Volume 8, Year 2016- Issue 3

Contents

  1. 1 Physiological and biochemical response to higher temperature stress in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
  2. 2 Development of near isogenic lines (NILS) using backcross method of breeding and simultaneous screening against Karnal bunt disease of wheat
  3. 3 Evaluation of management of bacterial stalk rot of maize (Dickeya zeae) using some chemicals and bio-agents
  4. 4 Rainfall trend analysis and its future projection over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB) region of India during post-monsoon and winter season
  5. 5 Effect of cabinet tray dryer on Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) slices during drying process and storage study of dehydrated tomato powder
  6. 6 An application of principal component analysis for pre- harvest forecast model for rice crop based on biometrical characters
  7. 7 Sensory and nutritional evaluation of unleavened flat bread prepared by multigrain flour mixture
  8. 8 Management of false wire worm, Gonocephalum beetle (Tenebrionidae: coleoptera) in chickpea raised under residual moisture conditions
  9. 9 Interaction effect of nitrogen and vermicompost in the presence of herbicide (Clodinafop propargyl) on nitrogen transformation in a sandy soil
  10. 10 Response of different Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hybrids to canopy modification practices
  11. 11 Utilization of flower waste for the removal of chromium from tannery effluent
  12. 12 Evaluation of some plant extracts in management of dry bubble (Verticillium fungicola) disease of white button mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach]
  13. 13 Isolation, purification, and characterization of xylanase produced by three species of bacillus under submerged fermentation conditions
  14. 14 Effect of osmo air drying method on nutritional quality of peach (Prunus persica (l) batsch.) cultivars during storage
  15. 15 Effect of planting density and training on plant health and seed quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under protected conditions
  16. 16 Genetic architecture of biparental progenies for yield in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
  17. 17 Prevalence and morphological characterization of Aspergillus isolates of maize ear rot in Punjab
  18. 18 Propagation of Himalayan maple (Acer caesium Wall.) through seed and softwood cuttings
  19. 19 Species structure and diversity in Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere reserve, Central India
  20. 20 Studies on influence of modified atmospheric storage conditions on biochemical parameters in pigeonpea seeds
  21. 21 Pathomorphological changes of flunixin meglumine toxicity in layer chicks
  22. 22 Litterfall, decomposition and nutrient release patterns of different tree species in Taran Taran district of Punjab, India
  23. 23 Optimization of the process parameters in rice mill using Response surface methodology (RSM)
  24. 24 Statistical media optimization studies for growth and polydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Pseudomonas spp.
  25. 25 Effect of post harvest treatments and harvesting stage on vase life and flower quality of cut Oriental lily
  26. 26 Effect of packaging materials on the shelf-life of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie under room temperature storage
  27. 27 G × E evaluation for feed barley genotypes evaluated in country by AMMI analysis
  28. 28 Influence of agronomic practices on severity of late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans)
  29. 29 Response of NPK fertigation on pheno-physiological status of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Mosambi under high density planting
  30. 30 Semi-dwarf narrow rolled leaf mutant in rice: Photosynthetic efficiency and physiological response to gibberellic acid (GA3)
  31. 31 Effect of polyamines and natural growth substances on the growth and flowering of rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samurai under protected conditions
  32. 32 Seasonal abundance and bio-efficacy of different insecticides against castor semilooper on castor
  33. 33 Bud take success, growth and foliage characters of different Prunus cultivars on Myrocal and Julior clonal rootstock
  34. 34 Assessment of genetic diversity using DNA markers among Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson germplasm lines collected from Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand hills
  35. 35 Optimization of recipe for development of Aonla squash- A Response surface methodology approach
  36. 36 Studies on combining ability and gene action for yield and quality traits in Baby corn (Zea mays L.)
  37. 37 Heterosis in single cross inter and intra-specific hybrids of Desi cotton (Gossipium arboreum and G. herbaceaum) for their seed cotton yield, fibre quality and seed oil content
  38. 38 Development and storage characteristics of shrimp (Solenocera crassicornis) based snack food using extrusion technology
  39. 39 Effect of metabolized polyethylene terephthalate, vacuum packaging and storage temperature on shelf life of papaya pulp Kalakand (Indian cookie)
  40. 40 Assessment of insecticides and Cry2AB toxin resistance development in Karnataka population of Plutella xylostella (Linn.)
  41. 41 Effect of spacing, fertilizers and varieties on growth and yield parameters of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) Moench)
  42. 42 Partial acidulation of phosphate rock for enhanced phosphorus availability in alluvial soils of Bihar, India
  43. 43 Effect of super-optimal levels of fertilizers on soil enzymatic activities during growth stages of wheat crop on an Inceptisol
  44. 44 Genetic variability in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) genotypes through inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers
  45. 45 Performance of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) under drip irrigation and mulch
  46. 46 Genetic diversity analysis in Gladiolus genotypes (Gladiolus hybridus Hort)
  47. 47 Effect of edible coating for enhancing shelf-life and quality in Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits
  48. 48 Performance of wheat cultivars at varying fertility levels under system of wheat intensification and conventional method of wheat production system
  49. 49 Insect growth regulatory activities from oils of camphor and clove against Spilosoma obliqua
  50. 50 Growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of winter popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) as influenced by planting time fertility level and plant population under late sown condition
  51. 51 Survey, documentation and identification of entomofauna of cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. in major cocoa growing regions of South India
  52. 52 Population dynamics of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) on Citrus reticulate (Mandarin) var. Kinnow as influenced by weather conditions
  53. 53 Three decades of using of gypsum under sodic water irrigation in coarse textured soils
  54. 54 Growth and yield of transplanted rice as affected by different cultivars and weed management practices
  55. 55 Effect of foliar application of zinc and salicylic acid on growth, flowering and chemical constitute of African marigold cv. pusa narangi gainda (Targets erecta L.)
  56. 56 Impact of improved farm technology on pulses production in Karnataka
  57. 57 Physiological characterization of Jasmine flower (Jasminum sambac) senescence during storage
  58. 58 Impact of cropping systems on soil properties, nutrient availability and their carbon sequestration potential in Shiwalik hills of Himachal Pradesh
  59. 59 Zonal trend-agrometeorological models for wheat yield estimation in Haryana
  60. 60 Abundance and foraging behaviour of major insect pollinators on seed crop of broccol (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) LPH-1
  61. 61 In-vitro analysis of potential antibacterial activity of three medicinal plants
  62. 62 Development and sensory evaluation of ready to eat supplementary food using garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds
  63. 63 Additions to the terebrantian (Insecta: Thysanoptera) fauna of Kerala
  64. 64 Heterosis for yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  65. 65 Pathogenic variability in Exserohilum turcicum and identification of resistant sources to turcicum leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L.)
  66. 66 Factors affecting people’s participation in joint forest management programmes in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, India
  67. 67 Preparation, acceptability and quality evaluation of fermented fish product Mowa shidal prepared from the Mola carplet (Amblypharyngodon mola, Hamilton, 1822)
  68. 68 Influence of nitrogen on guttation fluid and development of bacterial blight of rice
  69. 69 Effect of water regimes on seed quality parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under aerobic and wetland conditions
  70. 70 Effect of growth regulators and stages of spray on seed yield and seed quality parameters of ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula (Roxb) L.]
  71. 71 Dynamics of top-down factors with relation to ecological attributes of an endangered species Commiphora wightii
  72. 72 Optimization of culture conditions for high frequency in vitro shoot multiplication in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)
  73. 73 Exploitation of combining ability and heterosis for development of maize hybrids for tarai region of Uttarakhand
  74. 74 Diversity analysis of maize inbred lines using DIVA-GIS under temperate ecologies
  75. 75 Efficacy of anthranilic insecticide E2Y45 20 SC (Chlorantraniliprole) against Plutella xylostella L. in cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata
  76. 76 A uniformity trial on Indian mustard for determination of optimum size and shape of blocks
  77. 77 Combining ability studies for yield and contributing traits in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)
  78. 78 Seed size and its influence on germination, seedling growth and biomass in Saraca asoca (Roxb). De Wilde, critically endangered tree species of Western ghats, India
  79. 79 Human health risk assessment for heavy metals via intake of contaminated milk and milk products
  80. 80 Evaluation of localization of lead and nickel in plant cells of Amaranthus sp. and Brassica sp. absorbed from mine spoil waste
  81. 81 Change in chemical constituents and overall acceptability of frozen and dehydrated Aonla fruit pulp during storage
  82. 82 Effect of chlorpyrifos on survival, growth and reproductive performance of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg)
  83. 83 Effect of seed polymer coating with micronutrients and foliar spray on seed quality parameters of resultant seed in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
  84. 84 Studies on intra-specific variations in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) under different geographical regions
  85. 85 Genetic variability studies for yield and its contributing traits in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]
  86. 86 Prediction of storability of organically produced paddy seeds through natural and accelerated ageing techniques
  87. 87 Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp. complex) using morphological and molecular markers
  88. 88 Development of low alcoholic naturally carbonated fermented debittered beverage from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)
  89. 89 Molecular screening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes for resistance alleles against important biotic stresses
  90. 90 Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with Eichhornia crassipes on growth and survival of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) juveniles
  91. 91 Optimization of SSF parameters for natural red pigment production from Penicillium purpurogenum using cassava waste by central composite design
  92. 92 Impact of climate change on hydrology of Manjalar sub basin of river Vaigai in Tamil Nadu, India
  93. 93 Disease status and combined effect of biological control and organic amendments in managing stem rot disease of carnation caused by Rhizoctonia solani
  94. 94 Assessment of the effects of land use pattern on distribution of sulphur fractions in soil
  95. 95 Effect of dietary zinc on the growth and metabolic enzyme activities of golden mahseer (Tor putitora) fry
  96. 96 Variable survival ability of rhizobacteria in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) rhizosphere
  97. 97 Influence of sowing dates and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of scented rice cv. Pusa Sugandh-3 in Kashmir valley
  98. 98 Seed traits, germination pattern and seedling vigour in Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch., a rare plant species of Western ghats
  99. 99 An overview of potential multipurpose agroforestry tree species, Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels in India
  100. 100 Banded leaf and sheath blight: A menacing disease of maize (Zea mays L.) and its management

Physiological and biochemical response to higher temperature stress in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Navita Ghai1, Jaspreet Kaur1, S K Jindal2, M.S. Dhaliwal2 and Kanchan Pahwa1

1Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail. brar.brar29@ymail.com

Received: July 10, 2015; Revised received: April 11, 2016; Accepted: July 1, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes in some ther-motolerant and thermosensitive chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes. Fourteen chilli genotypes (SL 461, PP 404, DL 161, MS 341, VR 521, PB 405, PS 403, SD 463, FL 201, AC 102, S 343, SL 462 and SL 464 along with sensitive check [Royal Wonder of bell pepper] were evaluated for heat tolerance. The observations on morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were recorded at 45, 65, 85 and 105 days after transplanting (DAT) (high temperature period). On the basis of our studies, genotypes S 343, AC 102 and FL 201 were found to be relatively thermotoler-ant. However, high temperature markedly decreased the photosynthetic activity of chilli plants by decreasing the photosynthetic pigments in leaf chloroplasts of all the genotypes. The levels of ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars and total phenols increased in the leaves of all the genotypes with the maturity of the crop. Electrolyte leakage and proline content also increased with rise in temperature. Genotypes AC 102 and S 343 were able to accumulate the maximum ascorbic acid, proline, total soluble sugars and total phenols under heat stress conditions. Decrease in fruit set percent led to reduction in the total yield per plant. Maximum yield was observed in genotype S 343 followed by FL 201.

Keywords: Chilli, High Temperature, Photosynthetic activity, Proline

Development of near isogenic lines (NILS) using backcross method of breeding and simultaneous screening against Karnal bunt disease of wheat

Indu Sharma1, Ritu Bala1, Satish Kumar2* and N. S. Bains2

1ICAR – Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), INDIA

2Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kumarsatish227@gmail.com

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: March 30, 2016; Accepted: July 02, 2016

Abstract: Karnal bunt of wheat caused by Tilletia indica can be a hindrance to wheat trade as the fungal disease is known to affect the quality of the grain. As a breeding strategy, a set of eight near isogenics lines (NILs) and back-cross derived recombinant inbred lines (micro-RILs) were developed in the background of PBW 343 and WH542 for Karnal bunt resistance over a period of time. The donor stocks resistant to Karnal bunt used in the study were ALDAN ‘ S’ / IAS 58, CMH 77.308, H567.7I, HD29, HP1531, W485 and their derived lines KBRL 22 and KBRL 57. Effective method for screening to Karnal bunt was standardized and used for identification of resistant lines across many seasons. Some of the identified lines evaluated for yield were found to be equivalent to the high yielding par-ents and the commercially grown check varieties. These developed lines will serve as a basic material for production of Karnal bunt free wheat.

Keywords: Karnal bunt, Near isogenic lines (NILs), Tilletia indica, Micro-RILs, Resistance

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Evaluation of management of bacterial stalk rot of maize (Dickeya zeae) using some chemicals and bio-agents

Adesh Kumar*, Mandeep Singh Hunjan, Harleen Kaur1, Rajwinder Kaur and P.P. Singh

Department of Plant Pathology; 1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: adeshpp@gmail.com

Received: October 20, 2015; Revised received: April 07, 2016; Accepted: July 02, 2016

Abstract: A virulent strain (M-13) of Dickeya zeae causing bacterial stalk rot of maize, isolated from Hoshiarpur district of Punjab was tested against different antimicrobial agents. Five antibacterial chemicals viz., stable bleaching powder, streptocycline, cristocycline, blitox, kocide and one bioagent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) were evaluated against D. zeae under in vitro and in vivo condition. The chemicals were tested with different concentrations i.e. 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 and >1000 ppm and bioagent supernatant used as such without any dilutions. All the test chemicals and bioagent (P. fluorescens strains) reduced the log cfu/ml of D. zeae. Amongst chemicals, stable bleaching powder with 100 ppm concentration showed most effective antibacterial activity which reduced the popu-lation of D. zeae with 6.35 log cfu/ml and amongst P. fluorescence strains, MPF-5 strain showed effective result with 8.07 log cfu/ml. In field condition bleaching powder also showed good result to reduce the disease severity with in-creased the crop yield when used as both methods (drenching and dusting). However, post inoculation drenching with 100ppm concentration showed minimum mean of disease severity (7.13%) with high yield (7.4 kg) in all three maize cultivars (Dekalb Double, Punjab Sweet Corn-1 and PMH-1). The increase yield per cent as compared to control was 52.4% in Dekalb Double, 64% in Punjab Sweet Corn-1 and 57.9 % in PMH-1 maize cultivars.

Keywords: Bacterial stalk rot, Cultivars, Dickeya zeae, Maize management

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Rainfall trend analysis and its future projection over Gangetic West Bengal (GWB) region of India during post-monsoon and winter season

Pramiti Kumar Chakraborty* and Lalu Das

Department of Agriculture Meteorology & Physics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: pramitikumar27@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2015; Revised received: April 16, 2016 ; Accepted: July 05, 2016

Abstract: Studying the variability of rainfall and its future projection during post-monsoon and winter season is im-portant for providing the information to the farmers regarding crop planning. For evaluating rainfall scenario, long (1901-2005) and short term (1961-2005 and 1991-2005) rainfall data of nine selected IMD stations of South Bengal was collected and subdivided into 30 year period up to 1990 and a 15 year period from 1991 to 2005. The data were subjected to trend analysis and available GCM data were compared with the observed rainfall data. The post-monsoon and winter rainfall changes during 1901-2005 were positive (except Krishnangar, -47.67 mm) and negative (except Alipore and Berhampur) respectively. During 1991-2005 all the stations recorded a positive change during post-monsoon, while reverse was true for winter. Among the different GCMs, INGV-ECHM4 estimated the post-monsoon rainfall at the best, whereas winter rainfall successfully estimated by MIROC-Hi. Future projection of both post-monsoon and winter rainfall over the region showed an increasing trend. This will help in policy formulation for water management in agriculture.

Keywords: Gangetic West Bengal, GCMs, Post-monsoon, Rainfall, Winter


Effect of cabinet tray dryer on Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) slices during drying process and storage study of dehydrated tomato powder

Vishal Kumar1*, Sweta Singh1, B. R. Singh1, Suresh Chandra1 and Samsher1

Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology , Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut 250110 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: vishalkumarsingh129@gmail.com

Received: October 27, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016; Accepted: July 05, 2016

Abstract: The effected dehydrated tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) samples determining by acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, lycopene content and microbial growth. The highest acidity value 7.42 of untreated samples (4mm) in LDPE packaging material and 8.12 of untreated samples (8 mm) in aluminum foil packaging and the lowest pH value 2.05 of untreated samples (6mm) in LDPE packaging material and 2.07 of untreated samples (8 mm) in aluminum foil package under cabinet tray dryer (65 0C) after 120 days. The lowest lycopene content value 50.71 of untreated sam-ples (6 mm) in LDPE packaging material and 60.24 of untreated samples (4 mm) in aluminum foil packaging under cabinet tray dryer at 65 0C after 120 days. The lowest vitamin C value 8.54 of untreated samples (4mm) in LDPE packaging and 9.50 of untreated samples (6 mm) in aluminum foil packaging under cabinet tray dryer after 120 days. We can see that microbial growth not detect in the starting 30 days but after one month we can easily see microbial growth. When considering growth rates of microbial pathogens, in addition to temperature, time is a critical consideration. Food producers or manufacturers address the concept of time as it relates to microbial growth when a product's shelf life is determined. The highest microbial growth 4.55×102 of untreated samples (6mm) in LDPE pack-aging and 4.49×102 of untreated samples (8 mm) in aluminum foil packaging under cabinet tray dryer after 120 days.

Keywords: Aluminum foil pouch, Cabinet tray dryer, Low density poly ethylene pouch, Preservatives
 


An application of principal component analysis for pre- harvest forecast model for rice crop based on biometrical characters

Annu1*, B.V.S. Sisodia1 and V. N. Rai1

1Department of Agricultural Statistics, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: annustat@gmail.com

Received: September 11, 2015; Revised received: April 18, 2016; Accepted: July 05, 2016

Abstract An application of principal component analysis for the development of suitable statistical models for pre-harvest forecast of rice yield based on biometrical characters has been dealt with in the present paper. The data obtained from the two experiments on rice have been utilised to develop the model. The forecast yields of based on these models have been found to be 24.25, 22.60 and 21.10 q/ha against the actual yield of 28.00, 23.56 and 21.85 q/ha, respectively, in experiment –I. For experiment –II the forecast yields were found to be 24.62, 28.06 and 29.43 q/ha against the actual yield of 28.82, 29.31 and 26.59 q/ha, respectively. These forecast yields are subject to maxi-mum of almost 10 percent standard error. In most of the cases, the forecast yields were found to be close to the actual yield except in some cases. The values of R2, i.e. 79.80 and 72.60 for experiment –I and II, respectively, indi-cate the validity of the models. Statistical tool like viz. principal component analysis (PCA) has been first time ap-plied to develop pre-harvest forecast model based on experimental data.

Keywords: Biometrical characters, Pre-harvest forecast model, Principal component Analysis, Rice experiment


Sensory and nutritional evaluation of unleavened flat bread prepared by multigrain flour mixture

Shikha Singh*, AnishaVerma and Neeru Bala

Department of Foods and Nutrition, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007(U.P.), INDIA

* Corresponding author. E-mail: singh.shikha489@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016; Accepted: July 05, 2016

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to develop the value added food product using multigrain flour mixture and to assess its sensory and nutritional composition of unleavened flat bread (Chapatti). It was standardized as Control (T0). Along with control; three variations of Chapatti were prepared by replacing wheat flour with different ratio of multigrain flour mixture which referred as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. They were tested for different attrib-utes (Taste and Flavour, Colour and Appearance, Body and Texture and Overall Acceptability). A food composition table given by Gopalan, et.al, 2007 was used to determine the nutritional composition of Chapatti. Appropriate statis-tical technique was opted for the analysis. The result revealed that the T1 (8.05±0.00) was found most acceptable with regards to its sensory attributes followed by T0 (7.70±0.42), T2 (7.55±0.08), T3 (7.22±0.98) and T4 (6.64±0.46) respectively. Energy (ranging from 388-436 Kcal), Protein (ranging from 22-28 g), fat (ranging from 13-21 g), cal-cium (ranging from145-192 mg), phosphorus (ranging from 466-501 mg), fiber (ranging from 3-4g) and iron (ranging from 6-7 mg) were increased in treatments as compared to control except carbohydrate. Thus, it can be concluded that value added product has good organoleptic and nutritional quality.

