour chart as a nitrogen management tool to improve the performance of rice. The experiment was established in Randomized Block Design, with three replicates, 3 seedling ages and 6 nitrogen application treatments. The analyses of data revealed that 35 days old seedling recorded significantly higher total dry matter accumulation and dry matter partitioning to panicle (8.2 t ha-1) and leaf (2.4 t ha-1); grain yield (7.4 t ha-1); N, P and K uptake (11.6, 3.1 and 11.3 kg ha-1, respectively) (p<0.05). Among nitrogen application treatments significantly higher dry matter accumulation; yield (8.6 t ha-1) and N, P and K uptake (14.1, 3.6 and 12.7 kgha-1, respectively) was found in ½ N as basal and remaining at LCC <4 @20 kg ha-1 (p<0.05). Age of seedling and time of nitrogen application did not affect N, P, K and protein content of grain and straw significantly (p>0.05). It is concluded that the yield of rice can be improved by transplanting 35-days old seedling under late transplanted conditions in temperate regions and by following LCC guided nitrogen management.

Keywords: Dry matter, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Rice and seedling age


Land resource assessment for agricultural development in Seoni district (Madhya Pradesh), India

B. P. Bhaskar*, S. G. Anantwar, S. S. Gaikwad and S. V. Bobade

Division of Soil Resource Studies, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Amravati Road, Nagpur- 440010 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bhaskar_phaneendra@yahoo.co.in

Received: June 6, 2015; Revised received: February 22, 2016; Accepted: May 10, 2016

Abstract: The objective of land resource assessment for rainfed agridevelopment in tribal dominated Seoni ditrict, Madhya Pradesh was to assess the suitability of thrity soil mapping units for sorghum-cotton based systems in relation to fertility constraints and for enhancing crop productivity. The arability and suitability analysis showed that fifty six per cent of arable land is suitable for eleven land use systems. The twenty two per cent of arable basaltic lands in northen plateaus were evaluated as suitable for for citrus, sorghum and soybean cropping systems with limitations of low available nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc whereas in southern precipitous zone , fifteen per cent of granitic lands were evaluated as suitable for sorghum and cotton with limitations of stoniness, low water holding capacity, low status of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and zinc and eighteen per cent of area in sagar and hirvi river valleys for rice, citrus, maize, sunflower and vegetables. Out of 44.6 per cent of nonarable land, thirty seven per cent of land was evaluated as suitable for forestry / grazing and 6.8 per cent for wild life.The study advocates agroecological zonation for maximum utilization of land resources for potential cropping systems in improving produvtivity and fertility management.

Keywords: Basaltic clay soils, Geographical information system (GIS), Land evaluation, Seoni, Soil survey


Germination and emergence of four rattan Calamus species of Western ghats in response to different pre-sowing seed treatments

K. Vidyasagaran, E. D. Jisha and Vikas Kumar*

College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur- 680656 (Kerala), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: vkskumar49@gmail.com

Received: July 19, 2015; Revised received: February 16, 2016; Accepted: May 11, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of ten pre-sowing treatments on germination parameter of the four Calamus species in the nursery of College of Forestry, Vellanikkara. Most of the pre-sowing treatments of Calamus spp. gave better performance compared to the control. Complete removal of outer pericarp and sarcotesta of each seed manually (T2), Sulphuric acid treatment for 3-5 minutes after removing sarcotesta (T6) and Hot water treatment (500C) after removing sarcotesta for two minutes followed by soaking in water for 12 hours (T7) were found promising in all the species. The higher germination percentage (83.82, 89.96), mean daily germination (0.020, 3.39), peak value of germination (0.026, 3.45) and germination value (0.00041, 11.56) and was recorded for Calamus thwaitesii and C. metzianus in treatment with GA3 (T9) respectively. The maximum germination percentage (27.74), MDG (0.41), PVG (0.46) and GV (0.20) for C. hookerianus in T7 (Hot water treatment (500C) after removing sarcotesta for two minutes followed by soaking in water for 12 hours), and highest MDG (0.078), PVG (0.91) and GV (0.0065) for C. travancoricus in T5 (Sulphuric acid treatment for 3-5 minutes without removing sarcotesta). The present study reiterated that the pre-sowing treatments hold major scope in the propagation of rattan seedlings which usually could not germinate well under ordinary conditions due to dormancy.

Keywords: Calamus, Pre-sowing treatment, Germination per cent, Germination value, Pericarp and Sarcotesta


Mycoparasitic capabilities of diverse native strain of Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

Lakshman Prasad1, Sorabh Chaudhary2*, Sushma Sagar2 and Akash Tomar3

1Senior Scientist, Division of Plant Pathology, IARI Pusa Campus, New Dehli, INDIA

2Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, S.V. Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250 110, INDIA

3Department of Recombination Technology, Collage of Biotechnology, S.V. Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250 110, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sorabh.gene@gmail.com

Received: August 15, 2015; Revised received: February 6, 2016; Accepted: May 13, 2016

Abstract: The Fusarium wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyder and Hansen is recognised as one of the most devastating disease and major yield limiting factor in tomato growing regions worldwide. For eco-friendly and sustainable management of the disease, 19 Trichoderma native isolates belonging to 3 species of the genus, T. harzianum, T. asperellum and T. virens were evaluated in vitro against the pathogen using dual culture method. Out of 19 isolates, 8 isolates showed mycoparasitism, 8 isolates showed antibiosis and remaining showed lysis. Microscopic observations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) growth in dual cultures revealed that growth inhibition occurred just before near to contact with the antagonist. All T. harzianum isolates tested exhibited coiling around the hyphae of FOL. Isolates of T. harzianum, showed good coiling and growth inhibition of the pathogen. The T. harzianum strains did not differ in coiling pattern and gave somewhat equal coiling performances. Strains of T. asperellum, showed coiling but the coiling pattern of all these strains was different. Only one strain of T. virens showed coiling out of 2 strains. Among them T. harzianum (SVPUTh91) showed the best performance in vitro as biological control agent against FOL followed by T. asperellum and T. virens, resulting in 83, 73 and 65% reduction in colony growth, respectively.

Keywords: Antibiosis, Coiling, Fusarium, Lysis, Trichoderma


Production potential and economics of wheat, Triticum aestivum as influenced by different planting methods in Punjab, India

Balkaran Singh Sandhu*, Nirmaljit Singh Dhaliwal and Gurmail Singh Sandhu

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sri Muktsar Sahib-152026 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: balkaransandhu@gmail.com

Received: August 18, 2015; Revised received: February 9, 2016; Accepted: May 13, 2016

Abstract: The burning of rice straw after rice harvest in the Rice-Wheat System can be overcome by direct seeding of wheat by in standing and loose rice straw. To find out the most appropriate method of wheat sowing after rice crop in Sri Muktsar Sahib district, a field experiment was conducted with five different sowing methods including zero tillage and happy seeder. Among the different planting methods maximum grain yield was obtained with the conventional (52.26 q/ha) and happy seeder without loose straw (51.93 q/ha) planting method as compared to happy seeder with loose straw (50.83 q/ha), zero tillage (49.80 q/ha) and conventional method with mulching (49.66 q/ha). However, the benefit-cost ratio was higher by happy seeder with (2.38:1) and without loose straw (2.35:1) as compared to zero tillage method (2.31:1) and conventional (2.14:1). Higher B:C ratio with happy seeder was also due to its lesser cost of cultivation as compared to conventional method of sowing. The higher net return obtained from happy seeder with and without loose straw Rs. 50104 and Rs. 51019/ha respectively as compared zero tillage method (Rs 48663/ ha) and conventional tillage method (Rs. 49856/ha). Although the grain yield under conventional method of sowing was higher but it failed to produce higher net return and B:C ratio. Happy Seeder technology is a time savings, good option against burning of rice residue in Punjab.

Keywords: B:C ratio, Happy seeder, Planting method, Wheat, Yield


Prospects of Citrus sinensis (masumbi) cultivation in Haryana State, India

Pawan Kumar*, P. S. Shehrawat, Anil Kumar Rohila and B. S. Ghanghas and Ashok Kumar1

Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), INDIA

1Directorate Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: pawanbhukal26@gmail.com

Received: August 22, 2015; Revised received: January 26, 2016; Accepted: May 16, 2016

Abstract: The empirical study on prospects of Citrus sinensis cultivation by farmers indicated that overall prospects of masumbi (C. sinensis) crop were medium to high since 77.5% respondents belonged to these categories. Majority of respondents agreed that better market facilities (weighted mean score 2.72), increased purchasing power of people (2.65), better fruit quality (2.62), better economic return (2.53) and increase in demand of fruit were the major prospective aspects for its wider adoption (2.53), whereas better technical support (1.20) and better credit facilities (1.08) both were not up to the desired level as expressed by the farmers. So the government should make concerted efforts to further strengthen the highly prospective aspects like better marketing facilities, cultivars of better quality fruits at farm gate or village level. On the basis of result obtained, the prospects of masumbi (C. sinensis) cultivation may be high in future.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Cultivation, Fruit, Prospects


Constraints faced by farmers of Haryana state in adoption of masumbi (Citrus sinensis) cultivation

Pawan Kumar*, P. S. Shehrawat, Anil Kumar Rohila and B. S. Ghanghas and Ashok Kumar1

Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

1Directorate of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pawanbhukal26@gmail.com

Received: August 29, 2015; Revised received: February 15, 2016; Accepted: May 16, 2016

Abstract: The study focused on the constraints faced by farmers of Haryana state in adoption of masumbi (Citrus sinensis) cultivation. The study was conducted in Bhiwani district. The constraints as perceived by the re-spondents were measured by the scores on the basis of magnitude of the problems. Constraints were categorized into inputs, marketing, production, technical and psychologicalconstraints. While analyzing overall constraints as perceived by farmers the findings revealed that high price of insecticides/pesticides (weighted mean score 2.25), non-availability of inputs at proper time (1.13), absence of agro-processing units (2.05), no support price (1.86), ab-errant climatic conditions (1.99), unawareness about proper and balanced fertilizer application and time of applica-tion (1.99), lack of guidance of post-harvest technology (1.95), lack of knowledge of current advances in fruit cultiva-tion (1.34), longer time taken in fruit bearing (1.51) and orchard maintenance(1.34) etc. were major constraints faced by the farmers.

Keywords: Constraints, Cultivation, Fruit, Masumbi


Assessment of heavy metals in the surrounding soils and their bio concentrations in few plants near Kathajodi river, Odisha, India

S. R. Barik1, P. J. Mishra2, A. K. Nayak3 and S. Rout4*

1College of Forestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003 (Odisha), INDIA

2AICRP on Agroforestry, College of Forestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003(Odisha), INDIA

3Division of Crop production, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753006 (Odisha), INDIA

4School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: srout.forestry@gmail.com

Received: September 18, 2015; Revised received: February 13, 2016; Accepted: May 16, 2016

Abstract: The present study was carried out mainly concentrate on assessment of heavy metal in the surrounding soils and their bioconcentration in the different plants near Kathajodi River. Soil and plant samples were collected along the Kathajodi river, Odisha, India. It was found that the dominance of heavy metals follows a decreasing order. The metal concentrations measured in soil at all location generally decreased in the order; Fe > Mn > Ni> Pb> Cu> Zn> Cd. Highest heavy metal concentration in river bank soil Cd (0.72±0.05 mgkg-1); Ni (3.85±0.15 mgkg-1); Cu (1.66±0.15 mgkg-1); Zn (1.54±0.16 mgkg-1); Pb (4.11±0.14 mgkg-1); Fe (142.0±1.16 mgkg-1); Mn (37.30±1.16 mgkg-1) at different site . Among all the grass species I. laxum has the higher affinity for the accumulation of Cd (0.85±0.05) followed by Zn, Pb and Cu. This study indicates that bio concentration of heavy metals in the study area show preferential Cd uptake in the plants followed by Zn, Pb and it may lead to accumulates in the exposed plant part posing risk along the food chain. This calls for immediate action to be implemented to carry out necessary environment mitigation measures for the river as it can be attributed the discharge of untreated domestic

waste and effluents in the river.

