Volume 8, Year 2016-Issue 1
Combining ability analysis in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) for improvement of seed yield and its component traits
Vivek Kumar Singh1*, Vijay Sharma2, Mohit Chaudhary1, Sunil Kumar Paswan4, Azad Ahmad1, Moolchandra Verma3 and M. P. Chauhan1
1Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad - 224 229, INDIA
2Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur - 313 001, INDIA
3Department of Vegetable Science, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad - 224 229, INDIA
4Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, C.S.A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur – 208 002, INDIA
*Corresponding author E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Twenty eight hybrids developed from eight genotypes of linseed through diallel mating design (excluding reciprocal) along with one checks viz., Shekhar were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications for eleven distinct morphological traits during rabi season of 2012-13, to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) of the parents and specific combining ability (SCA) of hybrids considered for the development of high yielding varieties. The analysis of variance for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares due to GCA and SCA for all the traits under study. Genotype EC-1392 (0.50) and TL-11 (0.45) has been found good general combiner with highest magnitude of GCA effects for seed yield per plant. In addition to above, EC-1392 and TL-11 also showed good GCA effects for plant height, secondary branches per plant, capsules per plant and biological yield per plant. Hybrids A.95.B x Shekhar (2.43), TL-11 x EC-1392 (1.71) and NDL-2004-05 x GS-234 (1.53) showed higher positive significant SCA effects for seed yield per plant. These hybrids also exhibited positive significant SCA effects for plant height, secondary brances per plant, capsules per plant, indicating potential for exploiting hybrid vigour in breeding programme.
Keywords : GCA, Linseed, SCA, Seed yield
Nitin Tanwar1*, Sunil Kumar1, B.V.S. Sisodia1, B.K. Hooda2
1Department of Agricultural Statistics, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, U.P., INDIA
2Department of Mathematics, Statistics & Physics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Development process of any system is dynamic in nature and depends on large number of parameters. This study attempted to capture latest dynamics of development of districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh in respect of three dimensions- Agriculture, Social and Infrastructure. Techniques adopted by Narain et al. (1991) have been used in addition to Principal component and factor analysis. Ranking seems to very close to ground reality and provides useful information for further planning and corrective measures for future development of Eastern Uttar Pradesh’s Districts. The Composite Indices (C.I.) of development in respect of 18 developmental indicators for the total 28 districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh have been estimated for the year 2010-2011. The district Barabanki was showed a higher level of development (C.I. =0.10) in Agricultural development compared to Social development (C.I. =1.12) and Infrastructural development (C.I. =0.89) followed by the district Ambedkar nagar (Agricultural, C.I. =0.52), (Social, C.I. =1.12) and (Infrastructure, C.I. =0.89). District Allahabad secured first position in the Social development (C.I. =0.81) and second in Infrastructural development (C.I. =0.34) as compared to Agriculture (C.I. =0.93). District Varanasi was the most developed district in Infrastructure (C.I. =0.10) as compared to Agriculture (C.I. =0.96) and Social (C.I. =0.96). As per findings of the study, the two districts Mau and Jaunpur were down in their ranking and the districts Chandauli and Maharajganj improved their ranking.
Keywords : Composite index, Developmental Indicator, Factor analysis, Principal component analysis, Socioeconomic
Stability analysis for yield and its attributing traits in advanced breeding lines of rabi sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)
G. Girish1 , S. B. Kiran2, R. Lokesh2, Vikas, V. Kulkarni3, V. Rachappa4, L. N. Yogesh5 and A. M. Talwar6
1 AICSIP, Agriculture Research Station, Gulbarga-585101, Karnataka, INDIA
2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agriculture College, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584102, Karnataka, INDIA.
3Main Agriculture Research Station Raichur-584102, Karnataka, INDIA
4Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College, Gulbarga-585101,Karnataka, INDIA
5Agriculture Research Station Hagari- 583138, Karnataka, INDIA
6Agriculture Research Station Malnoor-585215, Karnataka, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An experiment was carried out involving twenty three advanced breeding lines along with two checks M 35-1 and Muguthi during rabi season 2012-13 at four locations. Observations were recorded on 10 different characters viz., plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), ear head length (cm), ear head diameter (cm), days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, 100 seed weight (g), fodder yield per plot (kg), seed yield per plot (kg), and lodging percentage. The pooled analysis of variance revealed that mean sum of squares due to genotypes was significant for ear head diameter, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity and fodder yield, indicating presence of considerable amount of variability in the genotypes. The mean sum of square due to environment + (genotypes x environment) was significant for plant height, ear head length (cm), ear head diameter (cm), days to 50 per cent flowering, fodder yield per plot (kg), seed yield per plot (kg), and lodging percentage characters except stem diameter, days to maturity and 100 seed yield. On the basis of stability parameters a four genotypes viz., GS-6 (2364 kg/ha), GS-16 (2454 kg/ha), GS-22(2775 kg/ha) and GS-23(2978 kg/ha) were found most stable over Gulbarga, Raichur, Bellary and Malnoor environments of Hyderabad Karnataka region.
Keywords : Eberhart and Russel model, Genotypes, Regression, Sorghum, Stability
Mineralization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur from different organic wastes in silty clay loam soils
Amit Mishra1, Narendra Kumar2, Rajiv Kumar3, Robin Kumar4 , Dinesh Tomar5
1International Rice Research Institute, India, Modipuram, Meerut-250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Soil Science, Collage of Agriculture, GBPUA & T, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Departments of Agronomy, SVPUAT, Modipuram, Meerut-250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
4Departments of Soil Science, SVPUAT, Modipuram, Meerut-250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
5Departments of Soil Science, CCSHAU, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Mineralization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur was studied by incubating soil samples for 90 days at 30°C temperature with four different organic materials viz. Press mud, sugarcane trash, paper mill bagasse and pine needle. The results showed that the carbon mineralization in soil was significantly higher from sugarcane trash followed by press mud as compared to control. The cumulative percent of carbon mineralization increased with incubation period and maximum mineralization was recorded at 90 DOI (days after incubation). The maximum cumulative percent N-mineralization (16.88%) in soil was shown by paper mill bagasse followed by sugarcane trash and pine needle. The percent N-mineralization from all added organic amendments increased incubation period up to 45 days of incubation DOI (days after incubation) after then it gradually declined, while the pine needles showed maximum cumulative P-mineralization in soil followed by sugarcane trash while minimum was recorded from press mud. The paper mill bagasse showed highest cumulative S-mineralization in soil followed by sugarcane trash. Irrespective of organic wastes, cumulative S-mineralization significantly increased after 15 days of incubation up to 45 days later on it showed declined trend. Among the organic wastes, sugarcane trash showed maximum C mineralization in soil exhibited fast decomposition in comparison to other wastes. So, it can be used for composting. The paper mill bagasse showed more N and S mineralization while maximum mineralization of P was found in pine needle. The press mud and sugarcane trash showed potential for short duration enriched compost.
Keywords : Mineralization, Paper mill bagasse, Press mud, Pine needle, Sugarcane trash
Effect of plant growth regulators on flowering behavior of cashew cv. Vengurla-4 grown in the hilly tracts of South Gujarat
V. R. Ghadage, T. R. Ahlawat*, S. L. Chawla, N. I. Shah1 and Nitesh Ghadage
Department of Fruit Science, ASPEE College Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Dandi Road, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA
1Agricultural Experimental Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Paria-396145 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A trial was conducted at Subhir and Chikhalda locations in Dang district of South Gujarat, India to assess the effect of Ethrel, NAA and GA3 on the flowering behavior of cashew cultivar Vengurla-4 during 2013-14. Three concentrations each of GA3 (50, 75, 100 ppm), Ethrel (10, 30, 50 ppm) and NAA (50, 75, 100ppm) were applied as foliar sprays 20 days before blossoming and 20 days after full bloom in twenty year old trees of cashew cultivar Vengurla-4. Trees sprayed with 50 ppm Ethrel had significantly the highest number of flowering panicles per square meter (13.09), number of perfect flowers per panicle (87.11) and sex ratio (0.24) across locations and in pooled data. However, this was at par with 10 ppm Ethrel which emerged as the second best treatment of the trial. This study demonstrated the potential of Ethrel in improving various flowering parameters of cashew which are important determinations in increasing nut production.
Keywords : Anacardium occidentale, Ethrel, GA3, Perfect flowers, Sex ratio
Seasonal incidence of pod fly (Melanogromyza Obtusa Malloch) and pod bug (Clavigralla Gibbosa Spinola) in short duration pigeon pea
Anil Kumar Pandey, Ram Keval, Amit Yadav* and C. P. Srivastava
Department of Entomology & Agricultural Zoology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi- 221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was aimed at observing the incidence pattern of pod fly and pod bug in pigeonpea ecosystem. The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during the kharif season of the year 2010-11.The short duration pigeon pea was infested with the number of insect pests at various stages of crop growth. Out of which the incidence pattern of pod fly M. obtusa and pod bug C. gibbosa was studied. The first appearance of pod fly M. obtusa was noticed in the 42 standard week with a mean population of 0.10 maggot/Plant whose maggot population peaked in 45 standard weeks with a mean population of 0.30 maggot/ Plant during year 2010-11. Similarly the first occurrence of pod bug C. gibbosa was recorded in 40 standard weeks with a mean population of 0.03 larvae/Plant which attained the peak during 44 and 45 standard weeks, in both the week the mean population was 0.40 larvae/Plant. The incidence of all the insect pests although declined after attainment of their respective peak, but pod bug were noticed in the field till the harvest of the crop. To undertake an effective IPM strategy in pigeonpea crop, location specific information on occurrence and seasonal dynamics of insect pests is indispensible.
Keywords : Pigeon pea, Pod fly, Pod bug , Seasonal incidence
Pongamia pinnata L. (Karanja) based agri-silviculture system under rainfed conditions of south-west Haryana
N. Kaushik*, R.P.S. Deswal, Abha Tikkoo, Sushil Kumari1, Suman Malik and Krishan Kumar
Regional Research Station, Bawal, Rewari-123 501 (Haryana), INDIA
1Department of Forestry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study was conducted to assess the the performance of Karanja based agri-silviculture system in rainfed conditions of south west Haryana. The results showed that the yield (grain and fodder) of different crops was not affected significantly by the Karanja trees during initial four years of plantation. The mean grain yield of crops viz. cowpea (9.47q/ha), cluster bean (9.13q/ha), dhaincha (8.57 q/ha) and mung bean (9.50q/ha) was slightly less in agri-silvicultue system as compared to sole cropping. Similar trend was also observed for fodder yield. Karanja growth (height and diameter) was more in agri-silviculture as compared to sole plantation. Maximum height of 300.00 cm and diameter of 89.20 mm was recorded when Karanja was intercropped with cowpea, whereas it was 281.20 cm (height) and 80.90 mm (diameter) in sole plantation. Agri-silviculture system also improved the organic carbon and available N, P, K as compared to sole cropping. The lower net returns from agri -silviculture system of Karanja + cowpea (Rs. 7178/ha), Karanja +clusterbean (Rs. 7725/ha), Karanja +dhaincha (Rs. 7254/ha) and Karanja + mung bean (Rs. 7100/ha) were mainly due to the fact that during initial years Karanja plantation required some cost without any economic return. It is evident from the results that the cost of establishment of plantation can be meet out through intercropping during the gestation period of Karanja plantation.
Keywords :Agri-silviculture, Growth, Karanja, Pongamia pinnata, Yield
Character association and path analysis in advanced breeding lines of rabi sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]
G. Girish1 , S. B. Kiran2, R. Lokesh2, Vikas, V. Kulkarni3, V. Rachappa4, L. N. Yogesh5 and A. M. Talwar6
1*AICSIP, Agriculture Research Station, Gulbarga-585101, Karnataka, INDIA
2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agriculture College, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584102, Karnataka, INDIA.
3Main Agriculture Research Station Raichur-584102, Karnataka, INDIA
4Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College, Gulbarga-585101,Karnataka, INDIA
5Agriculture Research Station Hagari- 583138, Karnataka, INDIA.
6Agriculture Research Station Malnoor-585215, Karnataka, INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The field experiment was carried out using advanced breeding lines of rabi sorghum to study association among the yield and its component traits, direct and indirect effects of traits on the yield. Association studies indicated that seed yield per plot showed significant positive correlation with traits viz., plant height (rp=+0.7243, rg=+0.7409), ear head length (rp=+0.6002, rg=+0.6021), 100 seed weight (rp=+0.1593, rg=+0.1880), fodder yield (rp=+0.9434, rg=+0.9476) and lodging percentage (rp=+0.5263, rg=+0.5646) at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Genotypic correlation was higher magnitude than phenotypic correlation. Revealed increase in ear head length will increase the seed yield. Partitioning of yield and yield components both at phenotypic and genotypic levels into direct and indirect effects revealed that positive direct effects of ear head length (Ppi=+0.2533, Pgi=+0.5241), ear head diameter (Ppi=+0.0669, Pgi=+0.2580), days to maturity (Ppi=+0.0338, Pgi=+0.1193), fodder yield (Ppi=+0.6484, Pgi=+0.7461) were relatively high and followed by less lodging percentage (Ppi=+0.1751, Pgi=+0.2263). Residual effects were Pr=0.1303 and Gr=0.0624 at phenotypic and genotypic levels. Indicating importance of these characters and can be strategically used to improve the seed yield of sorghum.
Keywords : Correlation, Grain yield, Path analysis, Sorghum
Development and behavioural toxicity of deltamethrin on Rattus norvegicus following gestational exposure
Joya and G.K. Sangha*
Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Deltamethrin, a synthetic type II pyrethroid was used at acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels to evaluate the embryo toxic risk in rat offsprings. Commercial formulation of deltamethrin (Decis 2.8 EC) at the level of ADI (0.01 mg/kg bw/day) and ten times ADI (0.1 mg/kg bw/day) was given orally to female rats (Rattus norvegicus) after mating until the end of pregnancy. The rats which did not breed were sacrificed for uterine examination, total implantations and resorptions. No toxicological symptoms were found in the rats treated with ADI level of deltamethrin, however rats treated with 10 times ADI dose of deltamethrin appeared weak and less active. Rats treated with 10×ADI did not breed and resorptions and cysts were observed in their uterus and ovary respectively. In rats treated with ADI dose of deltamethrin, litter size was reduced, pups gained less body weight and their developmental parameters and behavioural milestones were delayed as compared to control rats pups. The results suggested that gestational exposure of deltamethrin on growth and viability of rat offsprings at ADI level also affected the development and behaviour of rat offsprings.
Keywords : Behaviour, Deltamethrin, Development, Female rats, Rat pups
R. Anbarasan* and P. Srimathi
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Pelleting is a physical pre-sowing seed management technique, in which seeds are enclosed with biopromotive substances to improve the field stand. To evaluate the efficacy of plant herbal powders for seed pelleting, studies were initiated with blackgram cv. ADT 3, in which seeds were pelleted with the leaf powders of noni (Morinda citrifolia) and basil (Ocimum sanctum) and fruit powder of gallnut (Terminalia chebula) @ 200 g kg-1 of seed using Carboxy methyl cellulose @ 200 ml per kilogram of seed as an adhesive. The results revealed that seeds pelleted with the leaf powders of either basil improved the seed germination by 6% and seedling vigour (23%), seedling length (9%) and seedling dry weight (5%). In raised bed nursery, the seeds pelleted with basil leaf powder @ 200 g kg-1 of seed recorded improved field emergence (7%) with higher chlorophyll index (30%) and nodule number (28%) highlighting the efficacy of the treatment. While, the seeds pelleted with gallnut fruit powder recorded lowest germination, vigour and field emergence which is significantly lesser than control. The delayed emergence, germination and vigour was due to the increase in hardiness of gallnut powder pelleted seed. Thus, the seeds treated with basil leaf powder @ 200 g kg-1 using carboxy methyl cellulose @ 200 ml per kilogram of seed as an adhesive, enhanced seed germination, vigour, seedling length and dry weight.
Keywords : Field Emergence, Herbal Powders, Seed Pelleting, Seedling Quality
An agricultural price forecasting model under nonstationarity using functional coefficient autoregression
B. S. Yashavanth , K. N. Singh and Amrit Kumar Paul
Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi – 110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In this globalized world, management of food security in the developing countries like India where agriculture is dominated needs efficient and reliable price forecasting models more than ever. Forecasts of agricultural prices are handy to the policymakers, agribusiness industries and farmers. In the present study, Functional Coefficient Autoregression (FCAR) has been applied for modeling and forecasting the monthly wholesale price of clean coffee seeds in Hyderabad coffee consuming center using the data from Jan, 2001 to Sep, 2014. FCAR (2,2) model was found suitable based on the minimum Average Prediction Error (APE) criterion. The FCAR model thus obtained was compared with the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Since the original series was found to be nonstationary from Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADF statistic=-2.84, p=0.22), the differenced series (ADF statistic=-4.20, p<0.01) was used and ARIMA (12,1,0) was found suitable. The FCAR model obtained was compared with the ARIMA model with respect to forecast accuracy measures viz., Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The RMSE and MAPE for the FCAR (2,2) were found to be 17.16 and 4.41%, respectively, whereas for the ARIMA (12,1,0) models, 62.64 and 26.15%, respectively. The results indicated that the FCAR model was efficient than the ARIMA model in forecasting the future prices.