Keywords: Chapatti Multigrain flour, Nutritional, Organoleptic quality, Unleavened flat bread

Management of false wire worm, Gonocephalum beetle (Tenebrionidae: coleoptera) in chickpea raised under residual moisture conditions

R. M. Wadaskar* and A.N. Patil

Pulses Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola- 444104 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rahulwadaskar@gmail.com

Received: January 05, 2016; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 08, 2016

Abstract: False wire worm, Gonocephalum indicum, incidence was observed for the first time in severe form in Rabi 2008-09 on chickpea, confined to saline tracts of Vidarbha (MS). Gonocephalum adults inflicts injury near collar re-gion of chickpea resulting in collapsing and drying of plants translating into re-sowing of crop due to poor plant stand. Field study revealed 5.8 – 32.3% damaged plants with lowest damage in Module 9 (Seed treatment with clothianidin 2 gm/kg seed + spaying of chlorpyriphos 2 ml/liter water 20 days after crop emergence), Module 10 (Application of phorate granules 10 kg/ha at sowing + spraying of chlorpyriphos 2 ml/liter water 20 days after crop emergence) and Module 11(Seed treatment with clothianidin 2 gm/kg seed + application of clothianidin granules 200 gm/ha 20 days after crop emergence) with 5.8, 6.2 and 8.7% affected plants. The % drying of plants due to injury was in the range of 4.3 – 21.6 % with lowest in Module 11, Module 10 and Module 9 with 4.3, 6.0 and 6.2 % drying of plants, respectively. Superiority of Module 9 (20.4 q/ha) and Module 11 (19.7 q/ha) was evident in yield, whereas, lowest yield was observed in control plot (13.2 q/ha). Module 9 and Module 11 registered higher net returns of Rs. 13887 and Rs. 9948 per ha, respectively, whereas, Module 9 and Module 10 had highest ICBR of 1: 6.0 indicating the suitability of modules in terms of bioefficacy and cost effectiveness for the management of Gonocephalum in problematic area.

Keywords: Chickpea, False wireworm, Gonocephalum, Modules for management

Interaction effect of nitrogen and vermicompost in the presence of herbicide (Clodinafop propargyl) on nitrogen transformation in a sandy soil

Hardeep Singh Sheoran* and B.S. Duhan

Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sheoranhardeep2008@gmail.com

Received: January 06, 2016; Revised received: April 11, 2016; Accepted: July 08, 2016

Abstract: A laboratory experiment with three levels of nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 mg kg-1), two levels of vermicompost (0 and 1 % on dry wt. basis) and two levels of herbicide (0 and 60 g a.i. ha-1) was conducted with sandy soil of Hisar to study the interaction of nitrogen and vermicompost in the presence of herbicide (clodinafop propargyl) on nitrogen transformation during 2014. NH4+-N contents increased upto the 14th day in soil and then declined up to 56th day under control. NO3--N content in soil increased significantly throughout the incubation study under control. With con-junctive use of nitrogen along with vermicompost, NH4+-N contents increased significantly in the soil upto 14th day of incubation with an increase from 44.49 to 73.22 mg kg-1 and 64.00 to 102.87 mg kg-1, whereas NO3--N content in soil significantly increased throughout the incubation study over control and the increase was from 13.68 to 101.36 mg kg-1 and 23.19 to 115.48 mg kg-1. However, NH4+-N and NO3--N decreased significantly at all incubation periods with the application of herbicide alone and in presence of nitrogen as well as vermicompost. The study revealed that judi-cious use of N, leads to more availability of N to crop and prevents the environmental pollution. Higher levels of N application may increase the risk of ground water pollution due to more availability of NO3- ion which can be sub-jected to leaching losses. Vermicompost proved to be the important source of nutrients as it has narrow C:N ratio and decompose more quickly than other organic manures such as FYM etc. Among commonly used herbicides, clodinafop propargyl is most commonly used herbicide and may have negative impact on the microbial population and thus may hinder the transformation processes particularly in sandy soils which have low organic matter content and thereby affecting the availability of nutrients to crop and play decisive role in crop yields.

Keywords: Clodinafop propargyl, Nitrogen, Nitrogen transformation, Vermicompost

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Response of different Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hybrids to canopy modification practices

Amit Kaul*, J. S. Deol and A. S. Brar

Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amitkaul@pau.edu

Received: July 18, 2015; Revised received: April 19, 2016; Accepted: July 09, 2016

Abstract: A field investigation was carried out to characterize the growth and development of Bt cotton hybrids by detopping and use of plant growth retardants during the rainy (kharif) season of 2011 and 2012. The experimental site had loamy sand soils with normal in reaction. The experiment (split plot) involved three Bt cotton hybrids (MRC 7017, MRC 7031 and RCH 314) in main plots and growth regulation treatments (Mepiquat chloride (MC) @ 300 ppm, 2, 3, 5-tri iodo benzoic acid (TIBA) @ 100 ppm and Maelic hydrazide (MH) @ 250 ppm) in sub plots with four replications. Hybrid MRC 7017 produced significantly higher (p<0.01) seed cotton yield which was attributed to the maximum number of sympodial branches plant-1, total number of flowers and picked bolls plant-1. Application of MC @ 300 ppm, TIBA @ 100 ppm and MH @ 250 ppm reduced plant height, leaf area index and total dry matter accu-mulation than control. Detopping treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced plant height than control but attained more plant height than all the PGRs. MC @ 300 ppm, TIBA @ 100 ppm and MH @ 250 ppm at 80 days after sowing had beneficial effect on seed cotton yield. Detopping done at 80 days after sowing failed to influence the seed cotton yield dur-ing both the years. The results revealed that foliar application of MC @ 300 ppm yielded more seed cotton by improv-ing the setting percentage and therefore, increased number of picked (open) bolls plant-1 without exhibiting any ad-verse effect on quality traits.

Keywords: Bt cotton hybrids, Maleic hydrazide (MH), Mepiquat chloride (MC), Plant growth regulators, Seed cotton yield, 2,3,5-tri iodo benzoic acid (TIBA)

Utilization of flower waste for the removal of chromium from tannery effluent

V. Davamani*, S. Arulmani, E. Parameswari, T. Thangaselvabai and T.N. Balamohan

Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Periyakulam-625601(Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vsdavamani@gmail.com

Received: July 17, 2015; Revised received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: July 09, 2016

Abstract: In this work we used flower waste biomass as a biosorbent to remove Cr from tannery effluent through column experiments. The sorption capacities of biosorbent (Fine, coarse and rough grades) were also evaluated by employing chemical pretreatments viz., sodium hydroxide, acetic acid, glutaraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The order of percentage removal of Cr using the above pretreatments was: 10% hydrogen peroxide < Raw powdered- FWB < 2% Gluteraldehyde < 10% Acetic acid < 0.1N sodium hydroxide. Among the different grades of biosorbents used, fine grade adsorbed more Cr (70 %) than that of coarse (64%) and rough (62 %) sorbents. The removal per-centage of Cr from tannery was analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the functional groups which are responsible for adsorption was examined by Fourier Transform- Infrared Spectroscopy and the amorphous behav-iour of FWB facilitating metal biosorption was indicated by the X-ray diffractogram. This study showed that pre-treated flower waste biomass is a potential sorbent of Cr, which could be successfully used to reduce the Cr content in tannery effluent.

Keywords: AAS, Chromium, Flower waste biomass, Tannery

Evaluation of some plant extracts in management of dry bubble (Verticillium fungicola) disease of white button mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach]

Shivam Singh*, Abhilasha A. Lal, Anurag Singh, Rao Yaduman and Rakhi Murmu

Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad- 211007 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ssinghplantpathology@gmail.com

Received: December 31, 2015; Revised received: April 23, 2015; Accepted: July 11, 2016

Abstract: The study was undertaken to determine antifungal potentials of some plant extracts against dry bubble (Verticillium fungicola) disease of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Twelve botanicals namely, Allium cepa, A. sativum, Saraca asoca, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Lantana camara, Ocimum sanctum, Solanum ly-copersicum (Lycopersicon esculentum), Tagetes erecta, Psidium guajava, Catharanthus roseus and Aparagus ra-cemosus were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo for their efficacy against both A. bisporus and V. fungicola, causing dry bubble disease of mushroom. The efficacy of botanicals was examined by poison food technique in in-vitro. The percent inhibition produced by botanicals against V. Fungicola recorded in-vitro was; A. cepa (25.87%), A. sativum (24.70%), S. asoca (12.35%), A. vera (22.35%), A. indica (35.11%), L. camara (28.48%), O. sanctum (20.59%), S. lycopersicum (20.34%), T. erecta (14.11%), P. guajava (15.11%), C. roseus (18.11%) and A. racemosus (13.52%). Among these plant extracts, A. indica was found best treatment followed by L. Camara and A. Cepa. Plant extracts showing maximum efficacy against V. fungicola and minimum inhibition against mushroom were further evaluated against V. fungicola infection in mushroom crop room (in-vivo test). In in-vivo test, the polybags which receive A. indica show maximum mean increase in yield (43.46%) over control and exhibited minimum mean disease incidence (27.7%).

Keywords: Agaricus bisporus, Dry bubble disease, Plant extracts, Verticillium fungicola

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Isolation, purification, and characterization of xylanase produced by three species of bacillus under submerged fermentation conditions

Bhuvnesh Yadav* and Khushboo Chandra

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, SGT University, Gurgaon-122505 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail. bhuvneshyadav@gmail.com

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2015; Accepted: July 11, 2016

Abstract: This study focuses on the screening and identification of bacteria, which can produce alkaline xylanase at alkaline pH and high temperature. Bacterial isolates from enriched decaying soil, capable of hydrolyzing xylan were screened. Selected and purified 13 bacterial colonies (Bacilli and Kurthia) grown on xylan- nutrient agar slants, were activated and transferred into the fermentation medium. Three highest xylanase producing isolates (Bacillus badius, Kurthia gibsonii, Bacillus circulans) were selected for further studies and the xylanase produced by them were screened for their kinetic properties. The optimum temperature for the activity of the xylanase from Isolates A was 50oC; and for Isolate B was 40oC, while that of Isolate C was 30oC. The optimum pH value for the xylanase from isolate A and B was 9.0. In addition, the xylanase was also capable of producing high-quality xylo-oligosaccharides, which indicated its application potential not only in pulp bio-bleaching processes but also in the nutraceutical industry.

Keywords: Bacillus badius, Kurthia gibsonii, Submerged fermentation, Xylanase

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Effect of osmo air drying method on nutritional quality of peach (Prunus persica (l) batsch.) cultivars during storage

Naseer Ahmed*, Jagmohan Singh, Babita1, Anisa Malik, Harmeet Chauhan, Harleen Kour and Prerna Gupta

Division of post harvest technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Udhy-walla, Jammu-180001 (J&K), INDIA

1Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

* Corresponding author: E-mail: ewsjammu@gmail.com

Received: September 24, 2015; Revised received: March 29, 2016; Accepted: July 11, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out with the objective to develop value added products and to as-sess the quality parameters of osmo air dried peach slices. The peach slices were dried by osmo air drying method. Dehydrated peach (Prunus persica (L) Batsch.) slices prepared were stored under ambient conditions in polythene packs and subjected to physico-chemical analysis at 45 days interval for a period of 135 days. The highest total sug-ars were observed in Flordasun 58.28 % and reducing sugars (39.35 %) in Shan-e-Punjab. The maximum acidity (1.84 %) in Shan-e-Punjab, ash content (4.43 %) in Early Grand were recorded. The maximum ascorbic acid content of 11.94 mg/100g was found in Shan-e-Punjab. During storage, an increasing trend was observed in total sugars (54.27-56.76%) and reducing sugars (38.08-39.38%), whereas, acidity (1.85-1.74), ascorbic acid (11.75- 9.81mg/100g) , and ash content showed decreasing trend. It is thus concluded that Early Grand, Flordasun and Shan-e-Punjab, cultivars of peach can be suitably used for preparation of dehydrated peach product using osmo air drying methods.

Keywords: Cultivars, Nutritional quality, Osmo air drying, Peach, Storage

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Effect of planting density and training on plant health and seed quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under protected conditions

Manohar Lal1*, H.S. Kanwar1, Rajesh Kanwar1 and Chaman Lal2

1 Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2 Department of Social Sciences, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

* Corresponding author. E-mail: manoharlal647@gmail.com

Received: October 26, 2015; Revised received: April 01, 2016; Accepted: July 11, 2016

Abstract: A study was conducted at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horti-culture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P.), India during Kharif 2012 to evaluate the effects of the different planting densities and training systems on plant health (powdery mildew severity) and seed quality of bell pepper cv. Solan Bharpur under pro-tected conditions (polyhouse). Experiment was laid out in naturally ventilated polyhouse using three different planting densi-ties (S1 - 45×15 cm, S2 - 45×30 cm and S3 - 45×45 cm) and four training levels (T1 - single shoot, T2 - two shoots, T3 - three shoots and T4 - four shoots)with three replicates. The combination S2T2 (plants spaced at 45x30 cm and trained to two shoots) was found superior over all other treatments in terms of seed yields i.e. per plant and per hectare (18.00 g and 959.87 kg, respectively) and was at par with important quality characters. The treatment combination S3T1 (plant spaced at 45×45 cm and trained to single shoot) resulted in least powdery mildew severity (21.21 %) and performed best for seed qual-ity characters viz. 1000 seed weight, germination percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index-I & II (6.32 g, 95.75%, 10.86 cm, 3.26 mg, 1039.77 and 312.34, respectively) but it gave lower seed yield and thus it is uneconomic. Therefore, planting density 45×30 cm in combination with two shoot training system can be recom-mended for commercial seed production of bell pepper under protected conditions.

Keywords: Bell pepper, Planting density, Powdery mildew severity, Seed quality, Training level, Yield

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Genetic architecture of biparental progenies for yield in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Aanchal Chauhan1* and K. S. Chandel2

Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur - 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E– mail: aanchalchauhanrana@gmail.com

Received: October 30, 2015; Revised received: April 15, 2016; Accepted: July 12, 2016

Abstract: The type of gene action for yield and its components was determined using biparental progenies devel-oped from the F2 generation of an intervarietal cross Swarna Pratibha × Hisar Shyamal (SP × H-8) of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) using North Carolina Design - 1. The experiment was conducted during the Kharif (April- November) 2012 and 2013. The biparental and F3 progenies differed. Biparental progenies were superior in mean performance than were F3’s generated by selfing. Dominance variances were greater than additive variance for most characters. For fruit diameter, plant height, branches per plant and total soluble solid, the additive component of genetic variance was of higher magnitude. The average degree of dominance was in over-dominance range for most traits. Plant height, branches per plant, fruit diameter and total soluble solids was in the partial dominance range. Heritability estimates were generally low to medium. Fruit weight exhibited moderate to high heritability. The pre-ponderance of additive and non-additive genetic components of variance for most traits indicated role for addi-tive and non-additive gene action for inheritance of marketable fruit yield and its component traits. These could be utilized through reciprocal recurrent selection and heterosis breeding for the development of high yielding and quality cultivars in eggplant.

Keywords: Biparental progenies, Gene action, North Carolina Design – 1, Solanum melongena L.

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Prevalence and morphological characterization of Aspergillus isolates of maize ear rot in Punjab

Harpreet Singh1, Harleen Kaur2 and Mandeep Singh Hunjan1

1Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: harleenkaur@pau.edu

Received: October 30, 2015; Revised received: April 08, 2016; Accepted: July 12, 2016

Abstract: Among six fungal species viz.Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillum spp., Rhizopus spp., Tricho-derma spp. and Alternaria spp. isolated from maize ear rot samples collected from five different districts of Punjab, the incidence of A. flavus was highest (42.15%) followed by Penicillium spp. (20.75%). The maximum frequency of A. flavus (57.10%) was found in Hoshiarpur district, closely followed by Jalandhar. In all, thirty nine isolates of As-pergillus spp. (33 isolates of A. flavus and 6 isolates of A. niger) were characterized morphologically. Twenty iso-lates of A. flavus producing sclerotia were of L-type strains having sclerotia diameter >400 μm. Isolates of A. flavus produced yellowish green, dark green and light green colonies and isolates of A. niger produced dark black colonies. Sterigmata in all the isolates of Aspergillus spp. were of uniseriate type. Based on colony diameter and growth rate per day all the 39 isolates of Aspergillus spp. were grouped into fast, medium and slow growing categories. Based on multivariate cluster analysis, the isolates of A. flavus were grouped into three distinct clusters each having 13, 17 and 3 isolates respectively.In the present study, Aspergillus flavus was found predominantly associated species with the maize ear rot. Further, the morphological variation observed within Aspergillus flavus and A. niger indicated the need for proper surveillance and monitoring exclusively for the prevention of moulds in maize produce in Punjab before it reaches the consumer.

Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Ear rot, Isolate, Maize

Propagation of Himalayan maple (Acer caesium Wall.) through seed and softwood cuttings

P. A. Sofi*, Sajad A. Bhat, T. H. Masoodi, M. A. Islam, G. M. Bhat and A. R. Malik

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Benhama, Ganderbal-191201 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: parvezsofi1@gmail.com

Received: November 09, 2015; Revised received: April 19, 2016; Accepted: July 15, 2016

Abstract: Propagation of Himalayan maple (Acer caesium Wall.) through seed and softwood cuttings was investi-gated to standardize nursery techniques for mass production of the species. The seedlings were raised from viable seeds in different containers filled with different combinations of growing media. Vegetative propagation of softwood cuttings was carried out by treating with different combinations of IBA and Willow leachate of different durations. The statistical analysis revealed the differential behaviour of various nursery stocks with respect to survival, growth and biomass. The growing media soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:2) and container (root trainer 300 cc) showed maximum germination (61.00%), seedlings height (35.17 cm), collar diameter (5.07 cm), shoot:root ratio (1.24) and survival percentage (76.33%). Conversely, the cuttings treated with IBA @ 8000 ppm showed maximum sprouting (74.50%), rooting (66.75%), and length of longest root (14.65 cm), no. of roots per cutting (33.00%), shoot length (13.90 cm) and survival percentage (41.50%). Hence, the seeds of the species should be grown in Rot trainer of 300 cc having soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:2) to get good quality planting materials. However, the softwood cuttings should be given treatments with IBA @ 8000 ppm for mass production of plants vegetatively.

Keywords: Acer caesium, IBA, Propagation, Root trainer, Seed, Softwood, Willow leachate

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Species structure and diversity in Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere reserve, Central India

D. K. Yadav

Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001 (C.G.), INDIA

E-mail: dheerajforestry@gmail.com

Received: December 05, 2015; Revised received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: July 15, 2016

Abstract: The present study was aimed at quantifying the species structure and diversity in Achanakmar- Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve. Four sites characterized by varying vegetation attributes and representative of the region were selected. One-hectare, permanent plot was established on each of the site and enumeration was car-ried out by stratified random sampling techinique. The forest sites are characterized by poor species composition. A sum of 2440 trees representing 23 species and 17 families were encountered. Tree, sapling and seedling density (stems ha-1) ranged between 260 - 810, 7500 - 35000 and 25000 - 67500, respectively while the basal cover (m2 ha- 1) ranged between 9.96 - 41.6, 0.86 - 5.07 and 0.28 - 0.96, respectively. Species diversity was highest on the dense site and low on medium site. Beta diversity was highest on degraded site. The presence of a large number of seed-lings indicates the great potential source for future sustainable regeneration, provided by appropriate management regime to protect the forest from degradation and conserve the biodiversity.

Keywords: Composition, Permanent plot, Species diversity, Structure, Vegetation

Studies on influence of modified atmospheric storage conditions on biochemical parameters in pigeonpea seeds

B. Manjunatha1*, S. N. Vasudevan1, Umesha1and Chintalapati Sravani2

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur -584102 (Karnataka), INDIA.

2Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manjuraj522@gmail.com

Received: December 24, 2014; Revised received: April 02, 2016; Accepted: July 15, 2016

Abstract : An experiment was conducted to study the influence of modified atmospheric storage conditions on bio-chemical parameters of pigeonpea seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Raichur, Karnataka. The seeds are exposed to various gaseous combinations and stored in 700 gauge polyethylene bag for ten months during July-2012 to April- 2013. The results revealed that, the seeds exposed to gaseous combination of 40% N2+00% O2+ 60% CO2 showed less reduction in dehydrogenase enzyme activity and protein content (0.276 OD (optical density) value, 19.33 % respectively) as compared to the control (0.211 OD value and 18.13 % respectively) after ten months of storage. In addition less seed leachate (2.029 dSm-1) was recorded in gaseous combination of 40% N2+00% O2+ 60% CO2 as compared to control (2.207dSm-1). It indicates the potential use of modified atmospheric storage technology for maintenance of seed viability and vigour during storage in pulses.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide, MAP, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Pigeonpea

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Pathomorphological changes of flunixin meglumine toxicity in layer chicks

R. A. Patel, K. B. Kapadiya* and D. J. Ghodasara

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandary, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388110 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: komalkapadiya89@gmail.com

Received: October 04, 2015; Revised received: April 29, 2016; Accepted: July 18, 2016

Abstract: The aim of the 21 day toxicity study was to evaluate the pathomorphological effect of flunixin meglumine in layer chicks. The chicks of Group I were kept as control while groups II, III and IV were fed with diet containing flunixin meglumine @ 10 ppm, 25 ppm and 50 ppm respectively for 21 days. Clinical signs viz. anorexia, dullness, lethargy, lameness and uneven growth were noticed in chicks of treatment groups III and IV only. Maximum mortal-ity was observed in group IV (12%) followed by group III (4%). A dose dependant reduction in body weight was ob-served in all the treatment groups. The mean values of Kidney: Body weight ratio was significantly increased in group IV. The plasma uric acid, creatinine and BUN values were significantly increased in group III whereas in-crease in group IV was highly significant. Grossly, there was deposition of chalky white urates on serosal surface of kidney, heart and liver in chicks of group IV which died during experiment. Microscopically, lesions were character-ized by varying degrees of congestion, haemorrhages, degeneration, necrosis and deposition of urate crystals in visceral organs of group III and group IV chicks. The intensity and distribution of pathological lesions were more severe in chicks of group IV, followed by chicks of group III. The overall lesions gave an impression that flunixin me-glumine was nephrotoxic in nature.