Keywords: Bioconcentration, Heavy metals, I. laxum, Kathajodi river, Soil


Impact of overgrazing and documentation of wild fodder plants used by Gujjar and Bakerwal Tribes of district Rajouri (J&K), India

Tajinder Singh*, Amandeep Singh and L.R. Dangwal

Herbarium and Plant Systematic Lab., H.N.B Garhwal Central University, SRT Campus, Badshahithaul Tehri Garhwal-249199 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tajkhalsa@gmail.com

Received: June 11, 2014; Revised received: February 24, 2016; Accepted: May 16, 2016

Abstract: The present study aims to documents the wild plants used as fodder by Gujjar and Bakarwal tribes and their impact of utilization and overgrazing in the forests of district Rajouri (J&K), India. During the study period two blocks which were densely inhabited by Gujjar and Bakkerwal tribes were selected (Nowshera and Budhal) and frequent field trips were also made on other blocks of the district where the tribal people may reached. A total of 63 plants species were reported from the study area belong to 33 families and 51 genera, of all these 63 species, 22 were trees, 11 were shrubs and 30 were herbs. During the study it was observed that, due overgrazing, lopping, and cutting of forest plants in large scale by the tribes and local inhabitants for the expansion of agricultural lands and local settlements outside and inside of the forests and the number of livestock reported much more than the carrying capacity of forest, which resulted into the threatening of some plant species. It is also observed that some species like Pinus wallichiana and Cedrus deodara were not be reported in the area due to their commercial utilization and overgrazing purposes, and also due to their more litter fall which is not good for the growth of ground flora. The tribes sometimes also employ forest fire for better fodder, which leads to great loss to the regeneration of forest plants.

Keywords: District Rajouri, Fodder Plants, Forest, Gujjar and Bakarwal Tribes, Nomadic life, Overgrazing


Development of carp fish culture practice under different stocking densities in mid hills of Uttarakhand, India

K.S. Mehta1, Akansha Khati1*, Mohd Danish2, V.K. Singh3 and H.C.S. Bisht4

1Afro Asian Development Consortium, New Delhi, INDIA

2Department of Fishery Biology, College of Fisheries, G. B. P.U.A&T, Pantnagar-263149 Uttarakhand), INDIA

3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lohaghat-262524 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

4DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital -263002 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: akanshakhati@gmail.com

Received: June 19, 2015; Revised received: January 18, 2016; Accepted: May 17,2016

Abstract: The present study was undertaken in order to standardise the stocking density values of carps fishes for sustainable fisheries development in mid hills and enhancing the fish production. The paper deals with growth performance of 3 exotic fish species in low stocking density i.e. 3 fish/m3 over high stocking density of 5 fish/m3 and 10 fish/m3 in the control pond. The net production was 12.6% higher with stocking density of 3 fish/m3. Among the both tested density, the combination of 30: 40: 30 was superior (45.6%) in terms of growth and production in comparison to the other combinations and control. In present study, the highest production as 57.13kg/100m2 (5713 kg/ha.) was achieved in the stocking ratio of 30:40:30 with stocking density of 3 fish/m3. It is 4.7% higher of the combination of 40:30:30 and 4% higher than the combination of 30: 30: 40. It is 12.6% higher than the stocking density of 5 fish/m3 and 48.5% higher than the stocking density of 10 fish /m3. The growth pattern reflected the slow growth during the winter months, reflected the direct negative effect of water temperature on the growth. The production level of existing practice of the farmers may be enhanced up to 1.5 times with proper stocking density i.e. 3 fish/m3 and perfect species combination i.e. 30: 40: 30 for silver carp, grass carp and common carp respectively.

Keywords: Carps, Growth performance, Mid-hills, Stocking density, Stocking ratio


Economic feasibility of summer squash cultivation using low tunnel and black plastic mulch under tarai condition of Uttarakhand

Lalit Bhatt*, S.K. Maurya and Dhirendra Singh

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145, U. S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drbhattlalit@gmail.com

Received: June 28, 2015; Revised received: January 28, 2016; Accepted: May 19, 2016

Abstract: A study was undertaken to investigate the economic feasibility of summer squash cultivation in tarai region of Uttarakhand during winter - spring season of 2013-14 and 2014-15. Among three transplanting dates, summer squash transplanted on 15th January was found to be best with respect to plant growth characters, total yield (373.50 q ha-1), net return (`2,46,542 ha-1) and benefit – cost ratio (2.72). Similarly, out of three low cost protected techniques evaluated along with control, low tunnel with black plastic mulch was observed as best with respect to plant growth characters, total yield (451.67 q ha-1). Whereas, the maximum net return (`2,87,628 ha-1) and benefit - cost ratio (3.58) was obtained in black plastic mulched plots. Out of 12 treatment combinations, summer squash planted on 15th January under black polyethylene mulch is most profitable in terms of getting maximum benefit - cost ratio of 4.41. Hence, the same is recommended for commercial cultivation of summer squash at farmer’s field under tarai condition of Uttarakhand.

Keywords: Cucurbita pepo, Economics, Low tunnel, Plastic mulch, Summer squash


Effect of boron on growth, nutrition and fertility status of large cardamom in Sikkim Himalaya, India

B.A. Gudade1*, Subhash Babu2, S.S. Bora1, K. Dhanapal1 and Raghavendra Singh2

1Division of Agronomy, ICRI, RRS, Spices Board, Tadong, Gangtok-737102 (Sikkim), INDIA

2Division of Agronomy, ICAR, RC, NEH Region, Sikkim Centre, Gangtok-737102 (Sikkim), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bgudade@gmail.com

Received: July 22, 2015; Revised received: February 4, 2016; Accepted: May 19, 2016

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Spices Board Kabi research farm North Sikkim to find out the effect of Boron nutrition on growth, nutrient content and soil fertility status of large cardamom. The experiment was laid out in RBD comprising seven treatments (T1 soil application of borax@2.5 kg ha-1 ,T2 soil application of borax@5.0 kg ha-1, T3 foliar application of borax@0.25%, T4 foliar application of borax @0.5%, T5 foliar application of borax@0.25%+ soil application of borax@2.5 kg ha-1, T6 foliar application of borax@0.5%+ soil application of borax@2.5 kg ha-1 and T7 control). Results reveal that foliar application of borax@0.5%+ soil application of borax@2.5 kg ha-1 recorded the maximum values of immature tillers per clump (2.98 and 3.95) and mature tillers per clump (2.99 and 3.11) during both September, 2013 and March, 2014 and vegetative buds per clump (2.90 ). With regards to nutrient content in leaf of large cardamom among the treatments, foliar application of borax@0.5%+soil application of borax@2.5 kg ha-1 recorded highest nutrient acquisition However, its effect was statistically non significant on K, S, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe content and significant on N(2.59%), P (0.18%), Mg (0.39%) and B (15.45 ppm) content in leaf.

Keywords: Boron, Growth parameters, Large cardamom, Nutrient content, Sikkim


Correlation and path analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ramesh1*, Shailesh Marker2, S. Muniswamy1 and Yamanura1

1Agricultural Research Station, Aland Road, Kalburgi-585101 Karnataka, INDIA

2Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ramesh4913@gmail.com

Received: August 11, 2015; Revised received: January 7, 2016; Accepted: May 20, 2016

Abstract: Correlation and path coefficient analysis were studied in 22 heat tolerant Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) of wheat. Analysis of variance revealed the significant difference among genotypes for all the characters. Suggested that there was ample scope for selection of promising RILs for yield improvement. A wide range of variability was exhibited by most of the traits. The results of correlation studies indicated that genotypic correlation coefficients were higher in magnitude than their corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients for all the traits which indicated that association among these characters was under genetic control and indicating the preponderance of genetic variance in expression of characters. Grain yield per plant had high, significant and positive association with number of grains per spike, spike weight, spike length, canopy temperature depression, tillers per plant, grain filling period and chlorophyll content both at genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating that these traits were main yield attributing traits. Path analysis revealed that grains per spike, tillers per plant, spike length, had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by flag leaf length, flag leaf width, days 50% heading, plant height, grain filling period, membrane stability and days to maturity at genotypic level. The selection of characters such as grains per spike, tillers per plant, spike length and spike weight would be helpful for further improvement in RILs of wheat.

Keywords: Correlation, Path analysis, Recombinant inbred line (RIL), Triticum aestivum, Wheat


On-farm impact analysis of resource conservation technology on wheat at Tarai-Teesta Flood plain of Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP)

B. Biswas

Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia-741234 (West Bengal), INDIA

E-mail: kripahi@yahoo.com

Received: August 5, 2015; Revised received: February 25, 2016; Accepted: May 20, 2016

Abstract: Adoption of resource conservation technologies (RCT) may improve the productivity, reduce cost and sustainability of wheat production in the irrigated areas of eastern Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of South Asia. Critical on –farm study on factors favouring adoption and non-adoption is required. Findings from an on-farm trial conducted during 2005-2009 are used to evaluate the on-farm impacts of zero tillage (ZT) in wheat from three sites at Tarai-Teesta flood plain of eastern IGP. On an average, there was 11.54% increase in productivity in ZT wheat over conventional tilled (CT) wheat. Water productivity increased from 1.99 kg m-3 in CT to 2.73 kg m-3 in ZT due to lower estimated water use (1147 m3 ha-1 in ZT than 1435 m3 ha-1 in CT) and higher productivity (3.38 t ha-1 in ZT than 3.03 t ha-1 in CT). Saving in tractor operation and diesel use in farmers’ ZT wheat fields were 3.23 and 19.09 hours ha-1. Sowing can be done earlier by one week through adoption of ZT machine for better utilization of limited winter. Savings in ZT on farmers’ fields were in the components of land preparation (1938 Rs ha-1), seed (462 Rs ha-1), nitrogen (269 Rs ha-1), phosphate fertilizer (104 Rs ha-1) and irrigation (380 Rs ha-1) over conventional wheat cultivation. Availability of zero-till seeder and its servicing, skilled operator and sometimes reluctance of local tiller operator for apprehension of lower earnings from single tillage pass are also revealed as the factors of non-adoption. More such in-depth studies should be conducted on site-specific basis so that it can be replicated more widely in areas for the benefit of the farming community.

Keywords: Indo Gangetic Plain, Tarai-Teesta Flood plain, Wheat, Zero tillage

Morphological, cultural and pathogenic variability in Alternaria brassicae, the causing agent of black spot of rapeseed and mustard

B. S. Bhatiya*, K. S. Bisht, Pankaj Rautela and R. P. Awasthi

Center of Advance Studies, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, G.B.P.U.A.T., Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Bhupendra_Patho@rediffmail.com

Received: August 31, 2015; Revised received: February 23, 2016; Accepted: May 23, 2016

Abstract: The study on pathogenic diversity of twenty isolates of Alternaria brassicae collected from different locations of Uttarakhand and Central Uttar Pradesh infecting Brassica species (Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Eruca sativa) revealed that there was a distinct difference among isolates in terms of mycelial growth, spore length, width, spore beak length and width. The average spore length varied from 21.23μm to 38.13μm with minimum of isolate AUA-19, AUA-43 i.e 21.23μm and maximum of AUA-47 i.e. 38.13μm . The isolates tested on Brassica juncea var.Varuna in green house conditions revealed that all the twenty isolates behaved differently. Among all the isolates, Brassica juncea isolates i.e. AUA-25, AUA-39, AUA-41, AUA-47, AUA-19, AUA-24, AUA-22, AUA-21, AUA-31, AUA-43 and AUA-45 from Uttarakhand, and AUP-29 from Central Uttar Pradesh can be grouped into highly pathogenic with range of Alternaria spot size i.e. 5.03-8.30mm in diameter, while isolate of Eruca sativa i.e. AUA-38 was found least pathogenic with 1.63mm in dia. and eight isolates AUA-18, AUA-20, AUA-23, AUP-28, AUA-32, AUA-33 and AUA-36 were found moderately pathogenic. This study will be useful in developing integrated management strategies of Alternaria leaf spot and breeding programs of oilseed crops (Brassica sp.).