Keywords : ARIMA, FCAR, Forecasting, Stationarity.
Effect of silicate solubilizing bacteria and fly ash on silicon uptake and yield of rice under lowland ecosystem
S. K. Pedda Ghouse Peera1*, P. Balasubramaniam2 and P. P. Mahendran3
1Agricultural College, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Bapatla-522101, Guntur, (A.P.), INDIA
2 Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli-620009, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
3Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam-628252, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soils of eastern farm, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Tamil Nadu, India to study the effect of silicon on yield and uptake of rice (var. BPT 5204) during Kharif season of 2010-11 by taking the treatment combinations based on graded levels of Fly Ash (FA), Silicate Solubilizing Bacteria (SSB) and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) at fixed fertilizer schedule. The experimental soil (0-15 cm) had pH 7.22; organic C 1.4 %; available Si 66.0 mg kg-1; available N 266.0 kgha-1; available P 14.42 kgha-1 and available K 107.50 kgha-1. The results of graded levels of FA show that all the growth and yield attributes were significantly influenced by silicon uptake. The mean silicon uptake at panicle initiation, straw and grain at harvest varied from 53.8 - 98.7, 105.5 - 197.2 and 21.4- 62.3 kgha-1 respectively, in rice. Number of filled grains per panicle and grain yield displayed conspicuous relationships with content of Si in grains. The highest mean grain yield of 3622 kg ha-1 was recorded by the addition of SSB+FYM followed by FYM (3530 kg ha-1), SSB (3310 kg ha-1) and control (3240 kg ha-1). The combined application of 25 t ha-1 FA with SSB+FYM was recorded the highest grain yield of 3710 kg ha-1 which was 16.3 per cent moreover yield of control. The results further show that 25 t ha-1 FA and SSB+FYM have been proved to be superior treatments for best management of silicon in coastal loamy sand soils under irrigated rice ecosystem.
Keywords : Farm yard manure, Fly ash, Silicon and rice, Silicate solubilizing bacteria
Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extract (Turbinaria conoides) against Fusarium oxysporum
Ameer Junaithal Begum M.*, P. Selvaraju and A. Vijayakumar
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The purpose of the study was to determine the antifungal activity of seaweed (Turbinaria conoides) extract against root rot pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Seaweed extract was prepared from the species T. conoides collected from Rameswaram coastal area of Tamil Nadu during December was used for this study. Different concentrations of the extract viz., 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % was evaluated for their antifungal activity against F. oxysporum using poisoned food technique along with control and carbendazim (0.2 %) as check. No mycelial growth (0 cm) was observed in 15 % and 20 % sea weed extract weed extract treated plates even after 6 days of incubation. Though the visible inhibition of mycelial growth was noticed in all the concentrations, the increased concentration of 15 and 20 % had shown 100 % inhibition. So, the lower concentration of 15 % can be best in controlling the F. oxysporum fungi. GC-MS analysis of seaweed extract showing the presence of several antimicrobial compounds in seaweeds may be the reason for such inhibition.
Keywords : Antifungal, Carbendazim, Fusarium oxysporum, Torbinaria conoides
Genetic variability studies in segregating generation for grain and nutritional quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
P. Savitha* and R. Usha Kumari
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The experimental materials used were four traditional landraces and six improved high yielding varieties of Tamil Nadu raised in during kharif 2012-2014. Genetic variability parameters on F3 population (20 selected F3 plants) of two cross combination viz., IR 72 x Veeradangan and ADT 39 x Kavuni in F3 population depicted wide range of variability and its ranged from 6.46 to 10.39 mg/100 g while it was from 5.39 to 7.65 mg/100 g in IR 72 x Veeradangan F3 population. Calcium content for IR 72 x Veeradangan in selected F3 population recorded wide range of variability and its ranged from 61.43 to 97.63 mg/100 g with a mean value of 80.67 mg/100 g whereas, ADT 39 x Kavuni in F3 population revealed the low range of variability and its ranged from 53.38 to 94.25 mg/100 g with a mean value of 79.58 mg/100 g for magnesium content. For iron content, IR 72 x Veeradangan in F3 population showed wide range of variability and its ranged from 0.53 to 1.03 mg/100 g with a grand mean of 0.80 mg/100 g whereas, ADT 39 x Kavuni in F3 population ranged from 0.61 to 1.33 mg/100 g and from with a grand mean value of 0.97 mg/100 g. For zinc content, wide range of variability was found in ADT 39 x Kavuni (1.43 to 2.16 mg/100 g) and in IR 72 x Veeradangan (1.51 to 1.98 mg/100 g) in F3 population.
Keywords : Genetic advance, Grain quality, Heritability, Nutritional traits, Rice, Variability
Assessment of diversity by using morphological, biochemical and molecular approaches of selected basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties
A. Mishra1*, Pradeep Kumar1, R. S. Sengar1, P. Kumar1, R. Singh2, R. Chaudhary1, A. Kumar1, and P. Fatima1
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology Meerut- 250110 (U.P.), INDIA
2Zonal Research Station, Nagina, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology Meerut 250110 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study investigates the genetic diversity among the Basmati rice genotypes. Selected nine Basmati rice genotypes were studied for twelve morphological traits, biochemical parameters and for molecular analysis with 11 SSR markers. Pusa Sugandha 5 and Basmati 370, showed strong aroma while other varieties showed medium aroma. Alkali spreading value were intermediate in Basmati 386, Vallabh Basmati 22 and Vallabh Basmati 24 while other varieties showed high values. Pusa Basmati 1 and Basmati 386 showed soft category of gel consistency while in rest varieties it was under medium category. Amylose percentage in grains were ranged from 18.02% (Taraori basmati) to 22.0% (Basmati 370). Molecular analysis with 11 SSR markers showed 125 alleles with an average number of alleles 11.36 per locus. All the markers showed specific type of banding pattern along with 82 polymorphic alleles in different genotypes. This study focuses on application of statistical methods and techniques in analysis of genetic diversity of the agronomic data, biochemical aspects related to quality parameters and at the molecular level using SSR markers for clustering procedure making dendrogram that helps the more accurate selection of the superior basmati genotypes for the further studies of the breeders and researchers.
Keywords : Amylose, Aroma, ASV Basmati rice, Diversity, GC and SSR Primers
K. Jeevika1*, S. Pragadeesh2 and A. Mohamed Haroon3
1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi - 642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
2Department of Soil science and Agricultural Chemistry, Thanthai Roever Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development, Perambalur - 621212 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
3Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Trichy – 620009 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : To assess the impact of nutrient ratios N/P, N/K and N/S on sugarcane productivity, a survey was conducted during its grand growth stage (October, November and December) influenced by various yield levels based on soil quality zones in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. The leaf samples were collected from cane yielding zones of the district was classified into three categories viz., low yielding (less than 75 t ha-1), medium (75 to 100 t ha-1) and high yielding (more than 100 t ha-1). Computation of nutrient ratios for sugarcane at its grand growth stage implied that the mean N/P, N/K and N/S ratios 8.31, 1.60 and 15.0 respectively in the third leaf of sugarcane in the high yielding zone resulted in maximum cane yields compared to relatively higher ratios in the top dewlap leaves from soils of low soil quality category which indicates that maintenance of high quality in sugarcane soils influences crop nutrient uptake, optimum nutrient ratios, the yield and quality of sugarcane.
Keywords : Grand growth stage, Nutrient ratio, Sugarcane productivity, Theni district
Variation in soluble extractives, lignin and holocellulose content of wood of different provenances of Tectona grandis L.
R. K. Meena1* and A. U. Nimkar2
1Department of Forest Products, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173230, H.P., INDIA
2College of Forestry, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth Akola, 444104, Maharashtra, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present studies were conducted on variation in soluble extractives, lignin and holocellulose content of wood of different provenances of Tectona grandis. The data on cold and hot water solubility, alcohol-benzene solubility, lignin and holocellulose content of wood exhibited significant variation in different provenances of Teak. Among different selected provenances, the highest cold water solubility [16.43% (4.05)] and hot water solubility [19.56% (4.42)] was recorded in APNPL-10 and lowest was recorded in ORPLM-1 [6.34% (2.52)] and [8.34% (2.89)], respectively. Maximum percentage of alcohol-benzene solubility was observed in KLN-2 [17.64% (4.20)] and minimum per cent was recorded in MHSC-J1 [7.13% (2.67)]. Maximum percentage of lignin [39.00 % (38.64)] and holocellulose (76.53%) content was noticed in ORANP-6 and APT-11, respectively. whereas, minimum percentage of lignin 20.83% (27.15) and holocellulose (64.20%) content were found in TNT-10 and APT-20, respectively. The study would help to utilize the findings and developing future strategies for screening the provenances of Tectona grandis.
Keywords : Holocellulose, Lignin, Provenances, Soluble extractive, Variation
Use of growth regulators as priming agent for improvement of seed vigour in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum)
Bhim Jyoti1, S. S. Gaurav2 and Usha Pant3
1Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, Uttrakhand- 249199, INDIA
2Department of Seed Science and Technology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, Uttar Predesh- 250221, INDIA
3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agricutlture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Seeds of tomato cv. Keabi were primed with of three important growth regulators viz Gibberellic acid (GA3), Napthlene acetic acid (NAA) and potassium nitrate (KNO3). Four concentration of each, Gibberellic acid and Napthlene acitic acid (25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm.100ppm) and two concentration of KNO3 (1% and 2%) were compared with the distilled water as control. For each treatment seeds were soaked in growth regulator for 24 hrs before put for the germination test. Fifty seeds in four replications were germinated on top of paper at 200C in seed germinator for 14 days. Normally germinated seedlings were counted which gave an estimation of germination percentage. Data was recorded on the germination percentage, shoot length, seed vigour index. Most of the treatments had significant positive effect on all the quality parameters. NAA had showed adverse effect on the root length while other growth regulators were found to be significant role to improve the root length. Maximum seed germination (74%) was observed at 50 and 75ppm GA3. Highest shoot length (4.83cm) was found at 25ppm of GA3 whereas enhancement of root length occurred with the priming of 1% KNO3 (3.52cm ). Seed vigour-I, on the basis of seedling length was observed higher at 25ppm. GA3 (720) and seed vigour –II on the basis of seedling dry weight was also observed maximum priming with 100ppm GA3 (1460). From this study it was suggested that GA3 priming has important growth regulator to enhance the seed germination as well as seed vigour. Before sowing seed should be priming with GA3 for obtaining high % germination and vigorous seedling that survive under adverse condition it also increase the uniformity of field plant stand.
Keywords : Growth regulators, Seed germination, Seed vigour, Tomato
Rati Mukteshawar and P. S. Seharawat*
Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125001, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The aim of this paper is to find out the major losses due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and investigate the major constraints that are responsible for non-adoption of best farming practices to minimize the emission of GHG in agricultural sectors in Haryana state. The study was conducted in two districts of Haryana state namely; Hisar and Karnal. A total number of 120 farmers were interviewed to analyze the constraints in adoption of best farm practices towards sequestration of GHGs and losses occurred. The study resulted that very serious losses occurred due to greenhouse gases were found crop benefit ratio decreased with mean score of 1.23, crop damaged due to adverse climatic uncertainty (1.07), crop production decreased (0.89), sowing season changed (0.86), loss in bio-diversity (0.84), less income earned from agriculture (0.81), soil water holding capacity decreased (0.68). The other serious losses perceived due to emission of GHGs were deeper level of ground water table (0.31), cropping pattern and cropping system changed (0.28), high usages of inorganic fertilizers (0.23), soil fertility decreases (0.13). While the constraints that were found responsible in non-adoption of best farming practices towards sequestration of GHGs were noticed as non- availability of package of practices (96.11%), lack of awareness about health risk in humans (94.72%), no reward for adoption of environmental measures (93.05%), lack of demonstration/ training for reducing GHG emission (91.11%), less credibility in farm practices (90%) were major problems observed in adoption of farm practices.
Keywords : Best practices, Constraints, Losses, Sequestration of greenhouse gases
Anurag Yadav1*, Kusum Yadav2, Anupam Vashistha3
1Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Science & Humanities, S.D. Agricultural University, S.K. Nagar (Gujarat), INDIA
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Lucknow, Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
3Department of Microbiology, Division of Life Sciences, S.B.S. (PG) Institute of Biomedical Sciences & Research, Balawala, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract :A study was designed to screen and analyze the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSBs) from wheat rhizosphere. Five biovars of Pseudomonas fluorescens (PSM1, PSM2, PSM3, PSM4 and PSM5) were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and Bacillus megaterium MTCC 8755 procured from microbial type culture collection (MTCC) Chandigarh, India. The P. fluorescens biovar PSM1 was observed to be most efficient phosphate solubilizer. Inoculation of P. fluorescens PSM1 and B. megaterium MTCC 8755, alone and in combination, caused the highest phosphate solubilization at pH 5. At this pH, maximum phosphate solubilization was observed with B. megaterium MTCC 8755 inoculation (8.2 mg mL-1) on sixth day of incubation with P. fluorescens PSM1 (8 mg mL-1) on seventh day of incubation and with dual bacterial treatment (10.5 mg mL-1) on the fourth day of incubation. A correlation coefficient of linear regression equation of phosphate solubilization with pH indicated that pH value of the medium was directly correlated with tricalcium phosphate solubilization. The study will help in choosing soil pH specific PSB inoculant for optimizing plant growth.
Keywords : Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizosphere
Evaluation of insecticides against blister beetle (Mylabris pustulata Thunb.) on pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan
Krishna Rolania , S. S. Yadav and R. K. Saini
Department of Entomology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abstract : Blister beetle, Mylabris pustulata (Family: Meloidae: Coleoptera) an important pest of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan when fed on its different floral parts including petals, anthers, stigma and ovary. Stigma and ovary were damaged and there was no pod formation. In view of its significant damage potential, a few number of insecticides were evaluated against the beetles in the laboratory: thiodicarb (0.09%), chlorpyriphos (0.10%), quinalphos (0.10%), cypermethrin (0.007%), deltamethrin (0.012%) and novaluron (0.10%). Fresh pigeonpea twigs bearing flowers were dipped for 5 seconds in requisite concentrations of different insecticides and allowed to air dry at room temperature (28oC). For each treatment, three replicates were taken and dead beetle were counted 24 and 48 hours after release. Observations after 24 hours of application indicated that thiodicarb (84.23 %), chlorpyriphos (57.50 %), quinalphos (37.31 %) and cypermethrin (29.77 %) significantly reduced blister beetle population compared with the control (without insecticidal treatment). After 48 hours, all insecticidal treatments were significantly superior over control. Maximum cumulative mortality (100%) was observed in thiodicarb followed by quinalphos (95.7%), cypermethrin (95.7%) and chlorpyriphos (91.6%), while minimum in novaluron and deltamethrin. It was concluded from the studies that among the different insecticidal treatments thiodicarb (0.09%) proved most effective which brought 99.75 % mortality even 24 hours after the treatment.
Keywords : Blister beetle, Mylabris pustulata, Pigeonpea, Preferred host
Study of constraints analysis in organic farming cultivation in Sonipat and Hisar district of Haryana state, India
P. S. Shehrawat*, Rati Mukteshawar and Nora Abu Baker Saeed
Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125001 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was undertaken in two purposively selected districts, namely Sonipat and Hisar of Haryana state and a total no. of one hundred twenty farmers were selected and interviewed to study the prospects of organic farming and to assess the constraints in adoption of organic farming. The finding regarding farmers’ perception about input constraints in adoption of organic farming show that lack of knowledge and demand of bio pesticides (90.8%) was ranked first, the results regarding perception about technical constraints in adopting of organic farming reveals that non- availability of improved organic production technology and Lack of knowledge about weed management practices in organic farming were ranked first (94.2 %). The finding regarding farmers perception about marketing and economic constraints in adoption of organic farming showed that no separate market for organic produces and Weak marketing network /sale point both were ranked first with highest weight mean score (360). Absolutely hundred percent of the respondents had perceived it as most serious constraint in organic farming, the results show that transfer of technology constraints in adoption of organic farming namely, Data bank not available about consumers and demand was ranked first with highest weight mean score (2.98). Moreover 98.3 percent of the farmers had perceived it as most serious constraint in organic farming and the finding regarding farmers’ perception of certification constraints in organic farming shows that complicated process of organic certification was ranked first constraint (67.5 which intern reflects the cumbersome procedure that may restrict the adoption of organic cultivation.
Keywords : Constraints, Organic farming, Prospects, Sustainability
Naresh Pratap Singh* and Vaishali
Department of Biotechnology, SVP University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Stay green trait is one of the major character of the crops like wheat, rice etc. to sustain under abiotic stresses. In the present study, 10 wheat varieties were collected to develop the stay green genotype by treating them with 0.5% Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 60 minutes. The various morphological and physiological characteristics such as: plant height, leaf area, numbers of productive tillers/plant, seeds per spike, 1000 grain weight, related water content (RWC), chlorophyll content etc. were recorded under controlled and treatment conditions. Exceptionally, K 7410 and RAJ 3765 varieties showed better value of all morpho-physiological characters among all the ten wheat varieties in control and treatment like 1000 grain weight 58.50 to 60.89g and 56.89 to 58.07g etc. Such mutants of these two varieties may be considered as stay green mutants and can perform better under abiotic stress conditions like drought, high temperature.
