Volume 7, Year 2015-Issue 1
Field evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance against banana stem weevil, Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) in Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh
D. Srinivasa Reddy1*, C. Madhumathi2, H. Naveena1 and L. Rajesh Chowdary3
1Department of Agricultural Entomology, Horticultural College and Research Institute, DRYSRHU, Ananthrajupeta -516105, Koduru, District Kadapa (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Horticulture, Horticultural Research Station, DRYSRHU, Ananthrajupeta-516105, Koduru, District Kadapa (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
3Department of Agricultural Entomology, Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Banana germplasm with 17 different accessions for resistance were screened against banana stem weevil, Odoiporous longicollis in Koduru region of Kadapa district (Andhra Pradesh). All the accessions had infestation of stem weevil but with varying percent infestation. The 17 accessions of germplasm had weevil infestation ranging from 10.0-100 percent in 2012 with maximum infestation of 100 percent in red banana (AAA genome) followed by Bontha selection-88.88 % (ABB), Karpuravalli-84.60% (AAB) and Ellakibale-64.7% (AB) and the lowest was in Sugandhalu-10.00% (AAB). In the year 2013, the infestation was in the range of 13.00-90.40% and with respect to infestation levels in different accessions, and the trend remained same as the earlier year wherein the highest infestation was recorded in red banana-90.40% followed by Bontha selection with the damage of 83.50 %, Karpuravalli (79.80%), Ellakibale (70.00%) and least in Sugandhalu-13.0% (AAB). There was no correlation between number of adults observed and percent damage and similarly no relation can be drawn between percent infestation and height of oviposition, This implies that the infestation caused by the weevils varied in different genotypes and also this information will be further helpful in selecting the resistant germplasms for future.
Keywords : Banana, Germplasm, Musa, Resistance, Stem weevil
K. Roy George*, N. A. Malini and D. Rajasree
Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College Kozhencherry - 689641 (Kerala), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Hematological parameters have been recognized as valuable tools for monitoring fish health. The aim of the present study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematological responses of different groups of freshwater teleosts during acclimation period. Haematological analysis was carried out in three different groups of teleosts namely Group I: Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), Group II: Anabas testudineus and Channa striatus (Perciformes), Group III: Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio (Cypriniformes). In all groups of teleosts, RBC and Hb were significantly (p<0.05) decreased after 7 days of captivity in response to stress factors raised in capture, handling and sampling procedure. WBC was found to be significantly (p<0.05) increased in group I (Siluriformes), group II (Perciformes) and group III (Cypriniformes) of teleosts after 7 days of captivity due to enhanced production of leucocytes in the hematopoietic tissue of the kidney and the spleen. RBC count and WBC count were found to be higher in H. fossilis and C. gariepinus than other groups of teleosts due to their active predacious nature. Hb values were high in 2 group (Perciformes) consisting of A. testudineus and C. striatus by virtue of their possessions of accessory respiratory organs. PCV, MCV and MCHC were significantly (p<0.05) increased in three groups of teleosts during acclimation values were high in second group of consisting of A. testudineus and C. striatus. MCH was higher in 3rd group of fishes consisting of L. rohita and C. carpio.
Keywords : Genotypes, Irrigated, Pearl millet, Rainfed.
Colonization behavior of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus uptake pattern of mycorrhizal sensitive upland paddy using hydroponics culture.
Swapan Kumar1*, Ashim Datta2, Arunabha Pal3 and Aniruddha Das1
1Department of Agricultural Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur -741252 (W.B.), INDIA
2Division of Soil and Crop Management, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal - 132001, (Haryana), INDIA
3Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur -741252 (W.B.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Three upland rice cultivars namely Vandana, Brown Gora and Kalinga collected from the Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (CRURRS) Hazaribag, Jharkhand of the Central Rice Research Institute, are mycorrhiza sensitive genotypes. Their affinity towards mycorrhizal colonization varied. The cv. Kalinga had the highest colonization followed by Vandana and Brown Gora. Variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affinity of the rice genotypes might be due to the variable demands of phosphorus nutrition of the different genotypes. To justify these variable demands of phosphorus among these three cultivars of rice, four different doses of phosphorus (5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm) were imposed to them in a system of hydroponics. Overall, among the three cultivars, the highest uptake efficiency (34% at 30 days, 57% at 45 days, 68% at 60 days and 70% at 75 days interval) throughout the growth period was noticed in the cv. Brown Gora, followed by Kalinga and Vandana. The physiological demands of phosphorus of these cultivars were finally estimated as the contribution of uptake phosphorus to the total dry matter production of the plants with respect to available phosphorus. The overall results of these estimations gave the highest value in cv. Kalinga followed by the cv. Vandana and Brown Gora. Therefore, the cultivars Brown Gora and Kalinga could be recommended for the cultivation of the vast upland rain-fed areas of the country for higher yield and increased phosphorus use efficiency which could ultimately contribute significantly to the food grain production of the country.
Keywords : Hydroponics, Mycorrhiza, Phosphorus, Upland rice
Evaluation of integrated nutrient management on the performance of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.]
R. Das*, A. R. Mandal, Anuj Priya, S. P. Das and J. Kabiraj
Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252 (W.B.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation was conducted during 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 at Horticulture Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Monhanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India, to find out the effect of organic manure, chemical fertilizers and bio fertilizers in an integrated manner for yield maximization and quality improvement in bottle gourd cv. Pusa Naveen. The experiment consisted of eleven nutrient based treatment combinations, including different level of applications of inorganic fertilizers (Urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash), organic manure (vermicompost) and bio fertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB). Present investigation clearly indicated the beneficial effect of integrated nutrient management on yield and quality characters of bottle gourd. The maximum length of main vine (226.00 cm), branches per plant (5.67), fruit number (10.00), fruit weight (873.33 g), fruit length (21.07 cm) and fruit diameter (8.18 cm) were recorded in the treatment which received equal proportions of N from inorganic and organic sources along with bio fertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB). Quality characters namely, total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid in bottle gourd fruit were enhanced in the most favourable way due to application of 75% N from inorganic source and 25% N from organic source along with biofertilizer (PSB). Keeping view on yield sustainability, balance in ecosystem, soil health improvement and good health of human beings, it may be suggested that vegetable growers particularly in new alluvial zone of West Bengal may supplement 25-50% recommended dose of nitrogen through vermicompost in bottle gourd cultivation along with biofertilizers viz. Azotobacter and PSB.