Keywords: Flunixin meglumine, Nephrotoxicity, Urate crystals, Visceral gout

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Litterfall, decomposition and nutrient release patterns of different tree species in Taran Taran district of Punjab, India

S. Rani1, D.K. Benbi2, A. Rajasekaran3* and S.K. Chauhan4

1Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla- 171009 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Soil Sciences, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

3Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding, Coimbatore-641002, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

4Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: a.rajsekaran@gmail.com

Received: October 07, 2015; Revised received: May 09, 2016; Accepted: July 10, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was attempted to assess the leaf litter production, decomposition rate and amount of major nutrient return in Populus deltoides, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Tectona grandis and Pyrus pyrifolia based agroforestry land use systems in Taran Taran district which falls in the north western agro-climatic zone of the Punjab state, India. The litter production in selected tree species was quantified using litter traps and decomposition pattern of leaf litter was investigated by litter bag technique. Litterfall in the selected tree species varied significantly (5 % level of significance) during different months of the study period. Among the four species, P. deltoides exhibited highest leaf litter production (7.8 tons/ha) followed by T. grandis (1.83 tons/ha) and E. tereticornis (1.77 tons/ha) whereas, lowest leaf litter production was observed in P. pyrifolia (0.34 tons/ha). The present study also showed that temperature as compared to rainfall play a significant (5 % level of significance) role in litter decomposition. In case of P. pyrifolia, P. deltoides and T. grandis decomposition take place 100 per cent, 98 per cent and 99 per cent re-spectively after 10 months whereas in E. tereticornis 87.7 per cent leaf decomposed after 10 months. The nutrients percentage through litter fall was maximum of nitrogen (2.27 %) followed by potassium (1.90 %) and phosphorous (0.32 %). Maximum and minimum N input through leaf litter was in P. deltoides (2.27 %) and P. pyrifolia (1.15 %). The K input (%) was maximum in leaves of T. grandis (0.32) and minimum in E. tereticornis (0.21). The maximum input of P (%) through leaf litter was in P. deltoides (1.90) whereas, minimum value was observed in E. tereticornis (1.27). Tree based agroforestry land use systems improve soil nutrient status as compared to traditional wheat and paddy based land use systems under this region of Punjab. Therefore tree based land use systems need to be pro-moted over the traditional field crops for realizing better environmental benefits in this region.

Keywords: Litter production, Litter decomposition, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Tree species

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Optimization of the process parameters in rice mill using Response surface methodology (RSM)

Kumkum Pandey* and Deepa Vinay

Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, G.B. Pant Universty of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Kumkum.pandey.unique@gmail.com

Received: October 20, 2015 Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 18, 2016

Abstract: Objective of the current study was to analyze a wooden plank used as a loading ramp to perform manual handling task with a view to redesign and develop the new one for agriculture. Developed ramp was more wide, static and non slippery than the wooden plank. For this purpose experiments were conducted on a group of 10 ex-perienced manual handlers in the KLA rice mill of Rudrapur Block, district Udhamsingh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. The reliability and validity of the developed, modern loading ramp was assessed by using response surface method-ology in terms of change in MSD, heart rate and VO2 max. Therefore RSM was applied to optimize the operating parameters of ramp such as load weight, height of ramp and time. As per Box Behenken design total 17 experi-ments were carried out. Each parameter was varied over three levels as load weight of 40, 50 and 60 kg., height of ramp 3, 4 and 5 feet, and the time viz. 3, 4 and 5 min. ANOVA test and coefficient of determination (R2) were applied. In result it was observed that use of developed pant loading ramp was able to reduce heart rate of se-lected respondent’s from 135.4 beats/min. to 126.76 beats/min., MSD from 85.45 to 22.80 % and VO2 max from 39.45 to 34L/min.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Musculoskeletal disorders, Volume of oxygen uptake

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Statistical media optimization studies for growth and polydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Pseudomonas spp.

Mukesh R. Jangra;p, Ritu Batra, Ikbal, Akanksha Jain, Rekha Ahlawat and Virendra K. Sikka

Department of Molecular Biology, Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jangra.mukesh02@gmail.com

Received: October 20, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 18, 2016

Abstract: Using glucose as carbon source and mustard cake and yeast extract as nitrogen sources bacterial isolate Pseudomonas B2 exhibited a maximum PHB recovery of 0.620 (in terms of O.D.) and PHB weight of 0.27g/L in 96 h. To determine the possibility of growth potential of Pseudomonas spp., it was grown in different carbon sources like fructose, glucose, maltose, mannitol etc. and it was found that glucose yielded good growth and PHB produc-tion. In order to incorporate cost effective nitrogen and carbon source, mustard cake and cotton cake as nitrogen source and molasses as carbon were used in medium. Statistical media optimization design was used to optimize the culture conditions for maximizing the PHB production. A maximum of 0.37 g/L of PHB and 0.746 (O.D.) PHB recoveries were obtained using optimized concentrations. Batch kinetics can be used for model development, which will make possible simulation of nutrient limited cultivation(s) for over accumulation of PHB. FTIR studies confirmed the presence of PHB.

Keywords: Central composite design, Pseudomonas spp., Polyhydroxybutyrate, Response Surface Methodology

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Effect of post harvest treatments and harvesting stage on vase life and flower quality of cut Oriental lily

Narendra Chaudhary1*, Ramesh Kumar1, S. S. Sindhu1, T. N. Saha1, Ajay Arora2, R. R. Sharma3, S. K. Sarkar4, Ganesh B. Kadam1 and K. S. Girish1

Directorate of Floricultural Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

1Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA

2Division of Plant Physiology, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA

3Division of Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA

4IASRI, New Delhi, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: narendra@spices.res.in

Received: November 02, 2015; Revised received: April 07, 2016; Accepted: July 20, 2016

Abstract: An investigation was carried out to study the effect of post harvest treatments and harvesting stage on vase life and flower quality of cut Oriental lily cv. Avocado. The results showed that highest vase life (15.83 days) and vase solution uptake (49.17 ml) was recorded with sucrose (2%) + 5-SSA (200ppm), whereas maximum flower diameter (15.17 cm) was recorded in vase solution containing sucrose (2%) + 5-SSA (100ppm). Earliest opening of florets (4.42 days) reported under sucrose (2%) + 5-SSA (200ppm). Effect of treatments was found non-significant in respect to opening of florets. Harvesting at green bud stage exhibited extended vase life (14.33 days) and higher vase solution uptake (40.43 ml), whereas maximum flower diameter (14.25 cm) recorded at 75% colour develop-ment stage. Based on the results it is concluded that 5-SSA could be an inexpensive and potential chemical for de-laying senescence and for extending the keeping quality of cut liliums commercially.

Keywords: 5-SSA, Harvest stage ,Oriental lily, Vase life

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Effect of packaging materials on the shelf-life of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie under room temperature storage

A. K. Panda*, R. K. Goyal, A. K. Godara and Vikas Kumar Sharma

Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: asish.panda014@gmail.com

Received: November 14, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016

Abstract: Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) fruits cv. Sweet Charlie were harvested at the 3/4th maturity stage. Freshly harvested fruits were packed in plastic punnets and wrapped with different packaging materials viz., low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 25, 50 and 75 micron, polypropylene (PP) 25 micron, cellophane paper and cling film. Effect of all the packaging materials was studied in ambient storage condition (18-25 ºC and 80-90% RH). The result showed that LDPE 50 micron packaging material proved as the most effective one to control the weight loss (5.49%) and all of the LDPE films along with the PP and cling films appeared best to minimize decay loss. MAP con-ditions help prevent the decaying of strawberry fruits up to a day. The total soluble solids (6.35% - 5.78%) and titrat-able acidity (0.91% - 0.70%) were found to be decreased with the prolongation of storage periods, but no significant variation was recorded for different packaging materials. A better level of ascorbic acid in strawberry fruits packed with LDPE 50 (31.56 mg/ 100g) and 75 micron (29.86 mg/ 100g) packaging films was retained. The organoleptic rating of strawberry fruits was found best in fruits packed with LDPE 50 micron (7.90) packaging films. In future, these experimental results may prove very useful for storage of strawberry fruits for a certain period in better quality.

Keywords: Packaging materials, Quality, Room temperature, Shelf life, Strawberry

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G × E evaluation for feed barley genotypes evaluated in country by AMMI analysis

R.P.S. Verma, A.S. Kharab, J. Singh, Vishnu Kumar, Indu Sharma and Ajay Verma*

Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal 132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: verma.dwr@gmail.com

Received: November 14, 2015; Revised received: May 11, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016

Abstract: AMMI analysis of feed barley genotypes exhibited highly significant effects of environments, genotypes and interactions for both the years. The major portion of the total variance was described by the environmental ef-fects up to 45.6% and 42.3% in respective years. The genotypes effects contributed marginally as of only 8.6% and 6.9% of total variation. The significant interaction effects were partitioned into IPCA1, IPCA2, IPCA3 and IPCA4; which explained upto 42.4, 18.3, 9.7 and 8.1% of the first year and 32.2, 20.3, 15.6 and 10.5% for second year. The cumulative effect of first two interaction principal components comes out to 60.7% and 52.3% respectively. Maxi-mum genotype yield during study period varied from 49.8 to 48 whereas the lowest yield ranged from 37 to 36.4 q/ ha. AMMI stability index identified genotypes G9(BH 972), G15(JB 274) for former and G23(DWRB 109) & G2(KB 1205) for latter year. AMMI distance marked G15(JB 274) & G7(NDB 1561) for first and genotypes G26(UPB 1034) & G23(DWRB 109) for the second year. Desirable genotypes for selection would be G11(PL 871), G27(PL 872) and G23(DWRB 109), G20(BH 946) for respective years a per the GSI score. Genotypes with IPCA-1 scores close to zero identified G1(PL 751), G9(BH 972) and G27(PL 872 ) for first year and G5(RD 2786), G4(NDB 1554) and G24 (UPB 1036) for second year would have wider adaptation to the tested environments as per AMMI graphical plots.

Keywords: ASV, Biplots, D, GSI, GxE interaction, IPCA, MET

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Influence of agronomic practices on severity of late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans)

S. Dey1* and A. Chakraborty2

1Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2AICRP on Potato, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia -741235 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sdey.patho@gmail.com

Received: November 20, 2015; Revised received: March 26, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to find out the influence of such agronomic practices on severity of the disease and to seek a proper cultural practice for management late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans). The experimental results showed that the severity of late blight disease could be minimized by reducing the depth of irrigation (i.e. ¼ of irrigation channel). It was observed that the disease severity could be minimized by increasing the row-to-row and plant-to-plant spacing (60 × 25 cm). It was also observed that when less than recommended dose of nitrogenous fertilizer (200 Kg N/ha) along with slightly more than recommended dose of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (200 Kg P2O5/ha and 250 Kg K2O/ha) was applied, severity and spread of the disease was found to be under check. Therefore, for better management of late blight of potato the proper agronomic practices should be integrated with the application of fungicides. This will not only reduce the number of sprays but also reduces the health hazards owing to application of fungicides.

Keywords: Cultural management, Fertilizer dose, Irrigation, Late blight, Severity, Spacing



Response of NPK fertigation on pheno-physiological status of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Mosambi under high density planting

Vishal Nirgude1*, K. Karuna1, Abhay Mankar1, Vikash Kumar1, Maggidi Spandana2

1Department of Horticulture (Fruit & Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

2Department of Horticulture (Fruit & Fruit Technology) ASPEE College of Horticulture & Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujrat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nirgude.v7hort@gmail.com

Received: January 07, 2016; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during 2013-14 to study the effects of fertigation on the phenology and physiological status of Citrus sinensis cv. Mosambi. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with seven fertigation level, viz. T1- 120% of RDF; T2- 100% of RDF; T3- 80% of RDF; T4- 60% of RDF; T5- 40% of RDF; T6- Full dose in basal with drip irrigation and T7- Full dose in basal without drip irrigation and each treatment were replicated three times. Results obtained showed that increase in plant height (36.75 cm), trunk girth (4.67 cm), canopy volume (1.83 m3), leaf area index (5.51) and growth of current season shoot (9.42 cm2) of the plant were more responsive to higher dose of fertigation i.e. T1 followed by T2. The treatment effect was not marked on repro-ductive growth as expressed in terms of bud emergence, full bloom, fruit set and duration of bud emergence to ma-turity. The tree physiological parameters viz. total chlorophyll (2.65 mg/g), net photosynthesis rate (6.83 μmol CO2 / m2/sec), stomatal conductance (0.18 mol/m2/sec) and leaf area (31.9 cm2) were also higher under treatment receiv-ing higher dose of fertigation i.e. T1. Therefore, on the basis of results obtained, treatment 120% RDF found superior in maintaining pheno-physiological status of mosambi plant under high density planting.

Keywords: Citrus, Fertigation, Phenology, Physiology

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Semi-dwarf narrow rolled leaf mutant in rice: Photosynthetic efficiency and physiological response to gibberellic acid (GA3)

S. Ramchander1* and M. Arumugam Pillai2

1Department of Rice (CPBG), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulkam-628252 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rubulochander_009@yahoo.co.in

Received: July 24, 2015; Revised received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016

Abstract: Leaf is the major component for fixation of carbondioxide to produce more photoassimilates and main-tains source sink relationship in plants. The present investigation was carried out to study the photosynthetic effi-ciency and physiological response of GA3 of semi-dwraf narrow rolled leaf mutant. Semi-dwarf narrow rolled leaf mutant exhibited reduced plant height, reduced leaf width, reduced panicle length and number of grains per panicle when compared to wild type. Photosynthetic efficiency study revealed that the mutant showed higher photosynthetic efficiency than wild type. Complementation test with GA3 clearly revealed that this mutant is sensitive to GA3 and revert to normal plant height. Scanning Electron Microscope study revealed that mutant had exhibited minimum number of inter-veins between veins, minimum distance between midrib and has slightly larger cell size. Hence, this loss of function mutant is very useful to map the regions associated with panicle length, number of grains per panicle and other traits related to enhancement of yield. The result provides an important clue for further understanding the mechanism of rice leaf development and plant architecture.

Keywords: Gibberellic acid, Photosynthetic efficiency, Scanning electron microscope, Semi-dwarf

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Effect of polyamines and natural growth substances on the growth and flowering of rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samurai under protected conditions

Sumathi Tatte1, Alka Singh1* and T R Ahlawat2

1Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, ACHF, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450

(Gujrat), INDIA

2Department of Fruit Science, ACHF, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujrat), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E-mail: dralkasinghdhaka@gmail.com

Received: August 19, 2015; Revised received: May 08, 2016; Accepted: July 22, 2016

Abstract: Investigations were conducted to study the effect of different polyamines and natural growth substances as a pre harvest foliar spray on greenhouse rose cv. Samurai. The study involved preharvest foliar spraying with polyamines like spermine (10 ppm) and spermidine (10 ppm); natural growth substances like enriched banana pseu-dostem sap (1 per cent) and cow urine (2 per cent). All the treatments improved the vegetative and flowering char-acters over control. However, among different treatments, foliar spray of spermine 10 ppm, followed by spermidine 10 ppm were highly significant in influencing all vegetative parameters like plant height (79 cm), number of branches per plant (3.73), stem girth (10.69 mm), number of leaves per plant (91.33), leaf area (14.68 cm2) and leaf chloro-phyll content (36.96 mg/g). Further, flowering parameters like flower stalk length (61.24cm), bud length (2.70mm), flower diameter (6.50 cm), number of petals per flower (55.90) and vase life (6.63 days) were significantly maximum in plants sprayed with spermine 10ppm. The treatment of foliar spray with spermine and spermidine almost doubled the flower production and improved the flower quality in tems of bud size and vase life as compared to control.

Keywords: Enriched banana pseudostem sap, Polyamines, Rose, Spermine, Spermidine

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Seasonal abundance and bio-efficacy of different insecticides against castor semilooper on castor

Yashdev Singh*, Balbir Singh, S. P. Singh and Suman Devi

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125004, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ydev70@gmail.com

Received: August 30, 2015; Revised received: May 19, 2016; Accepted: July 23, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Regional Research Station, Bawal, Haryana (India). The larvae of castor semilooper remain active from 30th stan-dard weeks to 47th standard weeks. The maximum larval population was recorded on the 32th standard week (6.1 larvae per plant) and 38th standard meteorological weeks (6.2 larvae per plant) due the high rainfall, 158 and 120 mm, during these weeks, respectively. Correlation indicates that minimum temperature, evening relative humidity and rainfall exhibited a positive relationship (r- 0.588, 0.577 and 0.650) with the larval population. Bio-efficacy of four insecticides with different doses was tested against A. janata infesting castor crop. One day after spraying thiodicarb @ 468 g proved best toxicant followed by thiodicarb @ 375 g, deltamethrin @ 11.2 g, deltamethrin @ 10.5 g, qui-nalphos @ 250 g, quinalphos @ 200 g, novaluron @ 100 g and novaluron @ 75 g. At three days after spraying, it was found that novaluron @ 100 g was the most effective followed by novaluron @ 75 g, thiodicarb @ 468 g, del-tamethrin @ 11.2 g, thiodicarb @ 375 g, deltamethrin @ 10.5 g, quinalphos @ 250 g and quinalphos @ 200 g. At seven days after spraying novaluron @ 100 g proved to be best toxicant followed by novaluron @ 75 g, thiodicarb @ 468 g, thiodicarb @ 375 g, deltamethrin @ 11.2 g, deltamethrin @ 10.5 g, quinalphos @ 250 g and quinalphos @ 200 g. Novaluron 100 g was the overall most effective with 75.97 mean per cent reduction in larval population.

Keywords- Achaea janata L., Abundance, Chemical control, Incidence

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Bud take success, growth and foliage characters of different Prunus cultivars on Myrocal and Julior clonal rootstock

Ritu Sharma* and Amit Kumar1

Division of Fruit Science, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (HP), INDIA

1Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar- 190 025 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: reet_libra21@yahoo.co.in

Received: September 02, 2015; Revised received: July 30, 2016; Accepted: July 23, 2016

Abstract: The present study determined the effect of clonal rootstock of Prunus and their graft compatibility with peach, plum and apricot cultivars. Prunus scion cultivars were tongue grafted on respective Prunus clonal rootstocks in the last week of January, 2006. The study indicated that with respect to graft success, Myrocal exhibited higher bud take with apricot (66.67 %) than plums (63.89 %) with 1.15 and 1.20 stock/scion ratio, respectively. Julior exhib-ited higher bud take with plums (91.77 %) than peaches (86.11%) with 1.10 and 1.07 stock/scion ratio, respectively, whereas, Julior exhibited higher bud take with plum (91.77 %) than peaches (86.11 %) with 1.10 and 1.07 stock/ scion ratio, respectively. Comparative studies indicate higher bud take of plum cvs Frontier (91.64 %) and Red Beaut (91.84%) on Julior as compared to Myrocal. Peach scion cultivars recorded more annual growth in terms of plant height (0.73 m) and plant spread (0.48 m x 0.62 m) than plum scion cultivars on Julior. Contrary to higher vig-our recorded in nectarine scions compared to peach scions grafted on Julior, annual growth has been observed to be higher in peaches than in nectarines. Comparative studies indicate plant height, plant spread, trunk girth, inter-nodal length and pruning weight of both plum cultivars to be higher on Myrocal than on Julior. With the present study, it is clear that Myrocal is more vigorous than Julior rootstock and both the rootstocks can be utilized for propagation with Prunus cultivars studied.