Keywords : Morphological parameters, Physiological characters, Stay green trait, Wheat
Effect of climate change in Meghalaya as perceived by the scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Meghalaya, India
Guneshori Maisnam*, Deimayami Nongtdu and Lewotki Rangad
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A study was conducted to assess the adverse effect of climate change as perceived by the scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Megahlaya. Data were collected from 25 scientists by questionnaire method in the month of October,2012 to January,2013. For this purpose five important components viz. Environment, Hill agriculture and allied, Human and animal health, Forest and wildlife and Hydrology and water resources were identified and presented to the scientists in pairs, in 10 possible combinations, and the scientists were requested to select one component from each pair separately which would be more adversely affected, than the other component due to climate change. For analysis of data the method of Paired Comparisons was followed.It was found that due to climate change Hill agriculture and allied may be severely damaged with highest scale value of 1.513 followed by hydrology and water resources(0.629),environment(0.418),forest and wildlife(0.029) and least affected component is Human and animal health(0.00).The findings revealed that Hill agriculture will be most adversely affected due to climate change in Meghalaya. One of the main reason is practicing of jhum cultivation. Therefore,the scientists and the government of Meghalaya may adopt some necessary steps for controlling jhum cultivation
Keywords : Climate change, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Paired comparisons
College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar -326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA
Abstract : An attempt has been made to study the variability and trends of annual and seasonal rainfall for the period of 38 years (1973-2010) for all seven tehsils of Jhalawar district of Rajasthan. The mean annual rainfall of the district was found to 910 mm with standard deviation 218 mm and coefficient of variation 24 per cent. Annual rainfall varied from about 831 mm in Khanpur to more than 1022 mm in the Pirawa tehsil of the district. The annual rainfall showed declined trend (-0.23 to -17.41 mm/year) in all seven tehsils of the district. The negative trends at Pirawa (17.407 mm/year), Manoharthana (11.595 mm/year) and Aklera (5.789 mm/year) are statistically significant at less than 0.001, 0.05 and 0.05 levels, respectively. During the study period maximum dry period was recorded during post monsoon and winter. Also, for the entire 38 years period maximum dry months were recorded during December till April. August was normal month for about 87 per cent followed by July and June for about 84 per cent and 66 per cent respectively. It was evident that the onset of south-west (SW) monsoon took place in the month of June and chances of drought occurrence during kharif season were very low. Hence, SW monsoon rainfall is found ideal for raising kharif crops like soybeans, urd, moong, jowar, maize, tomato, brinjal, chilli, okra, kharif onion, amaranth, rainfed green gram, red gram, castor, etc in the district.
Keywords : Coefficient of variation, MK-trend test, Precipitation concentration index, Rainfall variability, Sen’s slope
Quantitative changes in phytochemicals in tomato plant due to application of resistance inducing chemicals and their role in inhibition of early blight pathogen Alternaria alternata
S. A. Raut* and S. G. Borkar
Department of Plant pathology and Agricultural Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri- 413722 (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Phytochemicals viz. soluble protein, reducing sugar and phenols were quantified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) leaves after application of resistance inducing chemicals viz. salicylic acid, β-aminobutyric acid, chitosan and 2,6- dichloroisonicotinic acid as 8 hr seed dip treatment or 2 hr seedling dip treatment or both treatment to study their effect on induction of resistance and inhibition of growth of pathogen. Soluble proteins and phenols were found maximum due to seed+seedling treatment of salicylic acid @ 1.5 mM concentration with 76.90 per cent and 102.68 per cent increase over control whereas reducing sugar was maximum for seed+seedling treatment of β- aminobutyric acid @ 15.0 mM concentration with 61.38 percent increase over control. The increased level of protein quantity had no effect on inhibition of Alternaria alternata growth, whereas the increased quantity of sugar inhibited the average growth of Alternaria up to 19.39 per cent. Among phenolic compounds catechol and the cinnamic acid (formed in shikimic acid pathway of phenol biosynthesis) was inhibitory to the A. alternata whereas tannic acid had some effect on inhibition of Alternaria growth (13.84 % fungal growth inhibition). The increased level of sugar+phenol tested against the pathogen completely inhibited the growth of Alternaria fungus. Thus, the increased level of reducing sugar and phenol in tomato leaves due to the application of resistance inducing chemicals seems to be inhibitory to the pathogens multiplication and pathogenesis.
Keywords : Alternaria alternata, Inhibition, Phytochemicals, Resistance inducing chemicals
A competent protocol for large scale production of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) through meristem culture
J. Udhutha1, S. C. Mali1 and H. A. Sahare2*
1Main Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari- 396 450(Gujarat), INDIA
2Department of floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari- 396 450 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: - firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A rapid micropropagation and acclimatization response of two different varieties of sugarcane Co86032 and CoN 04131(Saccharum officinarum L.) was obtained in this study. The shoot apical meristem of different sizes was cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzylaminopurine and kinetin either alone or in combination with each other along with GA3. Best shoot formation response in Co 86032 was obtained on MS medium containing 1.5mg/l BAP while in CoN 04131 the combination of 0.5 mg/l BAP with 0.25 mg/l Kinetin showed best shoot formation response from apical meristem. Meristem of 3.0 mm size proved to be the best size for micropropagation of sugarcane. Excellent multiplication response of in vitro formed shoots was obtained when the concentration of BAP was decreased to 1.0 mg/l in Co 86032 and 0.25 mg/l BAP and Kin in CoN 04131 (i.e. 0.25 mg/lBAP + 0.25 mg/l Kinetin. MS medium containing 1.0 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/ l IBA showed 100% rooting response of in vitro regenerated shoots of both the varieties of sugarcane within eight days of inoculation. Best hardening response was obtained in sand+ soil + press mud (1:1:1) media.
Keywords : Benzylaminopurine, Gibberellin, Kinetin, Meristem culture and Naphthalene acetic acid
Ranbir Singh Rana1*, Manmohan Singh2, Ramesh1, Aditya3 and Ranu Pathania4
1Centre for Geo- Informatics Research and Training, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur- 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
2 Meteorological Centre, Shimla-171001 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
3Department of Environmental Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan-173212 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
4Department of Agronomy, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur- 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study aimed to investigate the productivity and weather relationship for the apple growing areas of Himachal Pradesh viz., Kalpa, Bhuntar and Shimla in district Kinnaur, Kullu and Shimla, respectively. The results revealed that pre bloom period (November to February) in the year 2009-10 remained cooler. The minimum temperature of 0.4 to 0.9, 1.0 to 1.1˚C and 1.9 to 2.2˚C and maximum temperature of 6.7, 1.0 to 1.1 and 1.7˚C were lower in Shimla, Bhuntar and Kalpa region, respectively compared to 1995-2009.. The maximum temperature for the chill accumulation months of November, December, January and February during 2009-10 showed 13 to 19 per cent lower compared to 1995-2009. The average pre bloom rainfall during 2010 was 39 to 57 per cent higher than 1995- 2009 indicating sustainable bloom period. The 3 to 4˚C temperature rise during March 2010 (19 to 24˚C) as compared to 1995-2009 (16 to 21.4˚C) coupled with 52 per cent higher precipitation benefited the crop in profuse flowering and hence good fruit set. The average maximum temperature during the post bloom period (May-June) in 2009- 10 was 1˚C higher compared to the previous years coupled with 23 per cent higher rainfall resulting in an highest productivity. The highest productivity (8.57 MT/ha) during 2010 which was 58 per cent higher than the previous years can be ascribed due to the favorable low temperature in pre bloom period and increase in the temperature in the month of March along with adequate rainfall in the bloom and post bloom period.
Keywords : Apple, Flowering, Precipitation, Productivity, Temperature
A linear model for leaf area measurement to screen potential leaf material for herbal drug in Adhatoda vasica L.
J. V. Thaker, R. P. Kuvad and V. S. Thaker*
Centre for Advanced Studies in Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot- 360005 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Leaf area is an important parameter in physiology and agronomy studies. Linear models for leaf area measurement are developed for plant species as a nondestructive method. The plant Adhatoda vasica L. (a medicinal plant) was selected and the leaves of this plant were used for development of linear model for leaf area using Leaf Area Meter (LAM) software. Planimetric parameters (length, length2, width and width2) and gravimetric (dry weight and water content) parameters are considered for the development of linear model for this plant species. Single factor ANOVA and linear correlations were worked out using these parameters and leaf area. The plant was showed significant relationship with the parameters studied. The best correlation as represented by regression coefficient (R2) was used and improved R2 is worked out. It is observed that with increase in leaf area, water content is also increased and showed best correlation with the leaf area. Thus water content can be taken as a parameter for developing linear model for leaf area is concluded.
Keywords : Adhatoda vasica L., Gravimetric parameters, Leaf area, Planimetric parameters, Regression coefficient
P. Prathima1, M. N. Shiva Kameshwari2* and R. Nijagunaiah3
1Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641046, INDIA
2&3 *Department of Botany, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore University, 560056. INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail. email@example.com
Abstract : Pollen grains of eight accessions of Urginea indica (Roxb) Kunth. and two accessions of Urginea Wightii (Wight) Lakshmin. were examined by Light microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. Detailed pollen morphological characters are given for these accessions. Our investigation revealed several variations in pollen size, exine ornamentation among the accessions of U. indica (Roxb) Kunth. and U. wightii (Wight) Lakshmin. The study confirmed that the exine sculpting provides valuable characters for separating the species of Urginea. Reticulate ornamentation of the exine was observed in the accessions of U. indica complex and perforated exine ornamentation in accessions of U. wightii complex. Minor variations with regard to measurements of dimensions in size, shape and ornamentation were also observed in accessions of U. indica and U. wightii . Pollen fertility analysis revealed highest percentage fertility in Sitampoondi accession of U. indica complex and Gulbargha accession of U. wightii complex but in most of the accessions seed setting is not observed in natural conditions. Pollen germination studies revealed highest germination rate in Brew Baker’s and Kwack medium supplemented with 25% sucrose concentration for Urginea pollen.
Keywords : Accessions, Hyacinthaceae, Pollen fertility, Scanning electron microscope, Urginea indica, Urginea wightii
Management of purple blotch and Stemphylium blight of onion in Tarai and Bhabar regions of Uttarakhand, India
Deepa Nainwal* and Karuna Vishunavat
Department of Plant Pathology, G.B.P.U.A. and T. Pantnagar-263145, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Purple blotch [Alternaria porri] (Ellis) Cif.) and Stemphylium blight [Stemphylium vesicarium] (Wallr.) E. Simmons) of onion cause serious problems in onion seed crop in Tarai and Bhabar region of Uttarakhand. In present study different bio agents and fungicides have been evaluated in vivo against both the diseases. The severity of both purple blotch and Stemphylium blight varied in both Tarai and Bhabar region and even more pronounced in Tarai region than in Bhabar region. A correlation was observed in between the severity of both the diseases with the yield in seed crop. The minimum disease severity of purple blotch and stemphylium blight with the foliar spray of mancozeb (@ 0.3%) + monochrotophos (@ 0.05%) were observed 2.67% and 2.57% respectively with the total yield of seed was 1844.44 kg/ha over check 893.33 kg/ha in 2011. While with the foliar spray of neembicidine (@ 0.3%) disease severity of both the diseases were 5.57% and 4.78% respectively providing a yield of 1827.78kg/ha in seed crop of onion in 2011. Amongst the applied bio-agents, the foliar spray of Trichoderma harzianum (@ 1%) the disease severity of purple blotch and stemphylium blight were recorded 15.44% and 13.11% respectively which was found to be most effective in delaying the disease appearance and providing a yield of 1134.44kg/ha in 2011. However, all the treatments helped to reduce both the diseases in comparison with check.
Keywords : Alternaria porri, Bio-agents, Onion, Purple blotch, Stemphylium blight.
R. Das*, B. C. Patra, M. K. Mandal, A. Pathak and A. K. Dolai
Department of Agronomy, M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Dist. Gajapati, Odisha, 761211
*Corresponding authors: email@example.com
Abstract : An experiment was undertaken at the C block research farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, to find out the efficacy of some weed control methods in soybean (cv. Bragg) during kharif season of 2011 -12 and 2012-13. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with 8 treatments in 4 replications. Treatments comprised of two different kinds of mulching (paddy straw @ 5 t ha-1 and polyethylene), two herbicides (Flumioxazin @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence and Quizalofop-ethyl @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence) alone and in combination, twice hand weeding at 25 and 50 days after sowing (DAS), integrated approach of Flumioxazin @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence along with one hand weeding at 25 DAS and one weedy check treatment. Among the weed control treatments, twice hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS resulted the highest control of weeds (5.91 gm-2, 6.09 gm-2 at 30 DAS and at harvest respectively) and produced the highest grain yield at harvest (2797 kg ha-1), followed by Flumioxazin @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence along with one hand weeding at 25 DAS, straw mulch @ 5 t ha-1, polyethylene mulch and combination of Flumioxazin @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 as pre-emergence + Quizalofop-ethyl @ 50 g a.i. ha-1 as post-emergence.
Keywords : Efficacy, Kharif, Soybean, Weed control, Weed index
Sirisha Adamala1*, Yogesh Anand Rajwade1, and Y.V. Krishna Reddy2
1Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, (West Bengal), INDIA
2Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad-500059, (Telangana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The evapotranspiration of the wheat crop grown in Tarafeni South Main Canal (TSMC) irrigation command area of West Bengal, India was estimated based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from LANDSAT images. The crop evapotranspiration (ETc) of wheat crop was estimated using the crop coefficient (Kc) maps and the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) in the TSMC irrigation command area. The ETo was estimated from the well known temperature based ETo estimation method, i.e. FAO-24 modified Blaney-Criddle method using measured maximum and minimum air temperatures data during January 2011 in the command area. The Kc maps were mapped in ARC GIS software using procured LANDSAT images for the study period. The area under wheat crop was clipped from land use/land cover map generated from LANDSAT image of January, 2011 for winter season. Further, the crop evapotranspiration map was obtained by multiplying Kc map with the estimated ETo value i.e., 5.76 mm/day for a particular day. The maximum crop evapotranspiration computed for Rabi crop was 5.57 mm/ day, whereas minimum was 1.59 mm/day for the TSMC command area.
Keywords : Crop coefficient, Irrigation, Reference evapotranspiration, Remote sensing, Vegetation index.
Character association and path coefficient analysis for grain yield of parents and hybrids in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
A. Srijan*, S. Sudheer Kumar, Ch. Damodar Raju, R. Jagadeeshwar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar-500030 (TG), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An experiment was conducted to study the interrelationships, direct and indirect effects of various yield attributing characters towards grain yield per plant, at Rice Research Centre, Rajendranagar. Grain yield per plant had significant positive correlation with productivity per day (0.97), panicle weight (0.71), number of filled grains per panicle (0.57), panicle length (0.46), number of productive tillers per plant (0.34), days to 50 per cent flowering (0.23) and plant height (0.16).Path analysis revealed that productivity/ day (0.91) was the major contributor for grain yield followed by, days to 50 per cent flowering (0.19), grain length (0.05), number of productive tillers per plant (0.04), panicle weight (0.04) and number of filled grains per panicle (0.04). It can be concluded from the study that, the above characters can be used as the selection criteria in any rice yield improvement breeding programmes.
Keywords : Direct effects, Indirect effects, Phenotypic correlation, Selection
Impact of cropping systems on physico-chemical characteristics of surface water during different seasons in Shimla region of Himachal Pradesh
Aakriti Chauhan*1, S. C. Verma2, S. K. Bhardwaj1, Uday Sharma3, Rakesh Kumar Gupta4 and Rajnish Sharma5
1Department of Env. Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (HP), INDIA
2Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (HP), INDIA
3Department of Soil Science and Watershed Management, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (HP), INDIA
4Department of Basic Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA
5Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (HP), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigations were carried out in the year 2014 with an objective to find out the impact of different cropping systems on nearby surface water resources in Shimla region of Himachal Pradesh. The aim of the study was to monitor the surface water bodies for pollution caused by nearby cropping systems in the Shimla area. In this study fruit, fruit + vegetable, vegetable and cereal based cropping systems were selected along with control (uncultivated land) and sampling was done during winter, summer and rainy seasons. The estimated water quality parameters revealed very less organic pollution and pH values were within the BIS prescribed limits of 6.5-8.5. Under vegetable based cropping system EC (500.23 µS cm−1), TDS (329.17 mg/l), BOD (1.48 mg/l), COD (31.09 mg/l), Cl- (25.66 mg/l), Ca (75.59 mg/l) and Mg (11.14 mg/l) were in high concentration, whereas No3- content were high under fruit + vegetable based cropping system. DO were maximum (8.61mg/l) under uncultivated land. Calcium and COD were high in some samples, which could be from anthropogenic sources, rest of the parameters were within the desirable limits prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The experimental data were statistically analysed through Analysis of variance (two way classification of data) indicated positive correlation among most of the physical and chemical parameters. Study reveals that cropping systems as well as seasonal changes has affected the water quality. The study carried out for water quality parameters, revealed the correlation of each parameter with one another under different cropping systems .
