Volume 7, Year 2015-Issue 2

Contents

  1. 1 Effect of seed enhancement treatment on field performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
  2. 2 Identification of a seed-borne rice bacterium, Burkholderia glumae using cultural, morphological and biochemical methods
  3. 3 Genetic variation and heritability estimation in Jatropha curcas L. progenies for seed yield and vegetative traits
  4. 4 Relationship between incidence of Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) and Chlorophyll content in leaves of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)
  5. 5 Isozyme analysis based genetic fidelity assessment of micropropagated banana plants
  6. 6 Effect of feed supplemented exogenous bacteria, Lactobacillus sporogenes on the growth and body composition of Cirrhinus mrigalafingerlings
  7. 7 Phytoplanktonic diversity in lake Jaisamand, Rajasthan (India)
  8. 8 Development of value added Pasta with incorporation of malted finger millet flour
  9. 9 Effect of the size of cuttings (length and diameter) on rooting in cuttings of apple clonal rootstock Merton 793
  10. 10 Enhancement of post harvest fruit quality and leaf curl disease tolerance in tomato through hybrid breeding
  11. 11 Effect of timing and graded levels of nitrogen and potassium in SRI cultivation
  12. 12 Studies on processing technology and cost estimation of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit powder enriched Burfi (Indian cookie)
  13. 13 Insect cellulolytic enzymes: Novel sources for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass
  14. 14 Effect of plant and animal protein sources on the growth, gonadal maturity and proximate composition of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822)
  15. 15 Effect of micronutrients on leaf composition, fruit quality and yield of Kinnow mandarin
  16. 16 Economic evaluation of biorational and conventional insecticides for the control of maize stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in Zea mays
  17. 17 Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays in snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina l.)
  18. 18 Effect of integrated nutrient management on nitrogen dynamics in soil of rice-potato based cropping sequence
  19. 19 AMMI and GGE biplots for G×E analysis of wheat genotypes under rain fed conditions in central zone of India
  20. 20 Accumulation of lead in the muscle of brackish water fish (Boleopthalmus dussumieri)
  21. 21 Comparative study of antibacterial activity of two different earthworm species, Perionyx excavatus and Pheretima posthuma against pathogenic bacteria
  22. 22 Impact of Alternaria solani (Early blight) on cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in North-eastern region of India and identification of early blight disease resistant tomato genotypes
  23. 23 Tree species diversity, distribution and population structure in a tropical dry deciduous forests of Chhatisgarh, India
  24. 24 Nutritional assessment of mutants of Calocybe indica produced by protoplast mutagenesis
  25. 25 Calibration, validation and application of AquaCrop model in irrigation scheduling for rice under northwest India
  26. 26 A framework for refining soil microbial indices as bioindicators during decomposition of various organic residues in a sandy loam soil
  27. 27 Field dissipation of pendimethalin and alachlor in sandy clay loam soil and its terminal residues in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)
  28. 28 Effect of rate of application on degradation of imazethapyr in groundnut and soil under tropical Indian condition
  29. 29 Studies on biochemical mechanism of resistance for the management of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple caused by Marssonina coronaria (Ellis & J. J. Davis) J. J. Davis
  30. 30 Evaluation of buprofezin 70 DF an insect growth regulator for eco-friendly management of jassid (Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla Ishida) in okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench
  31. 31 Effect of body cooling systems on micro-climatic variable in semi -loose house for animals during hot-dry and hot-humid conditions of coastal india
  32. 32 Effect of planting dates and varieties on growth, fruit yield and quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
  33. 33 Genetic analysis of yield and heat stress related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) using microsatellite markers
  34. 34 Effect of storage temperature and duration on sugar content and sensory acceptability of strawberry pulp
  35. 35 District-wise trend analysis of rainfall pattern in last century (1901-2000) over Gangetic region in West Bengal, India
  36. 36 Growth and yield of Vigna radiata L.) under Terminalia arjuna and Mitragyna parvifolia based agrisilvicultural system
  37. 37 Evaluation of thiamethoxam 70% WS as seed treatment against early sucking pests of tomato
  38. 38 Biometric properties of onion seedlings relevant to the development of onion seedling transplanter
  39. 39 Hybrid vigour for yield and quality traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)
  40. 40 A study on pathological aspects of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot of cabbage under red lateritic zone of West Bengal
  41. 41 Diversity, abundance and pollination efficiency of insect pollinators of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) and effect of abiotic factors on insect pollinator activity
  42. 42 Co-efficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and variability for ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) genotypes under mid hill conditions of Uttarakhand
  43. 43 Efficiency of aluminum and iron electrodes in removal of colour, turbidity and total suspended solid from biologically treated municipal wastewater
  44. 44 Genetic analysis of agronomic and biochemical variables among different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) accessions
  45. 45 Effect of different levels of customized fertilizer on soil nutrient availability, yield and economics of onion
  46. 46 Documentation of ethno-medicinal practices: A case study on tribal forest fringe dwellers of Terai West Bengal in India
  47. 47 Efficacy of different oils used for the extraction of annatto colour from the seeds of Bixa orellana L.
  48. 48 Phytotoxicity of herbicides on Cynodon dactylon
  49. 49 Characterization of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] germplasm for morphological parameters under field conditions
  50. 50 Different approaches on pre harvest forecasting of wheat yield
  51. 51 Vegetative propagation of Karanja (Pongamia pinnata L. Pierre ) through stem cuttings
  52. 52 Relationship of photosynthesis and related traits to seed yield in oilseed Brassicas
  53. 53 Evaluation of stem rot disease in jute (Corchorus olitorius) germplasm caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid
  54. 54 Management of early blight of potato using biocontrol agents and plant extracts
  55. 55 Combining ability analysis for various yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  56. 56 Vegetation indices mapping for Bhiwani district of Haryana (India) through LANDSAT-7ETM+ and remote sensing techniques
  57. 57 Effect of organic and inorganic farming conditions on seed storage proteins in soybean based cropping system
  58. 58 Effect of higher salinities on growth and survival of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)
  59. 59 Genetic divergence evaluation of apple germplasm by D2 multivariate analysis
  60. 60 Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of inhabitant PGPR strains of Pseudomonas from apple orchards
  61. 61 Deficiency of magnesium in maize (Zea mays L.) induced by high potassium level in a micaceous soil of Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India
  62. 62 Yield enhancement of chilli through integrated crop management in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka, India
  63. 63 Oil content and fatty acid composition of soybean (Glysine max L.) genotypes evaluated under rainfed conditions of Kashmir Himalayas in India
  64. 64 Economic loss assessment on juvenile fish catch due to forced non-selectivity in a selective fishing gear, gillnet along Mumbai coast, India
  65. 65 Effect of different packaging materials on the efficacy of sweet flag rhizome powder (Acorus calamus L.) treated sorghum against Sitophilus oryzae
  66. 66 Combining ability and gene interaction study for yield, its attributing traits and quality in common wheat
  67. 67 Soil microbial communities and enzymes as affected by herbicides of rice-wheat and soybean- wheat cropping system
  68. 68 Development and evaluation of multi millet thresher
  69. 69 Effect of waterlogging tolerance in wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) at ear emergence stage on growth, biochemical and yield parameters in sodic soil
  70. 70 Assessment of ecological health of Baiyangdian lake in China using ecological health index
  71. 71 Toxicity of some insecticides against seven day old larvae of Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua Walker
  72. 72 Effects of gamma rays on germination and growth in Jatropha curcas L.
  73. 73 Effect of seaweed saps on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economic improvement of maize (sweet corn)
  74. 74 Perceptions, attitudes and preferences in agroforestry among rural societies of Kashmir, India
  75. 75 Isolation, characterization and morphological study of Azotobacter isolates
  76. 76 Community participated management of chaur (floodplain) fisheries: A case study of Mahisar chaur in Samastipur district of Bihar, India
  77. 77 Genetic diversity analysis using molecular marker in Terminalia chebula
  78. 78 Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]
  79. 79 Assessment of the genetic diversity among oily spot (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae) pathogen of pomegranate by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis
  80. 80 Bioefficacy of Bacillus subtilis against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in tomato
  81. 81 Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Kali river, Uttar Pradesh, India
  82. 82 Comparative assessment of microbial enzyme activity with compost and sewage sludge amendment
  83. 83 Ability of arbuscular mycorrhiza to promote growth of maize plant and enzymatic activity of an alluvial soil
  84. 84 Variability for seed oil content and seedling traits in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
  85. 85 Scope of ornamental fisheries in snow fed rivers of Uttarakhand-Overview
  86. 86 A sustainable rice production technology: problems and prospects
  87. 87 Molecular breeding for resilience in maize - A review
  88. 88 Effect of ethylene on physiological and biochemical parameters in different crop plants - A review
  89. 89 Increase in wheat production through management of abiotic stresses : A review
  90. 90 Plant sterols for human health - A review

Effect of seed enhancement treatment on field performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Mukesh Kumar1*, Amarendra Kumar2, Rakesh Kumar3, Shiv Kumar Yadav1, Rajbir Yadav4 and Jitendra Kumar5

1Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA

2Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

3Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

4Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA

5Division of Agricultural Chemical, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mukesh.iari@gmail.com

Abstract : Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important winter season pulse crop in India grown in drought prone semi-arid and tropical regions. The aim of present investigation was to find out the effect of seed enhancement treatment on field performance of chickpea. Seeds of Chickpea Desi cultivar Pusa 256, Pusa 2028, and Kabuli cultivar Pusa1053, Pusa1108, each of fresh and 4 yrs old lots were taken for seed enhancement treatments like osmo-priming, halo-priming, fungicidal, botanical and polymer coating alone and in combination with thiram and neem oil. It was observed that seed treatment with thiram alone or in combination with polymer (PVP or PEM) significantly enhances germination and field emergence. Old seed lots of particularly Pusa 256 gives better result. The speed of emergence was invariably high in fresh seed lot (9.43) than old seed lots (4.84). However, in old seed lots, only halo-priming and polymer (PVP) in combination with thiram improved the speed of emergence significantly. Thus seeds treatment with thiram or in combination with hydrophilic polymers could be used for enhancing the performance of chickpea.

Keywords : Chickpea, Field emergence, Speed of emergence, Seed priming


Download PDF


Identification of a seed-borne rice bacterium, Burkholderia glumae using cultural, morphological and biochemical methods

Deepali Singh and KarunaVishunavat

Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263145, Uttarakhand, INDIA

Corresponding author E-mail: deepalisingh99@gmail.com

Abstract : Burkholderia glumae is a seed-borne rice bacterium that causes bacterial panicle blight (BPB), which is a promising disease in many rice-growing areas around the world. The bacterium has been successfully grown on King’s B agar medium (KBM) at 280C for 48 hrs. It is Gram negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped with cell size 0.5 to 0.7 - 1.5 to 2.0 µm with rounded ends. The colony appears as grayish white or yellow due to the pigment. The bacterium gave positive test in gelatin liquefaction, KOH solubility and nitrate reduction and while negative test in starch hydrolysis, oxidase reaction, levan production and arginine dihydrolase test. The bacterium utilized different carbon sources viz., sugars, amino acids, sugar alcohols and organic acids when examined through Biolog TMGN2 Microplate System. This study would help in control and management of seed-borne bacterial plant pathogen B. glumae.

Keywords : Biochemical, Burkholderia glumae, Cultural, Morphological


Download PDF


Genetic variation and heritability estimation in Jatropha curcas L. progenies for seed yield and vegetative traits

N. Kaushik*, R. P. S. Deswal, Suman Malik and Krishan Kumar

CCS HAU Regional Research Station, Bawal-123501 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: nk20025@rediffmail.com

Abstract : In this study, experiment was conducted on sandy loam soils poor in organic carbon and water holding capacity in southern Haryana, India to determine the best progenies of Jatropha curcas for bio-diesel production. Fifty progenies raised from seed sources collected from nine states of India were evaluated after five years of plantation for growth, seed and oil content traits. The progenies showed significant (P> 0.05) differences for all the traits studied. Maximum seed yield/plant (879.37 g), number of capsules/plant (522.67) and plant height (408.33 cm) was recorded in P-44. Maximum oil content observed in P-37 (36.08%) followed by P-5 (35.64%). The magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than the corresponding genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the characters studied. Heritability was highest for oil content (95.49%) and 100-seed weight (87.75%) followed by seed yield (75.54%). Total capsules/plant exhibited highest genetic advance (92.69%) followed by number of branches per plant (64.32%). Hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis of all 50 progenies using D2 statistics was done where the D2 analysis grouped the progenies into five clusters. The intra cluster distances ranged from 1.33 to 2.72. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster II and V (6.43) followed by I and V indicating greater divergence among progenies belonging to these clusters and an attempt to cross the progenies in these clusters should bring out desirable gene combinations. These progenies showed considerable potential which can be tapped for planting and selecting the improved varieties.

Keywords : Genotypic coefficient, Heritability, Jatropha curcas, Oil content, Phenotypic coefficient, Seed yield


Download PDF


Relationship between incidence of Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) and Chlorophyll content in leaves of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Showket. A. Dar1*, A. R. Wani1, Shahid A. Padder2, T. A. Raja3, Sheikh. Mehraj4, S. H. Khan5

*Department of Entomology, 1Division of Agricultural Entomology, 2Division of Plant Microbiology, 3Division of Agricultural statistics, 4Division of Fruit science,5Division of vegetable science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir - 190025, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: showketdar43@gmail.com

Abstract : The present study on biochemical basis of resistance against Leucinodes orbonalis infestation was conducted during the year 2011-2012. The results revealed that highest chlorophyll-‘a’- content of 0.497 mg/gfw was recorded in the susceptible genotype SHB-1.The lowest amount of 0.319 and 0.381 mg/gfw was observed in the resistant genotypes Brinjal-85 and Local long respectively, which were significantly different from other evaluated genotypes. The chlorophyll ‘a’content was positively correlated with the brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. The highest chlorophyll -‘b’- content of 0.442 mg/gfw was recorded at 70 DAT (days after transplanting). The amount of chlorophyll -‘b’- varied significantly among the genotypes at different ages and decreased with the age of crop. The average highest amount of chlorophyll -‘b’- was estimated in the genotype SBH-1 which was significantly at par with hybrid SBH-2. The lowest chlorophyll -‘b’- content was recorded at 40 DAT in the genotype Brinjal-85 followed by Local Long. The lowest amount of total chlorophyll was estimated in the resistant variety as compared to susceptible therefore exhibiting lowest level of infestation.

Keywords : Brinjal, Biochemical, Chlorophyll, Pest, Resistance


Download PDF


Isozyme analysis based genetic fidelity assessment of micropropagated banana plants

Sugandh Suman*, Ranju Kumari, V. K. Sharma and Harsh Kumar

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur-848125 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sugandhsuman@gmail.com

Abstract : Isozyme studies of micropropagated and mother plants of banana cvs. Matti, Ney Poovan, Kechulepa, Dwarf Cavendish, Malbhog, Champa, B.B. Battisa and FHIA-1 were done to test their genetic fidelity. The banding patterns as revealed by electrophoretic variations were evaluated with respect to isozymes of acid phosphatase, catalase, esterase and peroxidase as markers. The genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants and the relationship of the different cultivars were determined by dendrogram using numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system (NTSYS). A clustered dendrogram was prepared by unweighted pair group method using averages (UPGAMA) method. At 87% similarity, the micropropagated and mother plants were clustered in four groups reflecting their genomic constitution. Cvs. Matti (AA) and Dwarf Cavendish (AAA) with similar ‘A’ genome were categorized in Cluster I. Cluster II comprised of cvs. Ney Poovan (AB), B.B. Battisa (ABB) and FHIA-1(AAAB) with genomic constitution of both ‘A’ and ‘B’ type. Cvs. Champa (AAB) and Malbhog (AAB) with similar genome were grouped in Cluster III. Cluster IV contained the cv. Kechulepa (BB) having only ‘B’ genome. However, there was no somaclonal variation among the micropropagated plants and they showed 100% genetic similarity. Thus, the isozyme studies could be a reliable marker for testing the genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants and for evaluating the diversity among the banana germplasm.

Keywords : Banana, Genetic fidelity, Isozyme, Micropropagation


Download PDF


Effect of feed supplemented exogenous bacteria, Lactobacillus sporogenes on the growth and body composition of Cirrhinus mrigalafingerlings

Laxmi Prasad* and P. V. Rangacharulu

College of Fisheries, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229 (U.P.), INDIA

2Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Kaushalyaganga, Bhubaneswar-751002 (Orissa), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: vermalp@yahoo.com

Abstract : Probiotics are known to improve the growth rate of aquatic organisms. Little experimentation has focused on supplementation of live colony forming units ofL.sporogenes in Cirrhinus mrigala to access the growth performance. A feeding trial was conducted for 50 days to study the effects of Lactobacillus sporogenes on growth and body composition of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchnan, 1822) fingerlings. Fishes were fed with five experimental feeds containing 3.31x105 colony forming units (CFU)/100g-1 of L. sporogenes in diet D2 , 1.65×106 CFU/ 100g-1 in diet D3, 3.31×106 CFU/100g-1 in diet D4 and 4.96×106 CFU/100g-1 in diet D5. Control diet D1 was kept devoid of L. sporogenes. The diets prepared were containing 0.0% (D1), 0.1% (D2), 0.5% (D3), 1.0% (D4) and 1.5%(D5) of live cells of L. sporogenes CFU/100gm-1 of feed. Increasing trend of weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved food conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in treatments fed with probiotic added feeds than control feed. Best growth performance was found in the treatment fed with D4 of L. sporogenes containing 3.31×106 CFU 100g-1 of feed. At increased level 4.96×106 CFU 100g-1 of L. sporogenes inclusion the growth performance was dropped. Tissue protein content was also observed to be higher in animals fed with D4 feed. The lipid content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fingerlings fed with control feed (D1). In short, L. sporogenes addition to a level of 3.31×106 CFU 100g-1 in feed improved growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Therefore, it is evident that 3.31×106 CFU 100g-1 of feed of L. sporogenes can be considered as suitable concentration for attaining good growth in C.mrigala fingerlings.