Keywords : Azotobacter, Biofertilizers, Bottle gourd, Nutrient management, PSB, Vermicompost
A field survey on abundance of biofuel plant species in Alur Taluk of Hassan District, Karnataka, India
A.C. Girish1*, S.C. Rangnath and Balakrishna Gowda2
*1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kandali, Hassan -573217 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Biofuel Park, Madenur Hassan, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore–573225, (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : There are more than 150 species of plants that could be used for biofuel production. Important among them in Karnataka are Honge (Pongamia pinnata), Neem (Azadiracta indica), Hippe (Maduca latifolia), Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Simarouba (Simarouba glauca). A field survey was conducted in Alur taluk of Hassan District, (75º 9´ to 12º 9´) Karnataka, to know the abundance of biofuel plant species and to estimate resource availability for extraction of oil and production of Biodiesel. The number of Households in the study villages ranged from 120 to 600 with population ranging from 60 to 2,500 and number of productive Honge trees varied from 3 to 2,000 trees/village yielding on an average around 2 to 10 kg seeds per tree with very few Neem and Hippe trees but Jatropha plants were present in every village with very low yielding potential (50-100 grams per plant). Majority of the biofuel plants present were in vegetative stage and few were yielding. The yield of biofuel plant species is quite promising and the process of seed for oil extraction is possible and provides employment to the rural youth in the taluk. The substantial demand has been noticed in Alur taluk for Honge and Neem oil cakes and the availability is meager. Substantial scope is available for growing of biofuel trees, seed collection, processing and marketing providing additional employment to rural people. There is an increased demand for the biofuels and by utilizing the available resources the rural youth can start their own enterprise.
Keywords : Biofuel, Hippe, Jatropha, Organic Manure, Pongamia, Rural employment
Effects of different plant growth regulators on in vitro callus induction in physic nut (Jatropha curcus L.)
Sunil Kumar1, Virendra Kumar2, Manoj Kumar Sharma1, Narendra Kumar3, Anil Kumar2, Kushal Pal Singh Tomar2, Sarjeet Kumar Sharma4, Mukesh Kumar Singh4, R. S. Sengar1 and Nidhi Jaiswal1
1Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (U.P.), INDIA
2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (U.P.), INDIA
3Department of Agronomy, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (U.P.), INDIA
4Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is an oil bearing crop growing in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different plant growth regulators on in vitro callus induction in physic nut (J. curcus). In the present study, it was observed that all the explants viz., leaf lamina, petioles, nodal segments and cotyledonary nodes showed good callus induction responses on various culture media thus tried. Leaf lamina and petioles showed 100.0% callus induction responses on different MS media supplemented with auxins and cytokinins alone or in combinations whereas, nodal segments and cotyledonary nodes showed maximum 89.6% and 83.9% callus induction respectively. The presence of 2, 4-D in culture media with auxins or cytokinins was essential for good callus growth. Among different explants tried, leaf lamina was the best responding explants and MS-13 media supplemented with 5×10-6 M NAA and 10-5 M 2, 4-D is the best callusing and growth supporting medium. However, the regenerative competence of the callus tissues can differ depending on the type of explants used because certain types of plant tissues have more favorable regeneration responses than others. Callus induction rate from all explant types was highest than other reports. The results obtained in the present study would facilitate the high callus induction and regeneration responses in J. curcus for its improvement using biotechnological tools.
Keywords : Auxins, Callus, Jatropha, Plant regeneration, Tissue culture
Utilization of chlorophyll content index (CCI) to infer yellow rust severity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
C. N. Mishra*, Satish Kumar, Vikas Gupta, Vinod Tiwari and Indu Sharma
Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal- 132001 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. (Pst) is a major constraint to wheat production in Northern India. In this study, 616 indigenous germplasm (IC) accessions of wheat were screened under field conditions against mixture of Pst isolates at DWR Karnal during 2012-13 crop season. Out of 616 accessions, 197 accessions were observed to be resistant (R), 115 moderately resistant (MR) to moderately susceptible (MS) and 304 as susceptible (S) against yellow rust. On the basis of days to heading, the accessions were grouped into four classes (early, medium early, medium late and late). Chlorophyll content index (CCI) recorded in flag leaf showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible lines in each classified group at 5% level of significance. The difference for CCI between resistant and moderately resistant plants was negligible, however in comparison with resistant plants, susceptible plants showed loss of 35-39% of chlorophyll. There was negative correlation (a correlation coefficient of – 0.60) between chlorophyll content and disease severity due to stripe rust in susceptible accessions.
Keywords : Chlorophyll reduction, Disease severity, Stripe rust, Wheat
In vitro and in vivo effect of eco-friendly chemicals on alternaria blight disease (Alternaria brassicae) and yield attributes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)
Amarendra Kumar1*,Santosh Kumar1, Rakesh Kumar2, Gireesh Chand1 and S.J. Kolte3
1Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-821310 (Bihar), INDIA
2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-821310 (Bihar), INDIA
3Department of Plant Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar -263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation was done to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of five eco-friendly chemicals in vitro and in vivo, on the management of alternaria blight and yield attributes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Varuna). Out of five eco-friendly chemicals, K2SO4 1000 ppm (64.28%) followed by ZnSO4 1000 ppm (63.88%) showed maximum inhibition of mycelial growth in comparison to check. 0.5% concentration of KCl (57.06%) followed by CaSO4 (59.50%) and K2SO4 (62.20%) showed significantly maximum effect on spore germination in comparison to check (74.60%). Spore intensity significantly increased by all the treatments except CaSO4 at 0.5% (40.18%) followed by K2SO4 at 0.5% (29.86%) and ZnSO4 0.75% (5.11% reduction) in comparison to check. The significantly minimum disease index on leaf over check was found by foliar spray of CaSO4 at 0.5%(23.58%) followed by CaSO4 at 1.5% (24.00%) and Na2B4O7.10H2O at 1.5% (24.08%). Na2B4O7.10H2O at 0.75% showed significantly lowest disease index (23.91%) on pod followed by K2SO4 at 1.5% (25.75%) and KCl at 1.5% (26.00%) in comparison to check. CaSO4 at 1.0% showed maximum number of primary branches (7.00), number of secondary branches (13.00) and total yield/ha (1917.30 kg/ha) in comparison to check. The results obtained from the present study suggested that K2SO4 showed maximum in vitro effect on Alternaria brassicae and CaSO4 and Na2B4O7.10H2O are providing maximum reduction of disease and increase in seed yield/ha that leads to efficient alternaria blight disease management strategies in field condition. These eco-friendly chemicals can protect the crops from alternaria blight diseases and increase the production and productivity of the Indian mustard crop.