Keywords : Agriculture, Cropping system, Intensive farming, Seasons, Water quality
Growth and production potential of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) as influenced by intercropping and integrated nutrient management
A. K. Pal1*, R.S. Singh2, U. N. Shukla2 and Smita Singh2
1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
2Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during the rainy season of 2010-11 at Varanasi to evaluate the production potential of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.) in intercropping with different fertility levels. The pigeonpea+urdbean intercropping system exhibited its superiority by recording higher growth attribute i.e. plant height (231.22 cm plant-1), no. of branches (18.20 plant-1), dry matter accumulation (213.25 g plant-1), LAI (3.45), yield attribute i.e. no. of pods (135.57 plant-1), no. of grain (4.06 pod-1), Test weight (106.07g), and yield i.e. grain yield (1792.29 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (7614.97 kg ha-1). Application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF)+2.5t VC fertility level recorded its superiority by recording higher growth attribute i.e. plant height (232.42 cm plant-1), no. of branch (19.07 plant-1), dry matter accumulation (214.65 g plant-1), LAI (3.62) and yield attributes i.e. no. of pods (141.42 plant-1), no. of grain (4.13 pod-1) and test weight (108.22 g) and yield i.e. grain yield (1831.82 kg ha-1), and stalk yield (8221.61 kg ha-1) over all fertility levels. In the cultivation of long duration crops, the short duration crop may be used as intercrop to generate additional income for farmers’ and INM practices also reduce cost of fertilizer as well as environmental pollution.
Keywords : Economics, Fertility levels, Intercropping systems, Pigeonpea, Yield
A. Srijan*, S. Sudheer Kumar, Ch. Damodar Raju, R. Jagadeeshwar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar-500030 (TG), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the present study, 23 elite rice genotypes were test crossed with IR 58025A and based on which, 12 restorer lines viz., Rajendra, MTU 1010, IR 64, KNM 118, NLR 33358, Satya, Varalu, RNR 15048, RNR 15038, Tellahamsa, RNR(RK) 28 and RNR(RK) 53 were identified during Kharif- Rabi 2013-14. Then, three CMS lines viz., IR 58025A, IR 68902A and IR 72081A were crossed with these identified 12 restorer lines to produce 36 hybrids in line × tester mating design and were evaluated along with standard hybrid check, PA 6129 at Rice Research Centre, Rajendranagar, during Kharif 2014 to find out the best heterotic combinations in terms of grain yield and yield component characters. The degree of heterosis varied from trait to trait. Out of 36 hybrids studied, the significant standard heterosis for grain yield is observed in 3 hybrids, over best check PA 6129, viz., IR 58025A × MTU 1010 (18.25), IR 68902A × RNR 15038 (14.59) and IR 72081A × RNR 15038 (9.57). The best experimental hybrid IR 58025A × MTU 1010 recorded average heterosis (78.26) and heterobeltiosis (64.37). These three experimental hybrids can be further evaluated over locations for large scale commercialization in Telangana.
Keywords : Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis, Rice and Standard heterosis
Bioefficacy of plant extracts on stem rot, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid and Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma oblique Walker in jute crop
H. Chowdhury, B. S. Gotyal*, K. Selvaraj and S. K. Sarkar
Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In vitro study was conducted to test mycellial growth inhibition effect of plant extracts on Macrophomina phaseolina causing stem rot of jute as well as for feeding inhibition and mortality on 3rd instar larvae of Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua Walker. The result revealed, at 2000 ppm, acetone extracts of sunnhemp and Azeratum conyzoides exhibited maximum of 34.44% and 41.85% mycellial growth inhibition respectively. Whereas, 83.32% and 66.67% spore germination inhibition of the fungus was observed respectively. At 5000 ppm, methanolic extracts of Crotolaria quinquefolia, garlic, curry leaf and turmeric oil recorded 35.55%, 44.44%, 50.00% and 70.00% mycellial growth inhibition of the fungus. Methanolic extracts of C. juncea, C. quinquefolia, curry leaf and garlic recorded above 80.00% feeding inhibition on S. obliqua and larval mortality of 20.00%-44.44%. It is clear that neem, sunnhemp, garlic and turmeric extract possess antifungal, insecticidal, antifeedant properties and may be integrated for management of stem rot as well as S. obliqua in jute crop.
Keywords : Feeding inhibition, Larval mortality, Macrophomina phaseolina, Plant extracts, Spilosoma obliqua, Spore germination
P. N. Dubey1*, B. P. Bhaskar2, P. Chandran2, B. Singh1 and B. K. Mishra1
1National Research Centre on seed Spices, Ajmer-305206 (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Division of Soil Resource Studies, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur-440033 (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The four representative ferruginous soils on lateritic cover developed over Precambrian rocks in parts of Kottayam of Kerala were studied to understand the weathering pattern and genesis through geochemistry. These soils are strongly to moderately acidic, reddish brown with low Cation exchange capacity CEC and base saturation having SiO2 - 33 to 57%, Al2O3 - 16-31%, Fe2O3 - 8 to 15% and TiO2 -0.7 to 1.4%. Kanjirapalli (P3) and Athirampuzha (P4) soil series were more intensely weathered as compared to the Kinalur (P1) and Chingavanam series (P2) with silica to alumina -iron ratio less than 2 and had a significant negative relationship with Chemical index of alteration CIA ( -0.75**), Harnois index ( -0.678**), Richie index (-0.953**) and Plagioclase Index of Weathering (-0.705**). The trace elemental concentration ranges were above the values of world soils having an enrichment index more than 1 in Kanjirapalli series (P3) and Ni contamination in genetic horizons (Ni > 200µgg-1 ). The cluster analysis showed similar major oxide concentration pattern in Group -1 and Group - 2 but varied in trace elemental pattern with Cr > Ba > Cu in Group - 1 and Cu > Cr > Ba in Group- 2 soils whereas Zr > Ni > Mn in Group - 3 to Ni > Mn > Zr in Group - 4 soils. The study further showed that differential rate of weathering in soils under tropical climate was further accelerated due to anthropogenic activities such as improper land use practices and deforestation on sleep slopes.
Keywords : Chemical index of weathering, Enrichment index, Index of laterization, Kerala, Trace elements
Gaganmeet Kaur* and S.S. Hundal1
1Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abstract : The present laboratory study was carried out to determine the effect of the metal contaminated soil on the survival, growth and development of Eisenia fetida. Metal contaminated soil samples were collected from five different sites of Ludhiana city which is an industrial hub of Punjab. Maximum heavy metal concentrations were recorded in soil sample taken from hambran around the Buddha Nullah and minimum concentration of heavy metal from haibowal. The level of heavy metals chromium and nickel (347 ppm and 189 ppm) were higher than permissible limits according to CCME (2001), whereas lead (42.6 ppm) was within permissible limits. Adult E. fetida were exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals in artificial soil for 28 days. Significant effects were observed on growth and reproduction of the tested organisms. There was 100% survival of E. fetida in soil amended with lead, chromium and nickel along with morphological abnormalities such as extrusion of coelomic fluid. It was observed that the worms in the low and high doses of heavy metal treated substrate produced cocoons with a one week and two week delay, respectively, vis-a-vis the control group. Furthermore, the emergence of hatchlings started one week earlier in control than in soil treated with medium and high concentration of metals. It is safely concluded that presence of heavy metal in soils adversely affects the growth, reproduction and development of E. fetida. Results of the study indicated that reproduction was more sensitive to higher concentrations of heavy metal contaminated soil than survival or weight change.
Keywords : Eisenia fetida, Heavy metals, Reproduction, Soil
Response of different wheat varieties towards Azospirillum and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) seed inoculation
Animesh Pathak1*, S. K. Chakrabarti2, Rajib Das3 and M K. Mandal3
1Department of Seed Science and Technology, M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi, Dist. Gajapati-761211 (Odisha), INDIA
2Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 ( W.B.), INDIA
3Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (W.B.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Present investigation was undertaken to utilize Azospirillum and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) to avail atmospheric nitrogen and soluble phosphate in soil for the wheat crop. The sonalika variety (V1) responded best towards seed inoculation by Azospirillum and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) for the character speed of germination which is regarded as very important indicator of seed vigour. Germination percentage for untreated control was 86.6% after one month of storage and found to be reduced to 76.67% after three month of storage but for treated Azospirillum in case of sonalika it was retained at 83.33%. V1T1, V2T1 and V3T1 recorded improved germination even after six month of storage. The seedling characters like shoot and root length was greatly improved with T1 and T2 for almost the varieties included in this programme. The character vigour index greatly enhanced in case of V1T1, V1T2, V3T1 and V3T2 after one month and six months of storage. This work reported utilization of Azospirillum and PSB as seed inoculation for wheat varieties to enhance seed storability and seedling growth parameter. It can be concluded that, Azospirillum and PSB seed inoculation can be recommended for wheat for better seedling growth storability of seed
Keywords : Azospirillum, PSB, Seed inoculation, Varieties, Wheat
Role of morphological factors of pigeonpea in imparting resistance to spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata Geyer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Wasihun Yaregal Wubneh1 and Gaurav Kumar Taggar2*
1Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), INDIA
2Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Morphological characters of eleven test genotypes of pigeonpea, such as growth habit, pubescence of pods and leaves, pod angle and pod wall thickness were studied in order to work out the relationship of these traits vis-à-vis resistance/susceptibility to Maruca vitrata. It was observed that genotype AL 1747 possessed significantly highest trichome density on leaves and pods (177.33 and 43.33 trichomes/4.6cm2, respectively), whereas MN 1 possessed lowest trichome density (47.33 and 7.66 trichomes/4.6cm2, respectively). Trichome length on leaves and pods was significantly highest in AL 1747 (66.26 and 180.83μm, respectively) and lowest in MN 1 (33.53 and 43.25μm, respectively). Genotype AL 1747 recorded significantly highest pod angle (65o), whereas MN 1 recorded lowest pod angle (18.66o). There was significant negative correlation between trichome density on leaves and pods with larval weight gain (r = -0.71 and -0.69, respectively) as well as with per cent pod damage ( r = -0.75 and -0.75, respectively) and between trichome length on leaves and pods with larval weight gain (r = -0.81 and -0.81, respectively) as well as with per cent pod damage (r = -0.87 and -0.87, respectively). Pod angle was found to be significantly negatively correlated with both larval weight gain and per cent pod damage. Thus, early maturing pigeonpea genotypes with indeterminate growth habit, higher leaf and pod pubescence with wider pod angles should be preferred for breeding M. vitrata tolerant lines.
Keywords : Cajanus cajan, Maruca vitrata, Morphological factors, Pigeonpea, Pod damage, Trichomes
Moisture stress induced changes in metabolites and cellular functions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes
Navkiran Randhawa1*, Jagmeet Kaur1, Satvir Kaur2 and Sarvjeet Singh1
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
2Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigation was aimed to study influence of moisture stress in in vitro identified tolerant (GL28151, RSG963, PDG3) and sensitive (GL22044, GNG1861, PBG1) chickpea genotypes under field conditions. Moisture stress treatments included crop sown with one pre-sowing irrigation (WSVFP), irrigation withheld at flower initiation stage (WSF), irrigation withheld at pod initiation stage (WSP) and control (irrigated as and when required). Osmolytes (in seeds) viz. total soluble sugars, starch, proline, cellular functions; relative water content, membrane permeability index and lipid peroxidation (in leaves), antioxidant enzymes (at pod filling stage) viz. peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase were estimated in chickpea seeds under control and stressed conditions. WSVFP was most severely affected by moisture stress followed by WSP and WSF and emphasized on pod intuition stage as critical stage attributable to hindered transport of assimilates towards formation of pods and development of seeds under stress imposed by lack of sufficient moisture. Highest accumulation of total soluble sugars (73.33), starch (73.12), proline (2.04) in mg/g fresh weight, least percentage reduction over control in relative water content (20.3), membrane permeability index (18.8) and minimal lipid peroxidation (31.3) accompanied by significantly enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes under WSVFP rendered moisture stress tolerance in RSG963. The pronounced cellular damage, lesser alleviation in the content of osmolytes, antioxidant enzymes activity was observed in sensitive genotype GL22044 under stress treatments. High molecular weight protein bands were found either absent or of low intensity in sensitive genotypes (GL22044, GNG1861 and PBG1) under severe stress treatment (WSVFP).
Keywords : Biochemicals, Cellular Chickpea, Cicer arietinum, Moisture stress
Effect of pre harvest application of boron and zinc on post harvest quality and vaselife of carnation
Likhitha Raj 1*, Siddappa2, S. Varalakshmi3, H. M. Vikas4, C. H. Girjakumari5
1,2,5Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture University of Horticulture Sciences Campus, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA
3Department of Post Harvest Technology, College of Horticulture University of Horticulture Sciences Campus, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA
4College of Horticulture University of Horticulture Sciences Campus, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bengaluru- 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study was conducted to determine the effect of pre harvest spray of micronutrients like boron, zinc and its combination on post harvest quality and vase life of carnation. Post harvest quality of flowers like flower stalk length (65.61 cm) was maximum in the plant treated with zinc (0.3 per cent), and calyx splitting (3.12 per cent) was minimum in the plants treated with boron (0.1 per cent). Flower diameter (6.64 cm) was highest with boron (0.1 per cent) + zinc (0.3 per cent) treatment. Plants without micronutrient treatment produced poor quality flowers. Regarding vase life studies maximum water uptake and minimum transpiration loss from first day to sixteenth day was resulted in the flowers which are obtained from the plant treated with boron (0.1 per cent). The maximum fresh weight of the flower was noticed in combination of boron (0.1 per cent) + zinc (0.3 per cent) from first to sixteenth day. The foliar spray of boron (0.1 per cent) recorded maximum vase life (11.05 days). So the good quality of flowers can be improved by the foliar spray of zinc, calyx splitting can be controlled by boron foliar spray and vase life of the flower can be maintained by foliar spray of boron. It is confirmed that the foliar application of micronutrient is very much helpful for the improvement of post harvest quality and vase life of carnation.
Keywords : Carnation, Flower diameter, Micro nutrients, Vase life
Effect micro-nutrients and farm yard manure on soil properties and yield of maize (Zea mays l.) in lower Indo-Gangetic Plain of Uttar Pradesh
Devesh Pratap1, J. Singh2, Rahul Kumar3, Om Kumar1 and K.S. Rawat4*
1Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA
2Division of Agricultural Physics, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA
3Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, School of Forestry and Environment, SHIATS, Allahabad (U.P.), INDIA
4Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama University, Chennai, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The objective of the study to find the suitable treatment combination between the combination of compaction, micronutrients and farmyard manure, which enhanced physical, chemical properties of soil and yield for alluvial soil. The maximum particle density (3.01g/cc), water holding capacity (58.23 %) and pore space (63.40 %) were observed in the treatment T3 (C3I3M3), whereas maximum bulk density (1.09 g/cc) was observed in the treatment T1 (C1I1M1). The maximum EC (0.58dS m-1), Organic carbon (0.66 %), available nitrogen (279.76 kg/ha), phosphorous (19.62 kg P2O5/ha) potash (194.90 kg K2O/ha), zinc (0.65 ppm) and sulfur (14.89 ppm) were found in treatment T3 (C3I3M3). The electrical conductivity gradually increased from control (C0I0M0-0.45) to T3 (C3I3M3-0.58) dSm-1 . The maximum dry weight, test weight and yield were found in the treatment T2 (C2I2M2) viz., 154.43, (230.33 and 50.50 qha-1 respectively for alluvial soil.
Keywords : Farm yard manure (FYM), Maize yield, Micronutrients, Soil compaction
Evaluation of IPM modules for the management of fruit borer and fruit rot diseases in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller
S. D. Sharma, R. Devlash*, Jitender Kumar, Brij Bala, R. S. Jamwal
Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Bajaura. Distt. Kullu-175125 (Himanchal Pardesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Among, five IPM modules tested against tomato fruit borer and fruit rot on tomato, the IPM module (M3) consisting of use of pheromone traps (@ 12 traps/ha) just after transplanting the tomato crop , Lycopersicon esculentum Miller for monitoring the population of Helicoverpa armigera. followed by three foliar sprays commencing with a mixture of lamba-cyhalothrin 5EC @ 0.8ml/L(0.04%) and Dithane Z-78 (Zineb) @ 2.5g/L (0.25%) after 10 days of appearance of moths in the traps (after 30 days of transplanting) followed by spray with a mixture of Helicide (Ha NPV) 100 LE @ 0.5ml/L+ Indofil M-45 @ 2.5g/L (0.25%) + Gur (0.05%) + Tween 80 (0.05%) after 15 days of first spray followed by spray with a mixture of lamba-cyhalothrin 5EC @ 0.8ml/L(0.04%) and moximate (cymoxanil + mancozeb) @ 0.25% after 15 days of the second spray was found to be most effective in minimizing the infestation of fruit borer and fruit rot diseases with 50.00% and 63.45% reduction over control, respectively. This module was also found to be most economic resulting in highest marketable fruit yield (255.94q/ha) and maximum net returns (Rs.10.36) per rupee spent. The present findings are of immense utility as there will be reduction in number of sprays resulting in the cost of production of tomato crop.