Keywords : Bacteria, C. mrigala, Growth performance, L. sporogenes, Probiotics


Download PDF


Phytoplanktonic diversity in lake Jaisamand, Rajasthan (India)

Vijay Kumar Balai1, L. L. Sharma1 and N. C. Ujjania2*

1College of Fisheries, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur- 313001(Rajasthan), INDIA

2*Department of Aquatic Biology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Udhana Magdalla Road, Surat- 395007(Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ncujjania@yahoo.com

Abstract : The present study describes the diversity of phytoplankton in the lake Jaisamand of Rajasthan (India). Results depict that phytoplankton was contributed by six major groups which comprised total 85 species. Out of which 13 belongs to Myxophyceae, 5 to Euglenophyceae, 38 to Chlorophyceae, 3 to Xanthophyceae, 1 to Cryptophyceae and 23 to Bacillariophyceae. Thus, Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae turned up as the dominant groups in terms of density (159-554 numbers per liter and 24-485 numbers per liter) and species number (23 and 38), respectively. It was revealed that Jaisamand Lake maintained fairly good population of phytoplankton which is indication of providing broad base for achieving high productivity in this water body.

Keywords : Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Jaisamand, Phytoplankton, Rajasthan


Download PDF


Development of value added Pasta with incorporation of malted finger millet flour

Jaya Tripathi 1*, Ranu Prasad 2 , Alka Gupta 2 and Vinita Puranik 1

1Centre of Food Technology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jayatripathi1009@gmail.com

Abstract : This study considers the replacement of Semolina with malted finger millet flour containing wide range of nutrients in enrichment of pasta. The changes in nutritional constituents and bioactive compounds (TPC, Radical Scavenging Activity) of pasta were examined by adding malted finger millet flour to the pasta formulations at the level of 0 (T0), 10 (T1), 20 (T2), 30 (T3), 40 (T4) and 50 (T5) per cent flour replacement. The results indicated that T4 sample of finger millet flour added pasta contained more protein content i.e. 12.65 g compared to that of control pasta (T0) i.e. 7 g. Same way the calorie content of value added pasta was higher i.e. 409.94 Kcal/100 g as compared to control pasta (T0) i.e. 324.40 Kcal/100 g. Calcium content of value added pasta was comparatively very high i.e. 170.4 mg/100 g as compared to 15.3 mg/100 g of control. As far TPC content & DPPH % were considered, T4 sample of pasta have higher amount of both i.e. 220 mg Gallic acid eq. & 53.38 % as compared to control pasta (T0) i.e. 220 mg Gallic acid eq. & 17.59 % respectively. Pasta and related products are the most popular are the most popular food worldwide. Usually pasta and other extruded products are high in starch but low in dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins. The present study clearly indicates that the use of malted finger millet flour will improve nutritional quality of pasta in terms of antioxidant activity.

Keywords : Bioactive compounds, Finger millet, Malting, Pasta, Radical scavenging activity


Download PDF


Effect of the size of cuttings (length and diameter) on rooting in cuttings of apple clonal rootstock Merton 793

Pramod Verma1*, P. S. Chauhan2, J. S. Chandel1 and Manish Thakur1

1Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA.

2College of Horticulture, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: verma.pramod92@gmail.com

Abstract : The study was conducted in net house conditions of fruit Nursery block of Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan H.P. during 2012-2013 in order to evaluate the effect of size of cuttings (length and diameter) on rooting in cuttings of apple clonal rootstock Merton 793. Cuttings of length (L) viz. 15 cm, 25 cm, 35 cm, 45 cm and diameter ranges (D) viz. 0.75 cm-1.00 cm, 1.00 cm-1.25 cm, 1.25-1.50 cm were taken. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (factorial). The cuttings were treated with 2500 ppm IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) as quick dip (10-15 seconds) before planting. The results revealed that the cuttings with treatment combination of length (35 cm) and diameter (1.25 cm-1.50 cm) recorded the highest rooting of cuttings (65 %), number of primary roots (5.00), length of primary roots (28.43 cm), diameter of primary roots (3.25 mm), fresh weight of roots (3.67 g) and dry weight of roots (2.59 g). Hence it is concluded that cuttings of length of 35 cm and diameter of 1.25 cm to 1.50 cm was most suitable for propagation. However, the cuttings of shorter length and diameter, are also able to result in rooting with lower success, therefore, these cuttings would be helpful in case of scarce availability of propagating material.

Keywords : Apple, Merton 793, Rooting percentage, Size of cuttings


Download PDF


Enhancement of post harvest fruit quality and leaf curl disease tolerance in tomato through hybrid breeding

N. Pandiarana1, Shende Varun Durwas2, Tania Seth2, Soumitra Chatterjee3, Subrata Dutta3 and Arup Chattopadhyay3*

1Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur -741252, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

3All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani-741235, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: chattopadhyay.arup@gmail.com

Abstract : Development of hybrids tolerant to leaf curl virus disease along with good post harvest/processing traits is the major thrust areas in tomato breeding now-a-days. A study was undertaken following 7 × 7 half diallel mating design utilizing four exotic and three indigenous lines to identify potential donors and crosses, to study the extent of heterobeltiosis and dominance behaviour, and to assess the genetic control of post harvest quality traits along with disease tolerance in tomato. Breeding strategies to improve characters governed by different types of gene action are discussed. Two parental lines, CLN 2777F and CLN 2777E could be utilized further in tomato breeding programme as they were identified as the most promising general combiners for fruit yield, processing quality and ToLCV tolerance. The maximum extent of heterobeltiosis (104.17%) was found in pericarp thickness followed by fruit yield plant-1 (63.57 %) and PDI of ToLCV disease (-60.00 %). The hybrids also exhibited various degrees of dominance effects. The study could also able to identify a promising cross ‘CLN 2777E×CLN 2777F’ which could be recommended for commercial exploitation after critical study in leaf curl disease prone areas of the tropics and sub-tropics.

Keywords : Combining ability, Heterobeltiosis, ToLCV tolerance, Tomato, Post harvest quality


Download PDF


Effect of timing and graded levels of nitrogen and potassium in SRI cultivation

S. Sivagnanam 1*, K. Arivazhagan2, V. Arunkumar3 and S. Natarajan4

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003, INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608002, INDIA

3Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural college and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu agricultural University, Killiculam – 628252, INDIA

4Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608002, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sivagri@gmail.com

Abstract : A field experiment was carried out at Annamalai University Experimental farm, Annamalai nagar, during Kuruvai and Navarai in the year 2008-09. To study the timing and graded levels of nitrogen and potassium in rice crop under SRI (System of rice intensification) cultivation. The experiment was laid out on deep clay soil by adopting randomized block design with factorial technique (FRBD). The results of field experiment revealed that the maximum growth and yield attributes were recorded in the treatment which received P2O5 as fully basal dose and nitrogen as three split doses viz., 50% basal and 25% each at tillering and panicle initiation stages. Potassium was applied as 33.3% K2O each at 15, 30 and 45 DAT. This treatment significantly recorded higher grain yield of 6278.7 kg ha-1 in field experiment – I and 6577.9 kg ha-1 in field experiment – II; and the straw yield of 7010.3 and 7309.7 kg ha-1 in field experiment I and II respectively. The shoot and grain uptake of nutrients (N, P and K) were high during 15, 30 and 45 DAT and at harvest which received 33.3 % K2O each at 15, 30 and 45 DAT.

Keywords : Graded levels, Nutrient uptake, Nitrogen, Potassium, SRI


Download PDF


Studies on processing technology and cost estimation of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit powder enriched Burfi (Indian cookie)

A. P. Khapre*, P. N. Satwadhar and H. M. Syed

College of Food Technology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani-431402 (M.S.), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: khapreft@gmail.com

Abstract : The present article was designed with the aim to develop processing technology for preparation of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruits powder (Deanna variety) and the prepared fig powder was subsequently utilized in value added product like burfi (Indian cookie). In contrast to fig pulp and dried figs, the fig powder was found to be superior in terms of yield and ease of processing technology. Fig powder also open further fields of application that may promote fig powder processing at industrial scale in future. The products prepared by processing of figs viz. fig powder and fig burfi were chemically and sensorial assessed and also assessed for their economical feasibility and compared with market samples. Fig powder incorporated burfi was nutritionally rich in terms of fiber (3.7 %), potassium (0.464 %) and protein (13.12 %). The prepared product was found to be low cost as compared to the similar market products.

Keywords : Cabinet dryer, Economic feasibility, Fig burfi , Fig powder


Download PDF


Insect cellulolytic enzymes: Novel sources for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass

Monica Sachdeva Taggar

School of Energy Studies for Agriculture, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

E-mail: monicasachdeva@pau.edu

Abstract : Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer the potential to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate global climate change. Cellulose is one of the major structural components in all lignocellulosic wastes and enzymatic depolymerization of cellulose by cellulases is an essential step in bio-ethanol production. Wood-degrading insects are potential source of biochemical catalysts for converting wood lignocellulose into biofuels. Cellulose digestion has been demonstrated in more than 20 insect families representing ten distinct insect orders. Termite guts been have considered as the “world’s smallest bioreactors” since they digest a significant proportion of cellulose (74-99%) and hemicellulose (65-87%) components of lignocelluloses they ingest. The lower termites harbor protistan symbionts in hindgut whereas higher termites lack these in the hind gut. Studies on cellulose digestion in termites and other insects with reference to ligno-cellulose degrading enzymes have been well focused in this review. The studies on insect cellulolytic systems can lead to the discovery of a variety of novel biocatalysts and genes that encode them, as well as associated unique mechanisms for efficient biomass conversion into biofuels.

Keywords : Bioethanol , Insect cellulases, Lignocellulosic biomass, Sustainable energy, Termites


Download PDF


Effect of plant and animal protein sources on the growth, gonadal maturity and proximate composition of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822)

Neha Saxena1 2*, Asha Dhawan2, Meera D. Ansal2, and Vikas Phulia1, 2

1Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400061(Maharastra), INDIA

2Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana- 141004(Punjab),INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: nehapnr@gmail.com

Abstract : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant and animal sources in the diet of Labeo rohita with an overall goal of gaining sustainable fish and egg production. Fishes with an initial weight of 310-323 g were fed with five different isocaloric (3Kcalg-1) diets viz. D1 ( control diet- 30% rice bran + 70% groundnut meal), D2 (30% rice bran + 50% groundnut meal + 20% fish meal), D3 (30% rice bran + 50% groundnut meal + 20% mustard meal), D4 (30% rice bran + 30% groundnut meal + 20% mustard meal + 20 % fish meal) and D5 (30% rice bran + 30% soybean meal + 20% mustard meal + 20 % fish meal) @ 3% of fish biomass for 270 days. Significantly higher weight gain and better gonadal maturity was recorded in fishes fed with diet containing fish meal than other. Among diets containing fish meal (D2, D4, D5), fish fed on diet D2 resulted in higher somatic growth (35.67, 42.80, 28.10 and 18.48% higher net weight gain than D1, D3, D4 and D5, respectively) and better gonadal development (43.20, 50.08, 22.59 and 23.25% higher absolute fecundity than D1, D3, D4 and D5,respectively) in L. rohita. Hence, Our study revealed that for higher growth and better broodstock development, L. rohita may be fed on diet formulated with 30% rice bran, 50% groundnut meal and 20% fish meal.

Keywords : Diet, Growth, Labeo rohita, Proximate composition, Reproductive biology


Download PDF


Effect of micronutrients on leaf composition, fruit quality and yield of Kinnow mandarin

Nirmaljit Kaur1*, P. K. Monga2, P. K. Arora2 and Krishan Kumar2

1Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 41004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Abohar-152116 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nirmalkaur@pau.edu

Abstract : Effect of micronutrients on leaf composition, quality parameters and fruit yield of Kinnow mandarin was studied at Regional Research Station, Abohar. Foliar application of 1000 ppm Zn + 1000 ppm Mn on Kinnow mandarin during the end of April and mid of August gave maximum fruit yield (862 fruits / tree) and good quality fruits (Higher TSS/Acid: 14.23) by correcting these micronutrient deficiencies. Therefore, application of this dose of micronutrient combination will improve yield and fruit quality in Kinnow mandarin by correcting the deficiencies of these micronutrients as a result of which the orchardist will be economically benefited.

Keywords : Kinnow, Leaf composition, Micronutrients, Quality, Yield


Download PDF


Economic evaluation of biorational and conventional insecticides for the control of maize stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in Zea mays

Ravinder Kumar* and Jawala Jindal

Maize section, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: drravinderchandel@pau.edu

Abstract :Maize borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) is the chief limiting factor for higher corn production. Field trials to assess the efficacy of different insecticides against C. partellus were carried in district Ropar, Punjab. It was observed that significantly lesser leaf injury incidence was recorded in biorational treatment T1: chlorantriniliprole 18.5 SC (3.43 & 4.23) in comparison to broad spectrum conventional insecticide treatment T3: Deltamethrin 2.8 EC (4.63& 5.36) and T4 :Farmer’s practice 4.43 and 6.93. Whereas in plots with parasitoid application (T2), the leaf injury incidence was recorded to be 6.56 & 7.86 during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Though T2 was statistically superior to control, however it was not at par with insecticide treatments. Furthermore similar trend was observed for dead hearts reduction in different treatments. It was recorded to be 3.16 and 3.90, 3.33 and 3.96, 3.53 and 3.96 in insecticide treatment plots T1, T3 and T4 respectively. The economic returns on the basis of marketable grain yield in insecticide treated plots was more in T1 followed by T3 and T4 (51.99, 49.58 and 48.51) in comparison to control (40.44) and biological control plots (46.75). Therefore experimental data revealed overall superiority of biorational pesticide in comparison to conventional insecticides for reduction in pest damage and economic returns. Hence the option of biorational for the control of maize stem borer not only justify safety to environment but also offers effective control of borer population in maize ecosystem due to its distinct chemical class and unique mode of action.

Keywords : Biorational, Chilo partellus, Chlorantriniliprole, Maize borer, Trichogramma


Download PDF


Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays in snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina l.)

P. Sidhya* and M.K. Pandit

Department of Vegetable crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 (W.B.), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E-mail: palash.sum@gmail.com

Abstract : The present experiment was undertaken to determine the mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays on different biological parameters in snake gourd. The research was conducted in two generations namely M1 and M2 during spring-summer season (mid- February) of 2012 and 2013 at the Horticulture research station, Mondoury, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. The parent material, selfed seeds of BCSG-28 variety were irradiated with 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays. The seeds along with control were space planted for raising M1 generation. Each M1 plant was harvested separately and desirable M1 individual plant progeny rows were laid in RBD for raising M2 generation. The effectiveness and efficiency of the mutagen used was assessed from the data on biological damage in M1 generation. In M1 generation, results showed a dose dependent retardation in biological parameters like seed germination, plant survival and 200 Gy was depicted as LD50 indicating less damaging effect at lower doses on genetic material. In M2 generation, Lower doses 100 Gy (28.80 effectiveness, 21.58 efficiency) and 150 Gy (18.33 effectiveness, 8.68 efficiency) treatments were found as effective and efficient and a wide range of induced variability was observed in almost all traits. The mutants with short fruit, higher fruit diameter and reduced vine length were isolated in M2 generation.

Keywords : Gamma rays, Grey (Gy), Mutagenic effectiveness, Mutagenic efficiency, Snake gourd


Download PDF


Effect of integrated nutrient management on nitrogen dynamics in soil of rice-potato based cropping sequence

Biplab Pal*, Sajal Pati, Shrikant Badole, Venkateshwarlu Malothu and P. K. Patra

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (W.B.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: biplab.psb@gmail.com

Abstract : The integrated nutrient management (INM) has profound influence on sustaining crop productivity and fertility status of soil. The manurial field experiment was conducted at Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal for evaluating the performance of chemical fertilizer and organic manure on nitrogen availability in different forms in soil and also on the content of nitrogen in different parts of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Annada) and potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kufrijyoti) during different growth stages. Application of FYM and RDF150 in combination had good impact on nitrogen dynamics related to crop growth among other treatment combinations. FYM and RDF150 alone also imparted good impact on nutrient availability and yield of two experiment crops (rice and potato). Experiment revealed that incorporation of commercial concentrated organic manure with RDF150 exerted good impact besides FYM combination with inorganic fertilizers.

Keywords : Concentrated organic manure, INM, Nitrogen dynamics, Transformation


Download PDF


AMMI and GGE biplots for G×E analysis of wheat genotypes under rain fed conditions in central zone of India

Ajay Verma*, Ravish Chatrath and Indu Sharma

Statistics and Computer center, Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001(Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:verma.dwr@gmail.com

Abstract : The highly significant environments, genotypes and G×E interaction observed by AMMI analysis of 17 wheat genotypes evaluated at 8 locations in the central zone of the country. Environments(E), genotypes -environment interaction(GE) and genotypes explained 68.8%, 17.6% and 3.2% of the total sum of squares respectively. First four interaction principal components accounted 33.7%, 30.2%, 14.6% and 12.6% of the G×E interaction variation, respectively. The highest positive IPCA1 score of genotype G8 followed by G11 and G10 supported by yield higher than the grand mean 21.8q/ha. Environments E4 (Jabalpur) and E8 (Partapgarh) recorded maximum yield 32.6q/ha and 28.4q/ha while lowest yield was realized in E1 (Arnej). GGE biplot analysis under polygon view indicated that G13 was better in E6 (Sagar), whereas G1 was better in E7 (Bilaspur) and E8 (Partapgarh). The genotype G1, at the centre of concentric circles, was the ideal genotype in terms of yield performance as compared to the other genotypes. In addition, G15 and G12, located on the next consecutive concentric circle, may be regarded as desirable genotypes.