Keywords: Alternaria brassicae, cultural, morphology, pathogenicity, variability


Economics analysis of tomato cultivation under poly house and open field conditions in Haryana, India

Parveen Kumar*, R. S. Chauhan and R. K. Grover

Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: parv2509@gmail.com

Received: September 3, 2015; Revised received: February 6, 2016; Accepted: May 23, 2016

Abstract: In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the comparative economics of tomato cultivation under poly house and open field conditions in Karnal district, Haryana. Production and marketing constraints under poly house cultivation have also been identified. The primary data for the agriculture year 2013-14 were collected by personal interviews of the selected farmers with the help of a specially designed schedule. Simple statistical tool like Averages and percentages were used to compare, contrast and interpret the results properly. The overall findings of the study reveal that the cost of cultivation of tomato under poly houses was higher by Rs. 206816.90/acre as com-pared to open field conditions. At the same time, the net returns under poly houses were higher by Rs. 51097.54/acre. Farmers realized 53.71 % higher yield of tomato under poly house as compared to open field conditions. The gross return, returns over variable cost and net return were also higher by 106.94 %, 160.70 % and 48.70 %, respectively in case of poly house as compared to open field conditions. The results of the study also revealed that the tomato cultivation under poly houses has significantly contributed to the yield.

Keywords: Comparative economic analysis, Cost, Open field condition, Poly house


Integrated management approaches for controlling root rot of bael caused by Fusarium solani

M. Singh1, Sushil Sharma2*and Mukesh Kumar3

1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal – 123501(Haryana), INDIA

3Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bawal–123501 ( Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: skvrrsbawal@rediffmail.com

Received: September 27, 2015; Revised received: February 19, 2016; Accepted: May 23, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to find out the effective management practices to control the recently recorded pathogen (Fusarium solani) inciting root rot disease in Bael. Rampant incidence due to this pathogen is resulting in excess damage and reduction in acreage. Out of six fungicides screened in vitro, Topsin-M and Bavistin stood at first place in inhibiting the mycelial growth of F. solani. Topsin-M showed 100% inhibition at 50 ppm concentration whereas Bavistin showed 100% inhibition at 150 ppm concentration. Bavistin and Topsin-M as seed dressers effectively protected pre and post emergence seedlings mortality to the tune of 68.75 and 70.95%; 65.00 and 67.54%, respectively. Pre-sowing drenching of soil with Bavistin (0.4%) reduced the pre-emergence mortality from 26.50 to 8.25% and post-emergence mortality from 39.00 to 16.25%. The integration of seed treatment and pre-sowing drenching resulted in 72.51% control of pre emergence mortality and 82.92% control of post emergence mortality. In dual culture method, maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was recorded with Trichoderma harzianum (72.18%) followed by T. viride (67.70%). Glomus mosseae in combination with T. harzianum was found very effective against F. solani under screen house conditions as minimum pre emergence mortality (10.00%) and post emergence mortality (13.25%) against control where the values were 27.25% and 40.25%, respectively. The studies and results compiled here in provide an explanation for the potential of selected fungicides and antagonists in the control of bael root rot disease.

Keywords: Aegle marmelos, Bael, Biocontrol agents, Mycorrhiza, Seed treatment, Soil drenching


Biochemical investigations on vigour enhancement in aged seeds upon seed priming in onion

Umesha1*, S.N. Vasudevan1, K. Bhanuprakash2, B. Manjunatha1, G. Sarika3, N. Amruta3

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur -584102 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Institution of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore- 560089 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: umesh3980@gmail.com

Received: December 24, 2014; Revised received: March 4, 2016; Accepted: May 24, 2016

Abstract: Loss in seed quality that occurs during all process, from maturation in the field to storage, leads to seed deterioration. Storage of onion seeds under ambient, hot and humid conditions is very problematic since these conditions deteriorate seed quality faster. Seed deterioration is associated with many metabolic defects that occur due to changes in enzymes and protein levels. This deterioration can be rectified to the extent possible by the technique of seed priming. The results clearly indicated that priming will restore the lost seed vigour in aged seeds due to reactivation of enzyme activity in old seeds. The germination percentage improved from 60% to 79.5% and 72.5% in GA3 and hydroprimed, respectively. Priming will also restore the lost seed vigour in aged seeds due to reactivation of proteins in old seeds and expression of these proteins in priming treatments are related to priming induced proteins in contrast to their absence in the aged seeds which are necessary for germination and longevity of seeds.

Keywords: Esterase, Onion, Peroxidase, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE, Vigour


Mungbean yield and nutrient uptake performance in response of NPK and lime levels under acid soil in Vindhyan region, India

Ram Swaroop Meena*and Dinesh Varma

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi (UP-221 005), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: meenars@bhu.ac.in

Received: October 9, 2015; Revised received: February 23, 2016; Accepted: May 24, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to understanding the management of soil acidity with NPK and lime levels for sustainable mungbean productivity, Crop was sown during kharif season of 2014at Agronomy farm of Rajiv Gandhi South Campus Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh. Results of the study demonstrated that significant improvement in seed (524 kg /ha), straw (1426 kg /ha), biological yield (1949 kg/ha) and total NPK uptake (96.68 kg/ha) were recorded in 100% RDF. Similar results were observed with application of 200 kg lime/ha in mungbean. Interaction effect was also recorded at P=0.05 level of significance between fertility and lime levels on mungbean seed (622 kg/ha) and biological (2145kg/ha) yield with 100 % RDF + 200 kg lime/ha which were observed highest than all other treatments. Moreover, highest B:C ratio was observed with the application of 200 kg lime/ha. The present study revealed that soil acidity problems affecting pulses productivity, can be overcome with applications of 100% RDF and 200 kg lime/ha in Vindhyan region, India.

Keywords: Acid soil, Fertility Levels, Lime, Mungbean, Yield


Identification of bacterial pathogen associated with red stripe/top rot disease of sugarcane in Punjab, India

R. Yonzone1*, B. Kumar2, P.P. Singh3, M.S. Hunjan3 and B. Das1

1College of Agriculture (Extended Campus), U.B.K.V, Majhian, Dakshin Dinajpur, 733133 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Kapurthala- 144601 (Punjab), INDIA

3Department of Plant Pathology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author.E-mail: rakesh_yonzone@yahoo.com

Received: July 20, 2015; Revised received: February 26, 2016; Accepted: May 25, 2016

Abstracts: This study was aim to identify the pathogen associated with the red stripe/top rot disease. The isolates were collected from major sugarcane growing districts of Punjab. Molecular identification of the pathogen was carried out to confirm the associated organism with this disease. Of the different sets of specific PCR based molecular markers were used, primer sets SeQ1 (Aaa) and SeQ2 (Aaa) amplified the expected 550bp of ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the rDNA which revealed the pathogen as Acidovorax avenae pv. avenae, whereas the primer set Aaaf3 and Aaar2 are specific to strains that infect rice crop did not amplify any fragment. Our studies confirmed Acidovorax avenae pv. avenae as the causal bacterium associated with the red stripe/top rot of sugarcane in Punjab.

Keywords: Acidovorax avenae pv. avenae, ITS, PCR, Red stripe, Top rot


Seed anatomical studies on dormancy and germination in Chamaecrista absus

H. M. Pallavi 1*, K. Vishwanath2, Bapurayagouda Patil1, N. Naveen1, and Manjunath Thattimani1

1Main Horticulture Research and Extension Centre, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot -587104, INDIA

2Zonal Agriculture Research Station, V.C. Farm, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-571045, INDIA

*Corresponding author.E-mail: pallavihm@gmail.com

Received: July 17, 2015; Revised received: March 1, 2016; Accepted: May 25, 2016

Abstract: Present study was conducted to analyze the anatomical structure of seed to study the dormancy behaviour in Chamaecrista absus. Seed germination behaviour was also studied after breaking the seed dormancy by artificial seed treatments. The anotamical studies revealed that seed has apical hilar region and seed coat has four layers consisting of outer cuticle, sub cuticle, palisade layer and inner tegma leading to physical dormancy. Outer cuticle and sub cuticle layers are very hard to break naturally and hence seeds possess hard seed coat dormancy. This physically hard seed coat should be made soft to enhance germination. Studies to break dormancy were conducted involving treatments like hot water, hormones and in combinations of both. The results revealed that seeds dipped in boiling water made inner layers permeable for water absorption in hilar region and thus germination enhanced. In specific seeds treated with boiling water for 5 minutes recorded higher germination (82 %) over untreated control (26 %). Other artificial treatments with hormones gibberellic acid (33 % ) and ethrel (34 % ) did not enhanced the germination significantly over control. C. absus has hard coat dormancy and can be overcame by treating seeds with boiling water treatment.

Keywords: Germination enhancement, Hard seed coat, Hot water treatment, Physical dormancy, Plant hormone


Signature capture of red soil patches and their acidity-A case study of Banka district, Bihar, India

Binod K. Vimal, Rajkishore Kumar*, C. D. Choudhary, Sunil Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Y. K. Singh and Ragini kumari

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour-813210, Bhagalpur, Bihar, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kishoreraj1333@gmail.com

Received: August 22, 2015; Revised received: March 1, 2016; Accepted: May 27, 2016

Abstract: Colour in soils as well as other object is the visual perceptual property which is perceived by human eye. They are governed by spectrum of light corresponding to wavelength or reflected energy of the material. Developed model for soil acidity is based on visual interpretation, principal component and spectral enhancement techniques by using of the satellite image (IRS LISS III, 2014). In this context, red soil patch is much sensitive in red spectral band comparison to green and blue spectral bands and perceived as red tone by human eyes but same soil patch appears green in false colour composite (FCC) image of NIR (0.70-0.80μm), Red (0.60-0.70 μm) and Green (0.50-0.60μm) bands. The maximum coverage of red soil patches having low pH < 6.5 (1:2.5) was recognized in 44.07 per cent of the total geo-graphical area (3019.56 sq.km) under Banka district. Maximum red soil patches having their acidity were recognised in Katoria (18.56%), Chanan (15.15%), Bounsi (10.44%) and Banka (9.92%) blocks. Overall results indicated that variation of tone in different bands helps for the separation of red soil patches.

Keywords: NIR band, RS-GIS, Satellite image, Spectral signature


Attitude of rural youth towards agriculture as a means of livelihood

Renu Gangwar* and V.L.V. Kameswari

Department of Agricultural Communication, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-Mail: renoogangwar@gmail.com

Received: August 30, 2015; Revised received: March 4, 2016; Accepted: May 27, 2016

Abstract: The importance of agriculture to the socio-economic development of the country cannot be overemphasized. Agriculture sector is potentially the largest employment providing sector in the country. Despite this, unemployment is high among rural youth, who prefer to migrate to urban areas to take up low paying jobs. The present study was carried out mainly to find out the characteristics of rural youth and their attitude towards agriculture as a means of livelihood. The study was conducted in four villages in Udham Singh Nagar district in Uttarakhand. Data was collected from 115 youth using pretested interview schedule. It was found that maximum number of respondents (31.30 %) had education up to higher secondary level, majority were students (46.96 %) and had medium level of mass media exposure (72.17 %) and change proneness (58.30 %). The study indicates that majority (85.20 %) of the respondents had neutral attitude towards agriculture followed by 13.90 percent of the respondents who had negative attitude towards agriculture and only 0.90 % respondents had positive attitude towards agriculture. The study indicates that the findings will help extension policy makers to frame appropriate training programmes for educating youth regarding opportunities in agriculture and allied sectors.

Keywords: Agriculture, Attitude, Livelihood, Rural Youth, Unemployment


Wild edible fruit tree resources of Arunachal Pradesh, North East India

N. Lyngdoh1*, Ng Piloo2, Tape Gab3, Mukul Kumar1 and A.K. Pandey4

1Department of Tree Improvement, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat- 791102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA

2 Department of Post Harvest Management, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA

3State Horticulture Research and Development Institute, Itanagar-791111 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA

4Dean’s Office, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lyngdoh@gmail.com

Received: August 31, 2015; Revised received: March 12, 2016; Accepted: May 28, 2016

Abstract: The paper reports on the survey of wild edible fruit trees covering 49 sites from 17 districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. A total of 52 wild edible fruits species representing 33 families was reported, out of which 10 had medicinal uses. The highest number of wild edible fruits belonged to family Moraceae (9 spp.) followed by Anacardiaceae (4 spp.) and Actinidiaceae (3 spp.). More than half the fruits (66.67%) are available during the monsoon season, i.e. between June and October. Dilenia indica, Castanopsis indica, Canarium strictum, Terminalia citrina, Phoebe cooperiana, Phyllanthus emblica and Artocarpus intergifolia are the commonly traded fruits. This is perhaps the only extensive survey which has so far been carried out on wild edible fruit tree resources covering all the districts of Arunachal Pradesh. In the present era where there is global interest on bioresource documentation, this study is significant for securing intellectual property right and preventing biopiracy.