Keywords : Foliar sprays, Fruit borer, Fruit rot diseases, IPM module, Tomato
Growth and yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by foliar application of water soluble fertilizer
S. Roy1*, S.K. Gunri1, A. M. Puste1, A. Sengupta1 and D. Saha2
1Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, (West Bengal-741252) INDIA.
2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, (Tripura-799210) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The field experiment was undertaken at the District Seed Farm, Kalyani at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal during summer season of 201 2 and 201 3 to study the growth and yield of summer groundnut as influenced by application of water soluble foliar grade fertilizer. Application of liquid grade fertilizer at early growth stage up to 45 DAE did not influence the plant height and dry matter production significantly, but towards maturity varied significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Crop growth rate was faster at early part of the crop age and gradually slows at later part towards maturity. Foliar application of water soluble fertilizer along with RDF 85% had the significant (P ≤ 0.05) influence to increase the number of pods per plant, but shelling percentage and hundred kernel weight did not vary significantly. Liquid grade fertilizer either starter dose or booster dose or in both had the positive response to increased the groundnut pod yield up to 4-6 % over RDF only. The crop was equally responsive in increasing the pod yield, when RDF was reduced by 15% along with foliar application of liquid grade fertilizer. The foliar application of water soluble fertilizer was not the substitute to soil applied inorganic fertilizer. Instead, foliar supplementation of nutrients showed positive response to increase the pod yield, in addition to the fertilizers added to soil. Gross return decreased with reduction in amount of RDF applied for the crop, but gross return increased, when water soluble foliar grade inorganic fertilizer was supplemented with RDF. The maximum gross return of `150399 was obtained. The results obtained from correlation analysis carried out to examine the linear relationship between pod yields with different plant characters. Data obtained in case of dry matter of the plant was 0.995 and 0.997 in the respective years at 1 % level of significance. Thus, it was concluded that dry matter content of plant is solely responsible over the yield increase in groundnut and foliar application of inorganic fertilizers in addition to that in soil has helped in better adsorption of nutrients in adequate amount by the crop.
Keywords :Correlation analysis, Foliar fertilization, Groundnut, Growth and yield attributes, Regression analysis and Yield
Effect of rib roughness pitch on thermal and thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar air heater roughened artificially with arc rib having gap
V. S. Hans1, R. S. Gill2* and Rupinderpal Singh2
1School of Energy Studies for Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (PB.), INDIA
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (PB.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This experimental study on a solar air heater having absorber plate roughened artificially by providing roughness in the form of arc ribs having gap was carried out in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India to study the effect of relative roughness pitch on thermal and thermohydraulic performance as well as to compare the performance of arc rib with gap roughened solar air heater with that of continuous arc rib roughened solar air heater. The roughness geometry parameters included relative roughness height of 0.043, angle of attack of 30 degree, relative gap position of 0.80, gap-width equal to the width of the rib and five values of relative roughness pitch ranging from 4 to 12 for flow Reynolds number range of 2000 to 16,000. The Nusselt number and friction factor were found to be more for relative roughness pitch value of 10 as compared to other values of relative roughness pitch. Thermo-hydraulic performance of solar air heaters roughened by arc with gap and continuous arc roughness geometries were found to be 1.91 times and 1.78 times respectively as compared to that of solar air heater having smooth absorber plate due to generation of turbulence in laminar sublayer region. However, improvement in thermo-hydraulic performance of solar air heater roughened by arc with gap geometry over continuous arc rib roughened solar air heater was attributed to generation of a region of turbulence on downstream side of the gap.
Keywords : Artificial roughness, Reynolds number, Solar air heater, Thermal performance, Thermo-hydraulic performance
Strategy for mitigating fuel wood induced forest degradation in tribal landscape of Jharkhand, India
M. A. Islam1* and S. M. S. Quli2
1Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore-193201 (J&K), INDIA
2Faculty of Forestry, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi-834006 (Jharkhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study was conducted to examine the extent of fuel wood dependence in the forests and mitigate the pressure by evolving an eco-friendly strategy in Bundu block of Ranchi District in Jharkhand, India. Multi-stage random sampling technique was employed to select 164 tribal households from 9 villages. Well -structured pre-tested interview schedule and non-participant observations were used for data collection, which were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources was 598.60 tons annum-1 @ of 0.68 tons capita-1 annum-1, of which, 308.16 tons annum-1 was secured from forests, 133.31 tons annum-1 from agriculture field, 90.45 tons annum-1 from community land and 66.68 tons annum-1 from homesteads. The fuel wood use breakup recorded 486.24 tons annum-1 for cooking, 45.79 tons annum-1 by cottage industries, 41.07 tons annum-1 for heating, 18.80 tons annum-1 for community function and 6.70 tons annum-1 for others. The forests were exposed to fuel wood pressure of 308.16 tons annum-1 (51.48%) posing ample deforestation and degradation. A strategy consisted of energy interventions viz., biogas production (85351.60 m 3 annum-1), agroforestry (36.84 tons annum-1) and energy plantation (92.10 tons annum-1) is proposed, the implementation of which can mitigate the fuel wood induced forest degradation besides fuel wood security of 846.14 tons annum-1 against the present fuel wood procurement of 598.60 tons annum-1. The strategy designed needs to be implemented to substitute the current unsustainable extraction of fuel wood, safeguard the future fuel wood predicament and eliminate the fuel wood pressure on forests.
Keywords : Forest degradation, Fuel wood, Mitigation, Tribe, Jharkhand
Varun Chaturvedi*, Adarsh Kumar, I. M. Mishra, J. K. Singh, R. N. Sahoo, G. K. Jha and S. B. Lal
Department of Agricultural Engineering, IARI, PUSA Campus, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Present study focuses on interventions to reduce vibration transmitted to power tiller operator. In this study two operations (namely: standing mode and transportation) and three forward speeds (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kmh-1) were selected. In both selected operations vibration magnitudes were maximum at 2.0 kmh-1. In the standing mode vibration magnitudes in x, y and z direction were 5.83, 1.37 and 2.36 ms -2 at 2.0 kmh-1. In transportation vibration magnitudes were 6.81, 1.49, 2.82 ms-2 respectively in x, y and z direction at 2.0 kmh-1. The selection of vibration isolators were done on the basis of the transmissibility curves and the isolation region. The selected isolators were installed at interface between engine and the chassis. These interventions along with previously developed bush and sheet type interventions reduced vibrations up to 50.24, 69.06 and 59.08 % at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kmh-1 in stationary mode. In transportation vibration reduction were 52.96, 65.98 and 36.67 % at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kmh-1, respectively. The vibration reduction were high in stationary mode than transportation mode because in stationary mode vibration comes only from the engine but in transportation vibration comes from engine and the surface profile as well.
Keywords : Hand-arm vibration, Interface, Isolation region, Transmissibility curves, Vibration isolator
Assessment of inter-population genetic diversity and preliminary evaluation of suitable clones of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.)
M. K. Behera1*, N. Bhola2, A. K. Parida3 and T. R. Pradhan4
1NR Management Consultants India Pvt. Ltd. Bhubaneswar, 751003 (Odisha), INDIA
2Department of Silviculture & Agroforesty, College of Forestry, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, 751003 (Odisha), INDIA
3Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar 751003 (Odisha), INDIA
4IRRI-OUAT Collaboration Project, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, 751003 (Odisha), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Productivity, uniformity and sustainability are the three important characters of the clonally propagated plants. With the increased use of clonal technology, the scarcity of wood products evidently decreased which has also led to reduced pressure on natural forests and ecosystem. However, the success of clonal technology rests on wise selection and deployment of suitable clones by studying the inter-population genetic diversity. The present study was conducted in a clonal seed orchard (CSO) of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.) comprising of 13 different clones to estimate the inter-clonal variation in terms of growth performance and genetic variability at 32 and 33 years of age. Clone ORANP2 exhibited maximum DBH (26.61cm), height (23.69 m), and stem volume (235.40 m3ha-1) with MAI of 7.133 m3ha-1year-1. The highest CAI of DBH (1.08 cm) and volume (18.558m3/ha) was reported in ORANP5 and ORANR3, respectively. The study found that clone ORANP2 is a superior genotype and thus can be recommended for vegetative multiplication and ex-situ mass planting in reforestation programmes. Both heritability and genetic advance values were low for all the plant traits studied (DBH, height and stem volume) indicating that these traits are of less use for a tree breeder for furthering the selection and breeding process on teak or other tropical hardwood species across globe.
Keywords : Clone, Ex-Situ, Genotype, Heritability, Tectona grandis
Biological control of downy mildew of maize caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi under environmentally controlled conditions
Y. Sireesha and R. Velazhahan*
Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Downy mildew disease, caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi, is one of the most serious diseases of maize. The disease is currently managed by seed treatment with metalaxyl fungicides. However, problems regarding environmental pollution resulting from the use of fungicides and development of fungicide resistance within populations of P. sorghi are of increasing concern. Assuming that biological control by means of using antagonistic microorganisms may be an alternative for the management of this disease, the efficacy of biocontrol agents viz., Bacillus subtilis G1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B2, Brevibacillus brevis 57 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 for the management of downy mildew of maize and for promoting plant growth was evaluated. The results indicated that seed treatment with B. subtilis G1 and B. amyloliquefaciens B2 significantly (P = 0.05) increased the germination percentage and seedling vigour of maize as assessed by roll towel method. Among them, B. subtilis G1 was the most effective and recorded 9% and 31% increases in germination percentage and seedling vigour of maize respectively, as compared to the control. A talc- based powder formulation of B. subtilis G1 when applied through seed at the rate of 10 g/kg reduced the downy mildew incidence up to 54% under greenhouse conditions. Results of this study suggest that B. subtilis G1 is a promising bioagent for the management of downy mildew of maize and for promoting plant growth. This antagonist could be further exploited for commercial scale up for ecofriendly management of downy mildew of maize under localized climatic conditions.
Keywords : Bacillus subtilis, Biocontrol, Downy mildew, Peronosclerospora sorghi, Zea mays
S. Kanimoli* and K. Kumar
Department of Agricultural Microbiology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out to evaluate the nitrogen fixing ability of diazotrophs isolated from the rhizosphere soils of rice which were grown in three different rice growing systems. A total of hundred and ten isolates obtained were subjected to Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) and ninety eight isolates recorded significant amount of nitrogenase activity in a range of 185.73 to 3794.55 nmoles of ethylene mg of protein-1 h-1. The highest nitrogenase activity was recorded by Derxia (3794.55 nmoles of ethylene mg of protein-1 h-1) isolated from Trichy (lowland). Among the three different rice production systems, isolates obtained from lowland rice (Derxia – 3794.5 nmoles of ethylene mg of protein-1 h-1) recorded higher nitrogenase activity followed by Aerobic (Pseudomonas - 2194.89 nmoles of ethylene mg of protein-1 h-1) and SRI (Azotobacter - 1971.85 nmoles of ethylene mg of protein-1 h-1) rice isolates. The results revealed marked variation in the ARA of the diazotrophic isolates obtained from lowland, SRI and Aerobic rice. The nitrogenase activity of diazotrophs from rice fields have been reported earlier but the nitrogenase activity of diazotrophs from three different rice production systems from various parts of Tamil Nadu is reported for the first time from India.
Keywords : Acetylene reduction assay, Aerobic, Diazotrophs , Heterotrophs, Lowland
Heterosis and inbreeding depression to identify superior F1 hybrids in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for the yield and its contributing traits
Chandan Kumar1* and S. P. Singh2
1Central Arid Zone Research Institute, KVK, Pali-Marwar (Rajasthan)-306 401
2Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agriculture Science, BHU, Varanasi -221 005, India
*Corresponding author E mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Eight parental lines of diverse origin of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were crossed in 8 × 8 diallel mating design excluding reciprocals. The 28 F1 hybrids along with their parents and one standard check (H-86) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications during seasons of rabi 2011 -12, 2012-13 and 2013- 14. In the present study, revealed that heterosis over better parent, mid parent, standard check and inbreeding depression was observed for all the traits under studies. Highly significant heterosis was observed for days to first flowering (-13.49, -13.52 and -12.28%), number of flowers per cluster (17.90, 22.11 and 24.27%), days to first harvest (-8.01, -11.04 and -9.76%), number of fruit per cluster (39.17, 42.71 and 20.71%), fruit diameter (19.93, 31.43 and 13.27%), fruit length (19.29, 22.34 and 13.35%), Average fruit weight (18.88, 19.41 and 7.80%), number of fruits per plant (25.86, 46.69 and 41.87%) and yield per plant (58.61, 75.61 and 56.33%) over the better, mid and standard parents, respectively along with considerable inbreeding depression. Most promising cross Pant T-3 × H-24 showed highly significant positive heterosis over better parent for yield per plant.
Keywords : Heterosis, Hybrids, Inbreeding depression, Tomato, Yield
Effect of nutrients sprays on growth, yield and fruit quality of apple under cold desert condition of Himachal Pradesh
L. K. Sharma
Department of Horticulture, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Lahaul & Spiti at Kukumseri -175142 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
Abstract : The on farm trial was carried out to study the effect of nutrients sprays on growth, yield and fruit quality of apple cv. Royal Delicious under cold desert condition of Himachal Pradesh. Treatments comprised spray of boric acid (0.1%), urea (0.5%), boric acid (0.1%) + urea (0.5%), multiplex (250 ml/100 litre of water) and no use of nutrients (water spray). The highest growth in terms of shoot length was observed with spray of urea at 0.5% and the highest fruit set and yield were recorded with boric acid (0.1%) + urea (0.5%) followed by boric acid at 0.1%. The lowest growth, fruit set and yield were observed with control. The combination of boric acid (0.1%) + urea (0.5%) resulted in the highest fruit length, breadth and weight. The highest total soluble solids were recorded with boric acid 0.1% and the reducing and total sugars were the highest with control. The acidity was found maximum while total soluble solids, reducing and total sugars were recorded lowest with spray of urea 0.5%. The treatment comprising of boric acid (0.1%) + urea (0.5%) proved to be best in terms of fruit set, yield and quality parameters of apple followed by boric acid at 0.1% concentration.
Keywords : Apple, Boric Acid, Multiplex, Quality, Urea, Yield
Diet composition of freshwater crab, Potamon koolooense Rathbun, 1904 from hillstream of Uttarakhand
S. N. Bahuguna1*, Anita Rawat Rana2 and Shurveer Singh1
1Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College, Rishikesh, Dehradun-249201 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract :The present study was carried out to study the diet composition of freshwater crab, P. koolooense in hillstream Khoh of Uttarakhand during November, 2013 to October, 2014. Total 105 crab samples were used for the study, 35 male and 47 female were found with food in their stomach while rest of the 23 had empty stomachs. The carapace length (CL) ranged from 12mm to 49mm, carapace width (CW) from 15mm to 59mm and total weight (TW) from 2.08g to 60.12g. Stomach content analysis of the animal showed that the diet of the animal composed of animal matter, plant matter, algae, fungi, debris and unidentified materials. Animal matter ranged from (3.27-11.93%), plant matter (4.37-14.44%), algae (1.73-6.15%), fungi (0.17-1.43%), debris (28.18-40.47%) and unidentified materials (36.46-50.05%) in males while in the female animal matter ranged from (3.09-12.34%), plant matter (4.45- 12.73%), algae (1.03-7.61%), fungi (0.02-3.34%), debris (23.18-43.34%) and unidentified (30.31-51.04%). Unidentified materials recorded maximum and fungi recorded minimum in both the sexes of Potamon koolooense. A significant difference was observed at p<0.05 between food groups- algae and unidentified matter in both sexes. This is the first report, to key out and quantifies the dietary items and feeding habits of crab in Uttarakhand which would be helpful in interpreting the ecological niche of the animal in mountain stream communities.
Keywords : Diet components, Freshwater crab, Hillstream, Khoh, Uttarakhand
R. P. S. Jetawat* and K. Mathur
Department of Plant Pathology, RCA, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The experiment was conducted to study fungicides, biocontrol agents and botanicals for management of ashwagandha root rot disease. Ashwagandha root rot disease caused by two pathogen Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In field trial, seed treatments with integration of fungicides, neem cake manure, neem oil and Trichoderma viride agent evaluated as seed treatments individually as well as in different combination of seed treatment and soil application of neem cake was found effective integrated treatment (ST SAAF + neem cake manure + T. viride) and soil application of neem cake manure@500g/plot showed minimum per cent root rot and maximum percent germination and maximum yield of Ashwagandha as compared to their individual applications over the untreated control.