Keywords : AMMI model, AMMI stability value, GGE biplot, Stability index


Download PDF


Accumulation of lead in the muscle of brackish water fish (Boleopthalmus dussumieri)

Ranjana Surana*, Mohini Gadhia and Ekhalak Ansari

Department of Aquatic Biology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat-395007 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranjanajain27@yahoo.com

Abstract : Lead is highly toxic, impairing biological functions of aquatic animals. In vitro, static test was performed to find out the accumulation of lead in the muscle of brackish water fish (Boleopthalmus dussumieri). Fish were maintained in experimental aquaria with lead nitrate solution having known lead concentration of 1.48 and 14.8 mg/l, respectively. The experiments were performed in triplicate. Two fishes from each exposed aquarium were sampled on zero hour, 96 hours and 192 hours. Muscle was removed and processed prior to analysis of lead concentration by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The amount of lead accumulated in muscle of experimental fish increased steadily with the period of exposure. The lead accumulated in fish muscle was 29.60±6.62 µg/g at 96 hours of exposure and accumulated up to 72.48±14.18 µg/g in 192 hours of exposure period at the highest concentration. Significant relationship between accumulation and exposure period as well as exposed concentration (p < 0.05) at the significance level of 95 % was recorded. The present study indicated that the fishes living in mudflats of brackish water bodies receiving industrial as well as anthropogenic waste water containing an assortment of heavy metals can accumulate them in considerable concentrations.

Keywords : Boleopthalmus dussumieri, Exposure, Heavy metals, Uptake


Download PDF


Comparative study of antibacterial activity of two different earthworm species, Perionyx excavatus and Pheretima posthuma against pathogenic bacteria

Nitish Bansal, R. K. Gupta*, Dharambir Singh and Shashank

Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana)

*Corresponding Author: Email id: rkgupta211066@gmail.com

Abstract : Disease outbreaks are being increasingly recognized as a significant constraint on aquaculture production and trade affecting the economic development of the sector in many countries. Extracting and using biologically active compounds from earthworms has traditionally been practiced by indigenous people throughout the world. The aim of the present study was to shown antimicrobial activity through earthworm extract against fish bacterial pathogens. In total, 8 bacterial strains i.e. 6 gram negative viz. Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, E.coli, Enterobacter aerogens and Shigella sp. and 2 gram positive viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified. The extract of earthworm Perionyx excavatus, Pheretima posthuma were prepared and antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by antimicrobial well diffusion assay. After 24 hrs of incubation period, it was observed that earthworm extract showed antibacterial activity against isolated bacterial strains. Among earthworm extract of two different species, the maximum zone of inhibition was shown against A. hydrophila by Perionyx excavatus (18.33± 0.66 mm) and P. posthuma (16.66±0.33). P. excavatus showed antibacterial activity against all pathogenic bacteria except Shigella spp. However on the other hand, P. posthuma showed antibacterial activity against A. hydrophila, P. fluorescens, E.coli, and S. aureus . The study has proved that earthworm extract can be effectively used for suppression of bacterial infection in fishes and that it can used as potential antimicrobial drug against commercial antibiotic resistance bacteria.

Keywords : Bacteria, Common carp, Perionyx excavatus, Pheretima posthuma, Zone of inhibition


Download PDF


Impact of Alternaria solani (Early blight) on cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in North-eastern region of India and identification of early blight disease resistant tomato genotypes

Khaidem Malemnganba Meitei1, G.C. Bora1, Senjam Jinus Singh2, Anjan Kumar Sinha3*

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785013 (Assam), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

3Department of Botany, Bankura Sammilani College, Bankura-722133 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anjansinha06@gmail.com

Abstract : The present investigation was carried out to screen genotypes for resistance to Early blight disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) of North Eastern region of India. Field trial was conducted in the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during the years 2012-13 and 2013-14 consecutively. The disease severity of tomato genotypes was assessed by 0-5 points scale, percent Disease Incidence (PDI). Of the total materials screened, Sel-35 (TLBRH-6 X Konbilahi) and Sel-19 (TLBRH-6 X Konbilahi) were highly resistant, 7 were resistant, 14 were moderately resistant, 16 were susceptible and 6 were highly susceptible under field condition after inoculation during both years. The genotype having high yield and resistant to early blight was 10/TOLCVRES-3. The genotypes resistant to early blight but having low yield (Sel-35, Sel-19, Sel-9 and Sel-16) may be utilized in future breeding programme for improving yield through selection for higher fruit weight and fruit diameter. Alternatively, they may be used as parents in hybridization or backcrossing programme in order to transfer the gene for resistance to early blight to already adapted high yield varieties.

Keywords : Early blight, North-eastern region, Resistant, Solanum lycopersicum


Download PDF


Tree species diversity, distribution and population structure in a tropical dry deciduous forests of Chhatisgarh, India

Chaman Lal1*, Lalji Singh2, Varun Attri3 and S. Sarvade3

1Department of Social Sciences, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, (H. P.), INDIA

2Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture, I.G.K.V., Raipur (C.G.), INDIA

3Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: negi.chaman9@gmail.com

Abstract : Tree species diversity, distribution and population structure of tropical forests of Bharnawapara wildlife sanctuary was investigated. The study analyzed the structure of a tropical dry deciduous forest in Chhatisgarh at different sites i.e. closed natural forest, open natural forest and plantation forests of teak. The study was conducted by laying 30 quadrats, each 10 m × 10 m in size at different sites. In total, 246 trees belonging to 28 species of 17 families were recorded from 0.3 ha sampling area. Density ranged between 520 to 990 trees ha-1 subsequently, basal area ranged between 21.50 to 47.30 m2 ha-1. The dominant tree species was Cleistanthus collinus with an importance value index (IVI) of 57.70. Other important species were Terminalia tometosa (IVI 47.10), Lagerstroemia parviflora (36.92), Diospyros melanoxylon (28.42) and Madhuca indica(26.03). The Shannon-Wiener index (H′) ranged between 0.19 to 3.35 and Simpson’s index (C) between 0.12 to 0.95 indicating high tree species diversity of tropical dry deciduous forests. It is evident from the study that natural forest has an edge over plantation forest in terms of species diversity, dominance and richness. Tree species diversity, distribution and population structure provide baseline information for conservation and management of tropical dry deciduous forests in India. Efforts are needed to conserve the natural forest for their diversity and existence. They can also be supplemented with plantation forests to lower the biotic pressure.

Keywords : Basal area, Dry deciduous, Importance value index. Plant diversity, Population structure


Download PDF


Nutritional assessment of mutants of Calocybe indica produced by protoplast mutagenesis

Jatinder Kaur*, Harpreet S. Sodhi, Ravinder K. Jaswal and Shammi Kapoor

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jatinder_sandhu@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Mushrooms are rich source of protein, minerals and antioxidants. Nutritive value of mushrooms differs not only among genus but also among species. Nutritional content of mushrooms are being constantly reported. In present study, emphasis is laid on effect of mutational study on nutritional parameters of mushroom. A total of seven mutants of Calocybe indica obtained through physical and chemical mutagenic treatment were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Five mutants (CMU-5, CMN-9, CMN-11, CMN-2 and CMB-4) indicated higher protein content while ash content was also found more for all the mutants except CMN-9. Tocopherol content was also higher for all the mutants except CMN-3. β-carotene was more from 2 mutants, CMU-2 and CMN-9. Lycopene content was better in CMU-2, CMN-9, CME-2 and CMB-4 while ascorbic acid content for CMU-2 and CMN-3 was better than that of the parent. Fat content was found to be significantly low only in mutant CMN-9 (1.24g/100g). CMN-9, mutant obtained through NTG treatment, was found better than the parent, Ci-3, not only in protein content but also in amount of vitamin A, C and E. It is indicated from the study that mutagenesis which leads to genotypic variation has effect on biochemical aspects as well. Therefore, various genetic manipulations can be exploited for nutritional enhancement aspects which need to be emphasized keeping in view the need of food quality in today’s scenario.

Keywords : Antioxidants, Calocybe indica, fat, Mutagenesis, Protein


Download PDF


Calibration, validation and application of AquaCrop model in irrigation scheduling for rice under northwest India

S. S. Sandhu1*, S. S. Mahal2 and Prabhjyot Kaur3

1,3School of Climate Change and Agricultural Meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-143109 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-143109 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ssandhu@pau.edu

Abstract : A lot of research work regarding irrigation scheduling in rice has been carried out at global level with the objective of increasing irrigation water productivity (IWP) and sustaining grain yield. Under natural conditions rain disturb the planned irrigation treatments. One way to overcome this problem is to use rain shelters which is a costly affair, crop growth simulation models offer a good scope to conduct such studies by excluding the effect of rain. Very limited studies are available where FAO’s AquaCrop model has been used to develop irrigation schedule for crops. Therefore, a study was conducted using FAO AquaCrop model to develop irrigation schedule for rice having higher IWP. The model was calibrated and validated using the experimental data of field experiments conducting during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The model underestimated the above ground dry biomass at 30 days after transplanting (DAT) in the range of 21.60 to 24.85 %. At the time of harvest the model overestimated the above ground dry biomass within the range 11.58 to 14.34 %. At harvest the values of normalized root mean square error (15.54%) suggested a good fit for the above ground dry biomass and an excellent agreement (3.34%) between observed and model predicted grain yield. The model suggested to irrigate rice transplanted in puddled loamy sand soil on every 5th day to get higher IWP coupled with statistically similar grain yield as obtained with daily irrigation schedule.

Keywords : Above ground dry biomass, Grain yield, Puddled rice, Water productivity


Download PDF


A framework for refining soil microbial indices as bioindicators during decomposition of various organic residues in a sandy loam soil

Sandeep Sharma*, Jatinder Kaur, H. S. Thind, Yadvinder Singh, Neha Sharma and Kirandip

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sandyagro@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Assessment of soil quality is an invaluable tool in determining the sustainability and environmental impact of agricultural ecosystems. Soil microbial indices like microbial biomass and microbial activity are important criteria for the determination of soil quality. Laboratory incubation study was undertaken to examine the influence of eight crop residues widely varying in biochemical composition on the periodic changes in important soil microbial indices {(microbial (Cmic: Corg), metabolic (qCO2), carbon mineralization (qC) and microbial biomass change rate (qM) quotients)} at 28 days and 63 days after incubation (DAI) in a sandy loam soil. A. sativa amended soil showed maximum soil respiration rate (14.23 mg CO2-C g-1 soil day-1) whereas T. aestivum amended soil showed maximum microbial biomass C (790 µg/g). The metabolic quotient among different crop residues ranged from 11.1 to 19.8 μg CO2-C μg-biomass-C-1 h-1 at 63 DAI. The results indicate that incorporation of different crop residues has positive effect on microbial flora and their activity. Microbial quotient (Cmic:Corg) was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon (MBC), qC and qM. The study suggests that the biochemical composition of different crop residues seems to be of better option for long term sustainable crop production with maintenance of soil quality in a sandy loam soil.

Keywords : Crop residues, Microbial biomass, Microbial indices, Soil quality


Download PDF


Field dissipation of pendimethalin and alachlor in sandy clay loam soil and its terminal residues in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

P. Janaki*, C. Chinnusamy, N. Sakthivel and C. Nithya

All India Coordinated Research Project on Weed Control, Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Field experiments were conducted with sunflower as a test crop during 2010-11 to study the dissipation kinetics and the persistence of pendimethalin and alachlor in sandy clay loam soil and its terminal residues in sunflower. Herbicides were applied at recommended and double the recommended dose along with control and the treatments were replicated thrice in randomized block design. The soil and plant samples collected at periodical intervals for herbicides residue determination using GC equipped with ECD detector. Results shows that the degradation of both the herbicides in soil was faster at higher dose of application than at the lower dose and the concentration decreased with the advancement in crop growth. While pendimethalin persisted in soil for 60-90 days, the alachlor persisted in soil for 30 - 45 days depending on the quantity of application. Degradation of both the herbicides in soil followed first order kinetics with the mean half life of 14.6 and 9.8 days respectively for pendimethalin and alachlor. Residues of these herbicides were below 0.001 mg/kg at the time of harvest in soil, sunflower seeds and stalks showed that these herbicides a can be safely used for the control of weeds in sunflower cultivation.

Keywords : Alachlor, Dissipation, Pendimethalin, Persistence, Sunflower


Download PDF


Effect of rate of application on degradation of imazethapyr in groundnut and soil under tropical Indian condition

C. Babu1, P. Janaki2* and C. Chinnusamy3

All India Coordinated Research Project on Weed Control, Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: janakibalamurugan@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Pesticides though formulated to be biologically degradable, few herbicides reported to cause surface and groundwater contamination which needs the monitoring of herbicide residues in environment continuously. Thus, to monitor the persistence and residues in crops, imazethapyr degradation studies were conducted in soil with groundnut cropping under Indian tropical condition. A groundnut field was treated with different doses of imazethapyr as early post emergence. Results showed that the degradation of imazethapyr in soil and groundnut plant followed first order reaction kinetics irrespective of the dose. The residue of imazethapyr persists in soil up to 60 days at higher rates of application while it persists up to 30 days in plant with the calculated half life of 2.8 to 7.4 days in soil and 5.1 to 5.9 days in plant. At the time of harvest, the residue of imazethapyr in soil, groundnut haulm or pods were below the detectable limit of 0.008 mg/kg across different doses of application. However, the continuous and inappropriate use in light textured soils may cause groundwater contamination and bioaccumulation in plant system. Hence, a pre harvest interval of 75 days must be allowed after the application of imazethapyr for the weed control in groundnut.

Keywords : Groundnut, HPLC, Imazethapyr, Persistence, Soil


Download PDF


Studies on biochemical mechanism of resistance for the management of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple caused by Marssonina coronaria (Ellis & J. J. Davis) J. J. Davis

S. Phurailatpam* and J. N. Sharma

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Horticulture, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Sumitrapathology@gmail.com

Abstract : To study the mechanism of resistance developed in three different cultivars of apple viz; Starking Delicious, Tydeman’s Early Worcester and Granny Smith against Marssonina coronaria , after treatment with SAR inducing chemicals salicylic acid (SA), dipotassium phosphate (K2HPO4) and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) contents of total phenol, reducing sugar, non -reducing sugar and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) were assayed at three sampling periods (48,72 and 96 hours). The results revealed that SA treated leaves of cultivar Granny Smith recorded highest amount of phenol (49,53.66,57.33 mg/g), reducing sugar (16,16.33,17.66 mg/g), non-reducing sugar (2.90,3.13,3.53 mg/g) content, peroxidase (30,29.33,36) and polyphenol (26,30,34) activity in all the sampling intervals followed ASM and K2HPO4 treated plants. When compared among the cultivars maximum production was observed highest in cultivar Granny Smith which was followed by cultivars Tydeman’s Early Worcester and Starking Delicious. The present study showed that application of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) chemical can induce resistance in apple plants against Marssonina blotch caused by M. coronaria showing strong correlation between the ability of elicitors to enhanced plant disease resistance and elicitation of defence related enzymes. Thus, using SAR chemicals to induce resistance to apple against Marssonina blotch caused by M. coronaria, may provide a practical supplement to an environmentally friendly disease management when it is combined with appropriate integrated disease management practices.

Keywords : Non-reducing sugars, Peroxidase, Polyphenol oxidase, Reducing sugars, Total phenols


Download PDF


Evaluation of buprofezin 70 DF an insect growth regulator for eco-friendly management of jassid (Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla Ishida) in okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

T. B. Maji1*, T. N. Goswami2, A. K. Das1, P. Purkait1 and A. K. Mukhopadhyay1

1Department of Agrilcultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tarakmaji87@gmail.com

Abstract : Field experiments were carried out for two seasons in 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of a new formulation of buprofezin (buprofezin 70 DF) against jassid (Amarasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) in okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. The insecticide was applied at 200 and 150 g a.i./ha at the ETL level of the insect (2 Jassids/leaf) and the performance of the same was compared with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 20 g a.i./ha, acephate 75 SP @ 562.5g a.i./ha and an untreated control. Results revealed that both the dosages of buprofezin 70 DF were significantly superior over the untreated control at 5 % level of significance. Buprofezin 70 DF at 200 and 150 g a.i./ha performed better over the other treatments with 88.81 and 85.96 % reduction during first season and 89.60 and 84.73% reduction during second season, respectively. Buprofezin , an insect growth regulator which had less or no hazardous effects on human health and environment and thus it can be incorporated in Integrated Pest Management programme in okra cultivation.

Keywords : Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla, Buprofezin, Insect growth regulator, Jassid, Management, Okra


Download PDF


Effect of body cooling systems on micro-climatic variable in semi -loose house for animals during hot-dry and hot-humid conditions of coastal india

N. B. Patel1*, A. B. Fulsoundar 2 ,T. K. S. Rao3, R. R. Singh4 and J. M. Patel5

1,3,4,5College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujrat) INDIA

2College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujrat) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail: nbpatel1978@rediffmail.com

Abstract : To study the effect of cooling system on microclimate variable three treatments based on animal body cooling systems i.e., shelter without cooling system (control, T1),with fogging (T2) and with showering (T3) in semi-loose house were designed. Common environmental variables like maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity were recorded during hot-dry and hot-humid conditions. The maximum temperature (oC) was found significantly (P< 0.05) lower during hot-dry condition under fogging system (T2- 32.28 ± 0.23) than other treatments (T1- 33.89 ± 0.29 and T3-33.17 ± 0.26). Moreover, during hot-humid condition showering (T3-31.09 ± 0.16) was also significantly (P< 0.05) effective. Overall average maximum microclimatic temperature (oC) in T1, T2, and T3 was lower as compared to open macroclimatic. Relative humidity (%) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in hot-humid as compared to hot-dry condition in respective treatments, (T1-79.09 ± 1.09 Vs 65.53 ± 1.00, T2-85.10 ± 0.86 Vs. 76.84 ± 0.73, T3-80.58 ± 1.05Vs. 67.83 ± 0.95 and open 79.94 ± 1.12 Vs 55.64 ± 1.07). During afternoon (2:30 PM) the per cent THI was found significantly (P< 0.05) lower under fogging (T2-80.22 ± 0.20) and showering (T3- 80.38 ± 0.21) as compared to control (T1-82.43 ± 0.21) during hot-dry condition. Overall result of treatments showed that the afternoon percent THI was significantly (P< 0.05) lower under showering (T3-80.65 ± 0.17) than other treatments (T1-83.31 ± 0.17 and T2-81.94 ± 0.15) and it was significantly (P< 0.05) different within cooling treatments like T2 and T3. This study showed significant effect of cooling system. Moreover fogging was better as it utilized less water, as compared to showering during hot dry condition.