Keywords: Diversity, Medicinal, Traded, Underutilized, Wild fruit tree resources


Management of white fly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) through seed treatment in moth bean

B.L Jakhar*, Bindu Panickar and Y. Ravindrababu

Pulses Research Station, S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: bjakhar@rediffmail.com

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: March 10, 2016; Accepted: May 28, 2016

Abstract: A seed treatment trial was conducted at research farm of Centre of Excellence for Research on Pulses, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar. The experiment was conducted for the control of white fly by seed treatment, four insecticides were used for seed treatment with two different doses of each insecticides viz., Bifenthrin 10 EC, Imidacloprid 600FS, Thiomethoxam 35 FS and Fipronil 5%SC, these treatments were found sig-nificantly (at 5 %) superior over the control in reducing the white fly population in moth bean. The seed treatment with Thiomethoxam35 FS @5g/kg seeds found minimum white fly, Bemisia tabaci population (0.32 /leaf) followed by Imidacloprid 600FS @ 5 g/kg seeds (white fly 0.39/leaf) and maximum was recorded in control (1.06/leaf). Farmers are advised to use seed treatments with Thiomethoxam35 FS @5g/kg seeds or Imidacloprid 600FS @ 5 g/kg seeds before the sowing of moth bean crop for the control of white fly.

Keywords: Bifenthrin Fipronil, Hite fly , Imidacloprid, Moth bean, Seed treatment, Sucking pest, Thiomethoxam


Effect of duration of night interruption on growth and flowering of Chrysanthemum cv. Kikiobiory

Tanya Thakur* and H.S. Grewal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tanyathakurflori@gmail.com

Received: October 7, 2015; Revised received: February 25, 2016; Accepted: May 28, 2016

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effect of duration of night interruption using incandescent bulbs on sustained quality flower production of potted standard Chrysanthemum cv. Kikiobiory. The different night interruption (NI) treatments i.e. control, <5 sec. flash, 30-, 60-, 90- and 120- min. significantly (p<0.05) affected all the vegetative and floral parameters. The plant height, number of leaves and root suckers per plant increased with the increase duration of NI treatments with maximum at 120- min. NI (90.42 cm, 34.75 and 12.10, respectively). The days taken to flower bud appearance, colour break stage and full bloom were delayed, whereas flower quality with respect to duration of flowering and flower diameter were deteriorated with increase in duration of NI treatments. The days taken to flower bud appearance, colour break stage and full bloom were highest at 120- min. NI (136.84, 183.22 and 202.25 days, respectively) which delayed the flowering by 63.94 days, where full bloom flower appeared in March. There was reduction in duration of flowering and flower diameter with increased NI duration with lowest at 120 min. NI (7.83 days and 15.69 cm). It was observed that increase (120 min.) in night interruption increased the vegetative growth and delayed the flowering; however, flower quality was deteriorated. Thus, it was concluded that 60 min. NI improved flower quality with sustained flower production in potted Chrysanthemum cv. Kikiobiory.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum, Incandescent bulbs, Kikiobiory, Night Interruption, Vegetative Growth


Relationship of postpartum interval to estrus, body condition score, milk yield and blood biochemical parameters in Surti buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

P.M. Gamit1, Rana Ranjeet Singh2*, Amit Kumar3, V.B. Kharadi4 and N.B. Patel5

1Cattle breeding farm, JAU, Junagadh, Gujarat, INDIA

2*Department of LPM, VCVS&AH, NAU, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA

3LAR section, AG division, IVRI, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

4LRS, NAU, Gujarat, INDIA

5Department of LPM, VCVS&AH, NAU, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drexplicit@gmail.com

Received: October 15, 2015; Revised received: March 1, 2016; Accepted: May 30, 2016

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to find out the relationship among postpartum interval to estrus, body condition score, milk yield and blood biochemical parameters of Surti buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). The study was conducted on sixteen clinically healthy Surti buffaloes (parity 1-7) with normal parturition. These animals were divided into two groups on the basis of their postpartum interval to estrus (PPIE). Group 1 animals had PPIE ≤ 50 days whereas group 2 had PPIE > 50 days. Body condition score (BCS), milk yield and Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture on days starting from 6th day after calving thereafter at fortnight interval till 90th day postpartum. Blood serum parameters such as glucose, total protein, blood urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, progesterone and estrogen were measured. Perusal of data revealed that animals having higher BCS on the day of estrus had significantly (P≤0.05) shorter PPIE. There was non-significant effect of daily and cumulative 100 days milk yield on PPIE. Serum concentration of glucose and creatinine was significantly (P≤0.05) higher for group 1 animals at most of the stages. There was non-significant difference between serum concentration of total protein, blood urea nitrogen and cholesterol between both the groups. Progesterone and Estradiol-17 β concentrations were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in group 1 animals than group 2 animals at different stages of this study.

Keywords: Blood-biochemical profile, Body condition score, Hormonal profile, Postpartum interval to estrus, Surti buffaloes


Morphological variation in an anopthalmic specimen of Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) from Brahmaputra River, Assam, India

Jyotish Barman1*, A.K. Jaiswar1, S.K. Chakraborty1, B.K. Bhattacharjya2 and Gopalkrishna1

1Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Central Institute of Fisheries Education (Deemed University), Panchmarg, Off Yari road, Andheri (W), Mumbai – 400061 (Maharastra), INDIA

2ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Guwahati Regional Centre, Housefed Complex, Dispur- 781006 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jyotish5@gmail.com

Received: November 2, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: May 30, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation reports the variation observed in morphological traits of an anopthalmic specimen of Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) (168.9 mm in standard length) from Assam. Thirty morphometric and six meristic characters of the abnormal specimen were studied and compared with normal specimens to observe variation in the morpho-meristic traits, if any. The proportionate pre-pectoral length (28.5 mm), length of dorsal fin base (15.0 mm), pelvic fin length (15.5 mm), distance between urino-genital openings and anal fin base (14.0 mm) and body depth at pectoral fin base (12.0 mm) of the abnormal specimen was found to be higher compared to that of the normal specimens (23.8 – 26.5 mm; 12.2 – 14.1 mm; 11.1 – 14.7 mm; 10.9 – 12.4 mm and 8.9 – 9.9 mm, respectively); while the dorsal to adipose distance (12.8 mm) and body width at cleithrum (41.5 mm) was lower than the normal specimens (13.7 – 16.7 mm and 44.0 – 50.0 mm, respectively). No marked variation was observed in the meristic characters. Pollution due to urban runoff, sewage discharge and oil spill from inland water transport facilities adversely affecting the river water quality could be the reason for such deformity. The overall growth performance of the fish does not seem to be affected by these anomalies.

Keywords: Anopthalmia, Assam, Environmental stress, Morpho-meristic traits, Sperata seenghala


Evaluation of different plant powders as seed protectants against rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton

B. L. Meena1, K. L. Jeengar1, Bhim Singh2* and N. L. Meena3

Department of Entomology, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Campus, Jobner-303 329 (Rajasthan), INDIA

1Present Address: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhalawar-326 001, (Rajasthan), INDIA

2College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar-326 023, (Rajasthan), INDIA

3 Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bundi, (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bhimsingh1@gmail.com

Received: July 27, 2015; Revised received: February 16, 2016; Accepted: May 30, 2016

Abstract: The present study was aimed to develop the eco-friendly and economic approaches to keep the stored food grains free from insect attack would be using the plant products as grain protectants. In the context of biologi-cal control as an alternative to chemical control, under laboratory conditions, different plant powders viz., dharak kernel and leaf (Melia azadirach L.), neem kernel and leaf (Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss), karanj kernel (Pongamia glabra), aak leaf (Calotropis procera Br.), datura leaf (Datura alba Nees.), citrus leaf (Citrus lemon L.), podina leaf (Mentha arvensis) and tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum L.) were compared, at three rate of application (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 g per 100 g seeds), as protectants against infestation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) seeds by the storage pest Corcyra cephalonica Stainton. The larval period of test insect got progressively increased with the increase in dose level of different plant powders. The maximum (77.83%) and minimum (37.83%) reduction in adult emergence was observed in dharak kernel powder and tulsi leaf powder, respectively. The test insect developed on seeds treated with dharak kernel powder laid significantly (P˃ 0.5) minimum number of eggs (80.33 eggs/ female) followed by neem kernel powder (85.66 eggs/female). The dharak and neem kernel powders were found most effective in reducing the longevity of male (3.96 and 5.13 days) and female adults (4.63 and 4.97 days), respectively. The re-sults suggest that these materials tested have the potential in the development of post-harvest protection technology against, C. cephalonica, the major pest of stored grains.

Keywords: Corcyra cephalonica, Egg viability, Plant powders, Seed protectants, Stored grains


Plethora (Novaluron + Indoxacarb) insecticide for the management of tomato fruit borer complex

Abhijit Ghosal1*, Ashim Kumar Dolai2 and Monilal Chatterjee3

1“Sasya Shyamala” Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Narendrapur, Kolkata- 700103 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Technical officer, AICRP sesame and niger Calcutta University -741252 (West Bengal) INDIA

3 School of Crop Protection, College of Post Graduate Studies, Central Agricultural University Umiam- 793103 ) (Meghalaya) , INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ghosalabhijit87@gmail.com

Received: August 26, 2015; Revised received: March 10, 2016; Accepted: May 30, 2016

Abstract: During the past three decades, efforts have been made to reduce the risk of human exposure to pesti-cides specially insecticides. There is a great demand for safer and more selective insecticides that spare natural enemies and non target organisms. The present investigation was conducted during rabi season 2009 and 2010, to test the effectiveness of recently developed new ready mix insecticide Plethora (Novaluron 5.25 %+ Indoxacarb 4.5% SC) along with other insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera Hub and Spodoptera litura Fab. infesting tomato. It is ob-served that Plethora @ 875 ml/ha recorded only 3.75% fruit damage, while in control plot it was 45.6%. Though highest cost benefit ratio (1:6.17) was obtained when Plethora was applied at 825 ml/ha. Independently novaluron performed well specially against S. litura and indoxacarb showed better performance against H. armigera but lamda-cyhalothrin ex-pressed comparatively lower performance than other selected insecticides which received 28.30% fruit infestation

Keywords: Helicoverpa armigera, Indoxacarb, Novaluron, Plethora , Tomato


Evaluation of the performance of gum guar varieties in north eastern Karnataka, India

B. Arunkumar1*, 2K. P. Viswanatha, 2 Baba Fakruddin and 3D. Krishnamurthy

1Main Agricultural Research Station, 2 Directorate of Extension, 3Directorate of Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 104 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: b.arunkumar@rediffmail.com

Received: September 24, 2015; Revised received: February 20, 2016; Accepted: May 30, 2016

Abstract: The climatic situation in north eastern parts of Karnataka (except Bidar district) is almost similar to that of Rajastan. There is considerable area under rainfed situations and guar being a highly drought and temperature tolerant summer annual legume crop, there is hope for guar as an alternate and contingent crop during drought year in this region. With this objective effort were made to introduce, evaluate and to identify suitable gum guar varieties for North eastern parts of Karnataka. Ten gum guar varieties developed, released and cultivated in Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat state were evaluated in Agricultural Research Stations (ARS) located in Bidar, Gulbarga, Yadgiri, Bellary and Raichur districts of Karnataka during Kharif 2013-14. At Bidar, the top entry with respect to yield was HG-884 (679.00 Kg/ Ha), Variety RGC-1031 (793.00 Kg/Ha) performed well with respect to seed yield in Gulbarga district. Genotypes GAUG-13 (614.00 Kg/Ha) and RGC-986 (501.00 Kg/Ha) recorded higher seed yield respectively, in Bellary and Yadgiri district. At Raichur GAUG-13, recorded highest seed yield of 1432.00 Kg/Ha. Over the locations genotype GAUG-13 recorded highest seed yield of 759.00 Kg/Ha followed by HG-884 (700.40 Kg/Ha) and RGC-986 (696.60 Kg/Ha). The varieties tested exhibited considerable significance differences among themselves at four locations, except at one location (Agricultural Research Station, Bheemarayanagudi, Yadgir district). Variety GAUG-13, recorded highest seed yield over three locations indicating its wider adaptability.

Keywords: Ancillary characters , Genotypes, Guar, Seed yield, Performance


Allelopathic effect of Leucaena leucocephala on Pansy (Viola tricolor L.)