Keywords : Ashwagandha, Fusarium solani, Neem cake manure, Rhizoctonia solani and T. viride
Growth pattern of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. in two different habitats of district Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand (India)
L. R. Dangwal and Amit Singh*
Herbarium and Plant Systematic Laboratory, Department of Botany, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), S.R.T. Campus, Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Garhwal - 249199, Uttarakhand, INDIA
Abstract : Tehri Garhwal is one of the most important hilly district of Uttarakhand state, which is located at the foot hills of Himalayan mountain ranges has a rich and diverse form of vegetation along with medicinal and aromatic plants. Traditionally the folk people and the local inhabitants utilize the vegetation from their contiguous in the form of medicine, timber, food, fiber etc. Among these useful plants population of the some useful plants are becoming rare and threatened due to unsustainable utilization, overexploitation, construction of roads, over grazing, pilgrims, construction of large dams, forest encroachment, landslides and natural calamities, modernize agriculture etc. Out of these medicinal plants, a very important and threatened medicinal plant is C. paniculatus (Malkangni). The present study deals with conservation and cultivation practices of C. paniculatus in two altitudinal sites i.e. site 1st - village Budogi lying on the altitude of 2000m asl. and site 2nd - S.R.T. Campus Botanical Garden, Badshahithaul (Tehri Garwal), upto 1600m asl. Measurements of the plant height, number of leaves, size of veins etc. was compared at two altitudinal zones. The samples parameters from site 2nd showed maximum growth rate of C. paniculatus i.e. 8.4± 0.86 cm, 9.01± 2.0 and 2.63± 0.23 cm for plant height, number of leaves and size of veins respectively as compared to site 1st i.e. 5.19±0.52 cm, 4.85±0.85 and 2.27±0.1 cm. Thus, C. paniculatus showed best growth rate at an elevation up to 1600m. The cultivation practice will provide reliable information for cultivation of this species in a particular altitudinal range.
Keywords : Celastrus paniculatus, Conservation, Medicinal plants, Threatened, Tehri Garhwal
Agro-morphological and quality characterization of indigenous and exotic aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm
Vikas Kumar1*, N. K. Rastogi1, A. K. Sarawgi1, Pratibha Chandraker1, P. K. Singh2 and B. K. Jena1
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhalaya, Raipur- 492012 (Chhattisgarh), INDIA
2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : For establishment of the distinctness among 64 aromatic rice germplasm, 35 agro-morphological and quality traits were used. Most of the studied traits showed wide variation among the germplasm. Purple colour of auricles and ligule was found in only one genotype, while light purple colour of auricles was recorded in four genotypes. White colour of stigma was recorded in 57 accessions, whereas purple stigma was observed in six accessions. Awns present in 31 accessions. The weight of 1000 grains, which is one of the most important yield attributing traits showed wide variation among accessions, and ranges from very low to very high weight. Grain: length and decorticated grain: length showed high variation and ranges from very short to long type, while grain: width and decorticated grain: width showed somewhat little variation among the genotypes. Extra long slender type grain shape was observed in 27 accessions. White type of decorticated grain colour was found in 55 genotypes, while light red and red colour was observed in only three genotypes. The present study concluded that all sixty four accessions were found to be distinct on the basis of thirty one agro-morphological and quality traits. Accessions having short stem length, very long panicle length, more number of panicle per plant, and extra long slender grain may be used as potential donor in hybridization programmes. This study will be useful for breeders, researchers and farmers to identify and choose the restoration and conservation of beneficial genes for crop improvement.
Keywords : Agro-morphological, Aromatic rice, Characterization, Quality
Effect of integrated nutrient management on the nutrient accumulation and status of post-harvest soil of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under Nadia conditions (West Bengal), India
Umalaxmi Thingujam1*, Sajal Pati1, Rubina Khanam1, Arnab Pari1, Krishnendu Ray2, Amit Phonglosa3 and Kallol Bhattacharyya1
1Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
2Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751003 (Orissa), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was carried out at the Central Research Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India to study the effects of integrated nutrient management on the nutrient accumulation (dry weight recoveries) in brinjal and plant nutrient status of the post- harvest soil of brinjal under Nadia conditions. The results revealed that the treatment consisting of 75% RDF (RDF i.e. N:P:K:: 125:100:50) + Azospirillum + phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) + Borax @ 10 kg ha-1 recorded the highest oxidizable organic carbon (8.049 g kg-1), total nitrogen (1.05 g kg-1) , available nitrogen (212.67g kg-1), available phosphorus (76.20g kg-1) and available potassium (177.59 g kg-1) in the post harvest soils of brinjal. On the other hand, 75% RDF + Azospirillum + PSB + FeSO4 @ 50 kg ha-1 recorded the highest available iron (26.14 kg ha-1) and the treatment consisting of 75% RDF + Azospirillum + PSB + ZnSO₄ @ 25 kg ha-1 recorded the highest soil available zinc (7.62 kg ha-1) while 75% RDF + Azo + PSB + Borax @ 10 kg ha-1 recorded the highest available Boron content (0.78 kg ha-1) of the post harvest soil of Brinjal. Highest brinjal yield (14.96 t ha-1) was supported by the treatment consisting of 75% RDF + Azospirillum + PSB + Boron @ 10 Kg ha-1. Meager information was available regarding the performance of integrated application of organics and micronutrient on brinjal in the experimental location. The present study may enlighten this unexplored section of nutrient management in brinjal.
Keywords : Azospirillum, Borax, Brinjal, PSB, Integrated Nutrient Management
M. Chakraborty1*, H. M. Chidanandappa2 , B. C. Dhananjaya2 and D. Padhan1
1Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani-741235, (West Bengal), INDIA
2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga-577216, (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at Shimoga, Karnataka, India to study the influence of FYM application on dynamics of zinc in an Alfisol under fingermillet (Eleusine coracana L.) crop. Three levels of FYM viz., 7.5, 15.0 and 22.5 t/ha with and without recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) were evaluated for the purpose. Changes in available (DTPA extractable) and different fractions of Zn in soil were monitored. Application of FYM at all levels, with or without fertilizers, caused significant (p<0.05) increase in DTPA-Zn, the effect being more pronounced at higher levels. Maximum DTPA- zinc (0.97 mg/kg) in soil was observed in the treatment RDF+FYM@ 22.5 t/ha. Increase in level of FYM application increased the water soluble, sorbed, easily reducible manganese bound, carbonate bound and organic bound fractions of Zn significantly (p<0.05), but decreased residual fractions in soil compared to that of RDF and absolute control treatments. All the fractions except residual one had positive and significant correlation with each other indicating the existence of a dynamic equilibrium among them. DTPA-Zn was positively and significantly (p<0.01) correlated with soil OC, WS, SORB, ERMn, CA, OM and Fe and Alox fractions (r= 0.683,0.603,0.683,0.702,0.777,0.678 and 0.476 respectively) in soil. The treatment receiving RDF+FYM @ 22.5 t/ha excelled over others with respect to grain and straw yield (3.028 t/ha and 1.890 t/ha respectively) of finger millet. Thus, keeping in view the availability of Zn in soil and yield of finger millet, FYM @22.5 t/ha supplemented with RDF was found to be the superior one.
Keywords : Crop yield, Forms of Zn, Labile pool, Organics, Transformations
Efficacy of different bio-pesticides against sucking pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)
Suraj Sarkar1*, Sandip Patra2 and A. Samanta3
1Cooch Behar Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165, (West Bengal), INDIA
2Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam -793103 (Meghalaya), INDIA
3Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Abstract : The field experiment was carried out in the pre-kharif season of 2013 at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India to evaluate the efficacy of different bio-pesticides against sucking pests of okra. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications for each treatment. The treatments viz. annonin 1% EC, karanjin 2% EC, Azadirachtin 1% EC, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii , Beauveria bassiana , Bacillus thuringiensis var Kurstaki, spinosad 45 % SC and imidacloprid 17.8% SL were applied at 15 days interval starting from seedling stage when whitefly and jassid infestation started. Results revealed that the overall best performance of insecticides against whitefly was recorded in imidacloprid treated plots with lowest mean population of whitefly (3.91 whitefly/15 leaves) followed by karanjin (4.16 whitefly/15 leaves) and azadirachtin (5.16 whitefly/15 leaves while the order of efficacy aginst jassid were imidacloprid (15.27 jassids/15 leaves) > karanjin (33.91jassids/15leaves)>azadirachtin(40.38jassids/15leaves). Effectiveness of test insecticides on the yield of okra was spinosad>Bt>B. bassiana>azadirachtin>imidacloprid>annonin>karanjin>M. anisopliae.
Keywords : Annonin, Azadirachtin, Jassid, Karanjin, Whitefly.
Effect of integrated nutrient management and spacing on seed quality parameters of black gram cv. Lbg-625 (rashmi)
N. Amruta , P. J. Devaraju, Mangalagowri, S. P. Kiran, H. P. Ranjitha and Kalavati Teli
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru- 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted to assess the response of nutrient levels and spacing on seed quality attributes of black gram cv. LBG-625 (Rashmi). Experimental results revealed that fertilizer application of 50:100:100 + Black gram rhizobia (250 g ha-1) + PSB- Bacillus megaterium (250 g ha-1) recorded highest test weight (39.27 g), germination (90.60%), root length (15.77 cm), shoot length (13.43 cm), mean seedling length (29.20 cm), mean seedling dry weight (57.99 mg), seedling vigour index-I (2656), seedling vigour index-II (525), total dehydrogenase activity (0.998), protein content (23.16%), field emergence (86.56 %) lowest electrical conductivity (0.813 dSm-1) were superior over other fertilizer treatments. Among the planting geometry 60 x 10 cm recorded more germination per cent (90.48 %) compared to 45 x 10 cm (87.64 %) and 30 x 10 cm (86.91 %). Interaction of nutrient levels and spacing through the application of 50:100:100 + black gram rhizobia (250 g ha-1) + PSB- B. megaterium (250 g ha-1) with planting geometry 60 x 10 cm recorded more mean seedling length (34.40 cm), mean seedling dry weight (58.30 mg),and field emergence (90.24 %) lowest electrical conductivity (0.776 dSm-1) compared to control. The application of 50:100:100 + Black gram rhizobia (250 g ha-1) + PSB- B. megaterium (250 g ha-1) with planting geometry 60 x 10 cm were considered as seed quality improvement approach in blackgram, therefore conjunctive use of inorganic fertilizers and biofertilizer may be suggested for higher seed quality parameters along with overall betterment of crop.
Keywords : Black gram, rhizobia, PSB- Bacillus megaterium, nutrient levels
Muneer Ahmad Dar*, Rajinder Raina, Arshad Hussain Mir, Pawan Kumar Verma and Mahrukh Ahmad
Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology-Jammu-181102 (J & K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The aim of present study was to unravel the protective role of vitamin C on oxidative stress parameters in lung homogenates of bifenthrin intoxicated rats. Rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control while group II animals were treated with bifenthrin @ 5.8mg/Kg/day. In group III, vitamin C was orally administered @ 60 mg/Kg/day whereas group IV received both vitamin C and bifenthrin @60 mg/Kg/day and 5.8mg/Kg/day respectively. After 30th day of treatment, lung samples were taken and analysed for oxidative stress parameters. Significant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation was observed from control value of 4.80±0.39 to 7.90±0.50 in bifenthrin treated animals. Mean control values of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were 0.55±0.05, 0.98±0.03 and 138.70±6.01 which were significantly (P<0.05) decreased to values of 0.27±0.0, 0.53±0.05 and 91.10±9.70 respectively in bifenthrin treated animals. The value of GST increased significantly (p<0.05) to 1.05±0.06 in bifenthrin administered animals from control value of 0.70±0.08. Pre-treatment with vitamin C in ameliorative group IV significantly restored the normal values of lipid peroxidation, SOD, GST and CAT but could not reverse the decreased values of GSH-Px. The present research is first of its type where in free radical generation due to bifenthrin –a commonly used insecticide was evaluated in lung homogenates when given orally which might be due to residues present in the lung. Besides it will be helpful in better understanding of toxicological profile of pyrethoids, the most commonly used insecticides.
Keywords : Bifenthrin, Oxidative stress, Rats, Vitamin C
Genetic analysis of grain yield and its contributing traits for their implications in improvement of bread wheat cultivars
Pradeep Kumar*, Gyanendra Singh, Sarvan Kumar, Anuj Kumar and Ashish Ojha
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (UP), INDIA
Division of crop improvement, Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Genetic analysis was carried out in 55 genotypes (10 parents and 45 F1s) through diallel mating design excluding reciprocals in bread wheat. Analysis of variance showed appreciable variability among the breeding material for almost all the traits under study. The highest value of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was found for flag leaf area (PCV=18.82, GCV=17.74), biological yield (PCV=12.98, GCV=11.70), grain yield (PCV=11.90, GCV=10.39) and harvest index (PCV=10.39, GCV=10.05). Highest heritability with highest genetic advance was estimated for flag leaf area (h2=52.24, GA=34.64), biological yield (h2=15.04, GA=21.71), harvest index (h2=18.19, GA=20.01), peduncle length (h2=31.72, GA=15.96) and spikelets per spike (h2=34.92, GA=12.96), therefore selection will be effective based on these traits. Grain yield was found significantly correlated (at <1% level of significance) with productive tillers (gr=0.3283**, pr=0.4347**), spike length (gr=0.1959**, pr=0.2203**), spikelets per spike (gr=0.4342**, pr=0.3813**), grains per spike (gr=0.7188**, pr=0.4918**), biological yield (gr=0.6101**, pr=0.6616**), harvest index (gr=0.3518**, pr=0.3227**) and thousand grain weight (gr=0.5232**, pr=0.3673**). Similarly path coefficient analysis estimates for biological yield (g=1.0524, p=1.0554), harvesting index (g=0.8862, p=0.8291), thousand grain weight (g=0.0588, p=0.0269), grains per spike (g=0.0496, p=0.0074), spike length (g=0.0209, p=0.0289), days to maturity (g=0.0142, p=0.0127), productive tillers (g=0.0186, p=0.0147), peduncle length (g=0.0123, p=0.0157), days to 50% flowering (g=0.0093, p=0.0072) and plant height (g=0.0042, p=0.0020) showed high positive direct effects on grain yield indicating that due importance should be given to these traits during selection for high yield.
Keywords : Bread wheat, Correlation, Diallel analysis, Heritability and Path coefficient
Assessment of Penicillium bilaii inoculation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for improving growth, yield and phosphorus availability in Mollisols of India
Santosh Chandra Bhatt1*, Sovan Debnath2, Navneet Pareek1
1Department of Soil Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2ICAR–Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Regional Station, Mukteshwar, Nainital – 263138 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was carried out with an aim to study the influence of two strains of Penicillium bilaii (PB -201 and PB-208) inoculation along with superphosphate application on growth, yield and P uptake of wheat (cv. PBW-343) and, also to examine the inoculation effect on P availability, forms of P and soil properties in Mollisols of Uttarakhand, India. The results showed that both strains of P. bilaii effectively solubilized tri-calcium phosphate in Pikovskaya agar medium, which was much higher over native fungal isolates. Wheat seed inoculation with P. bilaii strains along with superphosphate levels significantly influenced shoot height, shoot dry weight, number of total and effective tillers, yield attributes, yield components, tissue content and uptake of P. The treatment T7 (P. bilaii, strain PB-208 + 50% P) has resulted into the highest amount of shoot height (87.9 cm at 90 DAS), shoot dry weight (1.5 and 3.8 g at 60 and 90 DAS, respectively), grain (66.8 q ha-1) and straw yield (42.7 q ha-1) and P uptake (26.5 kg ha-1). The Olsen-P, organic carbon, dehydrogenase activity and fungal populations also increased in soil inoculated with P. bilaii strains combined with superphosphate application compared to the control soil. The conjoint use of the fungal strains with or, without P fertilization has developed an antagonistic interaction that has caused decline in yield, tissue content and uptake of P and its availability in soil. In conclusion, it is possible to reduce the rate of soluble P-fertilizer added by 50% without reducing yield, if wheat is inoculated with P-solubilizing fungi like P. bilaii.
Keywords : Mollisols, Penicillium bilaii, Phosphorus, P-solubilizing fungi, Wheat
Studies on production potential of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in sodic soil under varying agronomic manipulations
Angrej Ali1* and B. P. Singh2
1Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura Campus, Sopore-193201 (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA
2Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Present study aimed to evaluate the production potential of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in sodic soil (pH 8.56) under varying plant spacing and soil fertility levels. The spacing treatments were S1-75 x 60 cm, S2-75 x 75 cm and S3-90 x 75 cm, while native soil fertility was manipulated through the application of NPK fertilizers i.e. F0-control (no NPK fertilizers), F1 - 60:40:40, F2 - 80:60:60, and F3 - 100:80:80 kg NPK ha-1. Two year’s data from the study revealed that spacing and NPK treatment had significant effect on vegetative growth and fruit yield during both the years. Closest spacing (75 x 60 cm) resulted tallest plants (103.41 and 100.35 cm) and maximum fruit yield (86.69 and 83.56 q ha-1), but this treatment was statistically at par with 75 x 75 cm spacing. Widest spacing (90 x 75cm) resulted maximum number of branches (34.14 and 32.49 plant-1), number of leaves (167.31 and 162.70 plant-1) and average fruit weight (9.26 and 9.18 g), but was statistically at par with 75 x 75 cm spacing. Amongst the fertilizer treatments, application of NPK @100:80:80 kg ha-1 resulted maximum plant height (114.88 and 11.65 cm), number of branches (35.78 and 34.82 plant-1), number of leaves (174.82 and 172.55 plant-1), fruit weight (9.62 and 9.57 g) and fruit yield (101.08 and 98.08 q ha-1). Biochemical quality of fruits (TSS, ascorbic acid, acidity, and reducing, non-reducing and total sugars) was increased due to increased fertility level and recorded maximum with the application of 100:80:80 kg NPK ha-1. These findings will be helpful in exploring cape gooseberry cultivation in sodic soils (pH 8.56) through suitable agronomic manipulations in plant spacing and soil fertility levels.