Keywords : Alternaria blight, Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc, Eco-friendly chemicals, Mustard
Response of bio-regulators to yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj. and Cosson) under different irrigation environments
R. K. Dadhich1, R. S. Meena2*, M. L. Reager3 and B.C. Kansotia3
1National Seeds Corporation Limited, Sri Ganganagar- 335001 (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi -221005 (U.P.), INDIA
3Swami Keswanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334006 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field study was conducted during rabi seasons of 2008 and 2009 to evaluated of productivity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) by foliar spray of bio-regulators under different irrigation environments. Amongst treatments, the application of sufficient irrigation water (four irrigations) recorded the highest number siliqua per plant, higher number of seeds per siliqua, 1000 seed weight and yields as compared to all other irrigation treatments. Results show that an increased in seed yield of 92.40 and 39.37 % under sufficient irrigation and limited water condition in 2008 and 93.34% and 40.31% in 2009, respectively over deficient irrigation conditions, foliar sprays of 100 ppm thioglycollic acid at initiation of branching were recorded highest yield attributes and yields. Similarly, 500 ppm of thiourea at initiation of branching and flowering stages also gave second best highest yield attributes and yields as compared to all other bio-regulators spray stages. However, bio-regulators sprays were not recorded any significant effect on oil and protein content. The results were concluded that economic feasibility to improve productivity of Indian mustard with four irrigations levels and sprays of 100 ppm thioglycollic acid and 500 ppm of thiourea at initiation of branching and flowering stages under hyper arid environment.
Keywords : Indian mustard, Irrigation, Thiourea, Thioglycollic acid
Impact of resource conservation technologies on soil health and productivity of wheat in rice-wheat cropping system
Sanjay Kumar Mandal1, Rakesh Kumar1*, Amarendra Kumar2, Sanjay Kumar3, Yanendra Kumar Singh2, and Rajesh Kumar2
1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA
2Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA
3Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of resource conservation technologies on soil health and productivity of wheat in rice-wheat cropping system in split plot design with three replications. The physico-chemical parameters of the soils like pH and EC both maximum decreased almost significantly over control under treatments T2 (Ploughing twice by Cultivator, allowed to decompose weeds for a week then puddling by cross ploughing and planking), T3(Summer ploughing onset of monsoon by mould bold plough to invert the soil once in three years followed by subsequent ploughing by cultivator to puddle the soil) and C5 (GM + Paddy straw @ 50 q/ha) and C6 (GM + Rice husk @ 50 q/ha). Soil data revealed a highly significant increase in organic carbon content along with available N, P2O5 and K2O content under treatments T3 and C6 and their interactions(T3×C6)over control. This might be attributed to the improvement in physico-chemical properties of the soils. The significant (P<0.05) increase in yield attributes and yields of wheat grain and straw over control was observed under influence of the treatments T3 and C6 and their interaction except height and length of ear head. These observations were confirmed by the positive and highly significant correlation of yield of wheat grain with available N (r=0.74**), available P2O5 (r = 0.64**), and available K2O (r = 0.52**). Deep ploughing and green manuring in addition with other organic residues (GM+ rice husk) individually and/ or in combination improved the soil health significantly.
Keywords : Green manuring, Ploughing, Rice husk, Wheat
Effect of organic farming practices on soil and performance of soybean (Glycine max) under semi-arid tropical conditions in Central India
S. B. Aher1*,2, B. L. Lakaria1, Swami Kaleshananda2, A. B. Singh1, S. Ramana1, K. Ramesh1 and J. K. Thakur1
1Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal-462038 (M.P.), INDIA
2Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Narendrapur, Kolkata- 700103 (W.B.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of organic farming practices on soil health and crop performance of Soybean (Glycine max).The crop cultivar JS-335 of soybean was grown with 30:26.2:16.6 kg ha-1 (NPK) recommended dose of fertilizers under three management practices viz., organic, chemical and integrated (50:50) in randomized block design, replicated three times. Soil organic carbon, available N, P and K, microbial enzymatic activities, total biomass, seed yield and harvest index (HI) were analysed during the study. It was observed that soil organic carbon (11.3 g kg-1), available N (125 mg kg-1), P (49.7 mg kg-1) and soil enzyme activities viz., dehydrogenase (DHA) (98.20 µ grams TPF/g soil/24 h) and alkaline phosphatase (178.2 µ grams p-nitro phenol/g soil/h) were found significantly higher in the plot managed organically while available K (320.1 mg kg-1) was not significant with respect to chemical and integrated practices. The total biomass (1927 kg ha-1) and seed yield (601 kg ha-1) of soybean was found highest in organic farming practices followed by integrated and chemical practices. Very poor microbial activities were observed in chemically managed plots. Thus, the study demonstrated that the organic farming practice improved soil health and performance of soybean crop.
Keywords : Crop performance, Organic farming, Soil environment, Soybean (Glycine max)
Effect of rain simulation on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae population density in guttation fluid and on the spread of bacterial blight in rice
R. Kiran1* and P. P. Singh2
Department of Plant pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Bacterial blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is most serious biotic constraint of rice production in Punjab, influenced mainly by environmental factors and nutritional factors applied to the rice crop. Present study aimed at observing the relationship between rain simulation and disease spread. More number of bacterial colonies was recovered from the susceptible rice cultivar (Pusa 1121) plants where no-rain was simulated as compared to those where rain was simulated. Mean bacterial log cfu in rain simulated plant was 4.88 as compared to 5.67 in non rain simulated plots after 1day of inoculation. The population densities of bacteria increased gradually in both the treatments. The log cfu of bacteria was 5.84 in rain simulated plots as compared to 6.28 in non rain simulated plots after 7 days of inoculation. However after 14 days of inoculation, the bacterial population in guttation fluid was found to be non-significant at 5% level of significance in rain and non rain simulated plots but the bacterial population was found to be less as compared to that after 7 days of inoculation. Rain washed off the guttation fluid which resulted in decrease of bacterial load in the infected leaf. The significant difference at 5 % level of significance was observed between the percent disease severity and disease spread was also observed in rain simulated plots and no rain simulated plots in cultivar Pusa 1121 which is a bacterial blight resistant cultivar.
Keywords : Guttation, log CFU, Pusa 1121, Rain simulation
Statistical relationship between date of sowing and the sorghum shootfly (Atherigona Soccata, Rondani L)
S. T. Pavan Kumar*, Y. N. Havaldar1, Shekharappa2, and Adam Kamei3
* Department of Agricultural Statistics, Mohanpur-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
1Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005 (Karnataka), INDIA
2All India Coordinated Sorghum Crop Improvement Project, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005 (Karnataka), INDIA
3Department of Plant Pathology, B. C. K. V., Mohanpur-741252 ( West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was based on the available data of eleven years for shoot fly from 2000-2010 for kharif season. Different models viz., linear and non-linear were tried to fit, Amongst, the linear, quadratic and cubic models produced better coefficient of determination and the models viz., EGG(Shoot fly Egg) =3.760+0.196(DOS) (R2=0.892) and EGG(Shoot fly Egg) =1.077+1.195(DOS)-0.087(DOS^2), which produced highest R2 (0.896 at p=0.05) with less standard error (0.419) and quadratic model was also the best fit model in determining the oviposition of shoot fly, which explained 89.6 per cent variation in the oviposition of shoot fly for the 7 days after emergence of the sorghum crop. For the dead heart development (14 DAE), the model %DH (% Dead Heart) =3.535+3.104(DOS) found best fit with highest coefficient of determination of 0. 856 and exhibited significant positive relationship with the date of sowing and during 21 DAE the cubic model %DH (% Dead Heart) =10.619+10.115(DOS)-3.466(DOS^2)+0 .321(DOS ^3) had significant coefficient of determination value of 0.988 with least standard error 0.885. The quadratic model during the 28 days after emergence of the crop %DH (% Dead Heart) =-6.234+22.858(DOS) -1.399(DOS^2) found best fit and produced significant R2 (0.929 at 5 per cent level) and showed better relationship with the date of sowing. It was found that, both linear and non-linear relationship exists between dates of sowing and shoot fly of sorghum during kharif season.