Keywords: Clonal rootstock, Foliage, Julior, Growth, Myrocal, Prunus

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Assessment of genetic diversity using DNA markers among Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson germplasm lines collected from Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand hills

Harsha1*, Jitendra Kumar Meena2, Ram Bhajan1, Usha Pant1 and Mohammed Talha1

1 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G .B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar-260314(Uttarakhand), INDIA

2 Division of Genetics, IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: harshrewasia325@gmail.com

Received: October 07, 2015; Revised received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: July 24, 2016

Abstract: The genetic diversity and the relatedness among thirty-one germplasm lines of yellow sarson collected from eastern UP were evaluated using morphological characters and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Molecular parameters viz. A total number of bands, average polymorphic band, average percent polymor-phism, average polymorphic information content (PIC), Jaccard’s similarity coefficient, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCA) and dendrogram generated using RAPD markers. A total of 148 different polymorphic amplification products were obtained using 10 selected decamer primers. The Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.557-0.899. Maxi-mum polymorphism detected was 100 %.The range of amplification was from 190bp to 9 kb. Some unique bands were also reported with different primers that can be used for the identification of particular accession. PYSC-11-11 and PYSC-11-36 genotypes showed a maximum number of unique loci of different size. 31 germplasm lines grouped into two major clusters I and II based on RAPD profiling. Morphological characterization was done on the basis of leaf, petal and beak characteristics. The similarity value among the germplasm lines ranged from 0.222 to 1.000 using morphological descriptors. The dendrogram generated grouped the germplasm accession into two ma-jor groups at 44% similarity value. The cluster analysis was comparable up to some extent with Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCA) of two and three-dimensional plots. The variability revealed by morphological and molecular profile were found to be non-comparable. This study indicated the presence of high genetic diversity among collected yel-low sarson germplasm, which could be used for developing for breeding and germplasm management purposes.

Keywords: Brassica rapa, Genetic diversity, PCA, RAPD

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Optimization of recipe for development of Aonla squash- A Response surface methodology approach

Akanksha Jain1*, Rakesh Gehlot2, Saleem Siddiqui3 and Mukesh R. Jangra4

1,2,3 Centre of Food Science and Technology, CCSHAU, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), INDIA

4Department of Molecular Biology, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, College of Basic Sciences, CCSHAU, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:akankshajain972@gmail.com

Received: October 09, 2015; Revised received: March 30, 2016; Accepted: July 25, 2016

Abstract: Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed for optimizing the recipe for development of Aonla squash with juice content (25 to 40%), acidity (1.00 to 1.10%) as independent variables and adjusting 50% total soluble solids. Thirteen different experimental combinations given by RSM design were used to investigate the effect of independent process variables on four product responses developed squash. RSM evaluated responses of the 13 squash recipes by second order quadratic equations and found that pH ranged from 2.69-3.00, ascorbic acid from 102-212 mg/100ml, browning from 0.428- 0.579 and overall acceptability scores from 6.25-7.75. ANOVA analysis showed that the product responses of beverages were significantly affected (at 5%) by changes in juice and acidity of the squash recipes. Overall acceptability scores of the beverage increased with the increase in proportion of juice content from 25 to 40%. The coefficient of determination i.e., R2 for all responses was higher than 0.95 and non-significant lack of fit was observed for all models; which was desirable. Through numerical optimization, standard-ized recipe selected by RSM for aonla squash was with 40% juice and 1% acidity getting highest desirability of 0.991. The pH, ascorbic acid, browning and overall acceptability for the optimum recipe predicted by the design were 2.96, 197.8 mg/100 ml, 0.557 and 7.7, respectively. Thus, present study was first in its kind to optimize aonla squash recipe by using RSM as a tool which gave advantage of not only selecting best recipe but also provided im-pression of the influence of ingredients used in squash’s preparation on its physico-chemical profile.

Keywords: Aonla squash, Central composite design, Optimization, Overall acceptability, RSM

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Studies on combining ability and gene action for yield and quality traits in Baby corn (Zea mays L.)

Hemlata Kumari1*, Nikhil Kumar2, Mukesh Kumar3 and Rashmi Kumari1

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

3Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hemalata.sabour@gmail.com

Received: October 16, 2015; Revised received: May 11, 2016; Accepted: July 25, 2016

Abstract: An investigation was carried out to assess the combining ability and nature of gene action in baby corn (Zea mays L.) genotypes, by making crosses of eight inbred lines namely, HKI 3209, SML 1, EC 595979, CM 128, VQL 1, G 18 seq C5 F 76-2-2-1-1-2-BBB, HKI 209, in diallel mating design (without reciprocal crosses) by following Griffing Model–I and Method–II during rabi season 2013-14 at the experimental farm of BAC, Sabour, Bhagalpur (Bihar). The crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to assess the combining ability and nature of gene action. Based on general combining ability, parents CM 128 and VQL 1 were best parent for breeding programme for yield and quality improvement. The specific combining ability also indicates that hybrid CM128 x VQL1 was best specific combiner for baby corn yield (4.11q/ha), fodder yield (50.91q/ha) as well as for better quality. The crosses CM 128 x HKI 209 recorded the high mean (7.35%) and SCA effects (2.57 ºBrix) for qual-ity traits. The gene action analysis also revealed preponderance of non-additive gene action for yield and its contrib-uting characters.

Keywords: Baby corn, Combining ability, Gene action, Quality traits

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Heterosis in single cross inter and intra-specific hybrids of Desi cotton (Gossipium arboreum and G. herbaceaum) for their seed cotton yield, fibre quality and seed oil content

Rakesh Choudhary1*, B. G. Solanki2, Navin Chander Gahtyari1, Tapas Paul3 and D. M. Patel2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (UK), INDIA

2Main Cotton Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Surat- 395007 (Gujarat), INDIA

3 ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:- agrico.rakesh@gmail.com

Received: November 29, 2015; Revised received: April 30, 2016; Accepted: July 25, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to assess the expression of per se performance and heterotic effect for fibre quality and seed oil content besides seed cotton yield, studied involving ten desi cotton (Gossipium arboreum and G. herbaceaum) genotypes and their 45 cross combinations in half diallel analysis. F1 hybrids GBhv- 282 x G 27 (67.36%), GBhv- 287 x 824 (58.14%), GBhv- 282 x GAM- 173 (35.00%), GBhv- 286 x G 27 (20.50%), and GBhv- 283 x 824 (18.75%) recorded highest per se performance and significant positive standard heterosis while the maximum heterobeltiosis for seed cotton yield per plant was exhibited by the hybrid GBhv- 287 x 824 (155.60 %) followed by GBhv- 282 x G 27 (151.29%) and GBhv- 282 x GAM- 173 (130.30%). Similar trend of het-erosis for numbers of boll per plant were observed in above hybrids. For fibre quality traits none of the cross showed consistent high performance for all the characters. Cross GBhv- 283 x 824 was exhibited high standard heterosis for 2.5 % span length, fibre strength, fibre elongation percentage as well as for short fibre index (SFI) while cross GBhv- 286 x 824 were promising for 2.5 per cent span length, fibre strength and fibre fineness. In case of oil content intra-arboreum crosses resulted as better crosses and among them cross combination 824 x GAM- 173 was best. Desi cotton hybrids are having lower fibre quality and yield. So, improvement for yield and fibre quality of diploid native varieties through heterosis breeding provided better hybrids for rainfed farming.

Keywords: Diploid, Heterobeltiosis, Heterosis Breeding, Quantitative, Useful heterosis

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Development and storage characteristics of shrimp (Solenocera crassicornis) based snack food using extrusion technology

K. G. Baraiya1*, S. M. Zofair1, V. B. Mulye1, S. R. Lende2, R. A. Khileri3, R.M. Kadri4, A. K. Jha4 and M.R. Patel5

1Department of Harvest and Post-Harvest Technology, College of Fisheries, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval-362265 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Department of Aquaculture, Kamdhenu University, Gandhinagar- 382010 (Gujarat), INDIA

3Department of Fisheries Resource Management, College of Fisheries, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval- 362265 (Gujarat), INDIA

4Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Veraval-362269 (Gujarat), INDIA

5Department of aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313 001(Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kirenbaraiya011@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2015; Revised received: May 09, 2016; Accepted: July 25, 2016

Abstract: An attempt was made to develop nutrient rich extruded snacks from lesser utilized protein rich shrimp (Solenocera crassicornis) flour using twin screw extruder. The extruded were in order to fried and packed in to High Density Polyethelene (HDPE). The extruded were analyzed for physical, texture profile, proximate composition and sensory characteristics at the interval of 10 days for 50 days of storage (DOS). The experiment shows the physical property like expansion ratio (mm) and texture profile characteristics such as hardness (gmF) and crispiness (gm) were not affected at the end of storage period. Among the different studies, the product made from rice/shrimp T1 based extruded scored as higher as 5 (out of 5) by sensory evaluation for all attributes. Consequently, all the ex-truded were maintained the physical properties, nutritional quality and overall acceptability. This research demon-strated that shrimp flour at 15% can be successfully incorporated for development of extruded were: expansion ratio 3.32, 2.75 and 3.06 (mm), crispiness 291, 252 and 210 (gm), protein 12.69, 18.74 and 15.09 (%), enegy value 540, 489 and 524 (Kcal), TPC 0.36, 0.34 and 0.34 (log cfu/gm) in rice T1, wheat T2 and corn T3 based extruded respec-tively. Overall, the quality assessment of extruded were not changed significantly (P>0.05) throughout study.

Keywords: Extrusion cooking, Quality change, Solenocera crassicornis, Snack food, Storage stability

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Effect of metabolized polyethylene terephthalate, vacuum packaging and storage temperature on shelf life of papaya pulp Kalakand (Indian cookie)

Kartik M. Patel1, Jignesh M. Patel2, Dharmesh C. Patel3, Navin B. Patel4, Jeetendra K. Raval5 and Priti D. Vihol5

1Department of Livestock Products Technology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sard rushinagar dantiwada agricultural university, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Navsari Agriculture Univer-sity, Navsari396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

3Veterinary Polytechnic, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

4Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

5Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari– 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dr.jams@rediffmail.com

Received: April 12, 2015; Revised received: May 17, 2016; Accepted: July 26, 2016

Abstract: The dairy plants are looking for newer products for diversification and value addition. There is scope for the dairy industry to introduce newer products as healthy, convenience and ready to eat foods for capacity utilization and value addition, but because of complex biochemical composition and high water content, milk and milk products act as an excellent culture medium for growth and multiplication of varieties of microorganisms. Vacuum packaging reduces product shrinkage, trim losses by eliminating oxidation and freezer burn resulting it can enhance product quality. Now a day metabolized polyethylene terephthalate (MET PET) with vacuum packaging have a promising role in storage of various value added milk product. The developed value added Kalakand product (Indian cookie) could be stored successfully for 5 days in MET PET packaging material at 4±1°C and when the product was packaged under vacuum the shelf life increased up to 10 days at 4±1°C.

Keywords: Indian cookie, Kalakand, Metabolized polyethylene terephthalate, Microbiological analysis, Vacuum packaging

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Assessment of insecticides and Cry2AB toxin resistance development in Karnataka population of Plutella xylostella (Linn.)

V. Sunitha1, T. V. K. Singh2 V. Ramesh Babu3 and J. Satyanarayana4

1,4Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad-30 (Telangana), INDIA

2Dean of Agriculture, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30 (Telangana), INDIA

3Crop protection Division, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, Barrackpur, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vanamsunitha10@gmail.com

Received: June 25, 2015; Revised received: April 07, 2016; Accepted: July 26, 2016

Abstract: Insecticidal resistance studies against third instar larvae of DBM (Plutella xylostella L.) were carried out to know the rate of development of resistance from F1 to F3 generations in Karnataka population. The third instar lar-vae obtained from field were subjected to bioassay studies with tested against acephate, cypermethrin, spinosad, cartap hydrochloride and Cry2Ab toxin using leaf dip method to calculate LC50 values. The LC50 values of the insec-ticides were further used to quantify the resistance in P. xylostella of parental generation (F0) from Karnataka field population. The survivals from F0 generation were reared to next generation (F1). Resistance development studies was assessed from F1 to F3 generation with third instar larvae in every generation with a concentration that caused 80.00 % mortality for all the test insecticides and Cry2Ab toxin. Results revealed that ((0.17 folds) no re-sistance was developed against acephate in F3 generation. In case of cypermethrin 2.33 folds. Resistance studies further revealed that 1.50 folds resistance was developed against spinosad, 2.28 folds against cartap hydrochloride and Cry2Ab toxin 1.49 folds resistance was recorded in F3 generation. The rate of development of resistance from F1 to F3 generations increased in all the test insecticides and Cry toxin, except against acephate in Karnataka popu-lation. This data will be useful in the development of insecticide resistance management approach for DBM.

Keywords: DBM, Insecticide Resistance, Karnataka, Toxin

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Effect of spacing, fertilizers and varieties on growth and yield parameters of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus (L.) Moench)

Vikash Kumar1*, S.K. Dhankhar1, Chandanshive Aniket Vilas1, Rajesh Kathwal2 and Neha Yadav1

1Department of Vegetable Science, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vikaskamboj7005@gmail.com

Received: September 26, 2015; Revised received: May 19, 2016; Accepted: July 27, 2016

Abstract: The experiment was conducted during spring summer seasons of 2013 and 2014 conducted at Research Farm of Vegetable Science, CCS HAU, in summer season. There were three spacing, three fertilizer levels and two varieties in split-split plot design with three replications. Growth parameters of okra crop were significantly affected by spacing, fertilizer and varieties. Highest plants were observed in wider spacing with fertilizer application of 187.5 kg N + 75kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O per hectare in variety HBT-49-1. However, numbers of branches were highest in vari-ety Hisar Unnat. Yield attributes like first fruiting node, intermodal length, fruit length and diameter etc. were highest in variety HBT-49-1 resulting in highest fruit yield (q/ha) in spacing 30 cm x 10 cm with the application of 187.5 kg N +75 kg P2O5 + 60 kg K2O per hectare. The seed yield attributes and yield was significantly affected by spacing, fertil-izer and varieties. Finally, spacing 30 cm × 10 cm resulted in higher growth parameters, yield attributes and yield with the application of 187.5 kg N +75 kg P2O5 + 60 K2O in variety HBT-49-1 of okra.

Keywords: Fertilizer, Okra Spacing, Varieties, Yield

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Partial acidulation of phosphate rock for enhanced phosphorus availability in alluvial soils of Bihar, India

Kasturikasen Beura*, Rajeev Padbhushan1, Amit Kumar Pradhan1 and Nintu Mandal1

Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: beura.kasturi88@gmail.com

Received: October 30, 2015; Revised received: May 08, 2016; Accepted: July 28, 2016

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to fractionate partially acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR) and evaluate its effect on Phosphorus availability in alluvial soils. For this purpose, low grade phosphate rock was collected from Udaipur, Rajasthan and acidulated at different degrees with sulphuric acid (H2SO4) (v/v)Results from an incubation study showed that the available fraction of P [Water soluble (WSP) and Citrate soluble (CSP)] increased with in-creasing degree of acidulation. The maximum WSP was obtained at 50% H2SO4 (52.30% of total P) and the maxi-mum CSP was obtained at 80% H2SO4 (49.54% of total P). Dissolution of rock phosphate was the best treatment and found to be at par with that of 60% and 80% but was significantly superior to rest of the treatments. The maxi-mum WSP in the soil samples was obtained after acidulation with 50 %H2SO4 and the maximum Olsen’s P by the 14th day of incubation. An increasing trend was found at initial stages of incubation (7-14 days) with a notable de-crease in the later stages. WSP demonstrated the maximum correlation at 40% dissolution(r = 96* for first order reaction, r =95* for second order reaction) while for Olsen’s P, the maximum correlation was found in initial rock phosphate sample (r =88* for first order reaction, r =94* for second order reaction). Kinetics analysis of the obtained rock phosphate demonstrated that the PARP has more influence on phosphorus release pattern as compared to the inorganic P (SSP).

Keywords: Alluvial soils, Chemical fractions, Incubation study, Partially acidulated phosphate rock, Phosphorus

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Effect of super-optimal levels of fertilizers on soil enzymatic activities during growth stages of wheat crop on an Inceptisol

Rajiv Rakshit1,2*, A.K. Patra1, T.J. Purakayastha1, R.D. Singh1, Shiva Dhar3, Himanshu Pathak4 and Anupam Das2

1Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural College, BAU, Sabour- 813210, (Bihar), INDIA

3Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA

4CESCRA, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail: rajiv.ssaciari@gmail.com

Received: November 09, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 28, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 to investigate the effect of optimal (100% NPK) to super-optimal doses (200% NPK) of mineral fertilizers on soil enzymes such as dehydrogenase (DHA), acid phosphatase (Ac-PA), alkaline phosphatase (Alk-PA), fluorescien diacetate hydrolysis (FDA), urease and nitrate reductase (NRA) at three physiological stages (CRI, anthesis and maturity) of wheat crop on an Incepti-sol. Dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 28-37% when fertilizer application was at super-optimal dose (200% NPK), whereas, urease and NRA responded positively in the range of 43-44% and 213-231% respectively. Alk-PA was 7.3-7.9% higher in treatments receiving 125% NPK as compared to control (100% NPK); whereas, Ac-PA de-clines in the plots receiving 175 and 200% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) as compared to 150% NPK lev-els. Addition of 175% RDF increased the FDA to the tune of 46-53% as compared to 100% NPK. A significant (P≤0.05) positive interaction between fertilizer treatments and physiological stages of wheat growth was observed on soil enzyme activities (except urease and NRA) being highest at the anthesis stage of wheat. Correlation matrix analysis showed that DHA was correlated with the studied enzyme activities except Ac-PA and FDA; whereas, strong correlation was observed between urease and NRA (r=0.981, P=0.01). This study provides theoretical and practical base for avoiding super optimal application of fertilisers which hinders the enzyme activities and vis-a-vis sustainable nutrient enrichment under rhizosphere.

Keywords: Physiological stages, Soil enzymes, Super-optimal fertilization, Wheat

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Genetic variability in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) genotypes through inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers

Vivekanand P. Rao1*, Sanjay Singh1, R. Chaudhary1, M. K. Sharma1, R.S. Sengar1, Uma M. Singh2 and Vinay Sharma3

1Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agri-culture & Technology Meerut- 250 110 (U.P.), INDIA

2Department of Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

3Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University Banasthali- 304 022 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: raovivekanand4@gmail.com

Received: November 26, 2015; Revised received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: July 28, 2016

Abstract: In the present study, 14 sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) genotypes were used for genomic diversity analysis based on nineteen inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR). These nineteen sets of ISSR markers generated a total of 164 discernible and reproducible bands including 109 polymorphic and 55 monomorphic bands. The un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis revealed three distinct clusters: I, II and III within the 14 genotypes. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value per locus ranged from 0.14 (UBC811) to 0.53 (ISSR1) locus with an average of 0.42 for all loci. The range of genetic distance or coefficient of similarity among sugarcane genotypes varied 0.14 - 0.78. The analysis of these similarities matrix revealed that greater simi-larity between CoS03234 and CoSe1424 (0.78), and lowest similarity between CoS03234 and Co0118 (0.14). The knowledge gained in this study would be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugar-cane varieties and cultivars to meet the increasing demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bio energy uses.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker, Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)

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Performance of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) under drip irrigation and mulch

T. L. Thentu*, D. Dutta, D. Dutta Mudi and A. Saha

Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tulasiagrico318@gmail.com

Received: December 15, 2015; Revised received: April 23, 2016; Accepted: July 31, 2016

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Central Research Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyala, Gayespur, West Bengal during winter seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 to assess the comparative effectiveness of drip and conventional surface irrigation with and without mulch on growth and yield of broccoli. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design replicated thrice. Main plot treatments consist of four levels of irrigation such as surface irrigation with IW/CPE 1.0 and three drip irrigation at 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6 ETc (crop-evapotranspiration), and three mulch levels like no mulch, black polythene mulch and paddy straw mulch @ 5t/ha in sub-plots. The results showed that drip irrigation at 0.8 ETc showed significantly higher (P = 0.05) plant height (45.69 cm), no of leaves plant -1 (17.66), leaf size index (743.99 cm2), plant spread (89.94 cm), curd diameter (14.43 cm) and marketable curd yield (17.82 t ha-1) of broccoli, which was at par with drip at 1.0 ETc. Minimum growth and yield was obtained with drip irrigation at 0.6 ETc in both the years. Similarly, significantly the highest (P = 0.05) plant variables and curd yield was obtained with use of black polythene mulch over paddy straw and no mulch treatments. However, drip irrigation at 0.6 ETc registered maximum water use efficiency of 117.31kg ha-mm-1 and water saving of 38.43%. The interac-tion effect showed that drip irrigation at 0.8 ETc along with black polythene mulch produced significantly higher mar-ketable curd yield. The experimental findings can be recommended for growing high value crop broccoli with water saving drip irrigation at ETc 0.8 along with plastic mulch technology in the water scarce regions of West Bengal.