Keywords : Cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, Productivity, Soil fertility, Spacing, Vegetative growth
Evaluation of fungal pathogens, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Ravenel and Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher against red spider mite, Tetranychus neocaledoni-cus (Andre) of okra under laboratory and greenhouse conditions
R. R. Rachana1 ⃰, G. T. Jayasimha2, V. Richa and M. Manjunatha3
1Division of Insect Systematics, National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru-560024 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Department of Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625104 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
3Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Shimoga-577204 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Efficacy of fungal pathogens, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Ravenel and Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was evaluated against red spider mite, Tetranychus neocaledonicus (Andre) of okra under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Among the treatments evaluated under laboratory conditions, the highest mortality of 78.20 and 88.34 percent adults and immatures, respectively was recorded at 2.10 x 109 spores per ml of F. semitectum, whereas it was 82.05 and 92.31 per cent adults and immatures, respectively in case of H. thompsonii at 4.60 x 108 spores per ml. Among the twelve treatments evaluated under greenhouse conditions, H. thompsonii 4.60 x 108 spores per ml, F. semitectum 2.10 x 109 spores per ml + H. thompsonii 4.60 x 108 spores per ml, H. thompsonii 4.60 x 108 spores per ml + dicofol 0.025% and F. semitectum 2.10 x 109 spores per ml + H. thompsonii 4.60 x 108 spores per ml + dicofol 0.025% were found to be on par with each other with a cumulative percent mortality of 81.20, 81.48, 81.21 and 82.59 percent, respectively. By testing the field efficacy of F. semitectum and H. thompsonii against T. neocaledonicus, these fungal pathogens can be used as potential biocontrol agents for the sustainable management of mites on okra. Hence the present study evaluates the potentiality of F. semitectum for the management of T. neocaledonicus by comparing with the well-known acaricidal fungus, H. thompsonii.
Keywords : Fusarium semitectum, Hirsutella thompsonii, Okra, Pathogenicity, Tetranychus neocaledonicus
Symbiotic characters, thermal requirement, growth, yield and economics of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes sown at different dates under Punjab conditions
Guriqbal Singh*, Harpreet Kaur, Navneet Aggarwal, Hari Ram, K. K. Gill and Veena Khanna
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab- 141004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during kharif (rainy season) 2008 and 2009 at research farm of the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, to study the effect of four/three sowing dates (1 May, 15 May, 1 June and 15 June in 2008 and 15 May, 1 June and 15 June in 2009) on the symbiotic characters, thermal requirement, growth, productivity and economics of four pigeonpea genotypes (AL 201, AL 1507, AL 1578 and AL 1593). Days taken to 50% flowering, physiological maturity, and various agroclimatic indices i.e. AGDD, AHTU, APTU and HUE decreased with delay in sowing. The crop sown on 15 May recorded the highest nodule dry weight plant-1. The grain yield was significantly higher for the 15 May sowing compared to the 15 June sowing. During the two years, the crop sown on 15 May registered on average 6.7 and 48.0 percent higher grain yield than the 1 June and 15 June sowings, respectively. The crop sown on 15 May gave the maximum gross returns, net returns and benefit-cost (B:C) ratio. Among the genotypes, AL 1507 recorded the highest nodule number plant-1 and AL 1578 recorded the maximum nodule dry weight plant-1. Genotypes AL 1507, AL 1578 and AL 1593 registered on average 19.4, 19.2 and 20.0 percent higher grain yield relative to AL 201, respectively. The genotype AL 1507 in 2008 and AL 1593 in 2009 performed better in terms of heat use efficiency for grain yield.
Keywords : Agroclimatic indices, Economics, Genotypes, Nodulation, Sowing dates
R. Rejitha1, K. P. Asifa1 and K. C. Chitra1*
1Department of Zoology, University of Calicut, Malappuram-673635 (Kerala), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study was aimed to investigate that bisphenol A, an environmental estrogen, exposed at 648 µg/ L concentration for 96 h could induce reactive oxygen species in brain of cichlid fish, Etroplus maculatus. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase showed a reduction in the activities at 5% level of significance with concomitant increase in the level of hydrogen peroxide generation (from 1.546 ± 0.426 (control), 1.506 ± 0.217 (DMSO) to 1.888 ± 0.368 (24 h), 5.332 ± 0.589 (72 h), 2.392 ± 0.341 (96 h)) and lipid peroxidation (from 2.805 ± 0.33 (control), 2.401 ± 0.309 (DMSO) to 3.596 ±0.373 (24 h), 5.65 ± 0.306 (72 h), 3.834 ± 0.236 (96 h)). The brain marker enzyme, acetylcholinesterase decreased at 24, 72 and 96 h in time-dependent manner than that of control groups. The present findings summarize that the increased production of oxygen free radicals due to the exposure of an environmental estrogen, bisphenol A at sub lethal concentration (648 µg/ L) for 96 h inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzymes thereby induced oxidative stress in brain of fish. The decreased activity of brain marker enzyme, acetylcholinesterase reflect the neurotoxicity of bisphenol A in brain of fish, Etroplus maculatus and this could be one of the possible mechanisms of bisphenol A-induced neurodevelopmental disorders in fish.
Keywords : Acetyl cholinesterase, Bisphenol A, Brain, Etroplus maculatus, Oxidative stress, ROS
Tamoghna Saha1*, Mohmmad Ansar2, C. Nithya3, and S. N. Ray1
1Department of Entomology, , Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA
2Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA
3Division of Entomology, India Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : To investigate the response due to application of newer insecticide on sucking pest in okra, a trial was designed at field level for three consecutive years from 2011 -12 to 2013-14 in kharif season. Moreover, impacts of applied insecticides on natural enemies were also assessed. Based on experimental finding thiamethoxam 25WG 0.003% (2.83 per 3 leaves, 0.93 per 3 leaves), imidacloprid 70 WG 0.004% (3.49 per 3 leaves, 1.30 per 3 leaves) and thiacloprid 21.7 SC 0.006% (4.28 per 3 leaves, 1.75 per 3 leaves) provided superior control of leafhoppers and whiteflies population on okra. Effectiveness of these treatments was reflected in terms of reduction in population of both insects and significantly increases (thiamethoxam: 95.50 q/ha, imidacloprid: 86.96 q/ha and thiacloprid: 80.99 q/ha) the fruit yield in comparison to others. However, the incidence of Yellow Vein Mosaic disease was recorded least in thiamethoxam 0.003% sprayed plots followed by imidacloprid 0.004%. Slow progress in the population of whitefly and leafhopper was recorded in thiamethoxam 0.003% applied plots. There was positive correlation between whitefly and virus incidence in conducted field trial. Under the experiment, neonicotinoids group of insecticides have not adverse effect on natural enemies in okra crop. The information generated under the study can be incorporated in management modules in crop okra without disturbing the ecology of natural enemy and cropping system. In our findings, the quantitative data of temporal increment of whiteflies and mosaic disease will be helpful in understanding or formulating of epidemiological models.
Keywords : Insecticides, Leafhoppers, Natural enemies, Okra, Whiteflies
Influence of active packaging on quality attributes of dried wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils during storage
A. Sharma* and N. S. Thakur
Department of Food Science and Technology (FST), Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Wild pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is the only wild fruit of foothills of Himalaya which has got commercial importance in North India because of the high acidic nature of its arils. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate best packaging material for storage of mechanical cabinet dried wild pomegranate arils. The freshly extracted arils were pre-treated to check the browning and dried in mechanical cabinet drier at 60 + 2oC. Dried arils packed in different packaging material with or without moisture absorbers (salt or sugar sachet) were stored under ambient conditions (18 to 28oC) for 6 months. Although the slight changes in quality attributes of dried arils during storage were observed but the arils packed in Aluminium Laminated Pouch (ALP) containing salt (humectant) showed minimum increase in moisture (8.82 %), non enzymatic browning (0.05 OD), hydroxy methyl furfural (2.85 ppm), furfurals (20.11 ppb) and retained highest amount of titratable acidity (10.92 %), total sugars (24.20 %), ascorbic acid (11.75 mg/100g), anthocyanins (30.81 mg/100g) and phenols (112.38 mg/100g) among all packaging material. So, ALP can be used as a packaging material for the packaging of dried arils (anardana, Indian spice) on commercial scale. Putting of moisture absorber along with the arils inside the pouch as an active packaging system will be an additional advantage to retain the quality of anardana during storage.
Keywords : Active packaging, Anardana, Drying mode, Storage, Wild pomegranate
Process optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction parameters for extraction of deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves
V. Ramya1, Udaykumar Nidoni1*, Sharangouda Hiregoudar1, C. T. Ramachandra1, J. Ashoka2 and V. Lavanya 1
1Department. of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA.
2Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the present study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technology was applied to extract deoxynojirimycin (1 -DNJ) from mulberry leaf powder using carbon dioxide (CO2) as major extraction solvent with ethanol as cosolvent, and extraction parameters such as pressure (100, 150 and 200 bar), temperature (40, 50 and 60°C) and dynamic extraction time (40, 60 and 80 min) were systematically investigated by full factorial design to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency and extraction yield. Under optimized conditions (pressure of 200 bar, temperature of 50°C and dynamic extraction time of 80 min), DNJ enriched extract was obtained with high extraction efficiency (96.46 %) and extraction yield (13.41 %), enabling this product to use for nutraceutical purpose. The results indicated that SC-CO2 extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering the bioactive compounds from mulberry leaves.
Keywords : Carbon dioxide, Deoxynojirimycin, Extraction efficiency, Extraction yield, Mulberry, Supercritical fluid extraction
Archana Rani*, M. Kumar and Sanjeev Kumar1
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, (FBS & H), Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa-848125 (Bihar), INDIA
1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidayalaya Jabalpur- 482004 (M.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An efficient protocol for callus induction of Withania somnifera through in vitro culture of shoot apex and leaf explant was standardized. Of the various combinations of phytohormones evaluated, MS media supplemented with 6-furfuryl aminopurine (KIN) 0.5 mg/l + 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) 2.0 mg/l was found to be best for mean callus induction (86%) in leaf explants after 6 weeks of culture and in case of shoot apex explant the best response and growth of callusing was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D 1.0 mg/l + BAP 2.0 mg/l (77%).The response of callus growth increases gradually with the reductions in concentration of KIN in culture medium of both the explants. This protocol might be used in further research for mass propagation of W. somnifera via indirect regeneration methods.
Keywords : Callus induction, Leaf and shoot apex explants, Withania somnifera explant
Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from Syzygium cumini and their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens
Preeti Saini1*, Madhurama Gangwar1, Anu Kalia2, Narinder Singh3 and Deepti Narang4
1Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
2Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience Laboratory, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
3Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
4Department of Microbiology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes is an important step to screen antimicrobial compounds to curb the threat of drug-resistant strains of human pathogens. Out of the 50 endophytic actinomycetes obtained from surface sterilized root, stem and leaf tissues of Syzygium cumini, 50 isolates (30%) exhibited antimicrobial activity. Antistaphylococcal activity was displayed by most of the isolates, with maximum percent inhibition by J -10 (Mean of Inhibition Factor=12.12 mm2). A total of 8 isolates (4 each) were able to hydrolyse protein (proteinase activity) and solubilize chitin (chitinase activity). Results of thin layer chromatography confirm the production of chloramphenicol family |antibiotic by the isolate J-5. This is the first report providing an insight into untapped endophytic actinomycete milieu of Syzygium cumini yet to be explored which might be a promising source for novel antimicrobial agents.
Keywords : Antagonism, Chitinase, Protease, SEM, Syzygium cumini, TLC
Productivity enhancement and popularization of improved production technologies in wheat through frontline demonstrations
Vivek Sharma, Vijay Kumar*, S.C. Sharma and Sukhvinder Singh
Regional Research Station for Kandi Area (Punjab Agricultural University), Ballowal Saunkhri, Teh. Balachaur, SBS Nagar- 144521 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Front line demonstrations (FLDs) on wheat were conducted on 150 farmers’ fields to demonstrate the impact of drought tolerant rainfed varieties (PBW 175 & PBW 644) and other improved practices techniques (supplemental irrigation and sowing with seed drill) on production and economic benefits in the kandi region of Punjab state during rabi seasons from 2011 -12 to 2013-14 under rainfed situation. The improved production technologies recorded additional mean yield of 27.8 q/ha and 28.4 q/ha for rainfed varieties and other improved practices. The per cent average increase in yield of rainfed over local cultivars was 35.3, while 29.1 for other improved practices. The average extension gap, technology gap and technology index were 7.3 q/ha, 8.4 q/ha and 22.5 per cent, respectively in different varieties. FLDs recorded higher B:C ratio of 2.32 and 2.52 for rainfed varieties and other improved practices, respectively. The FLDs conducted on improved technologies during the present study resulted in enhancement of yield, net returns and also increased the knowledge of the farmers. Thus, productivity of wheat could be increased by adopting recommended improved management practices with a suitable high yielding variety under rainfed conditions. The present study resulted in convincing the farming community about potentialities of improved production management technologies of wheat in productivity enhancement and for further adoption by the farming community.
Keywords : FLDs, Rainfed, Supplemental irrigation, Seed drill, Wheat
M. Kumar1, A. Sarangi2*, D. K. Singh3, A.R. Rao4, S. Sudhishri5
1Division of Agricultural Engineering, Pusa Campus, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi -110012, INDIA
2,3,5Water Technology Centre, Pusa Campus, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi -110012, INDIA
4 Biometrics Division, ICAR-IASRI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment with split-split plot design (SSPD) was conducted to study the response of two winter wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) cultivars (viz. salt tolerant cultivar KRL-1 -4 and salt non-tolerant cultivar HD-2894) under saline irrigation regimes with and without foliar potassium fertilization on growth and grain yield of wheat during rabi 2011 -12 and 2012-13. Potassium in the ratio of K+: Na+ (1: 10) was applied as foliar application during the heading stage of the crop. Results showed that the grain yield of KRL-1 -4 and HD-2894 cultivars with foliar potassium fertilization at the heading stage increased by 6.5 to 22% and 3 to 15% during rabi 2011 -2012, respectively under different saline irrigation regimes as compared to the control. Moreover, the results of rabi 2012-13 showed an increase in grain yield ranging from 4.5 to 20% for KRL-1 -4 as compared to the control. Statistical analysis of grain yield parameter showed that the foliar potassium application in both varieties resulted in significant yield difference at 0.05 probability level as compared to the non-foliar application. Overall, it was observed that the foliar potassium fertilization increased the grain yield of both wheat cultivars, while the salt tolerant cultivar performed better than the salt non-tolerant cultivar under irrigated saline regimes.
Keywords : Foliar potassium fertilization; Saline water; Salt-tolerant cultivar; Surface irrigation; Wheat yield
Tarak Nath Goswami*, Munna Yadav, Anil and Shree Niwash Ray
Department of Entomology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 813210, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Spiders act as one of the most important defenders in paddy ecosystem and there are several families of those with different habits. The question on the effect of chemical application in comparison to the non chemical option on different spider families in the zone under study was attempted for getting answer. For that purpose, the field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2014 for studying spider abundance in chemical versus non-chemical treatments. Chemical based treatment consisted of the application of Phorate 10G at 10 days after transplanting (DAT), followed by spraying with Imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 45 DAT, and dusting of Methyl Parathion 2D at 80 DAT. Transplanting of rice following skip row technique, sowing of okra, cowpea, sesame & balsam on the surrounding bunds, retention of weeds on the bunds, single inoculative release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 1,00,000 at 35 DAT, and use of pheromone (Scirpophaga incertulus lure)-cum -light trap @ 10 traps ha-1 were integrated together in non chemical based treatment. The results revealed that the population of wolf spiders and long jawed spiders were statistically higher during all the seven dates of observation in non-chemical based approach. Amongst Araneid spiders, non-chemical based approach recorded significantly higher population at 60, 75 and 90 DAT. On the basis of overall mean, the non-chemical treatment had significantly higher population of spiders belonging to most of the families except Thomisidae. The mean population of spiders across the families varied from 1.06 to 12.0 and 0.54 to 6.66 per double sweep per sub plot in non-chemical based and chemical based treatment, respectively. Thus, the study confirms the safety of the non-chemical based approach in maintaining significantly higher level of spider population.