N. Khare, A. D. Marak and S. Rout*

School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh) INDIA.

*Corresponding author. E-mail:srout.forestry@gmail.com

Received: October 15, 2015; Revised received: March 5, 2016; Accepted: May 31, 2016

Abstract: The present study on allelopahtic effect of L. leucocephala on pansy (V. tricolor L.) both laboratory and nursery conditions were undertaken. Leucaena which significantly reduced the seed germination in all treatments at 2% (43%), 3% (42%) and 4% (40%) over Control (Distilled water), except in treatment at 1% (55%) where germination was found to be maximum over Control (Distilled water), this result shows the stimulatory effect on germination at 1% concentration of leaf leachate under laboratory condition. Leucaena soil in combination with Field soil showed stimulatory effect on the growth parameters in Pansy. Highest germination percentage (82%), fresh shoot weight (2.82g), fresh root weight (0.22g), dry shoot weight (0.50g), dry root weight (0.05g), vigor index (99.36) were recorded in treatment amended with soil 50% Leucaena soil and 50% Field soil and inhibitory effect was seen in pansy when amended into with 100% Leucaena soil under nursery condition. From this study it appears that Leucaena produces allelopahtic substrates, increase in concentration exhibit adverse effect on germination and growth parameters. Hence it is suggested that pansy could be affected economically but this tree can very well adapt to diversified soil condition.

Keywords: Allelopathy, Leucaena, Leachates, Pansy


An exploratory study on cultural and health significance of traditional tattooing practices among tribal community in Chhattisgarh state, India

P. Mooventhan1*, K. S. Kadian2, R. Senthil Kumar2, C. Karpagam3, B. K. Choudhary1

1ICAR- National Institute of Biotic Stress Management, Raipur- 493 225 (Chhattisgarh) , INDIA

2 ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal- 132 001 (Haryana) , INDIA

3ICAR- CICR, Regional Station, Coimbatore - 641 003, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: agriventhan@yahoo.co.in

Received: October 20, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: May 31, 2016

Abstract: This explorative study carried out from four districts of Chhattisgarh state namely Surajpur, Surguja, Balrampur and Jashpur. From each district, four villages were selected and from each village 25 tribal respondents were selected thus 300 respondents were selected for this study. About 65.33 percent of the tribal were between 36 and 50 years of age group, more than one fourth (34.67%) of the farmers were educated up to primary school level, about half (49.00 %) of the respondents were at the income range of Rs. 25,001 to Rs. 75,000 and about 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry. Tattooing is one of the livelihood option for the tribal community in the study area. Tattooing has been practiced across the world since at least Neolithic times (7000 BCE), as confirmed by mummified preserved skin, prehistoric art, literatures, poetry, proverbs and the archaeological records. In Southern India, permanent tattoos are called pachakutharathu. In northern India, permanent tattoos are called Godna. Tattoos have been used as cultural symbols among many tribal populations, as well as the caste-based Hindu population of India. These tattoos have also been used as integral part of the tribal’s lifestyle Chhattisgarh state of India.

Keywords: Cultural significance, Kothuna, Kajal, Traditional tattooing, and Tribal


Synergetic effect of onion (Allium cepa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and garlic (Allium sativum) on in vitro iron bioaccessibility from cooked dehusked mungbean

Pardeep Kaur, Kiran Bains* and Harpreet Kaur

Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, (Ludhiana-141004), Punjab, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail : kiranbains68@hotmail.com

Received: November 11, 2015; Revised received: March 10, 2016; Accepted: June 1, 2016

Abstract: The usage of combination of onion (Allium cepa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and garlic (Allium

sativum) in legume preparations is vogue in North India but the amounts of these three additives need to be optimized to enhance iron bioavailability from the legumes. Four levels of the three additives were set where onion and tomato were added to 100 g of base legume i.e. dehusked mungbean (Vigna radiata) @ 25, 50, 75 and 100g each while garlic was added @ 5, 10, 15 and 20g. The inclusion of the combination of onion tomato and garlic at levels Level 1 (4.55), Level 2 (5.37), Level 3 (5.80) and Level 4 (7.11) had a significantly (p≤0.05) higher ascorbic acid level when compared to the legume with no additive (0.26mg). β-carotene content increased significantly (p≤0.05) at all the levels (15.42 to 36.2μg) when compared to the legume with no additive (13.64μg/100 g fresh weight) Similarly, the in vitro iron bioaccessibility increased significantly (p≤0.05) when the level of fortification increased, the percent increase being 11.9, 14.1, 25.6 and 54.6 % at Level 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively when compared to the legume with no additive . The study concluded that the combination of onion (100g), tomato (100g) and garlic (20g) can enhance the bioaccessibility of iron from legumes maximally, hence, the observation can be useful in evolving dietary strategies to maximize the bioavailability of minerals from legumes.

Keywords: Dialyzable iron, Garlic, In vitro iron bioaccessibility, Onion, Tomato

Computation of correlations of fortified vermicompost with sulphur on seed yield and nutrient content of mustard [Brassica juncea]

Suman Parihar1*, P. R. Kameriya2 and Rakesh Choudhary3

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Sri Karan Nerandra Agricultural University, Jobner-303329 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Bikaner-334006 (Rajasthan), INDIA

3Subject Matter Specialist (Agronomy), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ambala (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pariharsuman30@gmail.com

Received: January 8, 2015; Revised received: March 12, 2016; Accepted: June 1, 2016

Abstract: Effect of sulphur and fortified vermicompost on growth and yield of mustard [Brassica juncea] was carried out at College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan) during rabi season: 2010-11. Sixteen treatment combinations comprising four levels of each sulphur and fortified vermicompost were evaluated. Grain yield (1993 kg ha-1) increased significantly (p < 0.05) up to 6.0 t vermicompost ha-1 along with 40 kg sulphur ha-1. As regards interactive effects of treatment, synergistic behavior was noted between 6.0 t vermi-compost ha-1 40 kg S ha-1 for seed yield, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents and also sulphur content and uptake by seed of mustard. The significantly higher P content in seed was recorded under 40 kg S ha-1 in combination with 4.0 t ha-1 vermicompost Combined effect of levels of vermicompost and sulphur on seed yield was found to be significant than control. The concomitant effect of 6.0 t vermicompost ha-1 and 40 kg S ha-1 application was found highly pronounced on seed yield and sulphur content in seed of mustard.

Keywords: Computation, Nutrient content, Sulphur uptake, Vermicompost, Yield


Eco-friendly fishing methods and techniques practiced in the northern hills zone of Chhattisgarh state, India

P. Mooventhan1*, K. S. Kadian2, R. Senthil Kumar2, C. Karpagam3, B. K. Choudhary1

1ICAR- National Institute of Biotic Stress Management, Raipur- 493 225, (Chhattisgarh), INDIA

2 ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, (Haryana), INDIA

3ICAR- CICR, Regional Station, Coimbatore - 641 003, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: agriventhan@yahoo.co.in

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: June 1, 2016

Abstract: Indian forests have the potential to safeguard the livelihood of forest dwelling people, particularly tribal people, who are among the most disadvantaged groups in our society. Tribal people generally depend on forests for their cultural, spiritual, and to varying degree of economic needs. Fishing is one of the important livelihood activities of the tribal community since the time immortal. Fishing provides the source of livelihood as well as nutritional security to the tribal family significantly. An explorative study was conducted in participatory mode to explore the eco -friendly fishing methods. Totally, 300 respondents were selected for this study. The data was documented with the help of participatory observation, focused group discussions with triangulation procedures. In the paper, eco-friendly fishing methods such as Kumani, Pahata, Mora, Donga, Pelna, Choppa, Mora, Gulel, Bhawarjal, Ditori, Beetaah, Chiwaar, Baahla and Jholna and their working procedures are discussed. Jholna used to catch small and medium sized fishes upto 5-7 kg/day. The production cost of this choppa is less than Rs. 250 and it is used to catch small sized fishes up to 1.5-2.5kg/day. Kumani is used to catch small sized fishes and crabs upto 1-2 kg/day. The making cost of Pelna is around Rs. 650 and it is used to catch fishes upto 6-7 kg/day. The construction cost of Pahata gear is around Rs. 2000 and It is used to catch medium to big sized fishes upto 8-10kg/day.

Keywords: Eco-friendly fishing methods, Gond tribe, Kumani, and Pahata


A study on innovativeness and regulating conflicts between the fishers and farmers in the Balua wetland

R.K. Mehta1, S.N. Ojha1*, Vinod Yadav1, S.C. Rai2, Shivendra Kumar2, 3

1Fisheries Economics, Extension and Statistics Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai – 400 061, INDIA

2College of Fisheries, Dholi, Rajendra Agricultural University, Muzaffarpur - 843121 (Bihar), INDIA

2, 3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rajendra Agricultural University, Madhopur - 845454, West Champaran, Bihar, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: snojha@cife.edu.in

Received: October 26, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: June 3, 2016

Abstract: Wetlands store ground and surface water even when the rainfall is erratic. However, the rising demand for water and land to sustain the ever increasing population has manifested in many kinds of conflicts in wetlands. In the study area, Balua Chaur (wetland) in Bihar state of India, 16 conflicts emerged when the flooded lands of farmers was accessed by the fishers to fish. Such conflicts had further marginalized the already indigent fishers. Factor analysis, to reduce the socioeconomic and psychological variables of the fishers that were associated with innovativeness and further analysis of ANOVA and regression was used. In case of fishers, two major groups of interrelated variables that accounted for 60.6 % of the total variance were identified through this method. Factor 1 accounted for 34.8 % of the total variance that included innovativeness, income, education, mass media exposure, extension contact, livestock ownership, land ownership, mobile use collaborating and competing style of conflict management and named as innovative factors. The ANOVA table and stepwise multiple regression model exhibited that the nuclear family type and livestock have significant impact on the innovativeness of fishers with R2 value 0.255. In this paper, peace and prosperity model based upon the analysis of primary information collected from the fishers, farmers and key informants is proposed to foster innovativeness to enhance the productivity of wetland and resolve conflict to mobilize the resources in efficient and judicial manner.

Keywords: Conflicts, Factor analysis, India, Innovativeness, Wetlands


Effects of sowing dates and irrigation regimes on grain quality of wheat grown under semi-arid condition of India

Rajesh Kumar Meena1*, S.S. Parihar2, Man Singh3 and Manoj Khanna4

1ICAR- National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) Campus, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2, 3, 4 Water Technology Centre, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110 012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rkmwtc@gmail.com

Received: July 29, 2015; Revised received: April 5, 2016; Accepted: June 3, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted with aim to investigate the effect of sowing dates and irrigation regimes on wheat grain quality. There was four sowing dates [November 1(S1), November 16 (S2), December 1(S3) and December 16 (S4)], in main plots and four irrigation regimes [25% (I1), 50% (I2) and 75% (I3) maximum allowable depletion (MAD) of available soil moisture (ASM) and I4 – four critical growth stages in sub plots. The results revealed that hectolitre weight decreased from 80.2 and 81.4 kg hl-1 in S1 treatment to 78.3 and 79.4 kg hl-1 in S4 treatment and 79.9 and 81.5 kg hl-1 in I1 treatment to 79.0 and 79.9 kg hl-1 in I3 treatment in 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively. Grain hardness outcome was ≥75 in 2010-11 while it was <75 in 2011-12 irrespective of sowing dates and irrigation regimes. The highest percentage of flour recovery obtained in S1 treatment (68.2 and 63.2%) and I1 treatment (68.0 and 62.8%) with lowest coarse bran. On average, dry gluten content increased by 16.5 and 7.1% in S4 over S1 treatment in 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively. Grain protein content increased from 11.9 and 12.8% in S1 treatment to 12.6 and 13.8% in S4 treatment in respective seasons. The milling and technological properties in S2 and I2 treatment was at par with S1 and I2 treatment. Therefore, it may be inferred that optimum milling and technological properties of wheat grain can be maintained by sowing till mid-November and irrigation scheduling up to 50% depletion of ASM.