Keywords: Broccoli, Drip Irrigation, Mulch, Water use efficiency, Yield

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Genetic diversity analysis in Gladiolus genotypes (Gladiolus hybridus Hort)

Archana Bhajantri* and V. S. Patil

Department of Horticulture, Agriculture College Dharwad, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: archana.bb@gmail.com

Received: December 15, 2015; Revised received: May 28, 2016; Accepted: July 31, 2016

Abstract: In the present investigation, thirty gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus Hort) genotypes were assessed to know the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. Genetic diversity study indicated that among the 17 characters, most of the flower characters contributed towards diversity. Floret diameter contrib-uted maximum towards genetic divergence followed by number of florets per spike, vase life, spike length and plant height.Thirty genotypes were grouped into 8 clusters and among them, cluster I was the largest with 9 genotypes followed by cluster II having 7 genotypes, and IV cluster 6 and cluster III with 3 genotypes each. Clusters were of V, VII and VIII solitary type means they having only one genotype in their group. Divergence values (D2 value) ranged from zero to 7.97 indicating considerable amount of moderate variability in the material studied. Information generated from the present study would be useful in selection of parents for future breeding programme for flower quality improvement in gladiolus. It is desirable to select genotypes from clusters having high cluster means and also with high flower character like spike length as parents for future recombination breeding programmes.

Keywords: Cluster mean, Genetic divergence, Gladiolus genotypes, Intra and inter cluster

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Effect of edible coating for enhancing shelf-life and quality in Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits

Piyali Dutta*, Koyel Dey*, Arkendu Ghosh*, Nilesh Bhowmick, Arunava Ghosh**

Department of Pomology and Post-Harvest Technology, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar - 736165 (WB), INDIA

**Discipline of agricultural statistics, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (WB), INDIA

*Present Address: Department of Fruits and Orchard Management, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia - 741252 (WB), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E.mail- mithi.rani11@gmail.com

Received: December 16, 2015; Revised received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: July 31, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of post-harvest application of different edible coatings like Chitosan (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%), Guar gum (1%, 1.5%, 2%), Gum tragacanth (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) on shelf life and quality of cv. BAU ber. Fruits of uniform size were harvested at physiological maturity and treated with various edi-ble coatings. Observations were recorded at intervals of 4 days from storage on physiological loss in weight, fruit length, breadth, colour, TSS, total sugar, reducing sugar, acidity, and Ascorbic acid. The results revealed that coat-ing of fruits resulted in reduced loss in fruit weight and higher level of ascorbic acid content, TSS, acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar as compared to the fruits under control. The most effective coating was Guar gum (2%) that ex-tended the shelf life of ber up to 16 days due to its good barrier properties to water and gas. Fruits under control had a shelf life of only10 days.

Keywords: Ber, Chitosan, Guar gum, Gum tragacanth, Shelf life

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Performance of wheat cultivars at varying fertility levels under system of wheat intensification and conventional method of wheat production system

Kaushik Chatterjee, C.S. Singh, A.K. Singh, Ashok Kr. Singh and S.K. Singh*

Department of Agronomy, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi-834006 (Jharkhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: sksinghbau@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016; Accepted: July 31, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2009-10 at Ranchi, Jharkhand to evaluate the performance of wheat cultivars at varying fertility levels under system of wheat intensification and conventional method of cultivation. The morpho-physiological analysis of growth and yield in wheat revealed that system of wheat intensification manifested higher total tillers m-2, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, number of spikes m-2, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight resulting in higher grain and straw yield over conventional method of cultivation. The net return and benefit: cost ratio as well as the nutrient uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash was also recorded significantly higher under system of wheat intensification. Higher fertility level of 120 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 also significantly improved the plant height, total tillers m-2, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, number of spikes m-2, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, net return, benefit: cost ratio and nutrient uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Among the wheat cultivars, K 9107 manifested significant improvement in growth attributes at all the growth stages resulting in significantly higher yield attributes, grain yield, straw yield, net return, benefit: cost ratio and nutrient uptake of nitro-gen, phosphorus and potash than Birsa Gehu 3, HUW 468 and K 0307. Thus it can be concluded that the wheat variety K 9107 fertilized with 120 kg N ha-1, 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 under System of Wheat Intensifica-tion may able to boost up the wheat productivity under irrigated ecosystem of Chhotanagpur plateau region, India

Keywords: Crop growth rate, Leaf area index, Net assimilation rate, Relative growth rate, System of wheat intensification

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Insect growth regulatory activities from oils of camphor and clove against Spilosoma obliqua

Priyanka Bhatt* Nitin Thodsare and R.P. Srivastava

Bioactive Plant Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar -263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corressponding author. E-mail: bhattpriyanka18j@gmail.com

Received: August 26, 2015; Revised received: May 25, 2016; Accepted: August 02, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal and growth regulatory activities of clove oil, Syzygium aromaticum and camphor oil, Cinammomum camphora against Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua. The fourth instar larvae were subjected to topical application by microapplicator syringe with doses of 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5 μl/larva. Camphor oil was most effective at 2.5, 2.0 and 1.5μl dose causing death of larvae ranging from 76-90%. It showed a strong growth regulatory activity with no adult emergence at the highest concentration. Clove oil was effective in reducing adult moth population to 27% at highest dose of 2.5 μl. Only this dose could cause lar-val mortality of about 60%. The study shows potential of these oils to be utilized as insecticides or antibiosis mecha-nism to suppress the population of S. obliqua.

Keywords: Botanicals, Camphor oil, Clove oil, Growth Regulatory Activity, Spilosoma obliqua

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Growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of winter popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) as influenced by planting time fertility level and plant population under late sown condition

S. K. Singh1*, R. N. Singh2 U. S. Ram3 and M. K. Singh

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi– 221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pampoli - 790102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E-mail: rupanksha.231302@gmail.com

Received: September 29, 2015; Revised received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: August 02, 2016

Abstract: The field experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications, assigning in 27 treatment com-binations i.e. three sowing dates of Pop corn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) cv. V.L. Amber (15 Dec, 30 Dec and 15 Jan) arranged in main plots and three level of plant population (60000, 80000 and 100,000 plants ha-1) in sub plot. Three level of fertility (100:50:50, 150:65:65 and 200:85:85 kg of N: P2O5: K2O ha-1) apportioned in sub-sub plots at the Re-search farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi (U.P.) during late winter (rabi) seasons of 2009-10 and 2010- 11 to study the influenced of planting time, fertility level and plant population on yield attributes, grain yield and eco-nomics of winter popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.) under late sown condition. The popcorn sown on 15th December recorded highest plant height, leaf-area index, dry matter, popcorn growth rate, yield attributes and yield of pop corn were significantly (P<0.05) affected and recorded highest benefit cost ratio (3.78). While, the maintenance of 80,000 popcorn plants/ha proved optimum for pop corn as it significantly (P<0.05) recorded highest number of kernel cob-1, grain yield (32.61 q/ha) and shelling percentage against density of 60,000 plants, while remained at par in straw yield over 100,000 plants. Application of 200: 85: 85 kg N: P2O5: K2O/ha significantly (P<0.05) increased growth, yield attributes and grain yield over 100: 50: 50 and 150: 65: 65 kg N: P2O5: K2O/ha and fetched the highest B: C ratio (3.14).

Keywords: Economics, Fertility level, Planting time, Plant population, Popcorn yield

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Survey, documentation and identification of entomofauna of cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. in major cocoa growing regions of South India

S. Srinivasnaik1*, M. Suganthy2, S. Mohan Kumar3 and V. Jegadeeswari4

1Department of Agricultural Entomology, CPPS, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, TNAU, Coimbatore- 641 003(Tamil Nadu), INDIA

3CPMB&B, TNAU, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

4Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, TNAU, Coimbatore- 641003(Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sabhavats1@gmail.com

Received: November 09, 2015; Revised received: June 08, 2016; Accepted: August 02, 2016

Abstract: Survey, monitoring and documentation of entomofauna of cocoa was carried out in three cocoa growing states viz., Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh during 2014-2015. Results revealed that a total number of 23 species of insect pests and 13 species of natural enemies were documented and identified. Among the insect pests, 14, 2 and 7 species were sucking pests, borers and defoliators, respectively. Among the natural enemies, 7 species of predators and 6 species of parasitoids were documented and identified on different insect pests of cocoa. Among the insect pests, sucking pests were found to be predominant and maximum number of entomofauna were recorded in major coco growing areas of Tamil Nadu. From the results it was concluded that the list of entomofauna documented can enhance the knowledge on diversity of the entomofauna associated with cocoa in three different cocoa growing states. Sucking pests were found to be predominant and caused huge yield loss in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. While in Andhra Pradesh pod borer and bark eating caterpillar were found to be predominant causing severe yield loss. This information provides a base for development of location specific Integrated Pest Management module.

Keywords: Cocoa, Documentation, Identification, Insect pests, IPM, Natural enemies, Survey

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Population dynamics of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) on Citrus reticulate (Mandarin) var. Kinnow as influenced by weather conditions

T. Saini, Maha Singh Jaglan, S.S. Yadav, P. Jakhar and Rajbir Garg

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tsaini398@gmail.com

Received: November 14, 2015; Revised received: May 19, 2016; Accepted: August 02, 2016

Abstract: A field study on population dynamics of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) on citrus mandarin (var. Kinnow) was carried out during 2014-15 at Centre of Excellence (COE) for Fruits situated in village Mangiana of district Sirsa, Haryana. The population of nymphs and adults of this pest was recorded from March 2014 to Febru-ary 2015 at weekly interval. The nymphal population of the pest was observed only between 12th to 47th meteorological standard weeks (SW) with two major peaks i.e. one during 16th SW with a population of 83.44 nymphs/ 20 leaves and the second during 40th SW with a population of 133.22 nymphs/20 leaves. The above said population dynamics confirmed that this pest remained inactive in pupal stage during winter i.e. 48th to 11th SW. Similar trend was ob-served in respect of adult population. Nymphal population showed significant positive correlation with morning relative humidity (r = 0.329) and sunshine hours (r = 0.362), while adult population was found to have positive correlation with sunshine hours only (r = 0.332). Multiple regression analysis of the pest population with environment variables indicated that out of 45 per cent variability in nymphal population, 37 per cent was due to relative humidity and sunshine hours. Out of the total variability of 30 per cent variation in adult population, 20 per cent was due to evening relative humidity, while 10 per cent attributed to sunshine hours. The other weather parameters were found to have no significant correlation with the pest population. Although study of population dynamics of this study were conducted elsewhere but this is first study of its kind in the state of Haryana. The population dynamics revealed by this study have far reaching significance in pest management strategy as integrated control measures may be focused only during the period wherein population exceeds economic threshold level (ETL). The information on population dynamics of any insect pest in a given ecological niche should be considered as starting point for evolving eco - friendly pest management package.

Keywords: Citrus, Dialeurodes citri, Kinnow, Population dynamics, Weather conditions



Three decades of using of gypsum under sodic water irrigation in coarse textured soils

P. K. Yadav1, M. K. Jat1, Abha Tikkoo1, S. S. Yadav1 and S. K. Sharma2

1Department of Soil Science, Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal-123501 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail. mukesh.rca@gmail.com

Received: December 04, 2015; Revised received: May 12, 2016; Accepted: August 03, 2016

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the long term use of sodic waters and gypsum on physico-chemical properties of coarse textured loamy sand soil. The study consisted of three natural occurring underground sodic waters and amendment gypsum in various cropping systems. The results demonstrated that sodic water irrigation significantly de-creased infiltration rate (1.46 & 1.09 cm hr-1) and soil porosity (35.66 & 33.26 %) and increased soil strength (17.49 & 17.67 kg cm-1), pH (9.52 & 9.66), exchangeable sodium percentage (48.00 & 55.00), sodium adsorption ratio (45.14 & 54.10 (mmol/l)1/2) and calcium carbonate content (2.15 & 2.44 %). The gypsum application significantly improved infiltration rate (2.20 cm hr-1) and soil porosity (38.7 %) and reduced soil strength (16.74 kg cm-1), soil pH (9.35) exchangeable sodium percentage (39.00), sodium adsorption ratio (36.93 (mmol/l)1/2) over a period of thirty years. A significant CaCO3 build up in soil was also observed with gypsum application (3.28 % 4.56 %) as compared to its content at the start of study. Thus, it is con-cluded that in coarse textured soils of North west India, sodic waters up to RSC 12.0 me l-1 could safely be used crop production in combination with gypsum in loamy sand soil without any adverse effect on the physico-chemical charac-teristics of soil.

Keywords: Coarse textured soil, Gypsum, Soil properties, Sodic water

Growth and yield of transplanted rice as affected by different cultivars and weed management practices

Sunil Mandi1*, Eajaz Ahmad Dar2, Ashim Datta3, Ram Pratap Singh4, Manoj Kumar Singh4

1Central Tobacco Research Institute, Research Station, Dinhata, Cooch Behar-736135 (West Bengal), INDIA

2 Department of Agronomy, PAU- Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

3Division of Soil and Crop Management, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

4Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U.P.) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mandi.sunil@gmail.com

Received: December 15, 2015; Revised received: June 17, 2016; Accepted: August 05, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the competitive ability of rice cultivars in different weed manage-ment practices in transplanted rice. Five cultivars viz. BPT-5204, Malviya 36, HUBR2-1, Swarna and Adamchini were tested for three weed management practices viz. Hand weeding, Bispyribac-sodium@25g ha-1 and Weedy check. Among the different cultivars tested, the Swarna proved to be the best selection in producing higher grain (4.6 t ha-1) and straw yield (5 t ha-1) as well as harvest index (44.4%) due to more no. of tillers hill-1, dry matter accumulation, no. of panicles hill-1, no. of grains/panicle and test weight (20.3 g). The grain and straw yield in Swarna were 130 and 43% higher than the lowest yielding cultivar Adamchini respectively. The best weed control was achieved by hand weeding thrice at 25, 55 and 85 DAT. The grain yield was 58 and 27 % higher through hand weeding than that of weedy check and Bispyribac-sodium applied treatment, respectively. To examine the perform-ance of different rice cultivars in terms of growth and yield potential, evaluation of these cultivars is necessary with different weed management practices. Therefore, release of best weed suppressive rice cultivars for the farmers is important for improving the productivity as well as reduced cost of production for feeding the ever growing population of the country in the year to come.

Keywords: Cultivar, Paddy, Weed management, Yield

Effect of foliar application of zinc and salicylic acid on growth, flowering and chemical constitute of African marigold cv. pusa narangi gainda (Targets erecta L.)

A. Choudhary, A. Mishra*, P. K. Bola, S. K. Moond and M. Dhayal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar, Kota -326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Ashokchoudhary116@gmail.com

Received: January 04, 2016; Revised received: June 02, 2016; Accepted: August 05, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment on African marigold (Targets erecta L.) was conducted during winter season of 2014- 15to study the foliar effect of Zn and SA of 20 treatment combinations having five concentrations of zinc (0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 %) and salicylic acid (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mM/L).The treatmentZn4SA3 (Zinc 1% + Salicylic acid 1.0 mM/L) recorded the maximum plant height (77.41 cm), number of leaves per plant (314.10),earliest first flower bud appearance (39.78 days), maximum number of flowers per plant (62.33), maximum chlorophyll content (3.83mg/g) and maximum carotene content (3.07 mg/g)as compared to control where it was recorded mini-mum.These results are conclusive that foliar spraying with zinc 1.0% + salicylic acid 1.0 mM/L may positively in-creasedthe growth and flowering parametersof marigold.

Keywords: African marigold, Pusa narangi gainda, Salicylic acid, Zinc

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Impact of improved farm technology on pulses production in Karnataka

Vinayak S. Suragonda1, B. S. Reddy2* and O. P. Sharma3

1Department of Agricultural Economics, UAS, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

2College of Agriculture, Aland Road, Kalaburagi -585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

3National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, IARI Campus, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bsreddyagecon@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: August 05, 2016

Abstract: The current study aimed at evaluating technical efficiency and change in output of pulse crops in Karna-taka. Totally 180 farmers were selected for eliciting required information on adoption of A3P technology. The results of the study revealed that majority of the farmers were operating above 80 per cent efficiency levels in both pulses across the farmers of A3P and Non-A3P. Further, more than 53 per cent of farmers under redgram and 56 per cent under bengalgram have achieved 100 per cent efficiency level in A3P farmers’ category. Decomposition of the differ-ence in total output between A3P and Non-A3P farmers was 13.23 and 14.86 per cent in redgram and bengalgram crops respectively. The A3P technology has alone contributed to the extent of 29 and 22 per cent to the total change in redgram and bengalgram output indicating output can be increased by about 29 and 22 per cent if the farmers could switch over from traditional practices (Non-A3P) to A3P technology. There is need to educate farmers on opti-mum use of inputs through conducting intensive trainings on A3P technology by KVK’s and other extension agen-cies to increase the supply of pulses in the country.

Keywords: Bengalgram, Decomposition, Pulse crop, Redgram, Technical efficiency

Physiological characterization of Jasmine flower (Jasminum sambac) senescence during storage

Lavanya, V1*, Udaykumar Nidoni1, B. Kisan2, Amarananjundeshwara, H3 and Ramya V1

1Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Main Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Horticuture, College of Agriculture, Kolar (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: 90.lavanya@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: May 28, 2016; Accepted: August 05, 2016

Abstract: : The aim of this work was to identify metabolic differences and hormonal profiles in jasmine flower (Jasminum sambac) and to investigate the possibility that experimental promotion of retardation of the senescence of jasmine flower may mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and phenolic content. Determinations of ABA and phenols were made in flower senescing under different conditions using two different packaging materials such as polyethyl-ene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) of 200 gauge micron thickness with no ventilation. Pre-treatment of 4 % boric acid for jasmine flowers was selected. Abscisic acid levels in petals also increased during senescence 91.27 pmol g-1, but much less in boric acid-treated jasmine flower 34.16 pmol g-1. However, the lowest content of total phenolics was measured in buds and partially opened flowers 50.90 μg/g but highest in fully opened 61.80 μg/g on the fourth day of storage, respectively. It was concluded that boric acid prevented the early rise in ethylene production and consid-erably improved jasmine flower shelf-life.

Keywords: Abscisic acid (ABA), Boric acid, Jasminum sambac, Packaging material, Total phenols

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Impact of cropping systems on soil properties, nutrient availability and their carbon sequestration potential in Shiwalik hills of Himachal Pradesh

Nancy Loria*, S. K. Bhardwaj and Charles K. Ndungu

Department of Environmental Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan – 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lorianancy@gmail.com

Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: May 29, 2016; Accepted: August 06, 2016

Abstract: The impact of cropping systems on soil properties, nutrient availability and their carbon sequestration potential was studied during the years 2014 and 2015 in Shiwalik hills of Himachal Pradesh. The four commonly occurring cropping systems namely vegetable, fruit, cereal crop and agroforestry were selected. Uncultivated land in the region was considered as control. In total, there were five treatments which were replicated six times under ran-domized block design. The study indicated that the cropping systems in the Shiwalik hills varied significantly (P=0.05) with respect to their impact on soil properties, nutrient availability and carbon sequestration potential. The pH and EC was in the range of 6.04 to 6.90 and 0.094 to 0.138 dSm-1, respectively and were normal in range. Or-ganic carbon and bulk density in surface soils ranged from 8.06 to 9.70 g kg-1 and 1.19 to 1.34 Mg m-3, respectively. The available NPK was highest (267.21, 19.99, 172.42 kg ha-1) under vegetable based cropping system as com-pared to other systems. Carbon density in surface soil ranged from 11.33 to 15.39 Mg C ha-1 and total carbon se-questered upto 30cm soil depth ranged from 601.96 to 12646.29 Gg. The study indicated that in Shiwalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, the commonly occurring cropping systems did not influence the soil properties and nutrient avail-ability adversely. Agroforestry based cropping system is having highest potential of sequestering soil carbon in Shi-walik hills. Therefore to adapt to changing climatic situation and to mitigate its effect in the region, agroforestry based cropping system need to be encouraged.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Carbon density, Cereal, Fruit, Vegetable

Zonal trend-agrometeorological models for wheat yield estimation in Haryana

M. Goyal and U. Verma*

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: vermas21@hotmail.com

Received: August 15, 2015; Revised received: June 15, 2016; Accepted:August 07, 2016

Abstract: An attempt has been made to assess the impact of weather variables for district-level wheat yield esti-mation in Haryana. Fortnightly weather data and trend based yield were used for developing the zonal trend-agrometeorological (agromet) models within the framework of multiple linear regression and discriminant func-tion analyses. The district level wheat yield forecasts, percent deviations from the real time wheat yield (s) and root mean square error(s) at zonal level show a preference of using discriminant/weather scores as regressors in almost all the considered districts of the state. Zonal trend-agromet models pro-vided considerable improvement in district-level wheat yield prediction moreover the yield estimates may be ob-tained 4-5 weeks in advance of the harvest time. The estimated yield(s) from the selected zonal models showed good agreement with State Department of Agriculture (DOA) wheat yields by showing less than 5 percent deviations in 9 districts and 6-11 percent deviations in the remaining 9 districts under consideration.