Keywords : Non-chemical, Pest management, Paddy, Spiders
Evaluation of fungicides for the control of Sclerotinia stem rot of Indian mustard caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary
Rakesh*, A.S. Rathi, Anil Kumar and Hawa Singh
Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The current investigation was carried out under -in vitro and under sick plot conditions of the Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to test the efficacy of different fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The experiment was carried out through poison food technique under in vitro conditions and through foliar sprays under sick plot conditions. Efficacy of fungicides in vitro against S. sclerotiorum showed that carbendazim and hexaconazole completely inhibited mycelial growth up to 100 per cent at 50 ppm concentration. Propiconazole inhibited 96.39 per cent mycelial growth at 50 ppm and 100 per cent at 1000 ppm, while tricyclazole failed to inhibit mycelial growth up to 100 ppm, however, at 1000 ppm concentration, there was 100 per cent mycelial inhibition. Mancozeb and captan completely inhibited up to 100 per cent mycelial growth at 500 ppm concentration. Copper oxychloride and pencycuron were not effective at lower concentrations but had inhibited 45.28 and 22.50 per cent mycelial growth at 1000 ppm. Field experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of those fungicides which were found best under in vitro conditions. All the four fungicides tested significantly controlled Sclerotinia stem rot disease and increased the seed yield as compared to untreated control. Two Foliar sprays with hexaconazole @ 0.05% at 45 and 60 days after sowing was found most effective in controlling disease incidence up to 78.3 per cent and increasing seed yield up to 37.6 per cent as compared to untreated control.
Keywords : Fungicides, Mycelia growth, Sclerotinia stem rot, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Seed polymer coating with Zn and Fe nanoparticles: An innovative seed quality enhancement technique in pigeonpea
Pradeep Korishettar1*, S. N. Vasudevan1, N. M. Shakuntala1, S. R. Doddagoudar1, Sharanagouda Hiregoudar2 and B. Kisan3
1Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Department of Processing and Food Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA
3Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A laboratory study was undertaken to know the effect of seed polymer coating with Zn and Fe nanoparticles (NPs) at different concentration (10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) in pigeonpea at Department of Seed Science and Technology, UAS, Raichur. Among the treatments seed polymer coating with Zn NPs at 750 ppm recorded significantly higher seed germination (96.00 %), seedling length (26.63 cm), seedling dry weight (85.00 mg), speed of germination (32.95), field emergence (89.67 %), seedling vigour index (2556), dehydrogenase activity (0.975 OD value) and α-amylase activity (25.67 mm) and lowest abnormal seedlings (2.50 %) over their bulk forms and control followed by Fe and Zn NPs at 500 ppm. However, in contrast to beneficial effects, these NPs also shown inhibitory effect on germination and seedling growth at higher concentration (nano Zn >750 ppm and nano Fe > 500 ppm). Hence, from the results it is concluded that Zn NPs at 750 ppm can be used to enhance quality of the pigeonpea seeds.
Keywords : Fe, Nanoparticles, Pigeonpea, Seed polymer coating, Zn
Anil Kumar Rohila*, B. S. Ghanghas, P. S. Shehrawat and Pawan Kumar
Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study has focused on socio economic profile, adoption level of Direct seeded rice (DSR) farmers and extension strategy to increase the adoption of DSR cultivation in Haryana (India). More than half of respondents (51.66 %) belonged to the middle age group 36-50 years and maximum 21.67 per-cent farmer qualification found metric. Majority of the farmers (50.83 percent) had low level of socio-economic. Economic motivation of farmers was 70.83 percent belonged to low to moderate level, whereas 67.5 percent of respondents belonged moderate to high innovation proneness. The overall adoption level of DSR technology was low to moderate, since 70 per-cent of respondents belonged to low to medium category.
Keywords : Adoption Level, Conventional method, Direct Seeded Rice, Socio economic status
Biochemical estimation and cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach on different casing materials and bio-inoculant Pseudomonas putida
Rakhi Murmu1* and Abhilasha A. Lal2
Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, 211007 (U. P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This study was carried out during 2012-2014 to determine the effect of locally available casing materials with association of bio-inoculant Pseudomonas putida. Six different combinations of casing mixtures were amended for evaluating its effect on yield, biological efficiency, protein and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus. A mixture of FYM + GLS + Vermi-compost + P. putida gave higher mushroom yield, biological efficiency, protein and carbohydrate content. It gave better yield (1306 g), biological efficiency (28.7%), protein (34.07%) and carbohydrate content (5.07%) respectively when compared with other treatments. In addition, waste tea leaves took minimum period (33.00 days) for initiation of pin head when compared with others. Locally available casing materials along with P. putida incorporated in the casing soil can be an important factor to obtain maximum and assured yield in mushroom cultivation.
Keywords : Agaricus bisporus, Pseudomonas putida, Vermicompost, Waste tea leaves
Effects of agro-chemicals practices in economic production of cabbage in valley districts of Manipur, India
Sonia Sagolsem*, N. Ram Singh, and Y. Chakrabarty Singh
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal–795004 (Manipur), India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Present investigation was conducted in Thoubal district and Imphal East district of Manipur, India to assemble the information about the economics of cabbage production, checking the practices done by farmers while using agro-chemicals and identifying the problems encountered by the producers in cabbage production. NPK was the most popular inorganic fertilizer amongst farmers. As such 59 farms applied fertilizer twice and 26 farms applied more than twice before harvesting. Different irrigation practices were encountered where use of pipes was more popular (53 farms) relative to the use of bucket irrigation (32 farms). Hoeing or hand fork were the most efficient tools for weed management (66 farms) followed by hand picking (21 farms). Majority of the farmers (79 farms) applied insecticides to control insect pest and fungicides as the major means of diseases management (78 farms). Overall the average cost of cultivation was worked out to be Rs. 18007.18 farm-1 with the cost of large farms much higher than the small farms which is estimated as Rs. 26827.12 farm-1 and Rs. 12126.35 farm-1 respectively. The main problems faced by farmers were pest and diseases problems, insufficient irrigation, inadequate electricity for irrigation, infertility of soil, non-availability of fertilizers in time and suitable plant protection chemicals. The study concluded that cabbage farmer misused pesticides in terms of its types and quantity used in order to increase its production. In addition, consumers were exposed to high pesticide residue levels due to limited or no waiting period before cabbage heads were harvested.
Keywords : Agro-chemicals, Cabbage, Fungicides, Inorganic fertilizer, Insecticides
J. B. Patel*, J. D. Ukani, C. A. Babariya and P. S. Ramani
Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362001 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An experiment was carried out at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, to characterize 28 wheat varieties of different species [17 varieties (MP 4010, HI 1500, HI 1531, HI 1544, GW 1, GW 503, DL 788-2, HD 2932, GW 11, GW 173, GW 190, GW 273, LOK 1, GW 322, MP 3288, GW 366 and GW 496) of Triticum aestivum, 9 varieties (HI 8381, HI 8498, HI 8627, HI 8713, A 28, A 206, GDW 1255, GW 1139 and RAJ 1555) of Triticum durum and 2 varieties (DDK 1025, DDK 1029) of Triticum dicoccum)] released for general cultivation in Gujarat at state level as well as at the National level in Central India based on the seed morphological characters. Based on the seed colour, the varieties were grouped into amber (25), white (1) and red (2). On the basis of seed shape, wheat varieties were separated into round (2) ovate (7), oblong (12) and elliptical (7). On the basis of seed size, varieties were grouped into medium seed size (5), bold seed size (15) and very bold seed size (8). On the basis of seed hardness, varieties were grouped into soft (1), semi-hard (7) and hard (20). Based on the seed germ width, varieties were grouped into medium (15), wide (9) and narrow (4) seed germ width types. The varieties were grouped based on the seed crease into three groups, as medium (11), shallow (12) and deep (5) grain crease types. Based on the brush hair length, wheat varieties were grouped as short (17), medium (7) and long (4) brush hair length types.
Keywords : Characterization, Morphology, Seed, T. aestivum, T. dicoccum, T. durum, Wheat
Egg shell morphology of an amblyceran louse, Hohorstiella rampurensis (Phthiraptera) infesting ring dove, Streptopelia decaocta
Padam Singh, Jagirti Madan and Nidhi Gupta*
Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P. G. College, Rampur -244901 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that miniature rice grain like egg shell of Hohorstiella rampurensis was covered by obliquely placed opercular disc. The apophyses were present only on one side of the egg shell. There were 25-35 long elongated rod like apophyses (apically turned), which were arranged in 3-4 rows and occurred in pair. The nature of egg shell of H. rampurensis characteristically differed from that of H. lata (the only species of Hohorstiella studied, so far). The study further indicates about the role of egg morphology as a guide to louse taxonomy.
Keywords : Amblycera, Egg shell morphology, Lice, Microtopography, Phthiraptera
A. Sarangi1*, K. K. Bandyopadhyay2, A. Samal3, A. Pathan4
1,3, 4Water Technology Centre, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-12, India
2Division of Agricultural Physics, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi–12, India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The experiment was conducted at the research farm of the Water Technology Centre, IARI, New Delhi during rabi seasons of 2010-11and 2011-12. Irrigation treatments include irrigation applied at 50% deficit (W1) and 25 % deficit (W2) and full irrigation (W3) under recommended fertilization levels with split doses of N-fertilizer. Full irrigation treatment was based on irrigations to meet the soil moisture deficit up to the field capacity (FC) level and deficit irrigation treatments of 25% and 50% were imposed with respect to the full irrigation.The model was calibrated with experiment generated data sets of rabi 2010-11 and validated using the data set of rabi 2011-12. It was observed that the validated model performed well for grain yield prediction with absolute prediction error of 2.9%, 0.91% and 7.85% for full, 25% deficit and 50% deficit irrigation levels, respectively. Also, for prediction of biomass yield the prediction error ranged from 11.81% to 28.96% for all three irrigation treatments. Moreover, the validated model was observed to predict the water productivity with absolute prediction errors of 43.57%, 13.87% and 12.8% for full, 25% deficit and 50% deficit irrigation treatment levels, respectively. Nonetheless, it was observed from this study that the AquaCrop model can be used to simulate the grain and biomass yield for wheat crop with acceptable accuracy under different irrigation regimes in a semi-arid environment.
Keywords : AquaCrop model, Calibration, Irrigation regimes, Validation, Wheat crop
Some deformed specimens of Mystus bleekeri (Day) and Labeo bata (Ham. Buch) from the river Chenab in Pargwal wetland, Akhnoor, Jammu
S. P. S. Dutta
Emeritus Fellow (UGC), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA
Abstract : Four adult deformed specimens of Mystus bleekeri showing caudal fin deformities viz complete degenerated caudal fin, degenerated upper caudal fin lobe, degenerated lower caudal fin lobe and truncated caudal peduncle and bulbous caudal fin base and one specimen of Labeo bata with a blunt head and terminal mouth were observed among the fish collections from the river Chenab in Pragwal wetland area and have been described. Deformities in M. bleekeri are most probably caused by Myxobolus infection and in L. bata it is the result of injury.
Keywords : Deformed, Injury, Labeo bata, Mystus bleekeri, Myxobolus sp, Pragwal wetland, The River Chenab
Studies on prevalence of cestode parasites in fresh water fish, Channa punctatus from Meerut (Uttarpradesh) India
Department of Zoology D.N.P.G. College Meerut (U.P.) INDIA
Abstract : The present investigation deals with the prevalence of three cestode parasites viz. Lytocestus sp., Proteocephalus sp. and Gangesia sp. collected from the intestine of a freshwater fish Channa punctatus in different blocks of Meerut region (U.P.) India during June, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 125 parasites were collected throughout the year. The high incidence of infection of all these species Lytocestus sp., Proteocephalus sp., Gangesia sp. was recorded in summer season (70.83%, 77.27% and 72 % respectively) followed by winter season (63.63%, 57.89% and 52.38% respectively) whereas infection was low in monsoon season (36.84%, 27.78% and 23.52% respectively). The present study clearly indicates that the intensity of infection throughout the year was found highest in summer season followed by winter and lowest in monsoon. Findings show that beginning of the breeding period, feeding habitat, presence of intermediate host and environmental factors are influencing the seasonality of cestode parasitic infection.
Keywords : Prevalence, parasite, cestode, Channa punctatus, Lytocestus, Proteocephalus, Gangesia
Impact of climate change and anthropogenic interventions on natural vis-à-vis human resources in Kashmir, India–An overview
Peerzada Ishtiyak1*, Mohan Reddy2, Shiv Panse, Irfan Wani3 and Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer4
1Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology (SKUAST) Kashmir (J&K) INDIA
2Temperate Institute of Sustainable Innovations, New Delhi, INDIA
3DFO, J&K Forest Department. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology (SKUAST) Kashmir (J&K) INDIA
4Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology (SKUAST) Kashmir (J&K) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Climate change is one of the biggest challenges the world is facing today and it has the potential to create havoc with the agrarian livelihoods across the globe. Therefore, this paper attempts to explain the probable impacts of human induced climate change on natural resources in Kashmir, India. An ample amount of literature was reviewed meticulously to ascertain the impacts of climatic variability on natural resources vis-a-vis agriculture, biodiversity and water bodies as well as other common issues related to human resources in Kashmir. Loss of certain indigenous food varieties (i.e. nick cheena), reduction in natural forest cover (less than 11%) and loss of important water resources has aggravated the already dilapidated situation in this most vulnerable state of India. Scientific evidences revealed that there will be more devastating climatic effects on natural resources in Kashmir- India, which will fall disproportionately on poor communities, particularly dry land farmers, forest dwellers and fishermen of the state.
Keywords : Anthropogenic pressures, Climate change, Kashmir, Natural resources
Yamuna Pandey1* and S. S. Bhatt2
1Department of Horticulture, Sikkim University, 6th mile Samdur, Sikkim-737102, INDIA
2Department of Horticulture, G.B. Pant University, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The constantly increasing demand for nutraceuticals is paralleled by a more pronounced request for natural ingredients and health-promoting foods. The multiple functional properties of Rubus ellipticus fits well in this trend. Recent data (49.5 µg/ml) revealed the high content of antioxidant and other phytochemical properties, which can give added value to this fruit on both nutritional and nutraceutical basis. With different essential compounds such as 2-Deoxy-D-ribose, potassium ferricyanide, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), L-ascorbic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, catechin, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) being present in different parts of plant a thorough research is well awaited into this underrated and underutilised plant. With no due care and agronomic operations needed, R. ellipticus may be used for varied horticultural benefits which may further reduce the surmountable pressure of few fruit crops.
Keywords : Antioxidant, Ethno Medicine, Nutraceuticals, total phenolic compound of R. ellipticus
Govt. Home Science College, Sector-10, Chandigarh-1 60010 (UT), INDIA
Abstract : Diabetes mellitus is a major source of mortality and morbidity along with an economic menace all over the world. In 2000, prevalence of diabetes worldwide was 171,000,000 and in 2030, it will be 366,000,000, nearly one in ten people globally will have some form of diabetes by 2035. There are some 382 million people living with the disease, but that could jump 55% by 2035. The total number of people in India with diabetes to be around 50.8 million in 2010, rising to 87.0 million by 2030 and it is estimated that by 2040 the numbers will increase upto 123.5 million. It has estimated that the prevalence of diabetes in rural populations is one-quarter that of urban population for India and other Indian sub-continent countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. Indian Council of Medical research (ICMR) revealed that a lower proportion of the population is affected in states of Northern India (Chandigarh 0.12 million, Jharkhand 0.96 million) as compared to Maharashtra (9.2 million) and Tamil Nadu (4.8 million). The National Urban Survey conducted across the metropolitan cities of India reported similar trend: 11.7 per cent in Kolkata (Eastern India), 6.1 per cent in Kashmir Valley (Northern India), 11.6 per cent in New Delhi (Northern India), and 9.3 per cent in West India (Mumbai) compared with (13.5 per cent in Chennai (South India), 16.6 per cent in Hyderabad (south India), and 12.4 per cent Bangalore (South India). Strengthening of health promotion activities in different settings, preventive health screening package, better treatment facilities and effective implementation can cure these problems worldwide.
Keywords : Diabetes, Insulin, Mortality, Morbidity, Polyuria
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and its applicability in aquaculture systems and aquatic animal health management: An overview
Pooja Kanyal1, Rameez Roshan P.M.2, Mohd Danish3, Anita4, Akansha khati5 and R.S.Chauhan6*
1Department of Aquatic Animal Health Management, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai- 400060, INDIA.
2Department of Fish Genetics and Breeding, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai- 400060, INDIA.
3Department of Fisheries Resource Management, College of Fisheries, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
4,5,6Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Global aquaculture production in 2012 touched new high of 90.4 million tonnes including 66.6 million tonnes of food fish and 23.8 million tonnes of aquatic algae providing 19.2 kg per capita food fish supply. Aquaculture is reported to suffer heavy production and financial losses due to fish infections caused by microbial pathogens. Therefore in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable, effective strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) is an emerging, low-cost anti-microbial approach to the treatment of locally occurring infections and also for the treatment of aquaculture water and waste waters. Already proven effective in various medical and clinical applications, it utilizes three vital components: a photosensitizing agent (PS), a light source of an appropriate wave length and oxygen. aPDT has got a potential of being a preferred choice over antibiotics in aquaculture systems because of its non-target specificity, few side effects, lack of the pathogenicity reversal and re-growth of the microorganism after treatment and the lack of development of resistance mechanisms. The technique has been proved effective in vitro against bacteria (including drug-resistant strains), yeasts, fungi, viruses, parasites and even the stubborn biofilms. Although preliminary results indicate that this technology has a high potential to disinfect waters in aquaculture system and also in hatcheries and seed production units, but it clearly needs more deep knowledge and multi-dimensional approach.
Keywords : Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, Fish farming, Photosensitizer
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