Keywords : Dead heart, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, Sorghum shoot fly
Krishna Rolania* and M. C. Bhargawa1
*Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar, INDIA
1Department of Entomology, Shree Karan Narendra Agricultural University, Jobner, Jaipur (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A laboratory experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 at SKN Agricultural University, Jobner on evaluation of different plant oils ,viz., neem, karanj, mustard, groundnut, lemongrass and citronella oils (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ml/100g seeds) and one chemical, malathion (0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 per cent) against Lasioderma serricorne on fennel seeds. The malathion at all concentrations was found to be most lethal, causing cent per cent mortality of adults. Neem oil was found to be most effective in increasing the developmental period (78.23 days) and reducing adult emergence (19.02 per cent), longevity of adult (male: 11.1 days and female: 12.0 days), seed damage (5.10 per cent), weight loss (2.60 per cent) followed by karanj and lemongrass oils at 1.0 ml/100g.
Keywords : Cigarette beetle, Fennel, Karanj, Lasioderma serricorne, Neem, Oils
Effect of different artificial diets on the adults biological attributes of sugarcane stalk borer, Chilo auricilius Dudgeon and evaluation of their costs
M. Soniya Devi 1* and Rabinder Kaur2
11Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, INDIA
2Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different artificial diets on the adult’s biological attributes of sugarcane stalk borer (Chilo auricilius Dudgeon) and their costs. Considering the mean values of first and second generation the maximum adult emergence (80.66 and 79.25), longer adult longevity (4.29 and 4.28), highest fecundity (233.45 and 225.98) and viability of egg (216.25 and 208.74) was recorded on diets A and C. Also the sex-ratio on diets A (M:F::1:1.16) and C (M:F::1:1) favoured the emergence of more number of females than males during development. On the basis of the economics also the artificial diets D, C and A (Rs. 48.62, Rs. 48.32, Rs. 103.43, respectively) were found relatively cheaper than the natural food (Rs 166.67). Thus, the overall performance of C. auricilius on diets A and C was found comparatively better than the other diets examined. Therefore, it can be used as an alternate diet other than natural diet E (sugarcane) for the mass rearing of C. auricilius in the laboratory.
Keywords : Artificial diets, Chilo auricilius, Natural diet, Rearing.
Kumkum Pandey* and Deepa Vinay
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar -263145(Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Occupational low back pain (LBP) remains the leading safety and health challenge for many industries. The present study was focused to evaluate the physical demands of the manual material handling task in terms of back pain to assess the potential risk of injury. This investigation measures the prevalence of low back pain of rice mill workers in Rudrapur block, District Udhamsingh Nagar, Uttarakhand. Sixty workers, extensively involved in manual material handling (MMH) task (including, loading, unloading, stacking, filling carrying of rice or paddy sack etc.) were investigated for the presence of low back pain and associated personal and workplace risk factors and symptoms. The severity, intensity; frequency, duration and medication of low back pain was assessed utilizing the ‘Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale’ developed by Ruta and Garratt (1994) on the basis of scoring in terms of light, moderately light, heavy , very heavy and extremely heavy back pain. The interpretation of scores revealed that 18.33 % respondents were falling under the category of moderately light pain (M), 66.66 % respondents were under heavy back pain (H), only 15 % were under the category of very heavy back pain (V), whereas none of the respondents were under the category of light pain (l) and extremely heavy pain (E). It was concluded that there remains an interest in developing integrated models to predict LBP among Rice mill workers using ergonomic and psychosocial factors as well as control strategies to reduce risk of injury.
Keywords : Low Back Pain, Manual Material Handling, MSD, Scale
Usha Kumari. R, S.M. Lakshmi and G.Thamodharan*
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai 625104, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. commonly known as ‘Bael’ tree is included in the red- listed medicinal tree in South India. Riped and unripe fruits, root, bark and leaves of the tree are used in ayurvedic preparation for various ailments. This study was conducted to standardize the media for multiple shoot induction from different explants under in vitro condition. Among the various explants viz., meristematic tip, nodal bud, tender leaf, auxillary bud and cotyledon tried in different media, auxiliary bud had shown good response for shoot induction in 36 to 39 days. Among the various treatments viz., WPM supplemented with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) (0.5 to 3.0mg/lit), Kinetin (KN) (0.5 to 3mg/lit) and Indole acetic acid (IAA) (0.5 to 2mg/lit) for multiple shoot induction, the treat mental combination of WPM supplemented with BAP, KN and IAA, @ of each 0.5 mg/lit resulted in 7.75 shoots per cotyledon. The same combination, ½ strength of the medium with 1mg/lit BAP+2mg/lit NAA+ 1% AC resulted in root formation. Hence, as a means of in vitro conservation using cotyledon as explants microproagation is possible in bael.
Keywords: Bael; hormonal combination; multiple shoot; Shoot induction; Root induction
Heena Naz, Seema Kwatra and Pragya Ojha*
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Long hours of static work with awkward working postures at traditionally designed looms can cause high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among handloom weavers. Because of incompatible working situations handloom weaver in textile industries are confronting with many work related musculoskeletal problems related to pain and discomfort in upper and lower extremities. Keeping this in view, the present study was planned to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and postural discomfort among handloom weavers. For this study, 64 (male and female) handloom weavers aged 20-55 years were selected randomly from Almora and Nainital districts of Uttarakhand state. To collect the information, standardized Nordic questionnaire was used to assess pain and discomfort in different body regions of handloom weavers. It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during weaving activities. Consequently they suffered from high discomfort in their different body parts. High rate of pain and musculoskeletal disorder was most prevalent in right wrist, left wrist, hip/thigh, neck and lower back of the workers. The data revealed that since last 12 months, total 76.56 percent workers were suffered with pain and discomfort in right hand and 73.44 percent workers had pain and discomfort in both elbows. During last month, 73.44 percent workers were suffered with pain and discomfort in upper back because of awkward working postures whereas during 7 days, total 59.38 percent workers had pain in lower back. The study indicates that the traditional handloom weaving demands immediate ergonomic intervention in the workstation and process design.