Keywords: Discriminant/weather score, DOA yield, Percent deviation, Root mean square error, Trend-agromet

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Abundance and foraging behaviour of major insect pollinators on seed crop of broccol (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) LPH-1

Suman Devi*1, Ombir1, Sumit2 and Yashdev Singh1

1Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: narwal_suman@yahoo.in

Received: November 09, 2015; Revised received: June 02, 2016; Accepted: August 07, 2016

Abstract: The studies were carried out at the Vegetable Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hi-sar during 2013-2014. The main aim of the study was good seed setting and it is done by bee pollination which im-proves the yield and quality of crops. The results shows revealed that Apis mellifera (5.96) was the most abundant visitor and highly significant over A. florea (4.46), syrphid fly (2.97), A.dorsata (2.62) and A.cerana (1.66) visitor. Irrespective of species, abundance of bees was the lowest at 0700-0900 h (0.73 bees/m2/5 minutes) and the highest at 1100-1300 h (6.29 bees/m2/5 minutes). The result of foraging speed, maximum for A. florea (37.44) and highly significant over followed by A. dorsata (5.24), A. mellifera (4.52 ), A. cerana (3.58) and syrphid fly (2.67). The result of foraging rate, maximum for syrphid fly (17.42) and highly significant over A. cerana (10.27), A. mellifera (10.00), A. dorsata (7.77) and A. florea (1.71). Due to bee pollination, seed set in caged condition was very less as com-pared to uncaged condition and quality of seeds was also good in uncaged condition.

Keywords: Abundance, Broccoli, Foraging behavior, Honey bee

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In-vitro analysis of potential antibacterial activity of three medicinal plants

Vandana Gupta1*, Rakesh Kumar2, Deepika Chaudhary2, Nirmal Yadav1

1Textile and Apparel Designing Department, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vandana.g3129@gmail.com

Received: September 18, 2015; Revised received: May 29, 2016; Accepted: August 07, 2016

Abstract: The present study was aimed to examine and compare the antibacterial activity of hot methanolic extract of medicinal plants viz. Portulaca oleracea (purslane), Syzygium cumini (L.) (jamun), Psidium guajava (L.) (guava). Antibacterial activity was carried by using agar well diffusion method, against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Results indicated that all the three plant extracts possess antibacterial property against Gram-positive bacteria and no activity was found against Gram-negative bacteria. Moderate zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis was exhibited by S. cumini (L.) (11mm and 12mm) and P. guajava (L.) (10mm and 11mm) and weak zone of inhibition was exhibited by P. oleracea (5 mm and 6mm). In conclusion, S. cumini (L.) and P. guajava (L.) possess better capabilities of being a good candidate in search for natural antibacterial agent against infections and diseases causing Gram-positive bacteria as compared to P. oleracea.

Keywords: Agar well diffusion method, Antibacterial activity, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive, Medicinal plants

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Development and sensory evaluation of ready to eat supplementary food using garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds

Tanu Jain1*, Kiran Grover1 and Inderjit Singh Grewal2

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Maths, Statistics and Physics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E mail: jain.tanu25@gmail.com

Received: November 26, 2015; Revised received: May 17, 2016; Accepted: August 08, 2016

Abstract: Ready-to-eat traditional supplementary food was prepared using different substitution levels of garden cress seeds and evaluated using 9 point hedonic scale for sensory attributes. Addition of garden cress seeds showed significant difference at 15 and 10 per cent for Indian food pinni and panjiri and 5 per cent level for laddu and burfi for overall acceptability. For chikki, non significant difference was found in the mean scores for overall acceptability (P<0.05). In case of biscuits, values did not differ significantly at 7.5 per cent while significant difference was shown at 10 per cent. Supplementation of garden cress did not affect texture of foods except burfi where at 15 percent level significant difference was found. Overall acceptability of all developed products was found to be high-est for control which decreased gradually with the increase in the level of garden cress powder. It may be concluded that garden cress can be utilized successfully up to 10-25 per cent level to prepare ready-to-eat supplementary food with high nutritional value without imposing a negative impact on sensory perception, which may prove a boon to malnourished population.

Keywords: Anaemia, Garden cress seeds, Malnutrition, Supplementary food

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Additions to the terebrantian (Insecta: Thysanoptera) fauna of Kerala

R. R. Rachana1* and R. Varatharajan2

1Division of Insect Systematics, National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru-560024 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Centre of Advanced Study in Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal-795003 (Manipur), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vavarachana@gmail.com

Received: December 01, 2015; Revised received: July 07, 2016; Accepted: August 08, 2016

Abstract: Extensive surveys were carried out in Kerala in order to explore the thysanopteran fauna since the state has hardly been studied for the fauna of thrips after Dr. T.N. Ananthakrishnan’s era of Indian thysanopteran taxonomy. Nine species of terebrantian thrips, one in the family Aeolothripidae and the remaining eight in the family Thripidae are being listed as new to Kerala state records collected from different hosts. Diagnostic features, distribution and data on material studied for these species are given. The number of known species of terebrantian thrips in Kerala is thus increased to 42.

Keywords: Kerala, New state records, Terebrantia, Thrips, Thysanoptera

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Heterosis for yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Showkat A. Waza*, Hemant K. Jaiswal, T. Sravan, Dilruba A. Bano, Kumari Priyanka and Umesh

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sahmad777@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2015; Revised received: June 19, 2016; Accepted: August 08, 2016

Abstract: Twenty F1 hybrids from three CMS lines and eight pollen parents were evaluated to study the heterosis for various yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The findings suggested that the magnitude of heterosis differed from character to character and cross to cross. Majority of the hybrids recorded desirable heterosis for grain yield. Among the rice hybrids exhibiting high heterosis for grain yield, IR-68897A x Pusa Sugandh-3, IR-58025A x HUR-JM-59221 and IR-58025A x Pusa Sugandh-5 were top performers. The hybrid, IR-68897A x Pusa Sugandh-3 recorded highest yield per plant, and was among the best three performers for traits, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity and number of effective tillers per plant. Thus, IR-68897A x Pusa Sugandh-3 may be considered as the best heterotic combination for yield and yield traits. Among the three high yielding hybrids, IR-58025A x Pusa Su-gandh-5 was found to be relatively better performing for majority of the quality traits. Thus, IR-58025A x Pusa Su-gandh-5 may be considered as the best cross combination if both yield and quality traits are taken into consideration.

Keywords: Cross combination, Heterosis, Quality, Rice, Yield

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Pathogenic variability in Exserohilum turcicum and identification of resistant sources to turcicum leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L.)

M. Ashraf Ahangar*, Z. A. Bhat, F. A. Sheikh, Z. A. Dar, Ajaz A. Lone, K. S. Hooda and Malik Reyaz

Mountain Crop Research Station, Sagam, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir -191121 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mashrafjs@gmail.com

Received: January 01, 2016; Revised received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: August 08, 2016

Abstract: Turcicum leaf blight of maize incited by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs is the major limiting factor of maize production in temperate agro-ecologies. Disease management through host plant resistance is the most effective strategy. In the present study among 26 maize genotypes which were initially screened for re-sistance against E. turcicum under field conditions, 8 genotypes viz., PS 39, CML 451, CML 470, CML 472, VL 1030, VL 1018140, VL1018527 and SMI178-1 were found resistant when screened against twelve isolates of E. turcicum under artificial epiphytotic conditions. Eight genotypes viz., PS45, CML165, CML459, VL1249, VL0536, SMC-5, SMC-3 and KDL 211 were found moderately resistant with disease grade ranged from 2.1-2.5. These maize genotypes possess resistance to turcicum leaf blight can be used successfully in developing high yielding early maturing varieties for high altitude temperate agro-ecologies. The fungus E. turcicum is highly variable in nature. Variability studies on pathogenicity were conducted on twelve isolates of E. turcicum on eleven putative differential maize lines. During the present study a wide pathogenic variation was observed among the twelve isolates of E. turcicum. Cluster analysis on the basis of similarity or dissimilarity in reaction types exhibited by the differential hosts, clustered the isolates into 6 pathogenic groups. The isolates belonged to higher altitudes (Kti 10, Kti11, Kti5) were found to be more aggressive as compared to the isolates of low altitude areas.

Keywords: Exserohilum turcicum, Maize, TLB resistance, Variability

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Factors affecting people’s participation in joint forest management programmes in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, India

Chaman Lal*, Chandresh Guleria, R.S. Prasher and Ravinder Sharma

Department of Social Sciences, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: negi.chaman9@gmail.com

Received: January 15, 2016; Revised received: May 19, 2016; Accepted: August 09, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation examined the various factors affecting people’s participation in the planning, implementation and maintenance of JFM programmes in the tribal district (Kinnaur) of Himachal Pradesh. In total, 10 factors were identified that influence people’s participation in Joint Forest Management (JFM) activities in the study area, which were independently affecting in all of three development blocks. District as a whole factors affecting in decreasing order were Lack of awareness about participatory forest management (66%), lack of co-ordination with forestry officials (64%), non availability of routine funds (56%), lack of training and visit program (56%), clash between agriculture and JFM activities (54%), lack of emphasis on quick economic activities (49%), improper usu-fruct sharing (43%) etc. were some of major factors that influenced people’s participation. Policy and development emphasis on these factors, particularly taking into consideration the geography and need based activity in the various development blocks will increase the people’s participation in similar kind of projects.

Keywords: Activities, Factors, Joint forest management, People’s participation

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Preparation, acceptability and quality evaluation of fermented fish product Mowa shidal prepared from the Mola carplet (Amblypharyngodon mola, Hamilton, 1822)

Bipul Kumar Kakati1*, Armaan Ullah Muzaddadi2 and Umesh Ch. Goswami3

1Department of Fishery Engineering & Technology, College of Fisheries, Assam Agricultural University, Raha, Nagaon-782 103 (Assam), INDIA

2ICAR-Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), ICAR, PAU, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

3Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781 014 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bkkakati@gmail.com

Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: June 24, 2016; Accepted: August 08, 2016

Abstract: Mowa shidal was prepared from sundried Amblypharyngodon mola by the traditional fermentation process at ambient temperature, maintaining all possible hygienic conditions. Biochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities at the different stages of fermentation of Mowa shidal was monitored. The product was perfectly matured after 120 days of fermentation showing the characteristic shidal smell and a moist and sticky surface. The fermentation process did not show any significant effect (P>0.05) on the proximate composition. The product had a high nutritional quality. The protein and ash content of the sample were recorded to be 31.28-31.70% and 9.95-11.11%, respectively and pH showed 5.8-6.5 in 180 days of fermentation. The physicochemical analysis revealed that the fer-mented product was of acceptable quality. The TPC of Mowa shidal was 5.86 log cfu/g in the first month of fermentation and it reached 4.82 log cfu/g after 120 days. The counts gradually decreased with the increasing duration of fermentation. Most of the isolate was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. After the second month of fermentation S. aureus reached 54% of total count and might play an important role in the fermentation process. Pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella spp. and E. coli were absent, which indicate good sanitary practice during processing. Thus, the good quality shidal can be produced from A. mola with a high nutritional quality and consumer acceptability.

Keywords: Acceptability, Amblypharyngodon mola, Fermentation, Mowa Shidal, Preparation, Quality evaluation

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Influence of nitrogen on guttation fluid and development of bacterial blight of rice

R. Kiran*, M. S. Hunjan and P. P. Singh

Department of Plant pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: paurajkiran@gmail.com

Received: May 31, 2015; Revised received: June 02, 2016; Accepted: August 11, 2016

Abstract: Bacterial blight disease of rice is major constraint in rice cultivation. This disease is influenced by prevailing weather conditions, rice physiology and nutrition. The experiment was carried out to assess the role of nitroge-nous fertilizer on development of bacterial blight disease of rice and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae density in guttation fluid. Disease development increased with increase in nitrogen fertilizer, among four doses of nitrogen tested (control, 36, 54,72 kg urea/acre), disease severity was maximum in the plot supplied with highest dose of nitrogen i.e. 72 kg urea/acre at both seedling (19.3%) and tillering stage (32.4%) at 30 days after inoculation. The highest population density of X. oryzae pv. oryzae (6.02 log cfu/ml) was also recovered in guttation fluid collected from X.oryzaepv. oryzae inoculated plants at tillering stage, from the plots supplied with highest dose (72 kg urea/acre) of nitrogen.Scanning electron microscopic studies also revealed intense colonization by X. oryzae pv. oryzae in rice leaves supplied with high nitrogen dose.

Keywords: Bacterial blight, Guttation, Nitrogen, Rice, Scanning electron microscope

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Effect of water regimes on seed quality parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under aerobic and wetland conditions

H. P. Ranjitha1*, R. Paramesh1, H. E. Shashidhar2, N. Amruta1 and S. P. Kiran

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: ranjuranjitha91@gmail.com

Received: July 12, 2015; Revised received: June 06, 2016; Accepted: August 11, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to know the effect of water regimes on seed quality parameters of rice and the was conducted by using factorial randomized complete block design, with two genotypes (BI-33 and Jaya) and two planting methods (Aerobic and Wetland). The resultants seeds were taken to conduct laboratory experiments pertaining to seed quality attributes and the studies revealed that the BI-33 under aerobic condi-tion had shown a significantly higher seed quality with respect to germination (99%), mean seedling length (26.75cm), seedling dry weight (10.42 mg), SVI-I (2648) and SVI-II (1032) , highest total dehydrogenase activity (0.53 OD @ 480nm), highest amylase activity (14.67 %), highest total soluble protein content (7.15%) and re-corded less EC (70.95 μSm-1/ppm). The experimental results revealed that both the genotypes and method of planting contribute for seed quality of the genotypes which were grown under different water regimes. The geno-type grown under aerobic condition was better in seed quality parameters compared to wetland condition.

Keywords: Aerobic rice, Genotypes, Germination seed quality, Water regimes

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Effect of growth regulators and stages of spray on seed yield and seed quality parameters of ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula (Roxb) L.]

Sondarva*, Jyoti, N. B. Patel and J. B. Patel

Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh -362001 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sondarvajyoti6568@gmail.com

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: June 17, 2016; Accepted: August 12, 2016

Abstract: The experiment was undertaken to study the influence of different growth regulators on seed yield and seed quality parameters in ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula (Roxb) L.]. There were 30 treatment combinations comprising of two factors; plant growth stage as main plot treatment, and plant growth regulators as sub plot treatment em-bedded in a split plot design. The results indicated that significantly the highest average fruit weight (32.76 g), matured fruit yield per plant (65.84 g), 100 seed weight (13.41 g) and seed yield per plant (12.79 g) was recorded with spraying of 500 ppm ethereal, whereas significantly the maximum fruit length (20.89 cm) and fruit diameter (5.15 cm) with 25 ppm GA3. Significantly the highest seed germination (69.22 %) was recorded with spraying of 250 ppm ethereal, while application of NAA at 50 ppm recorded significantly the highest vigour index I (2737.85) and vigour index II (5029.33). Spraying of PGR at two to four leaf stage recorded the higher fruit length (20.19 cm), fruit yield per plant (47.49 g), 100 seed weight (13.18 g) and seed yield per plant (11.98 g) as well as highest germination (60.90%), vigour index I (2460.80) and vigour index II (4377.66). It is concluded that spraying of 500 ppm etherel at two to four leaf stage increased the higher fruit length, fruit yield per plant, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant as well as highest germination, vigour index I and vigour index II.

Keywords: Growth stages, Growth regulators, Ridge gourd

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Dynamics of top-down factors with relation to ecological attributes of an endangered species Commiphora wightii

R. N. Kulloli*, Manish Mathur and Suresh Kumar

Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: r.kulloli@gmail.com

Received: September 11, 2015; Revised received: July 18, 2016; Accepted: July 12, 2016

Abstract: Present study was aimed to explore the influence of top down factors on ecological attributes of Commi-phora wightii collected from seven districts of arid and semi arid parts of the Rajasthan. Ecological variables in respect of 46 accessions of this species were quantified. To assess the explanatory factors governing quantified ecological variables, soil samples were collected to analyze soil texture, soil EC, pH, available potassium, available phosphorus and total soil nitrogen. Results showed that there was a specific relationship between soil variables and oc-curence of C. wightii. The mid ranges of potassium (200-300 kg/ha) emerged as favourable to have better density and health of C. wightii: This is the first report on regulatory role of potassium on distribution and occurrence of C. wightii.

Keywords: Commiphora wightii, Distribution, Population, Principal component analysis, Soil variables

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Optimization of culture conditions for high frequency in vitro shoot multiplication in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

M. K. Sharma1*, R. S. Sengar1, P. Chand2, R. Singh3, S. Gupta4, M. K. Yadav1 and A. Singh1

1Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, 2Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, 3Department of Plant Pathology, 4Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manojmeerut94@gmail.com

Received: November 29, 2015; Revised received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: August 14, 2016

Abstract: Present study deals with the optimization of various culture conditions for initiating high frequency in vitro shoot multiplication in two early maturing high yielding sugarcane genotypes namely Co98014 & Co89003. On the behalf of the findings of this study, it was concluded that the temperature, photoperiod and culture media pH affected the frequency of in vitro shoot multiplication in both sugarcane genotypes at a significant level. In both geno-types high frequency shoot multiplication was recorded at growth room temperature 25ºC, 16h/8h light/dark photo-period and culture media pH 6.0. Genotype Co89003 exhibited highest shoot regeneration and multiplication under various culture conditions. The present study suggests the necessity of investigation of these culture conditions separately upon individual sugarcane genotypes prior to develop efficient in vitro plant regeneration protocol for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Culture environment, Shoots regeneration, Sugarcane, Tissue culture

Exploitation of combining ability and heterosis for development of maize hybrids for tarai region of Uttarakhand

Manjeet Kumar*, S. S. Verma, Meenakshi Uniyal, Anupam Barh and N.K. Singh

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manjeetbhu615@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2015; Revised received: June 21, 2016; Accepted: August 14, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out with fifty six genotypes involving 10 parents, their 45 F1s hybrids and one check hybrid in tarai region of Uttarakhand. The presence of more amount of variance due to SCA effects than GCA effects in our experimental material indicated that heterosis breeding is better choice. The good general combiners were P1, P3 and P4 for ear length; P8 for ear diameter; P5 and P8 for number of kernel rows per ear; P1 and P4 for number of kernels per row, P8 and P9 for100-kernel weight and P5 for grain yield, which can be utilized directly or indirectly in breeding programme. The best eight specific combiners for grain yield were P1xP8, P4xP10, P7xP8, P5xP8, P5xP9, P4xP9, P1xP2 and P5xP10 involving average x average, good x average, good x poor and average x poor parental combinations of generalcombining ability indicating the presence of non-additive gene action. The nine crosses, P1xP2, P1 xP5, P1xP8, P4xP9, P4xP10, P5 xP8, P5xP9, P5xP10 and P7xP8 had positive significant per cent heterosis for grain yield, and crosses namely P1xP4, P1xP5 and P1xP8 for ear length; P1xP3 and P1xP5 for number of kernels per row and P1xP8 and P9x P10 for 100-kernel weight were having positive significant per cent heterosis at 1% and/or 5% level of significance for respective traits. The crosses, P1xP2, P1xP8, P4xP9 andP7xP8 manifested high SCA effects along with excellent standard heterosis and per se performance for grain yield and also for most of the studied char-acters, therefore, classified as potential hybrids.

Keywords: Combining ability, Maize, Per se performance, Standard heterosis

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Diversity analysis of maize inbred lines using DIVA-GIS under temperate ecologies

Z. A. Dar, A. A. Lone, N. Sunil*, N. Sivaraj**, G. Zafar, M. I. Makdoomi, Asima Gazal, B. A. Elahi, G Ali, M. Habib and M. A.Wani

Dryland Agriculture Research Station, Budgam, SKUAST-K-190025 (J&K), INDIA

*Winter Nursery Centre, ICAR- IIMR, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030, INDIA

** National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500030, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: zahoorpbg@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2015; Revised received: June 09, 2016; Accepted: August 14, 2016

Abstract: The vagaries of Climate Change variability need to be addressed and as climatic conditions change at particular experimental sites and maize producing regions, mega-environment assignments will need to be re-assessed to guide breeders to appropriate new germplasm and target environments . The development of improved germplasm to meet the needs of future generations in light of climate change and population growth is of the up-most importance. Evaluation of the inbred lines from diverse ecosystems would be effective for production of lines with resilience towards climate variability. Hence, with this objective diverse set of inbred lines sourced from all over India were characterized and were evaluated with DIVA-GIS for diversity analysis of maize inbred lines. Grid maps generated for these maize inbred lines for eleven quantitative traits indicated that these lines can be sourced from North and South India. High Shannon diversity index with maximum range of 2.17-3.0, 2.25-3.0, 2.36-3.0, 2.4-4.0, 2.0- 3.0, and 2.2-3.0 were recorded for the traits viz; plant height, ear height, grain weight, grain yield, kernel row and protein content respectively indicating the high response of these traits to ecosystem. However, inbred lines were found to be diverse for all the traits except for ears plant-1 (EPP) and they have been sourced from Northern and Southern parts of India while for EPP recorded less diversity index range of 0.4-1.0 indicating source from South India. Interestingly, less diverse inbred lines for all the eleven quantitative traits have been sourced from Indo-gangetic plains as indicated in diversity grid maps. Maximum diversity indices were recorded for anthesis silking interval (ASI), days to silking, days to tasseling, which are in the range of 0.97-2.0, 1.528-2.0, 1.516-2.0 and 1.528- 2.0 respectively. Hence, DIVA-GIS enabled identification of diverse sources from varied ecosystems which can be used for developing improved lines/ cultivars with greater resilience towards climate change.