Keywords: Irrigation regime, Maximum allowable depletion, Sowing date, Wheat quality


Performance of strawberry cultivars in mid hill region of Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh

Jayant Kumar1*, Disha Thakur2, Manish Thakur3 and Babita4

1,2&3 Regional Horticultural Research and Training Station, Dr Y,S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry , Bajaura, Kullu - 75125 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

4Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y. S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan - 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Jayantkumar_in@yahoo.com

Received: September 27, 2015; Revised received: March 12, 2016; Accepted: June 3, 2016

Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of strawberry cultivars in mid hill region of Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh. For this purpose nine strawberry cultivars viz Addie, Belrubi, Brighton, Chandler, Dana, Etna, Fern, Pajaro and Selva were planted at spacing of 30 x 15 cm in double rows on raised beds of 1m × 3m size at Regional Horticultural Research and Training Station, Bajaura, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized block design. The maximum plant height (16.37cm) was recorded with cv. Belrubi and maximum plant spread was attained by cv. Fern (EW 23.27 cm and NS 21.03 cm), maximum leaf length (16.90 cm) was recorded by cv. Belrubi and minimum (10.00 cm) with cv. Dana. The maximum leaf area was recorded with Chandler (76.03 cm2). The maximum fruit weight (14.93gm), total soluble solids (12.00oB), reducing sugars (5.01%) and total sugars (5.44%) were recorded with cv. Chandler. The maximum fruit yield per plant was observed with cv. Belrubi (996.3g/plant) which was closely followed by cv. Chandler (966.7 g/plant). Thus from the above studies it is concluded that Strawberry cultivars Belrubi and Chandler were best for commercial cultivation in mid hill region of Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh.

Keywords: Chandler, Cultivars, Mid hill, Strawberry


Effect of hydropriming and different sowing dates on growth and yield attributes of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

S. S. Patra1, B. Mehera1, S. Rout1*, S. S. Tomar2, M. Singh3 and R. Kumar4

1School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad -211007 (Uttar Pradesh) INDIA

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh) INDIA

3Department of Biological Science, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad- 211007 (Uttar Pradesh) INDIA

4Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad- 211007 (Uttar Pradesh) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: srout.forestry@gmail.com

Received: October 26, 2015; Revised received: March 15, 2016; Accepted: June 3, 2016

Abstract:The present investigation was conducted to study the effects of hydropriming and different sowing dates on growth and yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during Rabi season of 2014-15.The experiment was conducted in Randomised Block Design with three replications. The highest germination percentage was recorded at T4 [hydropriming] 22nd Nov + 16 hrs. ( 94.04%), plant height highest was recorded at T4 (95.23cm), highest number of tillers at T4 (4.40), number of spikelet per spike highest at T4 (18.73), numbers of grains per spike highest at T4 (53.13), root length (16.07cm), test weight (43.33g), grain yield (42.79 q/ha), harvest index (63.46%) recorded similar result in same treatment. Therefore it may be concluded that 22nd Nov with 16 hrs. of hydropriming treatment can be recommended to PBW-343 wheat grower for obtaining better growth and yield.

Keywords: Germination, Hydropriming, Sowing, Yield, Wheat


Global positioning system based spatial and temporal distribution of new leaf curl begomovirus disease on sunflower in Northern Karnataka

M. Vindyashree1, M.R. Govindappa*, D.S. Aswathanarayana1, V.N. Ghante2, M.B. Patil1 and I. Shankergoud2

1Department of Plant Pathology, University Of Agricultural Sciences , Raichur- 584 104 (Karnataka ) INDIA

2AICRP on Sunflower, MARS, University Of Agricultural Sciences , Raichur- 584 104 (Karnataka ) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mrgpathology1@gmail.com

Received: July 20, 2015; Revised received: March 20, 2016; Accepted: June 4, 2016

Abstract: Leaf curl disease on sunflower caused by begomovirus genus of the family geminiviridae. Present investigations on field survey for disease incidence, field diagnostic symptoms and its spatial and temporal distribution in major sunflower growing parts of North Eastern Karnataka through GPS system during 2013-14, revealed that the disease was found to occur at all the stages of sunflower under field condition and exhibited symptoms such as vein thickening (enations) on abaxial surface of the leaves, upward curling and reduction in leaf size and severe discoluration of capitulum (Head) followed by bushy appearance. GPS based survey indicated that the % disease incidence varied from location to location (spatial variation) and also from season to season (temporal variation). The low incidence was noticed during Kharif condition which is ranged between 6.34-11.16, with the average incidence of 11.2%, 7.4% and 6.3% in Koppal, Raichur and Ballari districts respectively. Whereas during Rabi/ summer season, high magnitude of disease noticed in many of the locations surveyed and is recorded upto 92.9 %. The GPS maps plotted based on PDI scale (0-3) represents high risk areas of the disease in Raichur and adjacent areas of Nort Eastern Karnataka and the result shows that the disease occurrence was more in rabi as compared to Kharif situations irrespective of locations. GPS survey map is an indicator to locate the nature of disease spread so as to conclude the hotspot areas.

Keywords: Begomovirus, GPS survey, Leaf curl disease, Sunflower, Whitefly


Relative toxicity of insecticides against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its fortuous parasitod Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

V. S. Nagrare*, S. Kranthi, K.R. Kranthi, V. Chinna Babu Naik, Vrushali Deshmukh, Bhausaheb Naikwadi and Ashish Dahekar

Central Institute for Cotton Research, P. B. No. 2, Shankar Nagar P. O., Nagpur- 440010 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vs.nagrare@gmail.com

Received: July 29, 2015; Revised received: April 7, 2016; Accepted: June 4, 2016

Abstract: Nineteen insecticidal formulations from 10 groups of insecticides were evaluated for their relative toxicity against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and its fortuous parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat. Insects were exposed to cotton leaves dipped in insecticidal solutions and their mortality was recorded at 24-h intervals. Within 24 h of exposure, Quinalphos, Chlorpyriphos, Thiamethoxam and Profenophos have detrimental effect on both P. solenospis and A. bambawalei recorded more than 70% mortality. Thiodicarb was extremely toxic to P. solenopsis and least toxic to A. bambawalei where as Spinosad was less toxic to P. solenopsis and extremely toxic to A. bambawalei. Profenophos, Thiamethoxam and Chlorpyriphos results into > 90% mortality of P. solenospsis while 100% kill of A. bambawalei with Spinosad, Acephate and Chlorpyriphos up to 48 hours. More than 80% mortality of P. solenopsis with Chlorpyriphos, Profenophos, Monocrotophos, Thiamethoxam, Spinosad and of A. bambawalei with Profenophos, Monocrotophos, Flonicamid, Buprofezin, Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Chlorantraniliprole, Flonicamid and Indoxacarb recorded 72 hours after exposure. While at 96 hours, cent per cent mortality of P. solenopsis was recorded with Monocrotophos which was equivalent to Acephate and Spinosad. Least LT50 values were found with Thiodicarb, Quinalphos and Thiamethoxam for P. solenopsis and higher in case of Thiodicarb for A. bambawalei. Spinosad, Chlorpyriphos and Quinalphos were found to be extremely toxic to A. bambawalei. Among the tested insecticides Thiodicarb was found effective against P. solenopsis and relatively safer to A. bambawalei may be used judiciously to manage P. solenopsis that have least implications on the environment.

Keywords: Cotton, Insecticides, Mealybugs, Parasitoid


Evaluation of synergistic potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with Rhizobium in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)

Satveer Kaur 1* and Veena Khanna 2

1Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141001 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: satveerbrar30@gmail.com

Received: September 3, 2015; Revised received: March 18, 2016; Accepted: June 4, 2016

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted in glass house at PAU research farm, Ludhiana, Punjab, India to evalu-ate effect of co-inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with Rhizobium on mungbean productivity. Co-inoculation showed a significant increase at 5% in nodule number, nodule dry weight, shoot and root dry and fresh weight, plant length, no. of pods, chlorophyll and leghaemoglobin content, over Rhizobium alone. Application of PGPRs R-4, R-6, S-5, S-9 and S-11 along with Rhizobium further enhanced the grain yield over Rhizobium inocula-tion alone. Rizobacterial isolates R-6 and S-11 co-inoculated with Rhizobium showed better result than other iso-lates. These plant beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on various hazardous agricultural chemicals used in mungbean

Keywords: Co-inoculation, Mungbean, PGPR, Rhizobium

Study of heterosis and combining ability for earliness and vegetative traits in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

Rajni Tiwari* and Dinesh Kumar Singh

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar - 263145 (Uttarakhand) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rajnit728@gmail.com

Received: October 13, 2015; Revised received: March 14, 2016; Accepted: June 4, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to investigate the extent of heterosis and combining ability on earliness, vegetative traits and yield of Cucumber. A field experiment was designed in line x tester mating design with 11 parents (including 8 parthenocarpic lines namely Pant parthenocarpic cucumber-2, Pant parthenocarpic cucumber-3, Nun-3139, Nun-3121, Nun-3141, Infifnity, Isatis, Kian, and 3 monoecious testers namely PCUC-8, PCUC- 15, Pant Kheera -1 {also known as PCUC-28}) and their 24 F1 hybrids to work out the heterosis and combining ability for earliness and yield characters. All traits pertinent to earliness and yield showed significant values for heterosis and combining ability. Appreciable heterosis in desirable direction was found over better parent and check parent by the cross PCUCP-3 x PCUC-15 for earliness characters viz. days to first female flower (-71.18 & -70.31), days to first harvest (-3.40 & -22.01) whereas Cross Kian x PCUC-15 showed maximum number of fruits per plant (8.36 & 106.35) and fruit yield (86.34 & 210.74 respectively). The crosses PCUCP-3 x PCUC-15 and Nun-3139 x PCUC-8 showed significant specific combining ability for earliness and yield characters. Cross Nun-3139 x PCUC-8 showed significant yield regarding heterosis and SCA. Regarding general combining ability for earliness parent Isatis and for yield characters parent Kian stood in top. Cross Nun-3139 x PCUC-8 showed Maximum specific combining ability for node number to first female flower (-0.98), number of fruits per plant (3.39) and fruit yield (220.57).


Keywords: Combining ability, Cucumber, Earliness, Heterosis, Vegetative growth

Effect of climatic factors on the growth and leaf yield of betelvine (Piperbetle L.)

Hrisita Mohanta* and Anupam Pariari

Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,

(Mohanpur 741252) West Bengal, INDIA

Dr. Anupam Pariari, B-1/481, Kalyani, Nadia -741235 (West Bengal) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hrisita.mahanta@gmail.com

Received: October 13, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: June 5, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted on eight cultivars of betelvine (Piper betle L.) with an objective to study the effect of various climatic factors on growth and leaf yield of the crop for consequtive two growing seasons. The experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design with eight treatments (cultivars) and five replications. The data on growth and yield parameters were recorded in four different seasons of the year i.e., winter, summer, rainy and autumn season. Results showed that growth and leaf yield of betelvine was more in rainy season and less in winter season. Among the cultivars, vine length increment of cv. SimuraliSanchi was highest in rainy season (144.70 cm) followed by autumn season (104.52 cm), summer season (98.40 cm) and winter season (48.56 cm). Irrespective of all the seasons, cv. CARI-6 showed the maximum and Jabalpur showed the minimum internodal length. Among the cultivars SimuraliSanchi produced the maximum marketable leaves (23) per vine in rainy season. Temperature and relative humidity were positively correlated with variation in growth and yield parameters.

Keywords: Betelvine, Climate, Growth, Yield


Quantification of the abundance and diversity of predatory spiders in rice ecosystem of Rajendranagar, Telangana, India

G. Anith1* and J.Vijay2

1*All India Coordinated Project on Biological Control, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500030, Telangana, INDIA

*Present address

*Department. of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, INDIA

2Department off Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gorthianitha@gmail.com

Received: September 2, 2015; Revised received: February 27, 2016; Accepted: June 5, 2016

Abstract: The effective prey searching ability and polyphagy of spiders makes them important predators of crop pests. 19 species of spiders have been recorded in rice ecosystem (Rajeswaran et al., 2005). There is now a growing need to conserve all species and not only the large vertebrates (Samways, 1990) and contribute to the natural biological process. However, literature pertaining to their abundance and diversity in rice crop in Rajendranagar area is scant. Hence, the p resent study was conducted to understand their abundance and diversity. Spider samples were collected from rice fields of Rajendranagar in kharif and rabi seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13. A total of 2,094 individuals collected in kharif represented eight families with a density of 12.48/sq.m. Members of Tetragnathidae were recorded most abundantly in kharif (46.32% of the Arachnid population) followed by Lycosids (26.22%). In rabi 1,095 spiders of seven families were collected with a density of 6.38/sq.m. Tetragnathidae and Lycosidae were the most abundantly found species in rabi also comprising 27.85% and 26.12% of Arachnid population respectively. Study of guild composition was also carried out. A t-test between indices of richness,  diversity, effective no.of species and species evenness of kharif and rabi seasons revealed that there were no significant differences with respect to these parameters (p>0.05) indicating that spider diversity of rice in Rajendranagar was more or less same between kharif and rabi seasons. This is the first study on the spider diversity of rice ecosystem of Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India.