Keywords : Ergonomics, Handloom weavers, Musculoskeletal discomfort, Textile industry, Working posture
Evaluation of fungicides, biocontrol agents and botanicals for management of damping-off in cabbage seedlings caused by Fursarium moniliforme sheld
Salma Begum*, R. K. Tombisana Devi and N. Iboton Singh
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, CAU, Imphal-795004 (Manipur), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The antagonistic effect of 10 fungicides, four biocontrol agents and 10 locally available botanicals in controlling the growth and sporulation of Fusarium moniliformein vitro were tested. A pot culture experiment was also conducted to study the effect of seed treatment and soil treatment alone or in combination on germination and seedling vigour of cabbage. In vitro evaluation of ten fungicides by poisoned food technique showed that all the fungicides efficiently inhibited complete inhibition of the linear growth of the fungus was observed with Thiophenate methyl, Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Difenconazole, Propiconazole, Hexaconazole, Sixer and Tricyclazole. Sporulation was completely inhibited by all the fungicides evaluated. In dual culture technique of the fungus and biocontrol agents, of the four biocontrol agents evaluated the antagonists, T. hamatum completely overgrew the pathogen, T. harzianum colonized on half of the growth of the pathogen, T. viride remained locked with the fungus at the point of contact and P. citrinum formed inhibition zone with the fungus. Sporulation was completely inhibited by all the four antagonists. Among the ten locally available botanicals tested by poisoned food technique in vitro, garlic extract showed maximum fungitoxic property followed wild sage (Lantana camara), onion (Allium cepa), neem (Azadirachta indica), goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides) and marigold (Tagetes erecta) . In pot culture experiment, the least disease incidence was recorded in soil treatment with carbendazim (26%) followed by T. harzianum (29%) and P. glabrum (29.7%). However,considering the various drawbacks and hazardous effects resulting from use of chemicals, biocontrol agents and plant extracts can be recommended to use in raising healthy seedlings free from pre- and post-emergence damping-off.
Keywords : Biocontrol agents, Botanicals, Damping-off, Fungicides, Fusarium moniliforme
Traditional practices of utilization and conservation of non-wood forest products by Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh
Naresh Kumar*, Sanjeev Kumar, Bikram Singh, B. P. Mishra, Barun Singh and Vikas Singh
College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, East Siang 791102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding authors. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The survey was carried out during 2009-11 to collect the information of Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) utilized by the Adi tribes of East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh. It was observeds that Adi tribes used to collect different NWFPs such as wild fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllum Lam., Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A. DC., Canarium strictum Roxb. etc.), vegetables (Bauhinia variegata L., Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw., Moringa oleifera Lam. etc.), spices (Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eber., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. and Piper longum L.), fibres (Calamus flagellum Griff. ex Mart., Dendrocalamus hemiltonii Nees et Arn. ex Munro, Pandanus nepaulensis H. St. John and Sterculia villosa Roxb.), floss (Bombax ceiba L.,), broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Ktze.), thatching material (Livistona jenkinsiana Griff.), various bamboo and cane species, and other miscellaneous products from the forests and community lands. NWFPs played a significant role in supporting the livelihood of Adi tribes as it has been observed that 32.50 %, 56.67 % and 10.83 % people were earning < Rs. 3000, Rs. 3000 - 6000 and > Rs. 6000, respectively from the sale of different NWFPs. Majority of respondents (80.83 %) were having the opinion that the availability of different NWFPs has declined considerably and maximum (85 %) respondents advocated that the availability of these products would further decrease in future also. Further, Adi tribal community is playing an important role in conservation of different NWFPs yielding species by domesticating them in their home gardens.
Keywords : Adi tribes, Conservation, Domestication, Non-wood forest products
Salma Begum* and P. S. Nath
Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract :The anthracnose of chilli caused by Colletotrichum capsici is a widespread problem limiting the profitable cultivation and seed production of chilli throughout the major chilli growing regions of India. Four isolates (SCC1, SCC2, SCC3 and SCC4) of C. capsici were collected from different chilli growing areas of West Bengal. An experiment on efficacy of four botanical oils viz., Garlic (Allium sativum), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Polyalthia (Polyalthia longifolia) and Citronella(Cymbopogon nardus) at concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% and two isolates each of three biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride and Pseudomonas flourescens) were carried out against these isolates of C. capsici in vitro. The result revealed significant (5% level of significance) antifungal activities of these botanicals and biocontrol agents. Garlic gave cent per cent inhibition of mycelial growth of all the four isolates of C. capsici at all the concentrations tested. However, neem showed cent percent inhibition of mycelial growth of C. capsici at 0.1%. Citronella was least effective among the botanical oils. Among the biocontrol agents tested T. harzianum isolate Th-2 was found most effective giving 77.78%, 100%, 83.33 % and 88.89% inhibition on the mycelial growth of SCC1, SCC2, SCC3 and SCC4 respectively followed by T. harzianum isolate Th-1 inhibiting 74.00%, 78.9% 81.7% and 80.90% of the mycelial growth of SCC1, SCC2, SCC3 and SCC4 respectively. P. fluorescens was least effective. Thus, garlic, neem, polyalthia, T. harzianumand T. viride can be utilized for management of anthracnose of chilli.
Keywords : Anthracnose, Biocontrol Agents, Botanical Oils, Colletotrichum capsici, Isolates
Influence of egg parasitic fungus, Engyodontium aranearum against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita
M. Muthulakshmi*, B. Anita and S. Subramanian
Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The indigenous egg parasitic fungal isolates, Engyodontium aranearum was evaluated for its nematicidal potential against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. The study revealed 53.75 per cent egg parasitization by the fungal isolate. Fungal colonies grew over the eggs and fungal hyphae penetrated the egg shells resulting in rupturing of egg shell layers, enzymatic digestion and empty eggs. The fungal culture filtrate was found to inhibit egg hatching by 83.42 per cent and caused upto 91.36 per cent juvenile mortality. This isolate also reduced the attraction of infective juveniles towards tomato root by 79.29 per cent. It seems to be a first report on the antinemic property of the fungus E. aranearum against root knot nematode, M. incognita and its effect was found comparable with Paecilomyces lilacinus which is known as an efficient nematode egg parasitic fungus.
Keywords : Engyodontium aranearum, Hatching, Mortality, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Parasitization, Root knot nematode
Regeneration of Indian maize genotypes (Zea mays L.) from immature embryo culture through callus induction.
N. Malini1*, C. R. Ananadakumar2 and S. Hari ramakrishnan3
1ARS, Kovilpatti, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, INDIA.
2Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, INDIA.
3Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Callus induction and regeneration ability of five maize genotypes UMI 757, UMI 615, UMI 112, UMI 285 and CO 1 and one promising maize hybrids COH(M) 5 were investigated using 14 days old immature embryos as explants. Callus induction depends on genotype, explants (age and size of explants), medium, type of auxin and their concentration. Explants grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l 2, 4 - D (2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid), 0.3 mg/l kinetin with 30 g/l maltose showed the highest percentage of embryogenic callus induction. Among the six genotypes tested, COH (M) 5 maize hybrids have highest percentage of embryogenic calli. The embryogenic calli incubated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP (Benzyl Amino Purine), 0.2 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene Acetic Acid) with 1.0 mg/l kinetin was found to give the highest organogenesis response and regeneration of plantlets.
Keywords: Callus induction, Immature embryo, Maize, Regeneration
Eco-friendly dyeing of wool and pashmina fabric using Quercus robur L. (fruit cups) dye and Salix alba L. (wood extract) mordant
Syed Maqbool Geelani1*, Shoukat Ara1, Pradeep Kumar Mishra2, S.J.A. Bhat3, Syed Hanifa4, Shamsul Haq1, Iqbal Jeelani5, Gazala Qazi1, Asif H Sofi6, Shakeel A Mir5, P.A. Khan3, Sarfaraz A Wani6 and A S.M. Raja7
1Division of Environmental Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar-190025 (J&K), INDIA.
2Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221005.(UP), INDIA
3Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura-193201, (J&K), INDIA
4Department of Food Sciences & Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006 (J&K), INDIA
5Division of Agricultural Statistics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar-190025 (J&K), INDIA
6Division of Livestock Products Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shuhama-190006 (J&K), INDIA
7Division of Textile Manufacture and Textile chemistry, Central Sheep and wool Research Institute, Avikanagar-304501 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Study was conducted to investigate the dyeing potential of Quercus robur L. (fruit cups) dye and Salix alba L. (wood extract) mordant on wool and pashmina fabrics. The experiment was conducted keeping in view the environmental safety by using unutilized plant materials and excluding the usage of chemical agents. The dyeing was carried out individually including and excluding mordant adopting different mordanting methods. The parameters like percent absorption, colour coordinates, colour strength (K/S), relative colour strength and colour fastness with regard to washing, light and rubbing were investigated. The results revealed higher percent absorption of mordanted samples than unmordanted samples. Colour coordinates (L*a*b*, Chroma, hue and ∆E) of dyed wool and pashmina fabric exhibited satisfactory results. The colour strength (K/S) and relative colour strength of pashmina fabric recorded higher than wool fabric. The fastness properties to washing, light and rubbing showed satisfactory grades including and excluding natural mordant. However, the grades of mordanted samples were found better than unmordanted samples. The dye and mordant in isolation and in combination showed beautiful colours and shades on selected fabrics with satisfactory retention properties, hence can be utilized commercially for coloration of wool and pashmina fabrics.
Keywords : Dyeing, Pashmina, Quercus robur, Salix alba, Wool
Utilization of extracted substance from Indian almond leaves, Terminalia catappa L. for preparation of folk medicinal cream for the use of skin protection
P. Muangthai*, P. Chawenggrum and W. Khunwarakul
Department of Chemistry, Srinakharinwirot University, 114 Sukhumvit 23 , Bangkok city, THAILAND
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The aim of this work was to study the method to prepare the folk medicinal cream for the use of skin protection from the extracted substance of Indian almond leaves, Terminalia catappa L. in 4 periods as young green leaf, mature green leaf, orange red leaf and brown leaf by 4 methods. Tannic acid was the key index in preparation ,and tested by TLC and quantized its content. β-carotene was also TLC test in quality check. The study showed that the brown leaves sample treated by heating at 100oC for 5 minutes and continue fermentation for 21 days, gave the extracted solution that contained highest tannic acid approximately as 80 mg/100g and was considered the best one. The extracted solution was used as one ingredient in folk cream. In this work, the four formulations with variation of extracted solution were studied and analysed total phenolic compound, tannic acid and antioxidant inhibition power. The cream with more extracted substance showed total phenolic compound, tannic acid more than those fewer content of extracted substance. This work found that the skin cream protection with antioxidation substance could made from extracted substance of Indian almond leaves.
Keywords : Extracted substance, Folk medicinal cream, Indian almond, Tannic acid
R. T. Maruthi 1* and K. Jhansi Rani2
1Crop Improvement Division, Central Research Institute for Jute & Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata- 700120 (West Bengal), INDIA
2Department of Seed Science and Technology, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030 (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Forty three genotypes of maize were evaluated for eleven traits at the College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to study the genetic divergence and various genetic parameters. There was a significant (P<0.01) difference between genotypes for all the characters, which revealed wide range of variability and high heritability for all the characters. The genetic advance as percent of mean was high for grain yield per plant (73.19%), ear height (51.05%), number of kernels per row (44.40%), plant height (43.46%), 100 grain weight (42.88%), ear length (30.79%), number of kernel rows per ear (25.23%), and ear girth (22.37%) indicating additive gene action for these traits. D2 analysis partitioned the forty three genotypes into six clusters. The maximum inter cluster distance (39.38) was observed between cluster I and cluster V. Grain yield per plant (38.43%), plant height (14.29%), 100 grain weight (12.85%) and number of kernels per row (12.07%) contributed greatly towards diversity.
Keywords : Cluster analysis, Genetic advance, Heritability, Maize
Evaluation of different modules for the management of tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera pest of tomato
B. L. Jakhar* and Suman
Centre of Excellence for Research on Pulses, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar -385506 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Among, six modules tested against Helicoverpa armigera on tomato, the IPM module I consisting interspersing of 1 row of african marigold after every 8 rows of tomato as well as on the periphery of the plot and spray of neem based formulation gromin 1% EC @ 0.5 ml /l on appearance of the first instar larvae.IPM module II was interspersing of 1 row of african marigold after every 8 rows of tomato as well as on the periphery of the plot spray of neem based formulation gromin 1% EC @ 0.5 ml /l on appearance of the first instar larvae and two spray of HaNPV @ 350 LE/ha alternated with neem oil @ 0.5% + 0.1% soap solution. IPM module III consisting interspersing of 1 row of african marigold after every 8 rows of tomato as well as on the periphery of the plot and two spray of Beauvaria basiana @ 40g/10 l at appearance of first instar larvae alternated with Nikuchhi @ 1.0%. and IPM module IV are growing of african marigold after every 8 rows of tomato as well as on the periphery of the plot and two spray of HaNPV @ 350 LE/ha on appearance of first instar larvae followed by spray of Decidan 32.8% EC @ 15ml/10 litre. The IPM module V was alternate spray of Polytrin c 44% EC @ 10ml/10 litre on appearance of first instar larvae and subsequent spray at 15 days intervals and Module VI was Control. IPM-IV module was found highly effective and economical for management of tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera and it exhibited least tomato fruit borer damage (3.44%) and maximum tomato yield (257.25q/ha). This research gave the best result to farmers for the control of H. armigera in tomato crops.