Keywords: Diversity, DIVA-GIS, Grid maps, Maize, Shannon diversity index

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Efficacy of anthranilic insecticide E2Y45 20 SC (Chlorantraniliprole) against Plutella xylostella L. in cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata

Sudhendu Sharma1*, Ravinder Singh2 and C. K. Gill1

1Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sudendhu@pau.edu

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: May 21, 2016; Accepted: August 15, 2016

Abstract: Experiments were conducted at farmer’s cabbage fields to evaluate the bioefficacy of anthranilic insecti-cide i.e. E2Y45 20 SC (Chlorantraniliprole) having novel mode of action against the diamondback moth Plutella xy-lostella L. E2Y45 20 SC was applied @ 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0 ml/ha and was compared with Padan 50 SP (cartap hydrochloride) @ 500 g/ha and the untreated control. Lowest mean larval population after two sprays was recorded in higher dose of E2Y 45 20 SC i.e. @ 50.0 ml/ha (0.08 larvae/plant) at 7 days after treatment followed by medium and lower dose of E2Y 45 20 SC i.e. @ 37.5ml/ha (0.10 larvae/plant) and 25.0 ml/ha (0.33 larvae/plant). The larval population in these treatments was significantly lower than standard check, Padan 50 SP (2.56 larvae/plant), and untreated control (9.73 larvae/plant). The highest marketable yield (262.89 q/ha) was recorded in E2Y 45 20 SC @ 50.0 ml/ha which was significantly higher than Padan 50 SP (239.65 q/ha). Lowest yields were recorded in untreated control (106.00 q/ha). Conclusively, medium (37.5 ml/ha) and higher (50.0 ml/ha) dose of E2Y 45 20 SC (chlorantraniliprole) significantly reduced the larval population of P. xylostella and increased the cabbage yield.

Keywords: Cabbage, Chlorantraniliprole, Efficacy, Plutella xylostella

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A uniformity trial on Indian mustard for determination of optimum size and shape of blocks

Mujahid Khan1*, Ramesh Chander Hasija2, Des Raj Aneja3 and Manish Kumar Sharma4

1Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

3Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

4Division of Statistics and Computer Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha, Jammu-180009 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mkhanstat@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: June 03, 2016; Accepted: August 16, 2016

Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the optimum block size with the shape for field research experi-ments. A uniform crop of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) variety RH-749 was raised during 2013-14 rabi season over an area of 48m × 48m (2304 basic units) at Research Farm of Oilseed section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCSHAU, Hisar, Haryana, India. The harvesting of crop was done in small units each of size lm × lm (1m2). The blocks of sizes 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 plots with various shapes, for different plot sizes were considered. The coefficient of variation (CV) decreased from 10.66 to 3.89 with the increase in block size from 4 to 24 , indicat-ing that as the block size increased, homogeneity within the block also increases and the blocks elongated in E-W direction were more effective in reducing error variation than those elongated in N-S direction. It was also observed that C.V. without blocking (20.04) was much higher in comparison with the C.V. with blocking (3.89), thus indicating that blocking was beneficial in reducing error variation. The 24 plot blocks were found to be most efficient with 12m × 2m block shape. Rectangular blocks are also advisable either when the experimenter does not have any idea about the fertility pattern of the experimental area or when border effects are large.

Keywords: Blocking, Efficiency, Optimum block size, Optimum block shape, Uniformity trial

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Combining ability studies for yield and contributing traits in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

Arti Verma*, Sonia Sood and Yudhvir Singh

Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur- 176062 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: verma.arti104@gmail.com

Received: February 08, 2016; Revised received: May 30, 2016; Accepted: August 18, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to identify desirable parents and F1 hybrids in okra by involving eight diverse parents in a diallel mating design excluding reciprocals. Genotypes i.e., P-20 and VRO-4 for earliness; 9801 for first fruit producing node (-0.085), internodal length (-0.659) and fruit length (0.201); HU for average fruit weight (0.603); Tulsi-I for nodes per plant (0.429), fruit length (0.271) and plant height (12.068) were found good general combiners appeared to be worthy of exploitation in future breeding. It is suggested that involving these lines, new genotypes may be developed through multiple crossing for isolating high yielding varieties. The cross combina-tions VRO-4 × HU, Tulsi-I × SKBS-11, P-20 × Tulsi-I and P-8 × Tulsi-I showed high SCA effects as well as per se performance for yield per plant. The crosses showing high SCA effects and per se performance for yield per plant suggested that these hybrids may be exploited in further breeding programme.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus, Combining ability, Diallel analysis, Okra

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Seed size and its influence on germination, seedling growth and biomass in Saraca asoca (Roxb). De Wilde, critically endangered tree species of Western ghats, India

A. B. Mirgal1, Rajesh P. Gunaga2*, and C.B. Salunkhe3

1College of Forestry, Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415712 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2College of Forestry, ACHF, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

3Krishna Mahavidyalaya, Rethare Bk., Karad-415 108 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rpgunaga@gmail.com

Received: March 08, 2015; Revised received: June 04, 2016; Accepted: August 18, 2016

Abstract: Saraca asoca (Roxb). De Wilde is one of the high traded medicinal plant species of India. There is a huge demand for bark of this species both in domestic and international markets. There is a demand for quality planting materials for large scale plantation. Forest department and farmers have already initiated captive plantation of this species. Several factors affect the seedling quality in nursery. Seed grading is one among them. The present study aims at understand the influence of seed size on seed germination and seedling vigour in S. asoca. Association study showed that seed length was positively correlated with seed weight (r= 0.887), seed width (r=0.697) and thick-ness (r=0.621). Therefore, seed length was used to categorize seedlot into small (< 30.0 mm), medium (30.1-40.0 mm) and large (> 40.1 mm) seeds. Result showed that larger seeds produced maximum germination (86.7%) as compared to smaller seeds (45.0%). Moreover, larger seeds attained higher collar diameter (3.34 mm) and dry bio-mass viz., leaf biomass (0.91 g), shoot biomass (0.31 g), root biomass (0.95 g) and entire seedling biomass (2.17 g) as compared to smaller seeds. Seedlings raised from medium seeds were at par with larger seeds in most of the traits. Therefore, it is suggested to use seedlot having > 30 mm length, preferably larger seeds (> 40 mm) in the nursery for better establishment of quality seedlings.

Keywords: Conservation, Germination, Saraca asoca, Seed size, Seedling vigour

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Human health risk assessment for heavy metals via intake of contaminated milk and milk products

Anita Meena1* and Ravinder Kaur2

1Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

2Indian Agricultural Research Institute, IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anumeena5@gmail.com

Received: July 27, 2015; Revised received: June 08, 2016; Accepted: August 18, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess the risk of human health against heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) through the intake of milk and milk products produced by animals which are feeding the fodder produced by polluted irrigation water. The milk samples contained amounts of Fe (10.43 ppm) Cu (1.23 ppm), Mn (0.60 ppm), Zn (2.32), Cr (0.05 ppm), Ni (0.17 ppm) Pb (0.28 ppm) and Cd (0.13 ppm) than MAL in buffaloes milk and Ni (0.16 ppm ) and Pb (0.41 ppm) than MAL in cow milk. The milk samples from the small animals (goat) were associated with only Fe (11.24ppm,), Zn (2.47 ppm), Cr (0.07 ppm) and Pb (0.05 ppm) than maximum allowable limit. The hazardous quotient (HQ) indicated that milks from all types of animals were contaminated with metals. From the results the hazardous quotient (HQ) indicated that higher risk for Pb and Cd (>1) metals contamination in buffalo and cow milk. However HI (2 to 14) for all studied milk sample was found to be not safe. Females are at somewhat higher risk than males. This study projected a high multi-metal threat due to food chain contamination in the study area.

Keywords: Animal milk, Daily intake rate of metals, Hazard index, Heavy metals

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Evaluation of localization of lead and nickel in plant cells of Amaranthus sp. and Brassica sp. absorbed from mine spoil waste

V. Davamani1*, E. Parameswari1, S. Arulmani1,2, P. Doraisamy3, J. S. Kennedy4 and M. Maheswari3

1Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Periyakulam-625604 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

3Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

4Department of Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vsdavamani@gmail.com

Received: November 20, 2015; Revised received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: August 19, 2016

Abstract: A detailed survey was undertaken in the sewage water contaminated areas of Coimbatore to select the natural hyper accumulators to rehabilitate the contaminated mine spoils. From this experiment the Pb and Ni accu-mulators, Amaranthus sp. and Brassica sp. were selected for further studies towards remediating the metal contami-nated mine spoils. Microtomy of root, stem and leaf of Amaranthus sp. and Brassica sp. showed that the colour de-velopment in the plant species is evidence for accumulation of metals in different parts of plants and also tolerance mechanism employed by plant species under metal stress condition. The accumulation of heavy metals from soil to plant did not follow any particular pattern and varied with respect to metals, species and plant parts. However, the maximum Pb localization took place in root portion than in aerial parts. But the Ni accumulation was almost equal or higher in aerial parts (leaf and stem) compared to roots. This study revealed that the Amaranthus sp and Brassica sp stored lead and nickel in roots, leaves and stems in order to roots contains higher followed by leafs and stems.

Keywords: Amaranthus sp., Brassica sp., Lead ,Mine spoil, Microtomy and Nickel

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Change in chemical constituents and overall acceptability of frozen and dehydrated Aonla fruit pulp during storage

Jyoti Prabha Bishnoi1*, Rakesh Gehlot2 and S. Siddiqui3

1Amity institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur -303002 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2&3Centre of Food Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail: uohjyoti@gmail.com

Received: December 15, 2016; Revised received: May 26, 2016; Accepted: August 19, 2016

Abstract: Ascorbic acid and total phenol in frozen aonla pulp on zero day of storage was found to be 365.5 mg/100g and 2.1 mg/g while in dehydrated aonla pulp it was 2.3 mg/100mg and 14.7 mg/g which was found to decrease with the increase in storage duration. However, significant increase (CD at 5% Level) in total soluble solids (TSS) and non-enzymatic browning was noticed with the advancement in storage duration. The decrease and in-crease in physico-chemical characteristics were more significant in dehydrated aonla pulp as compared to frozen aonla pulp. Mean score for sensory attributes of dehydrated aonla pulp at zero month of storage was fairly less than frozen aonla pulp. Moreover, there was more significant decrease in value of sensory attributes of dehydrated aonla pulp during six months storage period compared to frozen aonla pulp. Thus, present study was first in its kind to determine and compare chemical composition and overall acceptability of frozen and dehydrated aonla pulp obtained from aonla fruits cv. Chakaiya during storage for optimizing there use in further development of value added aonla product.

Keywords: Aonla, Chakaiya, Dehydrated, frozen, Physico-chemical, Pulp, Sensory characteristics

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Effect of chlorpyrifos on survival, growth and reproductive performance of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg)

S. S. Hundal*, R. Kaur1 and Avneet Kaur1

Department of Zoology, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sshundal@pau.edu

Received: December 15, 2015; Revised received: June 05, 2016; Accepted: August 21, 2016

Abstract: The present laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorpyrifos on growth and repro-duction of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Chlorpyrifos was mixed with soil substrate at four different dose formu-lations i.e. D1 (2.5ml/1000ml); D2 (5.0ml/1000ml); D3 (7.5ml/1000ml); D4 (10.0ml/1000ml). Soil substrate without chlorpyrifos served as control. Growth and survival rates were determined till four weeks and effects on reproduction are assessed after eight weeks of exposure. A non significant decrease (p > 0.05) was observed in body weight of earthworms which was recorded on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 14. A dose dependent effect on cocoon production and survivability of hatchlings was observed in all treated groups. The effect of chlorpyrifos on life cycle of earthworm was more in dose D3 (54.25 days) when compared to control (28.75 days) while no worm survived in D4 dose. The present study revealed that chlorpyrifos at high dose levels(7.5ml/1000ml and 10.0ml/1000ml) affect the reproduc-tion and growth of earthworms, primary bioindicators of soil fauna, whereas the base dose (5.0ml/1000ml) may be considered as safe for soil applications.

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Eudrilus eugeniae, Growth, Reproduction

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Effect of seed polymer coating with micronutrients and foliar spray on seed quality parameters of resultant seed in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Pavan Shinde1, S. R. Doddagoudar2*and S. N. Vasudevan2

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad-580005, INDIA

2Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Science, Raichur -584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:srdsst@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2015; Revised received: June 03, 2016; Accepted: August 21, 2016

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was carried out in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur to study the effect of seed polymer coating with micronutri-ents and foliar spray on the resultant seed quality parameters of chickpea. Among the seventeen different treat-ments, resultant chickpea seeds obtained from treatment polymer coated seeds (@ 6 ml/kg of seed) along with the combination of micronutrients viz.,ZnSO4 + Boron + Ammonium molybdate + FeSO4 ( each @ 2 g/kg of seed ) and two foliar sprays (0.5 % + 0.2 % + 0.1% + 0.5 %, respectively, except ZnSO4 and FeSO4 in EDTA form) at an interval of 10 days during flowering stage (50 and 60 days after sowing) recorded significantly highest hundred seed weight (25.9 g), germination (97.00 %), speed of germination (18.50), shoot length (8.43 cm), root length (19.80 cm), seed-ling dry weight (43.30 mg) and seedling vigour index (2738) compared to all other treatments and control (23.6 g, 92.05 %, 13.74, 5.48 cm, 16.30 cm, 34.00 mg and 2004, respectively) and hence above treatment combinations can be used in order to produce good quality seeds.

Keywords: Chickpea, Micronutrients, Polymer coating, Seed quality parameters

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Studies on intra-specific variations in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) under different geographical regions

Budhi Ram*, K. C. Sharma, Nisha Devi and V. G. S. Chandel

Department of Entomology, College of Horticulture, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: brnegi.entomology@gmail.com

Received: January 01, 2016; Revised received: June 05, 2016; Accepted: August 24, 2016

Abstract: Studies on intraspecific variations in insect pests are an important tool for preparation of management strategy in different geographical regions. In this paper we tried to establish that these variations are also found in the diamondback moth (P. xylostella) populations under north Indian conditions with respect to reproductive biology. The pest populations were collected from five different geographical regions viz. Hisar (800feet), Kangra (2200feet), Solan (4200 feet), Theog (7500feet) and Kinnaur (9000feet) and then reared under laboratory conditions at 25±1oC on cauliflower. The life table analysis revealed that the female from the Kangra population laid maximum eggs (332.16 eggs/female) whereas the number of eggs laid by the female from the Hisar, Solan, Theog and Kinnaur population was 189.53, 207, 252 and 270 eggs/female, respectively. The doubling time (DT) was observed to be the lowest for Kangra (3.12 days) and maximum for the Hisar (4.59 days) population, whereas weekly multiplication rate was minimum for the Solan (2.252) and maximum for the kangra (4.73) population. The true generation time was the lowest for the Kangra (18.54 days) and highest for the Hisar (24.38 days) population. The true intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was found to be maximum (0.222 female progeny/female/day) for the Kangra whereas for the Kinnaur, Theog, Solan and Hisar population it was 0.203, 0.202, 0.182 and 0.151 female progeny/female/day thereby indicating that the Kangra population is more prolific as compared to the population from other geographical regions. The results are indicative of geographical variations among different populations of P. xylostella.

Keywords: Diamondback moth, intraspecific variation, Reproductive biology

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Genetic variability studies for yield and its contributing traits in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]

Pravin Kumar Sharma, D. P. Mishra and Amit Pandey

Department of Vegetable Science, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad - 224229 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pravinveg@gmail.com

Received: January 01, 2016; Revised received: May 22, 2016; Accepted: July 24, 2016

Abstract: The experiment comprising 30 okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) genotypes were grown and analysed for yield and its attributing traits at the Department of Vegetable science, Kumarganj, Faizabad during Zaid (2011) pe-riod. All the characters studied showed a wide range of variation. The variability for yield among the accessions evaluated was also remarkable. The magnitude phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coeffi-cient of variation for all traits. Both phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were high for plant height (11.10 and 10.60, respectively). Fruit weight exhibited low value of GCV (2.31) and PCV (4.74) and likely to show less response under selection. High heritability (91.3) with high genetic advance (26.74) was recorded for plant height, whereas, ridges per fruit had high heritability (97.0) with moderate genetic advance (18.45). This study aimed to evaluate okra genotypes for variability with a view to providing information on the development of high yielding genotypes to meet the growing food demand of the populace.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus, Genetic advance, Heritability, Variability

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Prediction of storability of organically produced paddy seeds through natural and accelerated ageing techniques

Gajendra Khidrapure1*, S. N. Vasudevan1, S. R. Doddagoudar1, A. G. Sreenivas2 and Satyanarayana Rao3

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Science (UAS), Raichur-584104, INDIA

2Department of Agricultural Entomology, UAS, Raichur-584104, INDIA

3Department of Agronomy, Organic Farming Institute, UAS, Raichur-584104, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gajumk@gmail.com

Received: January 21, 2016; Revised received: May 30, 2016; Accepted: July 24, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted to know the storage potential of organically produced paddy seeds in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur. The seed lot were divided into two parts, one part was stored in cloth bag for a period of 12 months under ambient conditions. At the same time another set of seeds were subjected to accelerated ageing at 42 + 10C temperature and 90 per cent rela-tive humidity (RH) for a period of 0-12 days. Among the ageing methods, artificially aged seeds showed drastic de-creases in seed quality as compared to natural ageing. Among the treatments T9 (37.5 % FYM + 37.5 % vermicom-post + 25 % Neem cake + foliar spray of panchagavya on 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAT) recorded significantly highest seed quality parameters viz., seed germination (97.81 %), seedling length (29.42 cm) and SVI (2878) at initial stage in both the method of aging and at the end of storage period; seed germination (71.23 and 87.33 %), seedling length (19.66 and 27.00 cm) and SVI (1400 and 2358) in accelerated ageing (AA) and natural ageing (NA) respec-tively,whereas, lowest in control (Inorganic treatment). The seed quality parameters of four days of AA were similar to that of six months of NA. Hence, storability of organically produced paddy seeds were better as compared to inor-ganic seeds and it can be predicted that four days of AA is equal to six months of NA. The information generated will be useful in retention or disposal of a particular variety or seed lot.

Keywords: Accelerated ageing, Natural ageing, Paddy, Prediction, Storability

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Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp. complex) using morphological and molecular markers

M. P.Moharil1, Dipti Gawai1, N. Dikshit2*, M.S. Dudhare1 and P. V. Jadhav1

1Biotechnology Centre, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola-444104 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2 ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Dr.PDKV campus, Akola-444104 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dikshitn@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2015; Revised received: June 14, 2016; Accepted: August 24, 2016

Abstract: In the present study, morphological and molecular markers (RAPD primers) were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among 21 accessions of Echinochloa spp. complex comprising the wild and cultivated species collected from Melghat and adjoining regions of Vidarbha, Maharashtra. The availability of diverse genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of any crop including barnyard millet. A high degree of molecular diversity among the landraces was detected. Among the 21 genotypes, two major groups (A and B) were formed, at 67.28 % similarity, which clearly encompasses 15 accessions of E. frumentacea and 6 accessions of E. colona. Higher similarity was observed in accessions of E. frumentacea. The accessions IC 597322 and IC 597323 also IC 597302 and IC 597304 showed more than 94% similarity among themselves. The classification of genetic diversity has enabled clear-cut grouping of barnyard millet accessions into two morphological races (E. frumentacea and E. colona).

Keywords: Barnyard millet, Genetic diversity, Genetic relationship, RAPD marker

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Development of low alcoholic naturally carbonated fermented debittered beverage from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)

G. Pandove1, P. Sahota2 and N.Gupta1*

1Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda-151001(Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author.E-mail: navjotgupta@pau.edu

Received: September 10, 2015; Revised received: May 11, 2016; Accepted: July 25, 2016

Abstract: A pure yeast Clavispora lusitaniae, isolated from whey beverage, phenotypically characterized and molecularly characterized by sequencing of D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) re-gion was used to produce low alcoholic naturally carbonated fermented debittered beverage from Grapefruit. C. lusitaniae produces enzyme naringinase. This enzyme is a mixture of α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase. The bitter component in citrus fruit, naringin can be hydrolyzed by α-L-rhamnosidase to rhamnose and prunin then by β- glucosidase to glucose and naringenin. The freshly prepared fermented Grapefruit beverage had TSS 14 °B, pH 4.7, acidity 0.26%, brix acid ratio 53.85, total sugars 11.6%, reducing sugars 3.34%, ascorbic acid 21.9 mg/100 ml, nar-ingin 643.2 ppm, alcohol 0.00% (v/v), CO2 0.00 bar and total yeast count 5.83 (Log no.of cells/ml). Physico-chemical changes recorded after three months of storage at refrigerated temperature revealed TSS 12.0 °B, pH 4.2, acidity 0.54%, brix acid ratio 22.22, total sugars 8.97%, reducing sugars 1.94%, ascorbic acid 18.45 mg/100 ml, naringin 365.2 ppm, alcohol 0.76 % (v/v), CO2 1.35 bar and total yeast count 8.54 (Log no.of cells/ml). Naturally produced CO2 by C. lusitaniae during fermentation adds effervescence, sparkle, tangy taste to the beverage in addition to its antimicrobial properties. Thus bio-enzymatic debittering by C. lusitaniae may become the new direction of citrus juice processing in the future, due to its economical viability with strong ability to remove the bitter taste from citrus juice beverage.