Keywords: Density, Diversity, Guild composition, Spiders, Species evenness, Species richness


Effect of milling speed on the quality and storage stability of maize flour

Gagandeep Kaur Sidhu*, A.K. Singh and Manpreet Singh

Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E-mail: gagandeep@pau.edu

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: March 1, 2016; Accepted: June 5, 2016

Abstract: This work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of milling speed on the quality and shelf life of maize flour. Maize flour was prepared using low speed mini flour mill at 75 and 115 rpm and the results were compared with the flour prepared by commercial flour mill on the basis of recovery of flour, rise in temperature of flour, time taken, particle size distribution and changes in different quality parameters during storage. It was observed from the analysis that the recovery of flour was highest (95.26%) at 75 rpm speed although the time taken was more i.e. 27.27 minutes, but the rise in temperature during milling was very less (12.240C) as compared to commercial mill the temperature rose up to 31.120C. It was noted that the maize flour prepared at low speed was light yellow in color as compared to higher rpm which was dark yellow. The maize flour prepared at 75 rpm can be stored in low density polyethylene LDPE packaging material of (200 gauge) for two months without change in quality parameters. It was observed that the moisture content, protein content, fat content, alcoholic acidity and carbohydrates was significantly affected by storage time, packaging material and milling speed at P<0.05. Therefore, at low speed the storage stability as well as nutritional properties of the flour can be enhanced. The improved shelf life of flour can result in better marketability.


Key-words: Maize Flour, Mini Flour Mill, Storage, Packaging material, Physico-chemical properties

Fish diversity of Haryana and its conservation status

Anita Bhatnagar*, Abhay Singh Yadav and Neeru

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana-136119, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anitabhatnagar@gmail.com

Received: September 24, 2015; Revised received: April 7, 2016; Accepted: June 5, 2016

Abstract: The present study on fish biodiversity of Haryana state was carried out during 2011 to 2014. A total

number of 59 fish species inhabits the freshwaters of this state. Maximum number of fish species belonged to the order Cypriniformes (35) followed by the order Siluriformes (12) and Perciformes (8). The orders Beloniformes, Clupeiformes, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes were represented by only one species each. Out of 59 fish species, 2 are endangered, 11 vulnerable, 28 have lower risk of threat, 8 exotic and 4 fish species have lower risk least concern. The conservation status of six fish species has not been evaluated so far, hence they cannot be included in any of the IUCN categories at this moment. Family Cyprinidae alone contributed 32 fish species followed by Bagridae family. Fish species Parapsilorhynchus discophorus was observed for the first time in Haryana waters. This species is the native of Kaveri river basin, the occurrence of this species in river Yamuna may be attributed to some religious activity of people. A decline in fish diversity has been recorded from 82 species in 2004 to 59 species in the present study in the year 2014. The main causes for decrease in fish biodiversity are habitat destruction and fragmentation, changing practices of land use, exotic species introduction, fishing, irrigation needs, pollution and global climate change impacts. It is essential to prevent further decline of fish resources by devising all possible measures of conservation and rehabilitation.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Freshwater, Pollution


Optimization of the choice of molecular markers for identification of commercially used rice varieties in India using rapid DNA extraction protocol

Pravas Ranjan Kole1*, Rajeev Singh Rana2 and Kangila Venkataramana Bhat1

1Division of Genomic Resources, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2Crop Improvement Division, Central Research Institute for Jute & Allied Fibres (ICAR), Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: prkole1979@gmail.com

Received: October 13, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: June 5, 2016

Abstract: The present investigating aimed at the development of molecular marker for cultivar identification and genetic purity assessment. A total of four SSR markers and six SRAP primer were developed for the identification of sixteen different commercial varieties of rice. Traditional practice like grow-out-test based on morphological traits is time consuming and sometimes environmentally influenced. After development of molecular marker, it is using as an alternative to grow –out –test because of its rapid, accurate detection. We have assessed the potential of simple sequence repeat and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers in distinguishing rice varieties and four simple sequence repeat markers namely CT-14, CT-25 CT XY-1 and ATC-3 and six sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers primers could be clearly distinguished sixteen commercially cultivar rice varieties. In addition to single markers, it’s better to try with marker combinations, which were amenable for PCR and capable of distinguishing the varieties. Larger differences for each crop were found between cultivers from different seed companies than within the same company. These DNA markers can provide an easier and faster reliable genetic identification of rice cultivars.

Keywords: Molecular marker, Oryza sativa, Rice, Simple sequence repeat, Sequence-related amplified polymorphism

Effect of low cost mole drainage technology on yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under waterlogged vertisols of Maharashtra, India

S.D. Rathod 1*, B.M. Kamble2 and D.K. Kathmale3

1,2,3Agricultural Research Station, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Kasbe Digraj, Dist. Sangli- 416 305 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sdrathod2004@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2015; Revised received: March 17, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted on performance of mole drainage under irrigated and waterlogged vertisols of Maharashtra at Agricultural Research Station, K. Digraj, Dist. Sangli (M.S.), India during 2009-10 to 2011 -12. An experimental layout of different mole spacings viz. mole drainage (MD) with 2 m (T1), 4 m (T2), 6 m mole spacing (T3) and without drainage i.e. control (T4) in a randomized block design with five replications. The results revealed that the weighted means of yield attributing parameters of chickpea and pooled mean of chickpea yield recorded highest in MD with 4 m mole spacing and which was at par with 6 m mole drain spacing as compare to control plot (without mole drainage). The MD with 2 m mole spacing recorded significantly lowest chickpea yield among mole drained plots which was at par with control. This study indicated that the MD with 4 m mole spacing is recommended for economically feasible production of chickpea under irrigated and waterlogged vertisols of Maharashtra.


Keywords: Chickpea, Economic feasibility, Mole drainage, Mole spacing and Vertisols

Role of salt precursors for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and in imparting variable antimicrobial activity

Manpreet Kaur1* and Anu Kalia2

1Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience Laboratory, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab),INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manpreet2126@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2015; Revised received: March 4, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) having unique potentials and properties is of great importance in

nanotechnology. The NP synthesis techniques may include the wet chemistry to microbial incubation reduction methods. This work reports generation of ZnO NPs by identical preparation including incubation of different zinc salts i.e. zinc acetate, zinc chloride and zinc sulphate as precursors with cell free extracts of Bacillus circulans MTCC 7906 (Bc7906) and Pleurotus florida (Pf). The synthesized NPs exhibited variation in their absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectra which appeared at 275 nm, 325 nm and 375 nm with P. florida for the three salt precursors respectively while the Bc7906 generated ZnO NPs showed peaks between 300-350 nm. A variation in ZnO NP morphology ranged from 50 to 120 nm in size and spherical, oval, cylindrical to trigonal anisotropic in shape by transmission EM. Further, the rough and corrugated surface topography of ZnO NPs was observed in Scanning EM. The % weight for Zn element surface composition as recorded by SEM-EDS was observed to be highest for zinc acetate (2.34%) and zinc sulphate (7.54 %) on microbial synthesis from Bc7906 and Pf respectively. The antimicrobial potential of the synthesized ZnO NPs on human pathogenic and plant beneficial bacteria was tested and it was observed to be highest for microbially synthesized ZnO NPs using zinc acetate (15 mm) and zinc sulphate (14 mm) as salt precursors @ 10 ppm. This is the first report on differential antimicrobial behavior of ZnO

NPs on human pathogenic and plant beneficial microbes.

Keywords: Microscopy, Nanoparticles, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Zinc oxide


Effect of predrying treatments on the retention of quality characteristics of green peas (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Lincoln during mechanical drying

1Surekha Attri, 1Anju K Dhiman, 2*Rakesh Kumar and 1Rakesh Sharma

1Department of Food Science and Technology,Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rakeshuhfsolan@gmail.com

Received: October 30, 2015; Revised received: February 27, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstracts: An experiment was conducted to standardize the predrying treatments with minimum loss to physicochemical characteristics of green peas (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Lincoln during drying process. In this study, moisture content (73%), TSS (15oB), chlorophyll content (28mg/100g) and ascorbic acid (54mg/100g) were recorded in green peas. Different predrying treatments used in this study for quality preservation of peas were T0, T1 and T2. From this study, it was concluded that Na2CO3, NaCl and sugars were responsible for the preservation of green color/ chlorophyll in peas during drying. On the basis of sensory evaluation T2 was found best among all because maximum green color was retained in this treatment. Therefore, it was further selected for physico-chemical analysis After drying there was decrease in moisture content (4%), chlorophyll content (17mg/100g) and ascorbic acid content (37.6mg /100g) while increase in TSS (22oB), reducing sugars (8.3%) and total sugars (20%) of peas. A rehydration ratio of 3:1 was observed for this treatment. This is a low cost technology for preservation of quality of peas. Dried peas can further be utilized for the preparation of various value added instant products round the year.

Keywords: Drying, Green peas, Predrying treatments, Quality


An evaluation of alternative coating material laminated marble in Turkey

Y. Arat

Department of Architecture, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram, Konya, TURKEY

E-mail: yavuzarat@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2015; Revised received: April 2, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstract: The natural stones stand at a significant point of human life from the existence of human-life to present time with their durable and persistent features. They have been used as an important construction material until the recent past. Although the production of marble material is widespread in Turkey, the conversion to the final case marble material is not observed prevalently. The aim of this study, the evaluation of the laminated marble material in terms of being used in architecture and the types of the advantages presented by the material are all listed at the end of the research. The results obtained from the architectural coating application carried out to examine the preferable reasons between marble and laminated marble are thought to have advantages in terms of flawless connection details, easy application, transportation and storage processes in comparison to the marble material for the case of coating surfaces with similar quality. The laminated marble material is more durable by the effect of 9 mm porcelain ceramic at the bottom than the traditional marble plate of 3 mm thickness and is nearly 50% lighter than the marble material having the same thickness and sizes with the laminated marble material that is clear that nearly 50% decrease in transportation costs will be expected. When viewed from this aspect, the new construction materials obtained by reconsidering and re-developing the natural materials in accompany with the innovativetechnological methods will contribute easy and eco-friendly to the architectural design-application projects especially

in terms of easy application and utilization.

Keywords: Architecture, Coating application, Decoration, Laminated marble, Marble, Natural stone


Effect of different levels of citric acid on quality and storage stability of sugar and jaggery based papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit bar

Ankit Singh*, Yogendra Singh, Lalit Kumar, Shalini and Ravi Kumar

Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology SardarVallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology Modipuram, Meerut - 250110 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding Author Email. mailankitsingh@yahoo.com

Received: February 10, 2016; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstracts: A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different level of citric acid and packaging material on physico chemical quality, sensory quality and shelf life of developed papaya fruit bar .The study revealed that the moisture content (19.06% to 16.95% in PET jars – 19.06% to 17.06% in glass jars), TSS (64.17 to 69.30°Brix in PET jars and 64.17 to 69.46°Brix in glass jars), Vitamin- C (55.30 to 45.80 mg/100mg in PET jars and 55.30 to 46.75 mg/100mg in glass jars) and total plate count decreased with increasing the level of citric acid from 0.5 to 1.0% after 90 days of storage in. During storage there was a reduction in moisture content, pH and vitamin-C, where as TSS (total soluble solids), optical density and total plate count increased during storage. No microbial detection in developed fresh fruit bar was found. The organoleptic score of the bar samples in glass jars at 0.75% citric acid level was found to be higher followed by samples packed in PET jars and the developed fruit bar was well acceptable even after 90 days of storage. The result indicated that sugar50+jaggery50 at 0.75 percent citric acid level gave better products after 90 days of storage followed by sugar50+jaggery50 at 0.5 percent and sugar50+jaggery50 at 1.0 percent.