Keywords :Bio-control, Helicoverpa, IPM, Tomato
Role of glucose in enhancing life and potency of Cirrhinus mrigala spermatozoa during cryopreservation
C. Judith Betsy, J. Stephen Sampath Kumar* and C. B. T. Rajagopalasamy
Department of Aquaculture, Fisheries College & Research Institute, Tuticorin– 628008, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Cryopreservation of fish gametes is an emerging technology and breeding with cryopreserved gametes is advancement in fish seed production. Success of cryopreservation is evaluated by the post - thaw motility of the spermatozoa, an for which energy is required. Cryopreservation is known to cause changes in the seminal plasma that would alter the energy supply for the motility of the spermatozoa. Therefore, energy supplementation is found to be useful during cryopreservation. Cirrhinus mrigala spermatozoa were cryopreserved along with glucose as a co-cryoprotectant after 1:100 dilutions with 0.85% physiological saline as extender and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (85:15). The diluents contained glucose at four different concentrations, viz., T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.5%), T3 (0.75%) and T4 (1%). The diluted milt was equilibrated for 10 min at 5˚ C and loaded into 0.25 ml straws. The loaded straws were then frozen with LN2 vapour for 5 min and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Observations were made once in 7 days for 42 days on motility parameters based on which the duration, score, pattern and percentage were determined. The spermatozoa cryopreserved with glucose at 0.5% concentration showed the highest motility duration of 204±3.6 s whereas Control group showed motility duration of only 83.33± 4.5 s on 42nd day. The difference in motility duration was statistically significant (P>0.025).The present study revealed the benefits of adding glucose a t0.5% during cryopreservation as it could help in maintaining the motility duration and survival of spermatozoa.
Keywords :Cirrhinus mrigala, Cryopreservation, Energy supplements, Glucose, Spermatological parameters
Effect of Integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth attributes, biomass yield, secondary nutrient uptake and quality parameters of bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)
M. Thirunavukkarasu* and T. Balaji
Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Organic manure from different sources could be an effective substitute of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to study the impact of various sources of organic manures viz., sole application of composted pressmud, vermicompost, sewage sludge and farmyard manure and its combination with various levels of inorganic fertilizers on growth attributes, biomass yield, yield attributes, secondary nutrient uptake and its available status and quality parameters of bhendi (A. esculentus (L.) Moench). The results indicated that application of pressmud @ 5 t ha-1 with 50 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer had recorded the highest calcium and magnesium uptake of 30.9 and 15.4 kg ha-1 respectively and biomass yield of 2233.2 kg ha-1, In comparison to control, the increases in biomass yield and calcium and magnesium uptake were 20 and 51 and 136% higher under the same set of treatment combinations . The results revealed that treatment received with pressmud application @ 5 t ha-1 along with 50 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers registered highest available calcium and magnesium content of 0.14 and 0.28% respectively. In addition to that, there was an improvement in growth parameters such as plant height and number of branches plant-1 at all the growth stages of crop and also quality attributes viz., crude fibre (10.2%) and mucilage content (1.56%) were recorded significantly highest by same treatment compared to control (15.0 and 1.2% respectively). Among the organics, pressmud based inorganic fertilizers application was suitable for higher biomass yield, improvement in quality parameters and also maintaining the fertility status of the secondary nutrients in soil.
Keywords : Biomass yield, Growth attributes, Pressmud, Quality parameters, Secondary nutrient uptake
Rakesh Devlash1*, Naval Kishore1 and Guru Dev Singh1
CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Hill Agriculture Research and Extension Centre, Bajaura, Kullu -175125 (H.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Under field conditions, various fungicide molecules were validated for their effectiveness on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. consecutively for three years under artificial field epiphytotic conditions. Seven fungicides viz., propiconazole 25%EC (tilt @ 0.1%), tebuconazole 25.9% m/m EC (folicur @ 0.1%), triademefon 25%WP (bayleton @ 0.1%), propiconazole 25%EC (tilt @ 0.05%), tebuconazole 25.9% m/m EC (folicur @ 0.05%), triademefon 25%WP (bayleton@ 0.05%), and mancozeb 75%WP (dithane M45 @ 0.2%) with various concentrations were tested for their effectiveness in controlling barley stripe rust severity. All fungicide applications resulted in lower disease severity and higher grain yields than untreated check plots. All the fungicides @ 0.1% concentrations reduced disease severity ranging from 87.8% to 95.6% except Mancozeb @ 0.2% (34.4%). Significant higher yield was obtained with Propiconazole @ 0.1% (26.7 q/ha) followed by Tebuconazole @ 0.1% (25.2 q/ha) and Triademefon @ 0.1% (24.5 q/ha). The present study revealed propiconazole as the most effective fungicide for the control of stripe rust of barley under epiphytotic conditions.
Keywords : Barley, Fungicides, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, Stripe rust
Study on comparative efficacy of bio-organic nutrients on plant growth, leaf nutrient contents and fruit quality attributes of kiwi fruit
Babita Khachi1, Som Dev Sharma2, Ghumare Vikas3, Pramod Kumar4 and Muzaffar Mir5
1Department of Fruit Science, Dr.Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA
2Regional Horticultural Research & Training Station, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Bajuara, Kullu-715101 (H. P.), INDIA
3Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur- 721302 (West Bengal), INDIA
4Regional Horticultural Research & Training Station, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Reckong Peo, Kinnaur-172107 (H. P.), INDIA
5Junior Scientist, Department of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu-180009 (J & K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The comparative efficacy of bio-organic nutrients on cropping behavior and fruit quality of kiwifruit was analyzed using farmyard manure (FYM), vermicompost (VC), biofertilizers (BF), green manure (GM), and vermiwash (VW). Among various treatments the combination of FYM at 15 kg/vine, GM, VC at 15kg/vine, BFat50-g/ vine and VW at 2kg/vine significantly improved cropping behavior. This superior combination also resulted in considerably greater amounts of leaf macro-and micronutrients: N (2.49%), P (0.26%), K (1.48%), iron (Fe: 208.0 mg/kg), copper (Cu: 17.8 mg/kg), zinc (Zn: 36.2 mg/kg), and manganese (Mn: 88.3 mg/kg),which might be responsible for better cropping behavior, productivity and nutrient profile for sustainable kiwi fruit production. It can be concluded that with use of various sources of bio-organic materials under organic farming regime, there will be sufficient improvement in fruit quality and plant nutrient contents.