Keywords: Clavispora lusitaniae, Economical viability, Internal transcribed spacer, Sequencing

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Molecular screening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes for resistance alleles against important biotic stresses

Pallavi Neha1, Shashank Shekhar Solankey1, Lajja Vati2 and Tirthartha Chattopadhyay2*

1Department of Horticulture (Vegetables and Floriculture), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tirthartha@gmail.com

Received: December 22, 2015; Revised received: June 28, 2016; Accepted: August 25, 2106

Abstract: Molecular markers are vastly used as tool for screening of disease resistant/tolerant plant genotypes in early stage of growth in an environment-independent manner. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the major biotic stresses like tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Fusarium wilt, tomato spotted wilt virus and root knot nematode cause severe crop loss. Recently, DNA based molecular markers for the screening of resistance alleles for the above-mentioned diseases have been reported in tomato. In the present study, a total of eighteen tomato genotypes have been screened for the presence of possible resistance alleles, using sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) molecular markers. Resistance allele-specific bands for Fusarium wilt disease, tomato spotted wilt disease and partial resistance allele-specifc band for root knot disease have been identified in some of the genotypes used in the present study. However, none of the genotypes was found to contain Ty3 resistance allele-specific band for resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease. Thus, possible resistance sources have been identified for three out of the four biotic stresses, mentioned earlier. Thus, the present study has screened the 18 tomato genotypes at mo-lecular level for presence of resistance alleles for biotic stress, which might be further evaluated and explored in future tomato breeding programmes, targeting biotic stress resistance in tomato. At the same time, the study docu-ments the applicability of molecular markers for rapid disease screening in tomato in an environment independent manner.

Keywords: Fusarium wilt, Root knot disease, Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), Tomato

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Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with Eichhornia crassipes on growth and survival of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) juveniles

M. R. Patel1*, K. H. Vadher1, R. R. Mer1, K. G. Baraiya2 and K. V. Tandel1

1Department of Aquaculture, College of fisheries, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval-362265 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Department of Harvest and Post-Harvest Technology, College of Fisheries, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval-362 265 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mika.patel9@gmail.com

Received: December 29, 2015; Revised received: June 28, 2016; Accepted: August 27, 2016

Abstract: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of partial replacement of fish meal in the diet of Labeo rohita juveniles. In this experiment, the data pertaining to growth, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, protein effi-ciency ratio of L. rohita at partial replacement of fishmeal with E. crassipes were evaluated. For that purpose fry of approximately equal weight (57.97mg ± 1.25) were distributed in groups of 15 to each four aquaria at 0% (T1), 10% (T2), 20% (T3), 30% (T4) and 40% (T5) inclusion levels of aquatic macrophyte, Eichhornia crassipes. Maximum mean weight gain (235.25 ± 11.04 mg) was observed in T1 and minimum (165.06 ± 10.93 mg) was observed in T5 at the end of the experiment. Among the treatments tested, the highest survival (89.99% ± 1.93) was recorded in treatment T1 and minimum was found in T4 (79.99% ± 2.72). Lowest FCR was recorded in treatment T3 (2.02 ± 0.39) and highest was found in T5 (3.08 ± 0.59). Higher SGR was observed in treatment T1 (297.15 ± 18.78%) and minimum was observed in T5 (182.74 ± 18.45%). The study revealed a decrease in the growth performance indices as the percentage of water hyacinth increases. In present study also there was not much difference in growth rate upto 20% incorporation of E. crassipes in the diet. Also, significant difference was observed among treatments with respect to feed utilization (P<0.05).

Keywords: Feed conversion ratio, Fish meal, Growth performance, Labeo rohita, Water hyacinth

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Optimization of SSF parameters for natural red pigment production from Penicillium purpurogenum using cassava waste by central composite design

C. Padmapriya* and R. Murugesan

Dept. of Agric. Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: agri.padma@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: July 12, 2016; Accepted: August 27, 2016

Abstract: Pencillium purpurogenum 8904.12, a red pigment producer, was isolated from soil screened and selected based on the pigment production. The pigment production by P.purpurogenum was optimizedby using factorial design and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in SSF. Cassava waste is a low cost and nutrient rich substrate used in this study as a substrate. RSM based central composite design was employed to obtain best combination of substrate concentration, inoculum volume, incubation time, initial moisture and initial pH. By the point prediction tool of Design-Expert 8.0, the optimum values of the factors for maximum red pigment production were determined. Under the optimized conditions (substrate concentration 10 g, inoculum volume 5 ml, 15 days incubation time, 50 % initial moisture and initial pH of 6), the red pigment yield was 28.33 colour value units / g of dry fermented substrate which agreed closely with the predicted yield. The model showed that the value of R2 (0.9936) was high and p-value of interaction of variance was <0.0001. Hence the model can be said to be of highly significant. A significant Increase in red pigment production was achieved using RSM. Thus, utilization of cassava waste for red pigment production in this study could provide the most effective use of cassava resource, and lead to technology of development for its further utilization and value addition.

Keywords: Cassava waste, Penicillium purpurogenum, Red pigment, Response surface methodology, Solid state fermentation

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Impact of climate change on hydrology of Manjalar sub basin of river Vaigai in Tamil Nadu, India

S. Janapriya*1, S. Santhana Bosu2 and Balaji Kannan3

*1Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi-642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2&3Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jans.priya@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: June 28, 2016; Accepted: August 27, 2016

Abstract: This study evaluates the impacts of possible future climate change scenarios on the hydrology of the catchment area of the Manjalar sub basin of River Vaigai, Tamil Nadu, India carried out at the department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University during the period of 2011-2014 using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). For the climate impact assessment the hydrological model was driven with output of bias corrected Earth System Models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5): HadGEM2. Climate scenarios were down scaled to a grid resolution of 0.22° x 0.22°. In this study RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 were included for future assessment with three future periods: 2012–2039, 2040–2069, and 2070–2098. The projected increase in maximum and minimum temperature for RCP 4.5 scenario is 0.8 to 2.3 ºC and 0.7 to 1.6 ºC and for RCP 8.5 scenario is 1.1 to 4.0 ºC and 1.0 to 3.1 ºC, respectively. Rainfall is projected to an increase be-tween 9.2 to 15.2 per cent for RCP 4.5 scenario and an increase of 13.6 to 18.8 per cent for RCP 8.5 scenario during 21st century. The soil water storage and stream flow contribution to ground water are likely to increase in RCP 4.5 scenario and it would again decline for RCP 8.5 scenario during 21st century. The increase in annual rainfall evapotranspiration and surface runoff would be more in RCP 8.5 scenario compared to RCP 4.5 scenario. The possible changes projected by the study provide a useful input to effective planning of water resources of the study area.

Keywords: Climate change impacts, Hydrologic model, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenario, Surface runoff

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Disease status and combined effect of biological control and organic amendments in managing stem rot disease of carnation caused by Rhizoctonia solani

S. Sharma* and S. Chandel

Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sushsharma1987@gmail.com

Received: August 07, 2015; Revised received: May 07, 2016; Accepted: August 27, 2016

Abstract: The present study was carried out to know the effect of different soil amendments and biological control on disease incidence, different plant growth and flower parameters. Incidence of stem rot was found serious in almost all the locations surveyed, maximum incidence being recorded at Berthin (33.7%) in district Bilaspur followed by Rajgarh (32.0%), Solan (27.3%) and Matnali (27.1%) in district Sirmour in contrast to lowest incidence (11.2%) of stem rot in Shimla. Integration of Melia azedarach seed (powder) along with Trichoderma viride as well as Neem cake with T. viride and T. harzianum gave maximum reduction (75.67%) in disease incidence of stem rot with minimum disease incidence (6%), in comparison to 24.67 per cent in control followed by Bacillus subtilis + Melia azedarach (8%). These treatment also improved the plant growth and flower quality parameters by giving the average plant height to 82.32 cm, 81.05 cm, stem length (76.64 cm, 75.91 cm), number of flowers per plant (3.79, 3.68), flower size (7.20 cm, 7.17 cm) and took less number of days to first flowering. Disease management practice alone is not sufficient until integrated with other components, as disease is a complex phenomenon governed by many factors. The integration of effective management practices such as plant oils, botanicals and antagonists would be important for the successful management of plant diseases, thus showing its practical applicability in field in mitigating the losses caused by disease in carnation.

Keywords: Biological control, Carnation, Disease incidence, Integrated disease management, Stem rot

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Assessment of the effects of land use pattern on distribution of sulphur fractions in soil

Dhaneshwar Padhan1*, A. K. Pradhan2, Mahasweta Chakraborty1 and Arup Sen1

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia- 741235(West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, BAU, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 813210(Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dhaneshwar.padhan@rediffmail.com

Received: September 12, 2015; Revised received: July 04, 2016; Accepted: August 27, 2016

Abstract: In the present investigation, various forms of sulphur (S) viz., total S, organic S, inorganic S and available S were estimated in soils under four different land uses viz., Rice-rice, rice-green gram, mango orchard and a fallow. Soils samples were taken up to a profile depth of 0.60m at 3 depths i.e. 0-0.20m, 0.20-0.40m and 0.40-0.60m. The soils were found to be slightly acidic to moderately acidic in reaction (5.83-6.59), showing an increase along the depth irrespective of the land use pattern. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content (mean 5.5 gkg-1) was found well above the low level of SOC in soils. Calcium carbonate content, bulk density and clay content of soils didn’t maintain any definite pattern along the depth. All forms of S were found to decrease along depth irrespective of the land use patterns. The available S content ranged from 12.2 to 21.4mgkg-1 of soils. The relative preponderance of all the forms of S followed the order: mango orchard> fallow> rice-rice> rice-green gram. On an average organic S and available S fractions constituted 93 and 6 per cent of total S respectively. A correlation matrix revealed that all the forms of S maintained a significant positive correlation with SOC content while a negative correlation with pH of the soils. The results of the study will be useful in managing the different fractions of S in soils in order to maintain its availability well above the critical level.

Keywords: Available S, Bulk density, Forms of S, Land use, SOC

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Effect of dietary zinc on the growth and metabolic enzyme activities of golden mahseer (Tor putitora) fry

Kaustubh Bhagawati1*, N. K. Chadha1, Debajit Sarma3, M. S. Akhtar3, Paramita B. Sawant1 and Simanku Borah2

1Division of Aquaculture, Central Institute of Fisheries Education (ICAR), Versova, Mumbai – 400061 (Maharastra), INDIA

2Division of Fisheries Resource Management, Central Institute of Fisheries Education (ICAR), Versova, Mumbai – 400061 (Maharastra), INDIA

3Environmental Fish Biology and Nutrient Profiling Laboratory, ICAR-Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research Bhimtal, Nainital- 263136 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kaustabh.bhagawati@gmail.com

Received: October 20, 2015; Revised received: July 11, 2016; Accepted: August 08, 2016

Abstract: The golden mahseer (Tor putitora) is an important and high valued sport and food fish of national and international importance. Therefore for promotion of golden mahseer, proper mineral supplementation in early developmental stages is very important. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary zinc on growth, survival and physiological response of Tor putitora fry. One thousand eight hundred fry (avg.wt 54.35±3.09 mg) were randomly distributed into 6 treatment groups with triplicates each. Six iso-nitrogenous (40±0.02% to 41.44±0.01% crude protein) semi-purified diets were prepared with graded levels of dietary zinc. Zinc sulphate was added as the dietary zinc source to the basal diet. The results indicated that specific growth rate (SGR) was of value 2.52 ±0.23 gm of T. putitora fry which increased with dietary zinc levels up to a concentration of 40 mg Zn Kg-1 in diet. The zinc dependent metabolic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes was also observed to be highest in groups supplemented with 40 mg zinc/kg feed. The overall results of the present study suggest the efficacy of dietary zinc on growth, survival and physiological response of golden mahseer fry in order to garner the possibility of establishing the species to commercial aquaculture.

Keywords: Isonitrogenous, Metabolic enzymes, Specific growth rate, Tor putitora

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Variable survival ability of rhizobacteria in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) rhizosphere

Anurag Yadav* and Kusum Yadav2

Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Science & Humanities, S.D. Agricultural University, S.K. Nagar - 385 506 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007(Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anuragyadav123@gmail.com

Received: December 18, 2014; Revised received: June 06, 2016; Accepted: August 28, 2016

Abstract: A study was undertaken to compare the survival efficacy of two native, previously characterized bacterial biovars viz. Bacillus subtilis BCU5 and Pseudomonas fluorescens PCU17 with Bacillus subtilis strain MTCC1789 and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MTCC4828, procured from Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India in cumin rhizosphere and bulk soil. All the four bacterial types were made rifampicin resistant and the mutants were applied as inoculants at the dosage of 6 log, 7 log and 8 log colony forming units (cfu) g-1 dry soil weight in pots containing cumin seedlings. The cfu of rhizosphere and bulk soil of pots was observed per week for four weeks. The results show that the initial population decline is a common feature of bioinoculants. In rhizosphere and bulk soil, the native bacterial biovars survived better than their procured counterparts. The population of P. fluorescens strain MTCC4828r in rhizosphere soil declined faster and reached below detection limit whereas the P. fluorescens biovar PCUr rhizosphere final population dropped to 3.1 log, 2.9 log and 2.13 log cfu g-1 soil dry weight with 8 log, 7 log and 6 log cfu g-1 soil dry weight inoculum treatment, respectively. In contrast to P. fluorescens strain MTCC4828r, the population of B. subtilis strain MTCC1789r stabilized after some decline and was comparable with B. subtilis biovar BCU5 population. Study concludes that the inoculant population decline in soil was the result of lower microbial load carrying capacity of soil than the provided inoculum densities. Also, the native bacteria survived better than procured ones in rhizosphere soil.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, Cumin, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhizobacteria, Rhizosphere, Survival

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Influence of sowing dates and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of scented rice cv. Pusa Sugandh-3 in Kashmir valley

Sheeraz Ahmad Wani1*, Sameera Qayoom1, Mohammad Amin Bhat2, Bilal Ahmad Lone1, Aijaz Nazir1

1Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar-190025 (J&K), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sheerazwani2@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: June 08, 2016; Accepted: August 30, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out to determine the optimum sowing date and nitrogen (N) level for the scented rice cv. Pusa Sugandh-3. Twelve treatment combinations of 3 sowing dates, viz., 15th, 16th and 18th standard meteorological week (SMW) at an interval of 10 days and 4 nitrogen levels (‘0’, ‘40’, ‘60’ and ‘80’ kg N ha -1) were tested randomized in split plot design with three replications. Significant highest plant height (98.56 cm), tillers m-2 (333.41), dry matter (98.38 q ha-1), panicles m-2 (310.05), spikelets panicle-1(130.25) and grains panicle-1 (98.55), grain yield (45.2 q ha-1), harvest index (41.20 %), head rice recovery (47.5 %) and B:C ratio (3.03) were recorded for the early sown 15th SMW crop. Among the different nitrogen levels tested significant highest plant height (98.12 cm), tillers m-2 (342.33) dry matter (100.68 q ha-1), panicles m-2 (321.83), spikelets panicle-1(132.83) grains panicle-1 (96.79), grain yield (48.0 q ha-1), harvest index (42.68 %), head rice recovery (44.54 %) and B:C ratio (3.38) were recorded with the application of 80 kg N ha-1.Therefore, the variety, Pusa Sugandh-3 should be sown earlier in season from 15th to 16th SMW and with nitrogen application of 60-80 kg N ha-1 for realizing economically higher grain yield and profit under the temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir valley.

Keywords: Grain yield, Head rice, Nitrogen levels, Pusa Sugandh- 3, Sowing dates

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Seed traits, germination pattern and seedling vigour in Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch., a rare plant species of Western ghats

A. B. Mirgal1, Rajesh P. Gunaga2*, and C. B. Salunkhe3

1College of Forestry, Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415712 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2College of Forestry, ACHF, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

3Krishna Mahavidyalaya, Rethare Bk., Karad-415108 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rpgunaga@gmail.com

Received: March 08, 2015; Revised received: July 01, 2016; Accepted: August 30, 2016

Abstract: Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. is one of the species of ecological importance distributed in Western Ghats and other parts. This species is considered as one of the threatened species and it needs conservation. The information on fruit and seed trait variation and germination attributes are scanty. Such database is useful for affore-station programme as well as for augmentation of rare plant species in their natural habitat. For the present study, 10 open pollinated trees distributed in Devade forest of Sakharpa were marked. April month was the peak fruiting period and healthy fruits were collected from the ground. Fruit and seed traits were found to be varied significantly among trees, where fruit length ranged from 21.50 to 24.71 mm and fruit weight ranged from 3.64 to 4.07 g. Similarly, seeds length (14.01 -15.09 mm), seed thickness (12.15 -13.04 mm) and seed weight (1.20 – 1.57g) also showed significant variation among 10 trees. Field observation showed that there was a poor regeneration in this species at studied site. Therefore, germination study was conducted at nursery condition by imposing several pre-treatments. Among eight treatments including control, soaking seeds in water for 24 hrs (T2) resulted in better germination of 38.0% as compared to others. In T2 seed germination started at 16 days after sowing and completed within 42 days. Potting mixture of red soil with saw dust in 30:70 ratio improved seed germination about 20 % as compared to red soil media.

Keywords: Antiaris toxicaria, Conservation, Germination, Seed traits, Seedling vigour

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An overview of potential multipurpose agroforestry tree species, Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels in India

S. Sarvade* D.S. Gautam, S. Bhalawe and P. K. Bisen

College of Agriculture, Balaghat- 481 331, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi VishwaVidyalaya, Jabalpur (MP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: somanath553@gmail.com

Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: March 26, 2016; Accepted: July 05, 2016

Abstract: Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) Skeels is evergreen MPTs (Multipurpose Tree species) widely grown in traditional agroforestry systems (agri-silviculture and agri-horticulture) of India, except very dry areas. It produces excellent nutritious fruits, which contains carbohydrates, dietary fibre, fat, protein, vitamins like B1, B2, B3, B6 and C with trace minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium). The seed and bark is used to control dysentery and hyperglycaemia, and in diabetic patients. Leaves of the Jamun are used in strengthening the teeth and gums, whereas fruits used in relief for colic, stomach-ache and enlarged spleen. It may accelerate work towards food security through extra food production from degraded and waste areas. The species is widely used for reclamation of salt affected soils and waterlogged areas. Their contribution in environmental conservation through biomass production and carbon sequestration processes. It also helps in conserving biodiversity in traditional agro-forestry systems and natural forest areas.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Biomass production and Carbon sequestration, Food security, Jamun, MPTs, Salt affected soils, Traditional agroforestry systems

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Banded leaf and sheath blight: A menacing disease of maize (Zea mays L.) and its management

Sorabh Chaudhary*1, Sushma Sagar1, Akash Tomar2, R. S. Sengar1 and Mukesh Kumar1

1Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, S.V.P. University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Recombination Techniques, College of Biotechnology, S.V.P. University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail: sorabh.gene@gmail.com

Received: November 20, 2015; Revised received: April 30, 2016; Accepted: July 18, 2016

Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) crop is attacked by number of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, out of which banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) caused by anastomosis group 1-IA of Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii Exner. is one of the most widespread and destructive disease of maize in Southeast Asian countries. The occurrence of this disease has also been reported from other parts of the world, which causes significant yield loss up to 100%. R. solani can survive in the soil for several years and able to infect plants belonging to more than 32 families, including many economically important monocots and dicots plants. The severity of the disease favoured by humid weather with temperature around 28°C, poses challenge to maize growers due to its soil borne nature and lack of resistance cultivars. It is indicated that none of the disease management approaches are effective against BLSB. Banded leaf and sheath blight is difficult to control through either fungicide or crop rotation alone. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling BLSB have been identified that would help the development of maize hybrids resistance to this disease. Management of BLSB requires an integrated approach based on the knowledge of each stage of the disease and molecular aspect of maize defence responses against R. solani. Mention conclusion statement and novelty of the work. The present review summarizes consolidated information on distribution, yield loss, symptoms, pathogen life cycle, epidemiology, genetic structure of the pathogen population, molecular aspect of pathogenicity and its integrated management through cultural, biological, chemical and genetic means. The consolidated knowl-edge presented in this review should help better disease management and reduce crop yield loss due to banded leaf and sheath blight pathogen.

Keywords: Banded leaf and sheath blight, Biological control, Genetic variability, Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii, Zea mays

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