Keywords: Fruit bar, Citric acid, Physicochemical properties, Sensory, Packaging material


Molecular characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes using sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers

Achala Bakshi1, Vinay Kumar2, Sushma Sagar1 Sorabh Chaudhary1 , Rajendra Kumar1 and Mukesh Kumar1*

1Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut- 250 110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2National Institute of Biotic Stress Management, Raipur- 492 001 (Chhattisgarh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mukeshbt05@gmail.com

Received: September 29, 2015; Revised received: March 22. 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016

Abstracts: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) commonly also known as gram, Chana, Bengal gram and Garbanzo beans is the second most important pulse crop of the world mainly grown in arid and semi-arid regions. Assessment of genetic variability in the base population is the first step in any breeding programme for selection of genetically divergent parents and their use in the crop improvement programme. In the present investigation 20 genotypes of chickpea were characterized using a specific set of 15 numbers of Sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers. The number of alleles, allelic distribution and their frequency was estimated and found that the 36 alleles amplified with 15 STMS loci having an average of 2.4 alleles per locus. The number of alleles amplified varied from 1 to 4. The Polymorphic information content value ranged from 0 to 0.965 with an average of 0.373 indicated the considerable efficiency of markers for studying the polymorphism level. All primer showed higher polymorphism among the genotypes except two primers namely, TAA59 and GA105 which were monomorphic in nature. Genetic similarity based on UPGMA clustering the dendrogram grouped the 20 genotypes in three clusters, cluster I, II, III comprised of 2, 4, 14 genotypes, respectively. The maximum similarity was found between genotypes ICRISAT-4183 and ICRISAT-7722 (0.972). The present study provided an insight of the inter-relationship among the genotypes and highlights the genetic distance by STMS markers. The genetic diversity revealed in this study could be exploited for selective breeding programme of chickpea improvement.

Keywords: Chickpea, Cicer aeritenum, Molecular diversity, Sequence tagged microsatellite markers


Sugarcane trash chopper cum spreader-A viable machine to avoid trash burning

Anil Kumar*, Nadeem Ahmed Malik, S. Mukesh, Vijaya Rani and Nitin Kadwasra

Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anil_saroha@rediffmail.com

Received: July 8, 2015; Revised received: February 2, 2016; Accepted: June 8, 2016

Abstract: Trash burning is a major problem in sugarcane to overcome this, a sugarcane trash chopper cum

spreader was tested at farmer’s field for its performance and economic feasibility. The chopper cum spreader was tested at five levels of moisture content of trash (13.2, 14, 15.15, 16.6, and 18.8% db) and five levels of operational speed (2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 3.1, and 3.4 km/h). The performance of the sugarcane trash chopper cum spreader heavily depends on moisture content and speed of operation. The maximum field capacity (0.43ha/h) was obtained at a speed of 3.2 km/h, but maximum shredding efficiency (90.40%) was found at a speed of 2.9 km/h. Maximum uniformity coefficient (0.95) and shredding capacity (4.31 t/h) was obtained at a speed of 2.9 km/h and at a moisture content of 13.13%. Maximum trash lifting efficiency (93.95%) was observed at a speed of 2.76 km/h and at a moisture content of 13.13%. The cost of operation was Rs. 2015/ha with B: C ratio of 1.5. The break-even point of the chopper cum spreader was 17.7 ha and payback of the machine was 1.3 years if operated for 250 h/year. The energy consumption of machine was calculated to be 1327.7 MJ ha-1. The optimum performance of sugarcane trash chopper cum spreader was obtained at a moisture content of 13.13% (M5) and forward speed of 2.9 km h-1 (V3). The sugarcane trash chopper cum spreader may be recommended for chopping of sugarcane trash for mulching to avoid burning of trash and conserving natural resources.

Keywords: Field capacity, Shredding capacity, Shredding efficiency, Uniformity coefficient.


Status, abundance and population ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus Pallas) in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Khursid A. Khan1,2* and Jamal A. Khan 1

1Department of of Wildlife sciences Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Opposite Lion gate, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Marg, Mumbai - 400 001(Maharastra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: khursid.amu@gmail.com

Received: March 9, 2015; Revised received: March 20, 2016; Accepted: June 8, 2016

Abstracts: The data on population ecology of nilgai was collected in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, India from

August 2013 to June 2014. A total of 108 herds of nilgai 54 in each season (summer and winter) were encountered, respectively. The density of nilgai was found 0.49/km2 in Aligarh district. While the encounter rate was found 0.66 individuals per km. There was a mark seasonal change seen in group size of nilgai i.e. 11.38 ± 2.76, and 22.83 ± 5.40 in winter and summer, respectively. The overall mean group size was found 17.10 ± 4.08. The sex ratio of nilgai was female biased, adult male:adult female ratio was found 1:3 while overall sex ratio was found 61.55%, 26.32% and 44% male, yearling and calves on per 100 females, respectively. The nilgai shows mark seasonal change in their group structure. The group size was found maximum at 25% in 0-5 individual category and minimum 9.25 in >21 category in winter, while about 30% were seen in >21 category and only 11% were seen in between 0-5 category in summer season. Thus, the nilgai was found less sociable in winter and more gregarious in summer season.

Key words: Aligarh district, Density, Mean group size, Nilgai, Population structure


Fish fauna of Wajoo nullah, an important tributary of the river Ravi in Kathua District, Jammu Region, Jammu and Kashmir State, India

S.P.S. Dutta

Emeritus Fellow (UGC), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA

E– mail: duttasps@gmail.com

Received: April 29, 2016; Revised received: June, 1, 2016; Accepted: June 10, 2016

Abstracts: Ichthtyofaunistic survey in perennial Wajoo nullah,an important tribitry of river Ravi in Kathua District, has shown the existence of 64 fish species belonging to 7 orders, 17 families and 42genera. Gudusia chapra and Parambassis bacails are the new records for Jammu and Kashmir State. Fish fauna is dominated by Cyprinifonnes (37 species), followed by Siluriformes (12 species), Perciformes (9 species), Synbranchiformes and Osteoglossiformes (2 species each) and Clupeiformes and Beloniformes (1 species each). Overexploitation, illegal fishing and fishing during breeding season are serious threats to fish resources in Wajoo nullah.


Sundarbans mangrove deltaic system – An overview of its biodiversity with special reference to fish diversity

Suvra Roy*, Vikash Kumar, R.K. Manna and V.R. Suresh

ICAR- Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), (Barrackpore-700120), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: suvrar6@gmail.com

Received: May 16, 2015; Revised received: March 5, 2016; Accepted: April 15, 2016

Abstract: World heritage site-Sundarbans were declared as the world’s 560th Ramsar Wetlands site in 1992.

Sundarbans ecosystem supports rich fisheries diversity and also natural biodiversity hot spot, because it is natural habitat of many endangered species. The Sundarbans is a home to a variety of faunal species, the total of 1586 species has been recorded which includes 481 Vertebrate species (30%), 1104 Invertebrate species (70%). Mangroves  are the nursery and breeding grounds for several commercially important species of aquatic fauna like fish, shrimps and prawns etc. Mangrove ecosystems are of great ecological significance in the tropical and sub-tropical coast. Sundarbans mangrove provides a variety of ecosystem services. However, the Sundarban mangrove forest is the most threatened habitats in the world, increased population with few alternative livelihood opportunities poses a serious threat as it is the main cause of mangrove destruction. The total value of Sundarbans is not recognized and therefore often neglected in development planning. As a result Sundarbans conservation issue is getting less importance at the national level. The study reveals that major ecosystem services of Sundarbans are timber, fuel wood, fish, ecotourism, cyclone and storm protection, biodiversity, and habitat for flora and fauna. Timber, fuel wood and fish are more economical provisioning services in Sundarbans. It is noticed that there is decreasing tendency of overall revenue collection from the mangrove over the period of 2001-02 to 2009-10. The attention from national and international communities is needed for sustainable management and conservation of the Sundarbans. The study suggests that further research on total economic value of Sundarbans is needed for providing comprehensive scientific information for policy as well as for decision makers.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Fish diversity, Mangrove, Sundarbans, World heritage site


Advent of Trichoderma as a bio-control agent- A review

Anita Puyam

Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

E-mail: anitapau6243@gmail.com

Received: September 10, 2015; Revised received: January 17, 2016; Accepted: April 30, 2016

Abstract: Trichoderma spp are free living filamentous fungi. They are cosmopolitan and versatile in nature. They have the potential to produce several enzymes that can degrade the cell wall materials. Also, they release a number of fungi toxic substances that can inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogens. Many mechanisms have been described on how Trichoderma exert beneficial effects on plants as a bio-control agent. But due to its versatile nature, its potential cannot be explored to its full extent. And it is a developing science in the field of bio-control with its new discoveries adding to the usefulness of the fungi as a bio-control agent. Its development as a bio-control agent passes through many phases and each phase adding novel ideas that will help in the development of an efficient bio-agent which in turn will help in the crop improvement and disease management. The studies on their various aspects responsible for bio-control will open a flood gate to the development of Trichoderma as an efficient and reliable bio-agent and provide a better scope for implementation in crop and disease management. The in vitro antagonistic activity of Trichoderma viride against phytopathogens (Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum f.s.p. ciceri, Fusarium oxysporum f.s.p. udum) was studied and it was found to be potentially effective against F. oxysporum f.s.p. ciceri followed by F. oxysporum f.s.p. udum and Sclerotium rolfsii.

Keywords: Antibiosis, Bio-control agent, Mycoparasitism

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Alternaria blight of oilseed brassicas: A review on management strategies through conventional, non-conventional and biotechnological approaches

Amarendra Kumar*,Rakesh Kumar1, Santosh Kumar,Divakar Nandan2, Gireesh Chand and S. J. Kolte3

Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

2Department of Genetics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110021, INDIA

3Department of Plant Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, antnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kumaramar05@gmail.com

Received: September 15, 2015; Revised received: February 11, 2016; Accepted: May 11, 2016

Abstract: Oilseed Brassicas are contributing approximately 28 percent of the India’s total oilseed production. This crop is gaining wide acceptance among t he f a rme r s b e ca u s e of adaptability for both irrigated as well as rainfed areas and suitability for sole as well as mixed cropping. Besides, it offers higher return with low cost of production and low water requirement. The production and productivity of oilseed brassicas are comparatively lower as compared to the world average due to the biotic and abiotic constraints. Among the biotic constraints, alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria spp. has been reported from all the continents of the world, causing up to 70% yield losses in India. This disease was found on leaves, stems and siliquae and dark spots on the leaves and siliquae reduce the photosynthetic capacity and induce immature ripening, which causes reduced amount of quality seed and oil content. The severity of this disease depends upon weather conditions, varieties, age of host plants and virulence of the pathogens. Efforts are being done throughout the world for the management of alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard. This paper comprehensively reviews the research of alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard with special reference to management strategies through conventional, non-conventional and biotechnological approaches that leads to planning the future research. The present scenario demands the traditional and modern biotechnological techniques bringing together for integrated disease management according to the need and availability at farmers level for sustainable management of alternaria blight disease of oilseed brassicas.

Keywords: Alternaria blight, Management, Oilseed Brassicas, Pathogens, Symptoms

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Pesticides effect on soil microbial ecology and enzyme activity- An overview

Sanjay Arora and Divya Sahni*

ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Lucknow- 226002 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: divya.sahni565@gmail.com

Received: August 6, 2015; Revised received: January 27, 2016; Accepted: May 29, 2016

Abstract: In modern agriculture, chemical pesticides are frequently used in agricultural fields to increase crop

production. Besides combating insect pests, these insecticides also affect the activity and population of beneficial soil microbial communities. Chemical pesticides upset the activities of soil microbes and thus may affect the nutritional quality of soils. This results in serious ecological consequences. Soil microbes had different response to different pesticides. Soil microbial biomass that plays an important role in the soil ecosystem where they have crucial role in nutrient cycling. It has been reported that field application of glyphosate increased microbial biomass carbon by 17% and microbial biomass nitrogen by 76% in nine soils at 14 days after treatment. The soil microbial biomass C increased significantly upto 30 days in chlorpyrifos as well as cartap hydrochloride treated soil, but thereafter decreased progressively with time. Soil nematodes, earthworms and protozoa are affected by field application rates of the fungicide fenpropimorph and other herbicides. Thus, there is need to assess the effect of indiscriminate use of pesticides on soil microorganisms, affecting microbial activity and soil fertility.

Keywords: Herbicides, Insecticides, Microbial biomass, Mycorrhiza, Soil enzymatic activity

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