Keywords : Fogging, Micro climate, Showering, THI


Download PDF


Effect of planting dates and varieties on growth, fruit yield and quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Sagar Koner, Ranjit Chatterjee* and Suchand Datta1

Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA

1Regional Research Station, Terai Zone, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranchat22@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is highly sensitive to temperature variation and high temperature promotes flower drops and reduce fruit yield. An experiment was undertaken to identify suitable planting time of bell pepper and stable performed varieties for different plating dates during the winter season of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at U.B.K.V., Pundibari, West Bengal, India. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with 3 replications. Three planting dates (15th November, 30th November and 15th December) were allotted in sub plots while 4 varieties (Mekong, California Wonder, JK Peeyali and Asha) were placed in main plots. Bell pepper responded differently with the changes in planting dates irrespective of years. The 30th November planting date emerged best in terms of different and growth and yield attributes. Among the varieties, Mekong emerged as superior in terms of more number of fruits (10.24), fruit weight (65.50 g) and yield (670.76 g/plant and 18.11 t/ha) while maximum beta carotene and vitamin C were recorded in the variety California Wonder (0.071 μg/100g fresh fruits, 154.80 mg/100g fresh fruits, respectively). The interaction effect showed that variety Mekong transplanted on 15th December resulted in many fold improvement in the form of highest leaf area (8.79 cm2), maximum number of fruits/ plant, fruit weight (86.93 g) and fruit yield (854.69 g/plant and 23.08 t/ha). The result established that 30th November is ideal for bell pepper planting and the variety Mekong is the most stable performing variety with respect to the different planting dates.

Keywords : Bell pepper, Planting date, Quality, Variety, Yield


Download PDF


Genetic analysis of yield and heat stress related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) using microsatellite markers

Mamta Gupta, Veena Chawla, Pankaj Garg*, Neelam Yadav1, Renu Munjal and Bunty Sharma

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: czarpankaj@gmail.com

Abstract : Microsatellite markers were used for genetic analysis of terminal heat tolerance in F2 (PBW373 × WH1081) population of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell). Two parents were evaluated in field under normal sown and late sown conditions. For genotyping DNA from both parents PBW373 and WH1081 was amplified using 200 SSRs. Only 22 SSRs produced polymorphic bands, of size between 100 to 300 bp and an average of 1.45 alleles. The single marker analysis identified 19 markers indicating the putative QTLs for yield, its components and heat stress related physiological traits. The number of markers on these 16 linkage groups varied from one to four. On A genome 13 QTLs on B genome 5 QTLs and on D genome 9 QTLs were identified, respectively. The A, B and D genomes had 1360.3 cM, 272.4 cM and 919.5 cM of linkage coverage with average interval distances of 104.63 cM, 54.48 cM and 102.16 cM/Marker. A total of nine QTLs were resolved following composite interval mapping, one QTL was detected at a LOD score equal to threshold value of 2.5 while eight at LOD scores above the threshold value. All the nine QTLs were shown to be on definitive location on chromosome 3A (QDh.CCSHAU-3A, QDa.CCSHAU-3A and QPm.CCSHAU-3A), chromosome (QBm.CCSHAU-5A, QCtd.CCSHAU-5A and QCl.fl.CCSHAU-5A), chromosome6A (QPh.CCSHAU-6A) and chromosome3B (QTgw.CCSHAU and QMts.CCSHAU-3B). Use of these markers save times, resources and energy that are needed not only for raising large segregating populations for several generations, but also for estimating the parameters used for selection.

Keywords : Genotyping, QTL, MAS, Wheat


Download PDF


Effect of storage temperature and duration on sugar content and sensory acceptability of strawberry pulp

C. Bishnoi, R. K. Sharma, A. K. Godara, V. K. Sharma and S. S. Kundu

Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: chetak29@gmail.com

Abstract : Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different treatments on preservation of strawberry pulp at ambient and low storage temperature condition. The samples were pasteurized at 100°C for 15 minutes (T1), sodium benzoate 250 ppm (T2) and sodium benzoate 500 ppm (T3). The respective samples were stored for two months at room (25±5°C) and low (7±2°C) temperature conditions and reducing sugars; total sugar and sensory evaluation were recorded at three days of interval period. The results showed that the total sugar (%) increased in pulp sample maximum in T6 (5.9%) and minimum in T1 (4.8%), the maximum value regarding reducing sugars was recorded in T6 (4.9%) and minimum in T1 (1.4%) after 60th days of storage. However, reducing sugars and total sugar decreased in the stored pulp at room temperature and spoiled completely on 18th day of storage. The acceptability of organoleptic score decrease with the duration of storage in both ambient and low temperature. Among different treatments, sodium benzoate @ 500 ppm was found most effective and maintained the qualitative characteristics of preserved pulp at low (7±2°C) temperature condition. In future, these experimental results may prove very useful for storage of strawberry pulp for longer duration in better quality.

Keywords : Organoleptic Rating, Pulp, Sodium Benzoate, Storage, Strawberry, Sugar


Download PDF


District-wise trend analysis of rainfall pattern in last century (1901-2000) over Gangetic region in West Bengal, India

S. Pal1*, D. Mazumdar2 and P. K. Chakraborty3

1Division of Computer Applications, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2Department of Agricultural Statistics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

3Department of Agricultural Meteorology and Physics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: soumen.4345@gmail.com

Abstract : The aim of the present study was to estimate long-term trend in the amount of rainfall for Gangetic West Bengal (GWB) meteorological sub-division of India and each of the 13 districts under GWB separately. Monthly rainfall time series data of 100 years (1901-2000) were analyzed to measure monotonous trend of rainfall employing Sen’s slope estimator. Statistical significance of the trend was determined using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. An important result derived from the analysis was that the GWB sub-division and South 24 Parganas (S24P) district showed significant increasing trend (mm/year) of annual rainfall measuring 2.025 and 4.99 respectively. An inclining trend of monsoon precipitation, which was significant, found in four districts viz. Bankura, North 24 Parganas (N24P), S24P and West Midnapore along with GWB itself. A major finding of the study revealed that six districts and GWB had significant increasing trend in September rainfall with a maximum value of 1.324 mm/year in S24P district. Contribution of rainfall in October and post-monsoon season as well increased considerably in Kolkata and S24P districts while in December, similar trend was observed for Birbhum and Howrah districts. Murshidabad, S24P and East Midnapore districts experienced significant rising trend of precipitation in July, August and November respectively. On the contrary, Burdwan and Nadia districts, in the month of May and pre-monsoon season, had considerable declining trend of rainfall. Significant decreasing trend (mm/year) of precipitation, a concern for Nadia district, with magnitude of 0.127 and 0.293, was observed in the months of March and April respectively.

Keywords : Gangetic West Bengal, Mann-Kendall test, Rainfall time series, Sen’s slope estimator, Trend estimation


Download PDF


Growth and yield of Vigna radiata L.) under Terminalia arjuna and Mitragyna parvifolia based agrisilvicultural system

S. Kumar*, L. K. Behera, N. S. Patil and D. B. Jadeja

College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari- 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shrawan.forestry@gmail.com

Abstract : The present investigation was carried out in an agrisilvicultural system with treatments involving silvicultural component of 20 years old Terminalia arjuna Bedd. (Arjun) and Mitragyna parvifolia Korth (Kalam) intercropped with agricultural component of four varieties of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) viz. Pusa Vishal, GM-3, GM-4 and K-851. All the varieties of green gram were compared for growth and yield parameters like plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of branches per plant, total grain yield per plant as well as per plot at harvestable stage under Arjuna and Kalam trees. All the varieties of green gram performed superior in terms of number of leaves, numbers of branches, grain yield (per plant and per plot basis) under open condition as compared to crops under Arjuna and Kalam. However, only the plant height was found to be highest under Arjun, followed by Kalam trees. Among all the varieties tested, K-851 variety showed superiority for number of leaves (12.31) and number of branches per plant (3.96) and grain yield (2.66 gm per plant and 0.80 kg per plot) as compared to other varieties (at P=0.05). Therefore, this variety is suggested to grow in south Gujarat condition. Further, comparatively lower yield of crop under tree cover could be due to shade effect, which can be managed by regular pruning of tree branches.

Keywords : Agrisilvicultural system, Arjun, Green gram, Growth, Kalam, Yield


Download PDF


Evaluation of thiamethoxam 70% WS as seed treatment against early sucking pests of tomato

S. K. Maurya1, R. P. Maurya2* and D. Singh3

1,3Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rpmaurya_ento@rediffmail.com

Abstract : The present investigation was carried out at Vegetable Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand during the 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effectiveness of thiamethoxam, used as seed treatment against the sucking insects of tomato. The seed treatment with thiamethoxam protected tomato seedlings from aphids and thrips at the early season from the onset of seed planting. There was a fast initial effect against the pests then gradually decreased to reach a moderate effect. Data revealed that Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 4.2 g a.i./kg of seed showed the significant pest reduction followed by Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 3.85 g a.i./kg of seed. Highest yield was recorded by Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 4.2 g a.i./kg of seed (28.25 t/ha) closely followed by Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 3.85 g a.i./kg of seed (25.00 t/ha) as compared to untreated check (20.91t/ha). Percent increase in yield over control was highest (35.10%) in Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 4.2 g a.i./kg of seed followed by Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 3.85 g a.i./kg of seed (19.56%). The percent reductions of predators by Thiamethoxam, used as seed treatment, in both the seasons ranged from 1.65- 2.58% which was very minimum. Hence, it was concluded that the seed treatment of tomato with Thiamethoxam 70% WS @ 4.20 g a.i/kg of seed reduced the early season insect-pests (aphid and thrips) and had very less effect of natural enemies population as compared to control and also increased the fruit yield significantly than other treatments.

Keywords : Seed treatment, Sucking insects, Thiamethoxam, Tomato


Download PDF


Biometric properties of onion seedlings relevant to the development of onion seedling transplanter

Ashutosh Pandirwar1*, Adarsh Kumar1, Indra Mani1 and Sabina Islam2

1Division of Agricultural Engineering, IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2Division of Vegetable Science, IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ashu4725@gmail.com

Abstract : A study was conducted to investigate biometric properties of seedlings of three common varieties of onion viz. Pusa Red, Set-126 and Pusa Ridhi (50, 60, 70 days old). The parameters determined were weight of seedling without and with de-topping, bulb diameter, stem diameter, height, moisture content, compressive strength and coefficient of static friction. The weight of seedlings without de-topping ranged from 0.53 to 3.05 g while with de-topping ranged from 0.47 to 1.68 g for all the three cultivars. The bulb and stem diameter for all varieties ranged from 3.13 to 5.76 g for bulb and 2.44 to 4.33 g for stem whereas height varied from 14.48 cm to 34.65 cm, among all Pusa red was taller than Set-126 and Pusa Ridhi. The moisture content at different age and for all cultivars ranged from 84.89 to 91.63 % (wb). The average coefficient of static friction for mild steel (MS), aluminum and galvanized iron (GI) varied from 0.63 to 0.79. The compressive strength of bulb and stem of seedlings were 9.76 to 19.54 N for bulb and 4.08 to 8.17 N for stem respectively for 50 to 70 days seedlings. This information was not available but is critical in designing and selection of different components of onion seedling transplanter.

Keywords : Coefficient of static friction, Compressive strength, Diameter, Height, Onion, Weight


Download PDF


Hybrid vigour for yield and quality traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

Chandanshive Aniket Vilas*, M. K. Rana, Naval Kishor Kamboj and Neha Yadav

Department of Vegetable Science, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aniketchandan@gmail.com

Abstract : An experiment on heterosis for yield and other component characters of 50 F1 hybrids of tomato derived from the crosses between 10 lines and 5 testers through line x tester technique was conducted at Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The analysis of variance indicated significantly higher amount of differences among treatments for all the characters studied, suggesting the presence of genetic variation among the studied genotypes. In this study, among crosses, the cross Punjab Varkha Bahar-2 x Hisar Lalit (0.400), EC 620383 x Palam Pink (0.383) and BBWR-10-3-18 x Hisar Lalit (0.382) showed higher early fruit yield per plant (kg) as compared to standard checks. The cross EC 620380 x Punjab Chhuhara (0.133 kg) produced the minimum early yield and the cross EC 620391 x Punjab Chhuhara (0.886 kg) the maximum total yield per plant, manifesting higher heterosis for yield per plant. The cross EC 620533 x Arka Meghali exhibited positive desirable heterosis over best parent for ascorbic acid content (30.58%) and the cross EC 620391 x Arka Vikas (54.25%) for total soluble solids. The cross EC 620380 x Arka Vikas showed the highest negative heterosis over best parent for acidity (-17.12%) and the cross Punjab Varkha Bahar-2 x Hisar Lalit (33.78%) exhibited the significantly highest positive heterosis over best parent for acidity.

Keywords : Heterosis, Lycopersicon esculentum L., quality traits, yield


Download PDF


A study on pathological aspects of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causing black rot of cabbage under red lateritic zone of West Bengal

Atit Maji1 and Ranjan Nath2*

1Ramkrishna Ashram Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nimpith, South-24 Parganas, West Bengal, INDIA

2Dept. of plant protection, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Sriniketan, Visva Bharati, Birbhum, West Bengal, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: majirajeev@gmail.com

Abstract : Cabbage, is one of the most important crops of the cole group of vegetables. In India it ranks next to cauliflower in acreage and first in production among cole crops occupying an area of 3,72,000 ha with annual production of 8534,000 tons. It covers about 4.3% area under vegetable crops in India. In West Bengal cabbage covers 78200.00 ha of area and the total production is 2197400.00 MT. Black rot is a major disease of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.campestris (Xcc) . The disease has been observed in all cabbage growing areas of Bolpur, Birbhum, West Bengal. The present study was carried out on the pathology of black rot disease of cabbage. Morphological, cultural, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of the pathogen were studied. The bacterium produced small, yellow, circular, entire, smooth and shining colonies in the culture medium. The optimum temperature for the growth was found 300C and white light supported maximum growth of the bacterium. Nutritional studies revealed that sucrose gave maximum growth followed by maltase, lactose, dextrose and fructose as the carbon source in the nutrient broth. Black rot of cabbage pathogen also infected other crops of crucifereae family such as Cauliflower, Knol khol, Mustard, Radish and Rape seed. These findings regarding the pathogen may help to formulate the more appropriate way and judicious application of different management options against the disease in this zone.

Keywords : Black rot, Cabbage, Pathology, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris


Download PDF


Diversity, abundance and pollination efficiency of insect pollinators of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) and effect of abiotic factors on insect pollinator activity

Vikas bharti1*, Dilbag Singh Ahlawat2, Surender Kumar Sharma1, Naveen Vikram Singh1, Jitender1 and Nachhatar Singh1

1Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, (Haryana), INDIA

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Karnal-132001, Haryana, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lav.bharti@gmail.com

Abstract : Biodiversity of insect pollinators on fennel cv. HF-143 (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), was studied in Hisar, Haryana, India. Twenty-five insect species belonging to fifteen families of five orders were recorded from fennel flowers, in which, seven belong to order Lepidoptera, nine to Hymenoptera, five to Diptera, three to Coleoptera and one to Odonata. Among the insect pollinators, Apis florea F., A. cerana indica F., A. mellifera L. and A. dorsata F. were the most frequent visitors. Among different bee species, the maximum mean population observed in case of A. florea (9.23 bees/m2/5 min) followed by A. mellifera (3.62 bees/m2/5 min) and A. dorsata (3.21 bees/m2/5 min), whereas, the least abundance was observed in case of A. cerana indica, i.e., 1.82 bees/m2/5 min. The pollination index of A. dorsata was highest (19715210) followed by A. florea (13888381), A. mellifera (13845052) and A. cerana (5586381). Hence, it was observed that A. dorsata was the most efficient pollinator followed by A. florea, A. mellifera and A. cerana on fennel cv. HF-143 flowers under agro ecological conditions of Hisar (Haryana). Hence, insect pollinators were essential to get good returns in this seed crop. The activity of different bee species on fennel varied with different abiotic factors and had significantly positive correlation with bright sun shine hours (BSS) and temperature (TEMP) in different hours of the day during foraging but had negative correlation with relative humidity (RH). It was observed that the effect of wind velocity on foraging of different bee species was not significant. Thus, the impact of abiotic environmental factors may decide the foraging activity of different insect pollinators.

Keywords : Abundance, Abiotic factors, Foraging speed, Foraging rate, Fennel cv. HF-143, Pollination index


Download PDF


Co-efficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and variability for ricebean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) genotypes under mid hill conditions of Uttarakhand

Geeta Pandey*, Rajendra Prasad, Birendra Prasad and Priyamvada Chauhan

Department of Seed Science & Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: geetapandey.pandey@gmail.com

Abstract : The present investigation was carried out to estimate the genetic parameters for ten traits in ricebean genotypes. Fourteen genotypes of ricebean (Vigna umbellata(Thunb.) were collected from different regions of country were evaluated for yield and its components. The study revealed that the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all traits. The value of PCV and GCV was higher for seed yield/plant, 100 seed weight and number of pods/plant. Heritability values were high for all the traits except leaflet size and pod length. High genetic advance was observed for days to 50% flowering, number of pods and seeds /plant, days to maturity, suggest that scope for improvement of these characters through selection. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was registered for 50% flowering, number of pods and seeds /plant indicate that the genetic variance for these traits are probably owing to their high additive gene effect and thus there is better scope for improvement of these traits through direct selection. Therefore selection based on these characters will bring the desired improvement in seed yield of ricebean. With respect to mean performance of genotype, PRR-2, PRR-1 and PRR-2011- 1 was found superior among all the genotypes.

Keywords : Genetic Advance, GCV, Heritability, PCV


Download PDF


Efficiency of aluminum and iron electrodes in removal of colour, turbidity and total suspended solid from biologically treated municipal wastewater

Arun Kumar Sharma* and A.K. Chopra

Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar - 249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: asharma.env@gmail.com

Abstract :The present investigation was undertaken to observe the effect of different combinations of aluminium and iron (Al-Al, Al-Fe, Fe-Fe and Fe-Al) electrodes on the removal of colour, turbidity (TD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of biologically treated municipal wastewater ( BTMW) using applied potential (V), operating time (OT) and initial pH. The maximum removal of colour (98.7 %) and TSS (96.89 %) was found with the use of Al-Al combination with optimum operating conditions (Voltage: 40 V; OT: 40 mins.; IED: 1.0 cm; EA: 160 cm2; initial pH: 7.5 and ST: 30 mins). It was interesting to note that TD of BTMW was completely removed at these optimal operating conditions. The economic evaluation of electrode combinations was observed to be in the order of Fe-Al (1.17 US $/m3)> Al-Fe (1.11 US $/m3)> Fe-Fe (1.08 US $/m3) >Al-Al (1.01 US $/m3) in terms of energy and electrode consumption. Thus, the BTMW can be effectively treated with the Al-Al electrode combination in comparison to other electrode combinations (Al-Fe , Fe-Fe and Fe-Al).

Keywords : Aluminium and iron electrodes, Economic evaluation Turbidity, Total suspended solids, Voltage


Download PDF


Genetic analysis of agronomic and biochemical variables among different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) accessions

Om Prakash Meena1,2*,Vijay Bahadur1,Ashok Jagtap3 and Pawan Saini4

1Department of Horticulture, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (U.P.), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

3School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

4Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: chandrawatop2@gmail.com

Abstract : In the present study, thirty accessions of tomato were evaluated for estimation of correlation and path analysis among various quantitative and qualitative characters related to fruit yield. There were highly significant differences among the accessions for all the characters studied as per the analysis of variance. Genotypic correlation coefficients were generally similar in nature and higher in magnitude than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients. The results revealed that the fruit yield plant-1 was significantly and positively correlated with number of fruits plant-1 (0.3119 and 0.3184) followed by fruit set percentage (0.2434 and 0.2499), fruit weight (0.6766 and 0.6731), polar diameter of fruit (0.4687 and 0.4635) at genotypic and phenotypic level, respectively, indicating that effective improvement in fruit yield plant-1 through these characters could be achieved. Fruit weight showed positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with fruit yield plant-1 by having greatest positive direct effect (1.1298 and 1.1116) on fruit yield plant-1 at both levels, indicating the true relationship between them and the feasibility to exploit the potentiality of this trait for effective direct selection to improve fruit yield plant-1.

Keywords : Agronomical, Biochemical variables, Genetic association, Path analysis, Solanum lycopersicum


Download PDF


Effect of different levels of customized fertilizer on soil nutrient availability, yield and economics of onion

B. M. Kamble* and D. K. Kathmale

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural Research Station, Kasabe Digraj, Sangli- 416305 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: bmkamble2007@rediffmail.com

Abstract : A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of customized fertilizer (CF) on soil nutrient availability, yield and economics of onion. The results revealed that the significantly highest plant height (57.77cm), stem diameter (6.03cm) and bulb diameter (15.13cm) at the time of harvest, fertilizer use efficiency,bulb yield (22.34 t ha-1) and benefit:cost ratio (2.56) of onion were recorded in 100 % recommended dose of NPK through CF in three equal split doses. The significantly highest available nitrogen (213 kg ha-1), phosphorus (14.42 kg ha-1) were recorded in 125 % recommended dose of NPK through CF in two equal split doses and available K (804 kg ha-1) in 100 % recommended dose of NPK through CF in three equal split doses over the rest of the other treatments. The application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (100:50:50 N:P2O5:K20 kg ha-1) either two or three splits through CF to onion appears to be improving soil fertility, yield and yield contributing character of onion and getting higher net monetary returns.

Keywords : Economics of onion, Effect of customized fertilizer levels, Nutrient availability of soil


Download PDF


Documentation of ethno-medicinal practices: A case study on tribal forest fringe dwellers of Terai West Bengal in India

A. N. Dey, S. Datta1* and Bani Sharma

Department of Forestry, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA

1Regional Research Station, Terai Zone, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: suchanddatta@gmail.com

Abstract : The ethno-medicinal practices were documented which were being used by tribal population dwelling forest fringe areas of Terai zone of West Bengal, India on under exploited, non conventional, traditional and indigenous plant species for the sustainable utilization of these resources to cure day to day ailments. A total number of forty seven medicinal plant species belonging to 25 families were documented during the survey period 2012-13, which was used in curing many diseases. Among the families, Euphorbiaceae, Zingeberaceae and Leguminosae were the dominant families that represented four species each. Herb was the highest proportion of plant species 18 (38%) followed by 15 tree species (32%), 8 species of shrubs (17%) and rest were climbers and fern. It was observed that the tribal forest fringe communities of the Terai zone of the West Bengal have a good ethno-medicinal knowledge of using plant resources and developed their own traditional practices to cure day to day diseases.

Keywords :Ailments, Medicinal plant, Sub-himalayan tract, Traditional medicines


Download PDF


Efficacy of different oils used for the extraction of annatto colour from the seeds of Bixa orellana L.

A. A. Mehta*, L. K. Behera, M. B. Tandel, D. B. Jadeja and B. G. Vashi

College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari- 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aamehta@nau.in

Abstract : Annatto, a naturally obtained colour is a potential and valuable Non Wood Forest Product (NWFP). It is obtained from the seeds of plant species Bixa orellana L. The present experiment was carried out to find the efficacy of different oils used for annatto colour extraction. Experiment was started with the pretreatment of seeds of B. orellana with soaking in water at 0%, 50%, 100% and 150% (v/w) for 24 hrs at room temperature and colour extraction with castor oil at 100°C showed that maximum bixin (%) was found from the pretreated seeds with 50% (v/w) water soaking i.e., 0.46% bixin. Similarly for oil soluble annatto extraction method, the maximum extraction of bixin (0.99 %) was found with castor oil at 120°C for 1 hr and least bixin (0.03 %) was recorded with mustard oil at 60oC temperature for 1 hr. Sesame oil and groundnut oil were also showed better extractability. Out of different treatments, castor oil at 120°C for 1 hr gave better result with respect to bixin extraction as compared to others.

Keywords : Annatto, Bixa orellana, Bixin, Oil extraction, Temperature


Download PDF


Phytotoxicity of herbicides on Cynodon dactylon

Siddappa1*, B. L. Geeta,2 Raj Likhitha3 , K. V. Jayaprasad4 and Revannappa R. Bandri5

1,2,3Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture University of Horticulture Sciences, Campus, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

4Department of Horticulture University of Agriculture Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

5Department of Plantation Spices Medicinal and Aromatic crops, College of Horticulture,Bangalore-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: siddu.biradar11@gmail.com

Abstract : Field experiment was conducted to manage the sedge and broad leaf weeds in lawn during November to December 2013 to February to March 2014. Experimental plot was red sandy loam soil with pH 6.50.The experimental plot consisted of bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon which was established through turfing. The experimental plot was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) having 17 treatments with three replications. Herbicide treatments include 2, 4-D sodium salt 80 WP at (2, 3 and 4g/lit of water), 2, 4-D dimethyl amine salt 58% EC at (5, 7.5 and 10 ml/lit of water), carfentrozone ethyl 40 DF at (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/lit of water), fluroxypyr meptyl 48% EC at (1.5, 3 and 6 ml/lit of water) and chlorimuron methyl + metasulfuron methyl at (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/lit of water). Hand weeding was done at every 20 days interval at 20 days after application of herbicides and also maintained one unweeded control in during November to December and February to March. The phytotoxic symptoms were observed only fluroxypyr meptyl 48% EC applied at 6 ml/lit of water at 3, 7, 10, 15 and 25 days after application of herbicides (DAAH) but it recovered at later stages. However, the other herbicides did not cause any phytotoxic effect on C. dactylon.

Keywords : Cynodon dactylon, Herbicides, Phytotoxicity, Turfing, Weeds


Download PDF


Characterization of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] germplasm for morphological parameters under field conditions

A. P. Goswami1*, B. Prasad2 and V. C. Joshi3

1Department of Seed Science & Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

3Department of Seed Science & Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: ajaypuristudent@gmail.com

Abstract : The trial was conducted at the research block of Crop Improvement, GBPUAT, Hill Campus, Ranichauri using randomized block design (RBD) to characterize finger millet germplasm for morphological characters viz., plant height, flag leaf length, number of tiller plant-1, number of finger ear-1, ear length, no. of grain finger-1, no. of grain ear-1 and grain yield plant-1. Among all germplasms, number of finger ear-1, number of grain finger-1 and grain yield plant-1(g) had recorded highest in VL 149 which were 9.96, 150.66, 2.63 g respectively. The germplasm GEC 1406 attained lowest plant height (75.89 cm), GEC 961 had recorded higher flag leaf length (40.96 cm), GEC 268 had recorded maximum number of tiller plant-1 (3.30), GEC 199 had recorded higher ear length (9.20 cm), GEC 1044 had recorded maximum number of grain ear-1 (663) among all germplasm of finger millet. This study is helpful to identify superior germplasm so they can be used for further finger millet crop improvement programs.

Keywords : Characterization, Eleusine coracana, Finger millet, Germplasm


Download PDF


Different approaches on pre harvest forecasting of wheat yield

Y. A. Garde1*, B. S. Dhekale2 and S. Singh3

1Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Agriculture, N.A.U. Waghai (Dangs) - 394730 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Department of Agricultural Statistics, Faculty of Agriculture, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia - 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

3Department of Farm Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221005, (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: y.garde@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : Agriculture is backbone of Indian economy, contributing about 40 per cent towards the Gross National Product and provide livelihood to about 70 per cent of the population. According to the national income published in Economic survey 2014-15, by the CSO, the share of agriculture in total GDP is 18 percent in 2013-14. The Rabi crops data released by the Directorate of Economics and Statistics recently indicates that the total area coverage has declined; area under wheat has gone down by 2.9 per cent. Therefore needs to be do research to study weather situation and effect on crop production. Pre harvest forecasting is true essence, is a branch of anticipatory sciences used for identifying and foretelling alternative feasible future. Crop yield forecast provided useful information to farmers, marketers, government agencies and other agencies. In this paper Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) Technique and discriminant function analysis were derived for estimating wheat productivity for the district of Varanasi in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The value of Adj. R2 varied from 0.63 to 0.94 in different models. It is observed that high value of Adj. R2 in the Model-2 which indicated that it is appropriate forecast model than other models, also the value of RMSE varied from minimum 1.17 to maximum 2.47. The study revealed that MLR techniques with incorporating technical and statistical indicators (Model 2) was found to be better for forecasting of wheat crop yield on the basis of both Adjusted R2 and RMSE values.

Keywords : Discriminant function analysis, MLR techniques, Weather indices, Weather score, Wheat yield


Download PDF


Vegetative propagation of Karanja (Pongamia pinnata L. Pierre ) through stem cuttings

S. Rout1* and S. Nayak2

1School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences (Deemed-to-be-University), Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA.

2Department of Forest Products and Utilization, College of Forestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003 (Odisha), INDIA.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: srout.forestry@gmail.com

Abstract : The present study on vegetative propagation of Karanja ( Pongamia pinnata L.Pierre ) through stem cuttings showed maximum sprouting (100%), rooting (90%), rooting length (28.33 cm), root number (24.66), fresh biomass (63.66 g), dry biomass (34.38 g) in semi hardwood cutting of 25 cm length treated with 1000 ppm IAA, hardwood cutting of 25 cm length treated with 800 ppm IBA, hardwood cuttings of 15 cm length treated with 1000 ppm IAA, hardwood cutting of 25 cm length treated with 2000 ppm IAA, semi hardwood cuttings of 25 cm length treated with 200 ppm IBA, and hardwood cutting of 25 cm length treated with 1000 ppm IAA, respectively. It showed that hardwood cuttings of 25 cm length treated with IBA promotes better sprouting, rooting percentage, root number and biomass than IAA. For production of healthy seedlings the semi hardwood cutting of 25 cm length should be treated with 200 ppm IBA.

Keywords : Cuttings, IAA, IBA, Pongamia pinnata


Download PDF


Relationship of photosynthesis and related traits to seed yield in oilseed Brassicas

Pushp Sharma

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

E-mail: pushp20@yahoo.com

Abstract : The physiological basis of yield in oilseeds Brassicas needs to be investigated, and the contribution of these traits to its yield is difficult to decipher. Eight cultivars of Brassica belonging to 3 species viz. B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata - based on significant differences in yield were tested over two years. Net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were investigated on 3rd and 4th fully expanded leaf on the main stem and related to yield. Average photosynthetic efficiency (umolm-2s-1) was higher in RLC1 (36.1), GSC6(36.3) and PC5 (33.8) cultivars. Impact of environment was inconspicuous. However interactions (GxY) were significant for the studied photosynthetic traits except Pn. Lower transpiration rates were associated with higher water use efficiency in RLC1 (5.69), GSL1 (5.44) and GSC6 (5.40). Positive correlation between SY and Pn (0.385) was recorded for the first time in Brassicas although the magnitude of association was low. Quality mustard cultivar (RLC1, B. juncea) and amongst B. napus GSC6 (canola) and Hyola PAC401 (hybrid, canola) were higher yielders due to relative high Pn, more efficient utilization of water and chlorophyll content. Indeterminate growth habits of the cultivars indicated highest contribution to Pn by leaves during flowering as compared with early siliquae formation. Environment had a profound impact on the yielding ability and the photosynthetic traits.

Keywords : Brassicas, Chlorophyll, Photosynthesis, Yield


Download PDF


Evaluation of stem rot disease in jute (Corchorus olitorius) germplasm caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

P. N. Meena1*, R. K. De1, A. Roy3, B. S. Gotyal1, S. Satpathy1 and S. Mitra2

1Crop Protection Division, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied fibres (CRIJAF), Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA.

2AINP on Jute and Allied Fibre, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied fibres (CRIJAF),Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA.

3AINP on Jute and Allied Fibre, Uttara Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (UBKV), Pundibari, Coochbehar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Pnshera@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : This study was aimed to identify more sources of resistance in jute germplasm (Corchorus olitorius) against deadly disease of stem rot. Thirteen C. olitorius jute germplasm including one standard check (JRO-524) were evaluated against stem rot disease at Barrackpore, Coochbehar and Bahraich location for two consecutive years 2012-2013. Out of thirteen germplasms of jute, six germplasms OIN-853, OIN-651, OIN-154, OIN-125, OEX-27 and OIN-467, with disease rating scale (1.1-5) were found moderately resistant against the stem rot disease at Barrackpore and Bahraich location. Whereas, OIN-270, OIN-932, OIN-270, OIJ-52, OIN-270, OEX-15 and OIN-853 with disease rating scale (5.1-10.0) were found moderately susceptible at all the three location. Rest of the lines were either susceptible or highly susceptible. These germplasm lines OIN-853, OIN-651, OIN-154, OIN-125, OEX-27 and OIN-467, possessed good degree of resistance against stem rot of jute and were found moderately resistant under natural epiphytotic condition at Barrackpore and Bahraich location that would be further exploited for resistance breeding programme against this deadly disease.

Keywords : Corchorus olitorius, Evaluation, Germplasm, Macrophomina phaseolina


Download PDF


Management of early blight of potato using biocontrol agents and plant extracts

Sahar Murmu1, S. Dey1 and A. Chakraborty2

1Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2AICRP on Potato, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia- 741235, (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: saharmurmu@gmail.com

Abstract : The early blight of potato is mainly controlled by using chemical fungicides but chemical fungicides have got some adverse effect on environment as well as human beings. Keeping this in mind an experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of four plant extracts (tea, garlic, onion and neem leaf extract) and four bio-control agents (Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Streptomyces graseoviridis and Bacillus substilis) in controlling early blight of potato under field and in in vitro condition. These antifungal compounds were applied 3 times at 7 days interval after first appearance of the disease in the field. Among the biocontrol agents T. viride was found highly effective in per cent disease reduction (52.39%) of disease over control treatment. The tuber yield (25.51 t/ ha.) was also highest in this treatment compared to control treatment (19.53 t/ha). This was followed by treatment T2 i.e. P. fluorescens where per cent incidence and intensity of disease were (65.00%) and (19.10%) respectively with 38.97% reduction of disease over control with tuber yield 23.65 t/ha. It was followed by S. graseoviridis where per cent incidence and intensity of disease were (68.00%) and (22.90%) respectively with 26.30% reduction of disease over control with tuber yield 21.07 t/ha. Among plant extracts, only neem leaf extract exhibited per cent reduction of disease (33.18%) over control treatment in field condition and inhibition of radial growth (59.85%) and spore germination (81.95%) in in vitro condition. Therefore both T. viride and neem can be used for managing the early blight of potato.

Keywords : Biocontrol agents, Early blight, management, Potato


Download PDF


Combining ability analysis for various yield and quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Showkat A. Waza*, H. K. Jaiswal, T. Sravan, Kumari Priyanka, Dilruba A. Bano and Ved P. Rai

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sahmad777@gmail.com

Abstract : An investigation was undertaken to assess the combining ability for yield and quality traits in rice. Three WA cytoplasmic male sterile lines of rice i.e., IR-58025A, IR-68897A and Pusa 6A were crossed with six restorer genotypes i.e., Sanwal Basmati, Pusa Sugandh-2, Pusa Sugandh-3, Pusa Sugandh-5, Pusa 2517-2-51-1 and HUR-JM-59221 in line x tester design to generate 18 hybrids. Among the female parents, IR-58025A revealed significant desirable value of GCA effect for yield per plant and most of the quality traits. Among the pollen parents, Pusa Sugandh-3 revealed significant desirable value of GCA effect for most of the yield traits. However, Pusa Sugandh-5 revealed significant desirable value of GCA effect for most of the quality traits. Pusa 6A x Pusa Sugandh-2 evinced the highest significant value of SCA effect for grain yield followed by IR-58025A x Pusa Sugandh-5. However, IR-68897A x Pusa 2517-2-51-1 followed by IR-58025A x Sanwal Basmati revealed the significant desirable value of SCA effect for most of the quality traits. For both yield and quality traits, IR-58025A x Pusa Sugandh-5, IR-68897A x HUR-JM-59221 and Pusa 6A x Pusa Sugandh-2 were found to be relatively better performing. Thus, present study aims to develop hybrids performing better for both yield and quality traits.

Keywords : GCA, Quality, Rice, SCA, Yield


Download PDF


Vegetation indices mapping for Bhiwani district of Haryana (India) through LANDSAT-7ETM+ and remote sensing techniques

A.Bala1,3, K.S.Rawat2, A. Misra3, A. Srivastava3

1Department of Civil Engineering, World College of Technology & Management, Gurgaon, INDIA

2Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama University, Chennai-(T.N.), INDIA

3Department of Civil Engineering, The Northcap University (Formerly ITM University), Gurgaon, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ksr.kishan@gmail.com

Abstract : This study describes the VIs Vegetation Condition Index in term of vegetation health of wheat crop; with help of LANDSAT-7ETM+ data based NDVI and LAI for Bhiwani District of Haryana states (India) and gave the spatial development pattern of wheat crop in year 2005 over the study area of India. NDVI is found to vary from 0.3 to 0.8. In northern and southern parts of study area NDVI varied from 0.6 to 0.7 but in western part of Bhiwani showed NDVI 0.2 to 0.4 due to fertility of soil and well canal destitution. LAI showed variation from 1 to 6 according to the health of crop as the same manner of NDVI because LAI VI is NDVI dependent only change the manner of representation of vegetation health, due to this fact relation curve (r2=) between NDVI and LAI of four different growing date of states are in successively increasing order 0.509, 0.563, 0.577 and 0.719. The study reveals that VIs can be mapped with LANDSAT-7ETM+ through remote sensing, which can be further used for many studies like crop yield or estimating evapotranspiration on regional basis for water management because satellite observations provide better spatial and temporal coverage, the VIs based system will provide efficient tools for monitoring health of crop for improvement of agricultural planning. VIs based monitoring will serve as a prototype in the other parts of the world where ground observations are limited or not available.

Keywords : Evapotranspiration, Remote Sensing, Vegetation Indices (VIs)


Download PDF


Effect of organic and inorganic farming conditions on seed storage proteins in soybean based cropping system

P. Kaur1*, S. Sharma1, P. Kumar1 and G. Singh2

1Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kaur.prabhdeep74@yahoo.com

Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during rainy (kharif) and winter (rabi) seasons of 2011-13 to evaluate the effect of application of farmyard manure (FYM), recommended doses of fertilizers (RDF) and their combination on storage protein quality of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in soybean based cropping system in Punjab. Densitometric analysis of chromatograms revealed significant variations in relative densities of α' subunit of β-conglycinin protein in soybean in year 2011 and α subunit of legumins in chickpea among different treatments whereas other subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin in soybean and legumins and vicillins in chickpea did not vary significantly. Maximum value of 11S/7S ratio was observed in treatment with FYM @ 10t ha-1 and FYM @ 10t ha-1+100% RDF in soybean seeds in year 2011 and 2012 respectively and with RDF in chickpea. In wheat, the relative quantity of 55.7, 48.8 and between 11-13 kDa bands increased significantly in combined treatment of organic or inorganic fertilizer than their individual treatments, whereas relative quantity of 40.7 kDa band was significantly low in FYM @10t ha-1 +100% RDF treatment as compared to other treatments. Combined treatments of organic and inorganic fertilizer resulted in presence of additional bands corresponding to 61.4 and 22.5 kDa and disappearance of subunit band corresponding to 16.4 kDa in wheat grains. It is concluded that combined organic and inorganic treatments did not change major storage protein fractions and can be used to improve fertilizer management practices.

Keywords : Chickpea, Fertilizer, Organic, Protein, Soybean, Wheat


Download PDF


Effect of higher salinities on growth and survival of pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

M. Ayaz, K. Sumara*, Kailash H. Vadher and Ajaj H. Ishakani

Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval-362267 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sumaraayaz@gmail.com

Abstract : The growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae was measured in controlled different salinities condition 35ppt (T1), 40ppt (T2), 45ppt (T3) and 50ppt (T4) were maintained. Group of Shrimp post larvae (weight 0.032 g ± 0.002) were stocked at a density of 35 nos. /aquarium in above salinity ranges. Animals were fed with commercial feed (35% Crude Protein) @ 5% of body weight four times a day. The results indicate that higher SGR was observed in T2 (1.99±0.08) followed by T1 (1.75±0.07), T3 (1.54±0.06) and T4 (1.49±0.17). Highest survival (100 %) was recorded in T1 followed by T2 (96.42%), T3 (94.99%) and T4 (74.21%). From the results of the present study it could be seen that higher salinity significantly reduced the growth and survival of L. vannamei but will also open study area of physiological adaption of animal at higher saline water in performance of organisms.

Keywords : Growth, Higher salinities, Litopenaeus vannamei, Specific growth rate, Survival


Download PDF


Genetic divergence evaluation of apple germplasm by D2 multivariate analysis

Anju Sharma1*, Rakesh Kumar1, M. S. Mankotia1, P. K. Mahajan1, O. K. Belwal2 and Satish K. Sharma1

1Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

2H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar- Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anjusharma_uhf@yahoo.com

Abstract : Genetic divergence was worked out in the new germplasm of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) including 42 genotypes. Mahalanobis's D2 statistics was applied for identifying the potential parents to be involved in the hybridization programme for trait specific improvement or selecting better segregants. On the basis of performance for various traits, genotypes were grouped into three clusters and maximum numbers of genotypes i.e. 28 were accommodated in cluster I , while 10 and 4 genotypes were arranged in cluster II and III respectively. The average intra cluster distance was maximum in cluster II (2.214) and minimum in cluster III (1.212). Inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster II and III (5.077) indicating that hybridization between genotypes from cluster II and III can be utilized for getting the superior recombinants in segregating generations. On the basis of cluster means for various characters , cluster II was found superior for shoot thickness (0.34cm), inter - nodal length (2.38cm), number of lenticels (62.10) and leaf blade length (8.79cm) whereas cluster III was found superior for leaf blade width (5.10cm), petiole length (2.64cm) and leaf blade ratio (3.62). Hence, hybridization between parents from cluster II and cluster III for these characters can produce better recombinants in segregating generations.

Keywords : Apple, Cluster analysis, D2 statistic, Genetic divergence


Download PDF


Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of inhabitant PGPR strains of Pseudomonas from apple orchards

Kumari Manorma1, Shweta Sharma2* and Mohinder Kaur1

1Department of Basic Science (Microbiology), Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA

2*Directorate of mushroom research, Chambaghat, Solan-173213 (HP), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: Shweta_85sharma@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Aim of present research was to isolate and characterize the Pseudomonas strains phenotypically and genotypically from the rhizospheric soil of apple orchard at Maggota (Shimla district) Himachal Pradesh. Phenotypic identification of the test isolates was based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of the bacteria followed by genotypic analysis using rRNA gene sequencing and RAPD-PCR analysis. The fourteen Pseudomonas sp. isolates were screened out for various plant growth promoting activities such as siderophore production, antifungal activity, phosphate solubilisation, HCN and ammonia production, production of plant growth regulators and lytic enzymes. Isolates showed production of plant growth regulators (auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins) in the range of 19.67-83.33µg/ml, 21.00-58.67 µg/ml and 12.33-43.33 µg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas strains showed phosphate solubilising activity in the range of 12.33-63.33 Pi µg/ml, 53.66-93.44 % SU siderophore production and 11.33-96.33mm (diameter) protease activity in plate assay. Five Pseudomonas isolates i.e. An-16-kul, An-1-mag, An-2-mag, An-3-mag and An-6-mag showed maximum antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to study multifarious plant growth promoting qualities of Pseudomonas sp. and to select more efficient PGPR strain of fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. which can be further used as biofertilizer.

Keywords : Genotype, PGPR, Phenotype, Phosphate solubilization, Pseudomonas sp., Siderophore


Download PDF


Deficiency of magnesium in maize (Zea mays L.) induced by high potassium level in a micaceous soil of Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India

Sovan Debnath*, Raj Narayan, Anil Kumar, Brij Lal Attri and Arun Kishor

ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Regional Station-Mukteshwar-263138 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sovan.dta@gmail.com

Abstract : A field observation was undertaken in a farmer’s field sown with maize at Mukteshwar, Uttarakhand to record whether K rich micaceous soil can cause Mg deficiency. The crop was fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus only. The visible effect of Mg-deficiency initiated after 20-25 days of maize sowing as interveinal chlorosis in older leaves along the margins running the full length of the leaves parallel to the veins. In later stage, necrosis of older leaves occurred particularly at the tip of the leaves. The leaf and soil sample collected at 45 days after sowing (DAS) revealed an extremely low content of Mg in soil (4.32 mg kg-1) and plant (0.11%). The soil analysis also revealed that the soil was acidic in nature (pH 5.07) with low cation exchange capacity (9.7 cmol kg-1). However, the soil was having a very high level of water soluble (18.2 mg kg-1), exchangeable (262.3 mg kg-1) and available K (280.5 mg kg-1), which has resulted in an imbalanced exchangeable K: Mg ratio (60.7:1) rendering reduced uptake of Mg by maize. Therefore, it was concluded from the study that magnesium deficiency can occur in maize in conditions like acidic, sandy, mica rich soils with high level of K combined with low Mg content, even without K fertilization. Hence, the farmers may use dolomitic lime and/or Mg-containing fertilizers to correct Mg deficiency under such conditions for sustainable agricultural production systems.

Keywords : Magnesium deficiency, Maize, Micaceous soil, Potassium


Download PDF


Yield enhancement of chilli through integrated crop management in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka, India

Raju, G. Teggelli1*, Siddappa2, Zaheer Ahamad3 and Anand Naik4

1Department of Agricultural Entomology, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Horticulture, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Plant Pathology, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

4Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: raju.teggelli@gmail.com

Abstract : One of the major reasons of low productivity in chilli is the lack of technical knowledge of the farmers about judicious and timely implementation of the management strategies against the major biotic stresses (insect pests and diseases) which ultimately reduce its return. Considering the integrated crop management on need based plant protection in vegetables was conducted in farmer’s fields at different villages of the Kalaburagi district, under northern part of Karnataka, during the period from 2011-12 to 2013-14 show the productivity potential and profitability of improved technologies. The results showed that, on an average the highest yield achieved by adopting integrated crop management was 260.17 quintals ha-1, whereas the corresponding yield ranged under farmer’s practices was to 235.243 quintals ha-1 of green chillies. Adoption of integrated crop management will increase the yield 10.56% over farmer practices. The average technological gap, extension gap and technological index were noticed 139.83 quintals ha-1, 24.92 quintals ha-1 and 34.95 % respectively. The economics of data indicated that an average of Rs. 1,64,500 ha-1 was recorded net profit under recommended practices while it was Rs 129976.7 ha-1 under farmer practices. Cost benefit ratio was 3.07 under demonstration, while it was 2.35 under farmer practices. Practicing of integrated crop management with improved technologies will improve the farmer socio-economical level.

Keywords : Chilli, Economics, Extension gap, Technology gap, Technology index


Download PDF


Oil content and fatty acid composition of soybean (Glysine max L.) genotypes evaluated under rainfed conditions of Kashmir Himalayas in India

Sheikh Mohammad Sultan1*, Nilamani Dikshit2 and Umesh J. Vaidya3

1National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) Regional Station, Srinagar-190007 (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA

2National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) Regional Station, Akola- 444104 (Maharashtra), INDIA

3Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NABTD), Bhaba Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sheikhmsultan@gmail.com

Abstract : Soybean (Glycine max), a multipurpose crop with much appreciated nutritional and functional properties, has generated a lot of interest during last few decades for improving its cultivation and characteristics. Besides having a great potential of energy-protein malnutrition eradication, it can contribute greatly to edible oil pool in the region. This study investigates some agro-morphological characters, besides seed oil content and fatty acid composition of two local soybean genotypes labeled as S/D-18 and S/D-22 grown under rainfed conditions of Kashmir Himalayas in India. The genotype S/D-22 matured earlier than that of S/D-18. Seed yield/plant of 18.5g (S/D-18) and 20.1g (S/D-22) was recorded in these genotypes with 100-seed weight of 14.3g and 14.7g respectively. Seeds of genotype S/D-18 yielded an oil content of 19.54% while in genotype S/D-22 oil content of 19.74% was recorded. Fatty acids of myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linoleinic were detected and quantified in the oil extracted from the seeds of these genotypes. Saturated fatty acids constituted 11.88%(S/D-18) and 11.42%(S/D-22) while unsaturated fatty acids constituted 88.12%(S/D-18) and 88.58%(S/D-22) of the oil. The study has thus, revealed that under dry land conditions, although soybean seed yield/plant is lesser, percentage oil content and fatty acid composition essentially remained unaltered and that significant differences can occur in individual fatty acid contents between genotypes.

Keywords : Evaluation, Fatty acids, Gas chromatography, Oil content, Soybean genotypes


Download PDF


Economic loss assessment on juvenile fish catch due to forced non-selectivity in a selective fishing gear, gillnet along Mumbai coast, India

Shabir A. Dar1*, Saly N. Thomas2, S. K. Chakraborty3, G. B. Sreekanth4 and M. H. Balkhi1

1Faculty of Fisheries, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Rangil, Ganderbal-190006, INDIA

2Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri, Cochin-682029, INDIA

3Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Off Yari Road, Versova, Andhari- 400061, Mumbai, INDIA

4ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa, Goa- 403402, INDIA

*Corresponding author, E- mail: shabirdar777@rediffmail.com

Abstract : A study on quantity and value of juvenile fish landings was carried out in the gillnet fishery of three selected landing centers along Mumbai coast viz., Versova, Cuff Parade and Mahim in India using Out board motors (OBM), Inboard motors (IBM) and non-motorised gillnetters respectively. The data on the quantity and value of landed juveniles were collected and analysed to reach a consensus on the gross economic loss on account of juvenile fishing. A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic loss due to juvenile fishing of 18 commercially important species of finfish and shellfish. A huge economic loss was recorded due to fishing of juveniles of 18 species by three different gillnet sectors. The analysis indicated that IBM gillnetters at Cuff Parade incurred maximum loss of Rs. 62.26 crores with major contribution from juveniles of seerfish followed by non-motorised gillnetter (Rs.29.98 crores) at Mahim and 25.33 crores in OBM gillnetters at Versova.

Keywords : Economic loss, Gillnet, Juvenile fishing, Mumbai coast


Download PDF


Effect of different packaging materials on the efficacy of sweet flag rhizome powder (Acorus calamus L.) treated sorghum against Sitophilus oryzae

H. C. Latha* and A. Naganagoud

Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lathaent@gmail.com

Abstract : An experiment was conducted to know the effect of different packaging materials and sweet flag rhizome on seed quality of sorghum. The graded seeds were packed in six containers viz., polythene cover, mud container, cloth bag, gunny bag, glass container and steel container and seeds were treated with two percent of sweet flag rhizome powder before storage. The different observations viz., number of live adults, seed damage (%) by Sitophilus oryzae and germination (%) of seeds were recorded. The results revealed that the sweet flag rhizome treated seeds packed in steel container, recorded lowest seed damage percentage (32.00%), number of live adults (5.11) and highest seed germination (76.00%) after nine months of treatment. Hence seeds treated with sweet flag rhizome stored in steel containers reduces the insect infestation and steel containers can be effectively used for maintaining seed quality of sorghum during storage.

Keywords : Containers, Seed quality, Sitophilus oryzae, Sorghum, Sweet flag rhizome


Download PDF


Combining ability and gene interaction study for yield, its attributing traits and quality in common wheat

Anil Kumar, Harshwardhan, Amarjeet Kumar and Birendra Prasad

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amarjeetagriculture@gmail.com

Abstract : Combining ability and nature of gene interactions that contribute to yield and its attributing traits were investigated using 21 wheat hybrids developed by crossing 7 varieties in a half diallel mating design. Estimate of GCA effects exhibited that the parents UP2672, UP2526 and WH542 were identified as good general combiners revealing their ability in transmitting additive genes in desirable direction to their progenies. Hybrid viz., PBW 621 × UP 2425 (15.125) found to be the best specific crosses for grain yield plant-1, whether, WH 542 × HD 2967 (22.587) and UP 2526 × UP 2425 (14.490) had the highest SCA for biological yield plant-1 and harvest index, respectively. However, the best specific cross combinations for other characters were found for WH 542 × QLD 40 (-3.694) for days to maturity, PBW 621 × UP 2526 (-3.819) for plant height, HD 2967 × UP 2526 (7.527) for 1000 grain weight and WH 542 × UP 2672 (2.077) for sedimentation value. While crosses PBW 621 × UP 2425, UP 2526 × UP 2425 and QLD 40 × UP 2425 were found to be the best specific combiner for the characters number of productive tillers plant-1, grain yield plant-1, spike length, grain weight spike-1, harvest index, days to 75 % heading and protein content.

Keywords : Combining ability, Common wheat, Diallel cross, Gene interaction, Quality, Yield


Download PDF


Soil microbial communities and enzymes as affected by herbicides of rice-wheat and soybean- wheat cropping system

C. Sarathambal1*, V. P. Singh2 and K. K. Barman1

1ICAR_ Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur - 482004, INDIA

2ICAR- Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow - 226002, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: saratha6@gmail.com

Abstract : A field study was conducted to study the long term impact of continuous use of herbicide on microbial activity in rice-wheat and soybean- wheat cropping system. In the present investigation, non herbicide treatments such as hand weeding and weedy check showed higher activity as compared with herbicide receiving treatments. In rice, among the two herbicides, application of butachlor had less adverse effect when compared to the application of anilophos on soil microorganisms. Actinomycetes population maintained stable after the application of herbicides. Among the different herbicide application practices, maximum dehydrogenase activity (27.7µg TPF/g soil/24hrs) and urease activity (44.5µg NH4/g soil/24hrs) was observed in anilophos and butachlor treatment respectively. The treatment preceding wheat crop did not influence the microbial and enzyme activities. In soybean, highest population of total bacteria (3.34×106cfu/g) and actinomycetes (2.47×103 cfu/g) were observed in one hand weeding treatment. The treatment preceding wheat crop did not influence the basic microbial activities. However, it positively influenced dehydrogenase activity in all the three rabi season herbicides. This study clearly indicated that herbicide application had not significant effect on the soil microbial population and soil enzymes.

Keywords : Herbicides, Microorganisms, Rice, Soil enzymes, Soybean, Wheat


Download PDF


Development and evaluation of multi millet thresher

K. P. Singh, Rahul R. Poddar, K. N. Agrawal, Smrutilipi Hota and Mukesh K. Singh

Agricultural Mechanization Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal-462038, (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author’s E-mail: kp_singh24@yahoo.com

Abstract : In tribal areas of India, traditional methods of threshing of minor millets like little millet (Panicum sumatrense), M1, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), M2, foxtail millet (Setaria italica), M3, proso millet (P. miliaceum), M4, barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumantacea), M5, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), M6 is done of beating by sticks or treading out the crop panicle under the feet of oxen. This operation is most time consuming, labour intensive, drudgery prone, uneconomical, lower output and obtain low quality products. A thresher for these millet crops was developed and optimization of the operating parameters with little millet was done by using Response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized parameters were 7.79% (d.b) moisture content, 105 kgh-1 feed rate, 625 rpm cylinder speed, 5 mm threshing sieve size which gave maximum threshing efficiency of 95.13% and cleaning efficiency of 94.12%. After optimization of parameters the thresher was tested for threshing of all the six minor millets with proper adjustments of sieve. Threshing capacity of M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6 were obtained as 89, 137, 140, 91, 88 and 99 kg/h, respectively with more than 96% threshing efficiency and less than 2% broken grain.

Keywords : Cleaning efficiency, Multi millet thresher, Shear and impact cutting, Threshing efficiency


Download PDF


Effect of waterlogging tolerance in wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) at ear emergence stage on growth, biochemical and yield parameters in sodic soil

Vinaya Kumar Yadav1, Mamta Kajla2, S. P. Singh1, A. K. Singh1, R. K. Yadav1, Ajeet Kumar Dwivedi1

1Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229 (U.P.), INDIA

2ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

Corresponding author. E-mail: vinayayadav1988@gmail.com

Abstract : Globally more than one-third of the irrigated area is under waterlogging which limits our wheat production and out of which northern Indo-Gangetic plains of India alone had 2.5 million ha affected by irregular waterlogging. So, to meet out the food demand of ever-growing population we have to find some alternates to harness the potential of the waterlogged area. With this point of view this investigation was conducted to study the changes in growth and biochemical behavior of wheat due to waterlogging at ear emergence stage in sodic soil and also to assess the traits conferring higher yield at experimental site of department of crop physiology, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.), India. The results showed that the genotypic variability exists for waterlogging tolerance in wheat varieties evaluated under investigation. HD-2009 which is susceptible to waterlogging gave poor performance in terms of growth parameters, biochemical behavior and traits conferring higher yield under waterlogging conditions at ear head emergence stage in sodic soil as compared to HD-2851, KRL-3-4 and KRL-99 wheat varieties. KRL-99 (1.80g yield plant-1) gave best results followed KRL-3-4 (1.37g yield plant-1) by under waterlogged conditions at ear head emergence stage in sodic soil.

Keywords : Biochemical parameter, Growth parameter, Waterlogging tolerance, Yield parameter


Download PDF


Assessment of ecological health of Baiyangdian lake in China using ecological health index

Amit Kumar, Saurabh Mishra* and M. P. Sharma

Biomass and Ecosystem Lab, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee- 247667, (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: saurabhmishra20057@gmail.com

Abstract : An effective assessment of ecological health in aquatic ecosystems has become an important issue for researchers, policy-maker and environmentalist globally. The potential of thermodynamic oriented ecological indicators such as eco-exergy (Ex), structural eco-exergy (Exst), phytoplankton biomass (BA), and zooplankton biomass (ZA) in ecological assessment and management were used to calculate the ecological health and then correlated individually as well as multiply of Baiyangdian Lake located in the China. To establish a relationship between sub-EHI values of indicators to the overall EHI, data on thermodynamic indicators of the Baiyangdian lake were calculated from literature. The result indicates the ecological health of Baiyangdian lake is coming under the middle categories i.e. EHI= 40-60. A deeper analysis of the relationship between the thermodynamic parameters and EHI using mini tab software and the multiple regression revealed that the R2>0.9 for Baiyangdian Lake indicates that these correlations could be tentatively used to predict the ecological health of the Baiyangdian Lake in the future.

Keywords : Correlation, Eco-exergy, Ecological health, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton


Download PDF


Toxicity of some insecticides against seven day old larvae of Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua Walker

Preeti Sharma*, Geetanjly and Vijay Laxmi Rai

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145, U. S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author, Email: Preetisharmaentomology@gmail.com

Abstract : The stomach toxicity of some insecticides viz., Cypermethrin, Lambda cyhalothrin and Chlorpyriphos were determined against 7d old larvae of Spilarctia obliqua by leaf dip method. Cypermethrin was found to be the most toxic insecticide during observation at 18, 24, 48 and 72 HAF. On the basis of LC50 values at different time intervals the order of toxicity was, Cypermethrin > Lambda cyhalothrin > Chlorpyriphos and the LC50 (%) values being 0.003, 0.054, 0.107 at 24 HAF, 0.002, 0.045 and 0.101 at 48 HAF, 0.016, 0.039 and 0.085 at 72 HAF respectively. A comparative dose mortality (50%) response expressed in terms of relative toxicity indicated that RT values for Cypermethrin, Lambda cyhalothrin, and Chlorpyriphos were 35.66, 1.98 and 1.00 at 24HAF, 50.5, 2.24 and 1.00 at 48 HAF, 5.31, 2.17 and 1.00 at 72 HAF. Chlorpyriphos in particular, showed very low RT value indicating far less stomach toxicity to S. obliqua as compared to Cypermethrin and Lambda-cyhalothrin. These findings can be helpful for the selection of suitable insecticides for effective pest management under field condition.

Keywords : Insecticides, LC50, RT, S. obliqua, toxicity


Download PDF


Effects of gamma rays on germination and growth in Jatropha curcas L.

Dileswar Nayak1*, N. S. Patil2, L. K. Behera2 and D. B. Jadeja2

1Department of Natural Resource Management, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Dandi Road, Navsari-396450, Gujarat, INDIA

2Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Dandi Road, Navsari-396450, Gujarat, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dileswarnayak@nau.in

Abstract : The present investigation was carried out at the Forestry Research Farm, Navsari Agricultural University; Navsari to evaluate the gamma rays at 10 kR, 20 kR and 30 kR induced variability in Jatropha curcas L. on germination, growth and yield for seven Jatropha genotypes (Phule J-1, Urlikanchan, Hansraj, SKN Big, Chhatrapati, Hansot and MPJ-55). The significantly maximum germination percentage (66.96%), seedling survival (74.18%), seedling collar diameter (0.958cm), shoot length (49.442cm), number of leaves per seedling (7.757) and leaf area (37. 58) was observed in Chhatrapati genotype during nursery stage. While low rate of gamma rays treatment (10 kR) had stimulatory effect for germination percentage, seedling survival, seedling collar diameter, shoot length, number of leaves per seedling and leaf area. However, higher gamma rays doses (30 kR) drastically reduced all studied characters. The interaction effect of genotype and gamma rays were significant for number of leaves per seedling. Further, it was not significant in other traits like germination percentage, seedling survival, seedling collar diameter, shoot length and leaf area.

Keywords : Gamma rays, Genotype, Jatropha curcas, Morphological traits


Download PDF


Effect of seaweed saps on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economic improvement of maize (sweet corn)

Ashok Pal*, Sanjay Kumar Dwivedi, Pradip Kumar Maurya, Poolchand Kanwar

Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur- 492012 (Chhattisgarh), INDIA

*Correspondence author. E-mail: ashokpal.22@rediffmail.com

Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2012-13 at Research cum Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) to study the effects of seaweed saps on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economic of maize (sweet corn) in Matasi soil of Chhattisgarh. The foliar spray of two different species (namely Kappaphycus and Gracilaria) was applied thrice at different interval of crop with different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 15% v/v) of seaweed extracts. Foliar applications of seaweed extract significantly enhanced the growth, yield, nutrient uptake and B:C ratio parameters. The green cob yield (189.97 q ha-1) and fodder yield (345.19 q ha-1) were recorded highest under treatment (T8) 15% G Sap + recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) which was significant similar with treatment 15% K Sap + RDF (185.24 q ha-1) in case of green cob yield. The highest N, P and K uptake by green cob and fodder were observed under 15% G Sap + RDF (T8). Treatment 15% G Sap + RDF (T8), recorded maximum gross return (Rs. 2,07,230 ha-1), net return (Rs. 1,38,756 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.0), which was followed by treatment 15% K Sap + RDF (T4) with net return (Rs. 1,33,199 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.95). Treatment 15% G Sap + RDF (T8) gave Rs. 45,996 ha-1 more as compared to Water spray + RDF (T9).

Keywords : Gracilaria, Kappaphycus, Maize cob yield, Nutrient uptake, Seaweed saps


Download PDF


Perceptions, attitudes and preferences in agroforestry among rural societies of Kashmir, India

M. A. Islam*, T. H. Masoodi, S. A. Gangoo, P. A. Sofi, G. M. Bhat, A. A. Wani, A. A. Gatoo, Amerjeet Singh and A. R. Malik

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore-193201 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ajaztata@gmail.com

Abstract : People’s perceptions, attitudes and preferences in agroforestry have become fundamental elements of sustainable agroforestry management. The study examined the multiplicities and dimensions of people’s perceptions about agroforestry values, attitudes towards agroforestry benefits and resources preferences in agroforestry and their socioeconomic determinants in rural societies of Kashmir. The data were collected from 142 households of 5 villages selected employing multi-stage random sampling. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used for the data analysis. Results indicated that the material values (rank 1st to 3rd) of agroforestry were perceived as the most important while the perception of the non-material values (rank 4th to 10th) were adjudged moderately important. People’s attitudes towards the tangible benefits (rank 1st to 3rd) of agroforestry were highly favourable whereas attitudes towards intangible benefits (rank 4th to 10th) were indifferent. The rural people expressed higher preferences for fuel wood, fodder, vegetable, fruit, and timber (rank 1st to 5th) while moderate or low preferences for medicine, cottage industry/ handicrafts, fiber/ floss, oilseeds and animals/ birds/ insects etc. (rank 6th to 10th). F statistics (p < 0.05) showed significant differences between the material and non-material values, tangible and non-tangible benefits and resources groups. Correlation co-efficients (r) confirmed the importance of socioeconomic attributes in influencing people’s perceptions, attitudes and preferences in agroforestry. The findings will help to refine and enrich the knowledge-base to provide an effective framework for decisions and policy making to sustain and maintain agroforestry health and services. The integration of people’s socio-psychological conditions in sustainable agroforestry management will be effective strategy commensurating the current development and future challenges.

Keywords : Agroforestry, Attitudes, Perceptions, Preferences, Socioeconomic attributes


Download PDF


Isolation, characterization and morphological study of Azotobacter isolates

Sandeep Upadhyay1, Narendra Kumar2, V. K. Singh3 and Anshuman Singh4

1Natural Resource Management Department, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali College of Horticulture (Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry) Bharsar, District Pauri- Garhwal- 246123 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, District Udham Singh Nagar -263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

3Department of Agronomy, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, District Udham Singh Nagar -263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

4Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry) Bharsar, District Pauri Garhwal- 246123 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mistersandeep@gmail.com

Abstract : Among the diazotrops, great attention has been paid to the genus Azotobacter and its role in increasing the growth and health of plants. In the present study, forty two strains of Azotobacter were isolated from soil. These strains were purified and characterized through microscopical and biochemical test for cell shape, pigmentation, colony size, Gram reaction and catalase activity were identified as Azotobacter sp These strains showed wide variability to these characters. Among 42 isolates, 7 were single cocci, 7 coccidal chain and 4 were cocci in clumps. Majority of isolates i.e. 24, were small, medium and large rod shaped. Thirty two isolates were Gram –ve, catalase positive and 10 were Gram +ve, catalase negative. Finally from these isolates, twenty two were confirmed as Azotobacter strains on cyst formation. The carbon-source utilization pattern revealed that out of 22 strains that 16 strains resembled the characters of A. chroococcum, 3 matched with A. vinelandii and 3 with A. beijerinckii. All 22 isolates were analyzed for its nitrogen fixing ability by using Microkjeldhal method. The highest amount of N2 (18.88 mg g-1 sucrose) was fixed by Azo-SBT 72 while lowest (6.04 mg g-1 sucrose) by Azo-SUR 25 strain. However, injudicious and hazardous use of chemical fertilizers have degraded the soil health and there is need of ecofriendly management of soil by screening and hunting of potential nitrogen fixing strains to protect the soil environment and health. In this context, biofertilizers hunting natural environment is the need of soil to ensure better health of future generations.

Keywords : Azotobacter isolates, Catalase activity, Cyst formation


Download PDF


Community participated management of chaur (floodplain) fisheries: A case study of Mahisar chaur in Samastipur district of Bihar, India

Raushan Kumar, Nalini Ranjan Kumar* and Manoj Kumar

Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Versova, Mumbai- 400061 (MS), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nrkumar@cife.edu.in

Abstract : Mahisar chaur, situated in north-eastern part of Samastipur district of Bihar, is spread over 607.29 ha area with an average water depth of 2.5-3 m. The chaur was flood prone and remained inundated with water for most part of the year and hence was not suitable for agriculture. With collective efforts of land owners, a drainage canal along with sluice gate was constructed to manage the flow of water in the chaur to take up both the agriculture and fishery enterprises in the chaur. Now the chaur is being successfully utilized for fishery by a cooperative society of land owners during the period of water logging (June/July to October) and for agriculture, by individual farmers during November to April. The present study investigated into income and employment generation and management practices of chaur (floodplain) in Samastipur (Bihar), India for suggesting suitable measures to improve production and productivity from the resource. For the purpose, primary data was collected from 60 sample respondent by personal interview method with the help of pre-tested questionnaire specially designed for the study. Fishery and agriculture was the two enterprises undertaken by land owners in the chaur. During rainy season when entire chaur is inundated with water fisheries is practised with community participation while agriculture is practiced during rabi season by individual farmers on their land holdings. Cropping intensity in chaur was 199.05 percent which indicate about two time use of same area for different economic activity. The overall net income from both the agriculture and fishery in chaur was INR 43,041.94 (US$ 791.08) per hectare per annum and employment generation was 78.11 man days per hectare per annum. The contribution of agriculture in total income was 69.52 percent while that of fisheries was 30.48 percent. Retention of water in central part of the chaur for rearing of juveniles caught during draining out of chaur may improve fish productivity which in turn may increase income and employment opportunity and share of fisheries in total income.

Keywords : Community, Floodplain, Management of Chaur, Pre- harvest contractor


Download PDF


Genetic diversity analysis using molecular marker in Terminalia chebula

T. N. Ranjini*, K. Bhanuprakash1, M. A. Suryanarayana2 and B. G. Yamuna3

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru- 560089 (Karnataka), INDIA

1Section of Seed Sciences, India Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru- 56008 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Section of Medicinal plants, India Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru -560089 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga-577204 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: ranjini.tantry@gmail.com

Abstract : Terminalia chebula is an important medicinal plant, extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicines. The present study was aimed to reveal its genetic diversity based on molecular markers from twelve T. chebula accessions. Molecular diversity was studied using RAPD markers. A total of 8 polymorphic primers produced 314 polymorphic bands and 195 monomorphic bands. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPMGA) dendrogram divided the accessions into 2 major clusters. Accession IIHRTc2 and IIHRTc10 showed maximum genetic diversity with 55% similarity. This characterization based on molecular markers will help in identification of economically useful accessions for further crop improvement programme.

Keywords : Dendrogram, Molecular Polymorphism, RAPD, Terminalia chebula


Download PDF


Combining ability and heterosis for grain yield, fodder yield and other agronomic traits in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

Sushil Kumar* and Pooran Chand

Sorghum Quality Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology. Meerut-250110 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sushil_svbp@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Forty five hybrids derived from a diallel mating design of ten parents and one standard check PUSA CHARI-121 were evaluated for general and specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant, days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth and 100- seed weight of Sorghum bicolor. The mean square due to general and specific combining ability was significant for Days to 50% flowering, Days to maturity, Plant height (cm),No of Leaves/plant, Leaf length (cm), Leaf width (cm), seed yield/plant (g), Fodder yield/plant (q/ha) and 100-seed weight (g) for all the characters. Both additive and nonadditive genetic effects were present in the material under study. However the ratio of σ2gca/ σ2sca suggested that the preponderance of non additive gene action in expression of all the characters under study. Out of the nine parents PUSA CHARI-121, PANT CHARI-4, MP CHARI, PANT CHARI-6 and PANT CHARI-5 identified as good general combiner for grain yield/plant, dry fodder yield/plant and other agronomical traits. The hybrid HC-136 x PANT CHARI-4 and PANT CHARI-4 x PUSA CHARI-121 for grain yield/plant and hybrid MP CHARI x PANT CHARI-6, PANT CHARI-5 x SPV 1616 and HC-136 x PANT CHARI-4 for dry fodder yield/plant exhibited higher magnitude of positive significant specific combining ability effect with highest standard heterosis and per se performance. These hybrids were also found suitable for two or three yield contributing traits. In general, close association between specific combining ability effects and standard heterosis was observed among the best hybrids identified on the basis of specific combining ability effects for grain and dry fodder yield.

Keywords : Combining ability, Diallel analysis, Gene action, Sorghum, Standard heterosis


Download PDF


Assessment of the genetic diversity among oily spot (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae) pathogen of pomegranate by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis

Wayde Jitendra Eknath1, Akshay S. Dange1, Trishala A. Pagar1, Deepak Rameshwar Sapkal and Monika Bansal2*

1K. K. Wagh College of Agricultural Bio-Technology, Nashik- 422003 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara- 144411 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: monphd@gmail.com

Abstract : Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop of India and other subtropical countries. Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Punicae is becoming a major threat in Maharashtra as well as other states of India. It causes yield losses up to the extent of 80-90 %. This study aims to the collection of 7 strains (X. axonopodis) and utilized for assessment of genetic diversity by using RAPD markers. Whereas 7 strains of X. axonopodis were differentiated and distinguished into seven major region representing Malegaon, Nampur, Satana, Khakurdi, Ramnagar, Rahuri and Nashik region. However the genetic similarity within 7 strains of X. axonopodis was ranged between 72.72-100 %. Similarly the genetic relationship of strains X. axonopodis was also established and showed 72.72 %, 72.72 %, 72.72 % 92.30%, 94.11% and 100 % similarity with region of Malegaon, Nampur, Satana, Khakurdi, Ramnagar, Rahuri and Nashik region. Average polymorphism in strains of X. axanopodis based on RAPD analysis was 84.095 %. The combined data analysis by using UPGMA method also revealed the two distinct groups representing seven strains of X. axonopodis and in first group M1 and second group R4 and subgroup RH6, N2, NS7, S3, K5, these genotypes were present respectively. Considering predominance and economic loss caused by X. axonopodis pv. punicae in pomegranate, it is an essential to undertake preliminary work on characterization of this pathogen at the molecular level.

Keywords : Bacterial blight, Diversity, Oily spot pathogen, Pomegranate, RAPD


Download PDF


Bioefficacy of Bacillus subtilis against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in tomato

Subhalaxmi Roy1 Arun Rathod2* Aniruddha Pramanik3

1Department of Agricultural Entomology OUAT Bhubneshwar-751003, (Odisha), INDIA

2*Department of Agricultural Entomology BCKV, Mohanpur-741252, (West Bengal), INDIA

3AICRP on Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Directorate of Research BCKV, Kalyani-741235, (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aryan11187@gmail.com

Abstract : An investigation was conducted for the management of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood infesting tomato through the application of bio-control agent like Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Experiment result revealed that minimum no. of galls/25 seedlings (17.50) and maximum seedling height (27.6cm) were observed in Bacillus subtilis @50g/m2 in nursery bed + B. subtilis@ 5kg along with 2.5 tons of FYM/ ha. The highest weight/25 seedlings (69.50g) was noticed in the B. subtilis@50g/m2 in nursery bed + B. subtilis 2.5kg along with 2.5 tons of FYM/ha. The highest growth of the plant at 45 DAT (49.2cm) and at harvest (81.2cm) and maximum fresh (711.3g) and dry weight (265g) was found in B. subtilis @50g/m2 in nursery bed + B. subtilis 2.5 kg along with 2.5 tons of FYM/ha. B. subtilis @50g/m2 in nursery bed + B. subtilis 2.5kg along with 2.5 tons of FYM/ha exhibited lowest gall index (1.2/plant) and highest reduction of nematode population and provided highest yield of tomato fruits (335.75q/ha).

Keywords : Bacillus subtilis, Meloidogyne incognita, Tomato


Download PDF


Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Kali river, Uttar Pradesh, India

Saurabh Mishra*, Amit Kumar, Shilpa Yadav and M.K. Singhal

Biomass and Ecosystem lab, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee- 247667 (Uttarakhand), India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amit.agl09@gmail.com

Abstract : The River Kali is an important surface water body in the western Uttar Pradesh (U.P). It is an intermittent river which flows throughout the monsoonal months. The present study aims to assess the heavy metal contamination in the river Kali using pollution index (PI), based on five heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cr) during pre and post monsoon seasons in the year 2014. The PI evaluated during pre and post monsoon seasons with respect to drinking water quality standards was found as 5.04 and 7.08 respectively, while related to inland water quality standards were found as 4.37 and 3.62, respectively. The results indicate that the river Kali was severely contaminated (PI>3) in both seasons. Therefore, water of Kali River is not fit for drinking as well as for agriculture purposes.

Keywords : Heavy metals, Pollution index, River Kali, Water quality


Download PDF


Comparative assessment of microbial enzyme activity with compost and sewage sludge amendment

Jatinder Kaur*, Sandeep Sharma and Hargopal Singh

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jatinder_sandhu@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Changes in soil microbial activities were investigated to examine the effect of aerobically digested sewage sludge (SS) and compared with compost under incubation conditions over 63 days. Sandy soil was amended with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % w/w of compost and sewage sludge. Enzyme activity (dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, phytase and urease) were examined at an interval of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 63 days. At the end of the experiment the change in organic carbon, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus was also recorded. Results indicated that enzyme activities were substantially enhanced in presence of both amendments for first few days and the higher increases were measured at 1.5% of compost and sewage sludge amendment. Then an overall decrease in enzyme activity was recorded. Both the amendments also significantly increased the organic carbon, nitrogen and potassium of the soil while increase in available phosphorus was only recorded in treatment receiving compost. The present experiment indicated that addition of compost and sewage sludge have positive effect on soil microbial activity and can be safely used as soil amendment without having any adverse effect. Though, a previous examination of sewage sludge to be used must be made for heavy metals and pathogens.

Keywords :Compost, Microbial enzyme, Sandy soil, Sewage sludge


Download PDF


Ability of arbuscular mycorrhiza to promote growth of maize plant and enzymatic activity of an alluvial soil

Mahendra Singh*, Kasturikasen Beura, Amit Kumar Pradhan, Rajiv Rakshit, Manohar Lal

Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-81321, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mahendra_saini_soil@yahoo.com

Abstract : A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of selected species of mycorrhizae for root colonization and phosphorus uptake by maize in an alluvial soil. Of all the species of mycorrhizae taken under consideration, Glomus mosseae was found to perform better in terms of root colonization, number of spores, grain yield and phosphorus uptake. The maximum plant height (28.5 cm), shoot dry weight (19.45 g plant-1) and root dry weight (4.77 g plant-1) was also found with the application of G. mosseae. Its application significantly increased the root dry weight by 99.58 and 72.82% over application of G. intraradices and control respectively, and was at par with the application of G. coronatum and Gigaspora decipiens. Application of G. decipiens reported the highest bacterial (39.11 cfu g-1 soil) and fungal count (30.68 cfu g-1 soil) that was found to be at par with application of G. mosseae. Application of G. mosseae significantly increased the actinomycetes population by 44.71 and 55.97% over application of a local mycorrhizal strain and control. Maximum dehydrogenase activity (56.00 g-1 TPF g-1 24 h-1) and acid phosphatase activity (0.299 mg PNP g-1 h-1) and was also observed with application of G. mosseae, which in turn resulted in higher yield which was 27.28%, 28.52%, 9.35 and 11.7% more than G. intraradices, G. coronatum, G. decipiens and the local species respectively. G. mosseae inoculation proved to be effective in modifying the soil microbe population and community structure and also in enhancing the soil enzymatic activities and phosphorus uptake of the crop.

Keywords : Alluvial soil, Grain yield, Maize, Mycorrhiza, Phosphorus


Download PDF


Variability for seed oil content and seedling traits in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

Rakesh Kumar1 and Naresh Kaushik2*

1Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004, (Punjab) INDIA

2CCS Haryana Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Bawal, Distt. Rewari, Haryana, INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: nk20025@rediffmail.com

Abstract : Twenty three CPTs (Candidate Plus Trees) of Pongamia pinnata were selected from different agro-climatic conditions of Haryana state of India and were assessed to identify the elite planting material for improvement of the species in terms of oil content. The differences among CPTs of P. pinnata were significant for seed oil content and all growth parameters of the progenies of these CPTs at the seedling stage. Oil content in P. pinnata varied from 27.07 (P12) to 38.17% (P2). The estimates of genotypic coefficients of variation for the characters studied were less as compared to the phenotypic coefficients of variation for all the characters examined. The highest phenotypic coefficient of variation (49.33) and genotypic coefficient of variation (28.56) was recorded for the germination percentage followed by height of the first branch. Number of leaves (0.5551**), inter-nodal length (0.5580**) and number of branches (0.6182**) showed high and positive correlation with the seed oil content. The progeny number 9, 21 and 2 were found to be the best on basis of oil content (36. 37, 36.83 and 38.17 %, respectively), and other characters examined. D2 analysis grouped the CPTs into 5 clusters. The highest numbers of progenies were included in the cluster I followed by cluster III and least number of progenies i.e., two were observed in cluster II. The intra cluster distances ranged from 4.12 (cluster V) to 5.96 (cluster II). The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster II and III (10.02) followed by I and III and minimum was between clusters I and cluster V. The crosses between clusters II and III may result sufficient segregation for further improvement of the species. Therefore, the progenies belonging to the clusters II and III could be taken as parents for a successful hybridization program.

Keywords : Heritability, Pongamia pinnta, progeny, seed oil content, variability


Download PDF


Scope of ornamental fisheries in snow fed rivers of Uttarakhand-Overview

Anita*, Akansha Khati, Maneesh Kumar Dubey and N. N. Pandey

Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: anitatamta20@gmail.com

Abstract : Upland rivers of hills of Uttarakhand are unique in its ecosystem and biodiversity. These waters possess various varieties of ornamental fishes. The present study focuses on Scope of ornamental fisheries in snow fed rivers of Uttarakhand, along with challenges and opportunities. Besides the availability of resources peoples are not that much aware of ornamental fisheries of this region and these resources are yet not developed. The use of destructive fishing methods, habitat destruction leads to diversity destruction of hills stream fishes. As these resources does not comprise fisheries of commercial importance due to sparse biota and low thermal scale, slow growth and very low natural food availability So, Directorate of Cold Water Fisheries is actively working in the field of survey and brood stock management of ornamental fish resources of cold water. Four hundred live cold water fishes including exotic gold and koi carp are being maintained at DCFR main complex for study and breeding trials. The recreational activities by fisheries department like ranching, sport fisheries development and development of ornamental fisheries of this region can lead to socioeconomic upliftment of hilly people and development of cold water ornamental fisheries in the state.

Keywords : Glacier , Mahseer, Ornamental fisheries, Socioeconomic upliftment


Download PDF


A sustainable rice production technology: problems and prospects

A. K. Rohila*, B. S. Ghanghas, Pawan Kumar, P. S. Shehrawat and Rati Mukteshawar

Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail : anil_bhana@yahoo.com

Abstract : The study has focused on problems and prospects perceived by farmers’ for growing rice in direct seeded cultivation mode i.e. Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) in Haryana (India). Overall adoption of DSR technology was low to moderate since 70 per cent respondents belonged to these categories. The method of sowing (weighted mean score 3.0), depth of sowing (2.93) and seed treatment (2.93) were highly adopted agronomic practices, whereas least adopted practices were like recommended seed rate (1.94), timely application of fertilizers (1.87) and their recommended doses (1.73), and ferrous sulphate use only at deficiency syndrome (1.19) not as per recommended schedule. Among constraints non-availability of quality seeds, fertilizers, weedicides and pesticides in required quantity and at proper time (1.64), high weed infestation in DSR in comparison to transplanting (2.88), wide fluctuation in prices (2.83) of basmati paddy due to lack of MSP, lack of storage facilities in villages (2.78), lack of proper knowledge of irrigation schedule (1.73), non-availability of extension personnel (1.64), lack of low credit facility (1.62), non-availability of agricultural magazines and literature in time in villages (2.78), lack of stable procurement policy for basmati rice (2.78) and lack of trained field staff to provide technical guidance during cultivation (2.02) process were serious constraints faced by farmers in adoption of DSR technology in Haryana. Since majority of respondent farmers agreed that DSR technology give better net returns in comparison to transplanting (2.95), less labour requirement (2.92) and best suited to climate change risks (2.66).

Keywords : Basmati Rice, Climate Change, Constraints, Direct Seeded Rice, Prospects


Download PDF


Molecular breeding for resilience in maize - A review

Asima Gazal1*, Z. A. Dar2, A. A. Lone2, I. Abidi1 and G. Ali1

1Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar-190025 (J&K), INDIA

2Dryland (Karewa) Agricultural Research Station, Budgam- 190001 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: asimagazal@gmail.com

Abstract : Abiotic and biotic constraints have widespread yield reducing effects on maize and should receive high priority for maize breeding research. Molecular Breeding offers opportunities for plant breeders to develop cultivars with resilience to such diseases with precision and in less time duration. The term molecular breeding is used to describe several modern breeding strategies, including marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted backcrossing, marker-assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection. Recent advances in maize breeding research have made it possible to identify and map precisely many genes associated with DNA markers which include genes governing resistance to biotic stresses and genes responsible for tolerance to abiotic stresses. Marker assisted selection (MAS) allows monitoring the presence, absence of these genes in breeding populations whereas marker assisted backcross breeding effectively integrates major genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) with large effect into widely grown adapted varieties. For complex traits where multiple QTLs control the expression, marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) are employed to increase precision and to reduce cost of phenotyping and time duration. The biparental mapping populations used in QTL studies in MAS do not readily translate to breeding applications and the statistical methods used to identify target loci and implement MAS have been inadequate for improving polygenic traits controlled by many loci of small effect. Application of GS to breeding populations using high marker densities is emerging as a solution to both of these deficiencies. Hence, molecular breeding approaches offers ample opportunities for developing stress resilient and high-yielding maize cultivars.

Keywords : Abiotic, Biotic, Maize, Molecular breeding, Stresses


Download PDF


Effect of ethylene on physiological and biochemical parameters in different crop plants - A review

Kanchan Pahwa* and Navita Ghai

Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kanchan.pahwa@gmail.com

Abstract : A phytohormone may be defined as an organic substance other than a nutrient active in very minute amounts which is formed in certain parts of all plants and which is usually translocated to other sites, where it evokes specific biochemical, physiological and morphological responses. The gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many internal processes and growth responses to environmental stimuli. Ethylene is known to exert its effects by altering gene expression both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Ethylene has long been recognized as a growth inhibitor, but evidence is accumulating that ethylene can also promote growth. Therefore, the concept of ethylene as a general growth inhibitor needs reconsideration. Different authors screened various concentrations viz. 100 ppm, 150 ppm which promotes the plant growth in groundnut, soybean, mustard, barley, pigeonpea etc. The lower concentration of ethylene (100ppm) has increased the yield by 17 percent in pigeonpea. It increased the yield by manipulating source-sink relationships and flower retention The present study highlights the various processes of growth stimulated by ethylene and its use in enhancing yield of various crop species. It could be inferred that lower concentration of ethrel sprayed at pre-flowering stage promoted the growth and yield of various crops (barley, corn, groundnut, pigeonpea, soybean etc.).

Keywords : Biochemical parameters, Ethrel, Growth, Growth Promoters


Download PDF


Increase in wheat production through management of abiotic stresses : A review

Mamta Kajlaa, Vinaya Kumar Yadava, Jaswant Khokharc, Samar Singhb, R. S. Chhokara, Raj Pal Meenaa, R. K. Sharmaa

aICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana) INDIA

b CCS Haryana Agricultural University, KVK, Karnal -132001 ( Haryana) INDIA

c University of Nottingham, School of Biosciences-LE125RD UK

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mamtakajla@yahoo.com

Abstract : About 9% of area on earth is under crops out of which 91% is under various stresses. On an average, about 50% yield losses are due to abiotic stresses mostly due to high temperature (20%), low temperature (7%), salinity (10%), drought (9%) and other abiotic stresses (4%). As there is no scope for increasing area under agriculture, the increased productivity from these stressed land is a must to meet the ever increasing demand. Further, the severity of abiotic stresses is likely to increase due to changing climate leading to adverse effect on crops. Therefore, abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, sodicity, acidity, water logging, heat, nutrient toxicities/ deficiencies etc need to be effectively addressed through adoption of management practices like tillage and planting options, residue management, sowing time, stress tolerant cultivars, irrigation scheduling and integrated nutrient management to conserve natural resources, mitigating their adverse effect and sustainable wheat production.

Keywords : Abiotic stresses, Irrigation scheduling, Residue retention, Nutrient management, Tillage


Download PDF


Plant sterols for human health - A review

Tanu Jain* and Shikha Bathla

Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Home Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jain.tanu25@gmail.com

Abstract : The aim of the article was to review phytosterols as functional food and its significance in lowering cholesterol as well as its specific effect on human health. Phytosterols has been known for its cholesterol lowering action long time back but the uprising of phytosterols in form of functional foods gained the interest once again. Fatty food matrix provides optimal solubility but fortification of phytosterols with other food matrices like low fat fermented milk, bread, juice are showing positive results. A dose of 2 g/day of either steryl or stanyl esters has been prescribed for an optimum effect which has been confirmed by FDA and EC. A number of studies have documented the safety and the efficiency of phytosterols. But there is still a big question mark on the use of it because of their adverse effect on body in form of Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs). It needs further investigation to elucidate effect of POPs within body.

Keywords : Cholesterol lowering agent, Phytostanols, Phytosterols, Sitosterolemia


Download PDF