Keywords :Biofertilizer, Bio-organic nutrients, FYM, Green manure, Kiwi fruit, Vermiwash
M. Srivastava1, D. Mogra1* and P.Gupta2
1Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing, College of Home Science, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur –313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Department of chemistry, Agra College, Agra - 282004 (UP), INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Applicability of natural dyes has increased several folds in the past few years due to the eco-friendly approach of the people. This paper concerns with the dyeing of silk fabric with colorant extracted from Rheum emodi (commonly known as rhubarb, himalayan rhubarb, Indian rhubarb) in the presence of selected five natural mordants. Extract using hot percolation with methanol was (27.55%) found suitable and maximum absorption (λmax) was observed at pH of 10 in aqueous solution. A wide range of shades ranging from yellow to olive green were obtained. As per the visual evaluation Concentration (0.1%), dyeing time (60 min.), mordant concentration (2%) and pre mordanting method were observed optimized for dyeing. From the results of fastness grade for sunlight and washing it is concluded that the samples mordanted with Harda (Terminalia chebula) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were excellent followed by Anar (Punica granatum), Bahera (Termirudia belerica) and Katth (Acacia Catechu).
Keywords : Extraction, Mordants, Natural, Rheum emodi, Silk
Deterrent effect of plant extracts against Callosobruchus maculatus on stored cowpea in Saurashtra (Gujarat, India)
J. A. Chudasama*, N. B. Sagarka1 and Satyakumari Sharma1
*Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh – 362001 (Gujarat), INDIA.
1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh – 362001 (Gujarat), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A laboratory study was conducted at the JAU, Junagadh (Gujarat) during 2013-14 on the deterrent effect of different aqueous plant extracts against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored seeds of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.). Among different aqueous extracts of plants materials, maximum percentage of oviposition deterrence was observed in custard apple seed extract (67.19%), custard apple leaf extract (65.95%), neem seed extract (65.44%), mustard seed extract (64.65%) and jatropha leaf extract (64.16%) at 5 per cent concentration. The maximum adult emergence reduction was seen in custard apple seed extract (78.45%), custard apple leaf extract (77.14%) and neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) (77.09%) at 5 per cent dose level. Minimum weight loss percentage was observed in the cowpea seeds treated with custard apple seed extract at 5% dose level, which recorded 79.20%. The results revealed that all of the tested materials with some variations had deterrent and toxic effects against the pest.
Keywords : Callosobruchus maculatus, Cowpea, Plant extract
Bio-intensive integrated management strategy for mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Sunita Yadav* and S. P. Singh
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125001 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Among the various treatments evaluated for their bio-efficacy against mustard aphid on Indian mustard during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, the spray of Dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l followed by Verticillium lecanii @ 108 CS/ml was proved to be the best treatment with pooled mean aphid population of 4.5, 3.25 and 1.65 aphids/plant as against 22.0, 24.0 and 26.0 aphids/plant in the control after 3, 7 and 10 days of treatment, respectively. The pooled mean seed yield was also maximum (1485.0 kg/ha) in this treatment as compared to control (1305.0 kg/ha).The treatment was found on par with spray of dimethoate @ 1 ml/l followed by Coccinella septempunctata @ 5,000 beetles/ha with pooled mean aphid population of 5.0, 4.0 and 2.0 aphids/plant after 3, 7 and 10 days of treatment, respectively and pooled mean seed yield of (1470.0 kg/ha). But the cost benefit ratio was maximum (7.25) in treatment dimethoate followed by C. septempunctata and NSKE @ 5% followed by C. septempunctata@ 5,000 beetles/ha (6.68). Thus, entomopathogenic fungi like V. lecanii or NSKE along with release of C. septempunctata can be used as alternative measure to manage mustard aphid instead of solely relying on insecticides.
Keywords :Brassica, Coccinella septempunctata, Dimethoate, NSKE, Verticillium lecanii
Dynamics of potassium by the combined use of organic manures and inorganic potassium fertilizers on available nutrients of groundnut crop (Arachis hypogea) in Madukkur soil series
K.V. Nathiya1* and V. Sanjivkumar 2
1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003. 2Agricultural Research Station, Kovilpatti, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of combined use of organic manures with inorganic Potassium (K) fertilizers on available nutrients of groundnut crop under Madukkur soil series at Tamil Nadu Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during kharif season of 2008-2009. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (factorial) with two replications. Main pot treatments comprised of three types of manures viz., control (M0), pressmud @ 5 t ha-1 (M1), vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1 (M2), farmyard manure @12.5 t ha-1 ( M3 ) and sub pot treatment comprised of 4 levels of K viz., 0 (K0), 100 (K1), 75 (K2) and 50 kg of K2O ha-1 (K3) with a recommended dose of fertilizer respectively. The results revealed that the among the various levels of treatments, Among the nutrient level 100 kg K2O ha-1(K1) with pressmud @ 5 t ha-1 (M1) (K1M1) levels have recorded the highest values of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (211.77, 12.76, and 256.87 kg ha-1) while the untreated control registered the lowest values. The available calcium and magnesium content was found highest (228.83 and 123.55 ppm) when applied with 100 kg K2O ha-1with pressmud @ 5 t ha-1( K1M1 ) respectively and the lowest value recorded in the control pot.
Keywords : Available nutrients, Farmyard manure, Groundnut, Potassium fertilizers, Pressmud, Vermicompost
R. Poorniammal*, S. Gunasekaran1 and R. Murugesan1
*Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Kovilangulam, Aruppukottai -626107, INDIA.
1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In present study, Thermomyces sp. were able to produce high yield of yellow pigments screened. Pigment production by Thermomyces sp was optimized by employing factorial design and response surface techniques in submerged fermentation. The variables evaluated were the concentrations of, sucrose, yeast extract, ammonium sulphate, magnesium sulphate and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate having as response pigment production. One factor at-a-time method was employed for the optimization of media components. Response surface methodology (RSM) optimized these nutrient parameters for maximum yellow pigment production (1387 OD units), which resulted at 35.5 g/L sucrose 5.5 g/L yeast extract, 2.5 g/L NH4SO4, 0.3 g/L MgSO4 and 1.0 g/L K2HPO4 in the medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was further used to determine the optimum values of process variables for maximum yellow pigment production. The fit of the quadratic model was found to be significant. A significant increase in yellow pigment production was achieved using RSM.
Keywords : Nutrient parameters, Response surface methodology, Thermomyces sp, Yellow pigment
M. V. Singh1, Mukesh Kumar*, S. Mitra and M. Ramesh Naik
Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (WB), INDIA
1Crop Research Station, Bahraich-271801 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during the year 2011-13 to study the nutrient management based on soil test to achieve the target yield of jute and rice and their effect of soil nutrient status for jute-rice cropping system. The target yield of jute fibre (3.5 t/ha) with -6% deviation and target yield of rice (5.5 t/ha) were achieved with application of 100% NPK based on ST-TY based along with 5 t/ha Farmyard Manure (FYM). The highest system productivity (11.7 t/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (3.16) was also recorded higher with application 100% NPK based on ST-TY based along with 5 t/ha FYM. The nutrient uptake by crops and soil nutrients status were higher after three year of jute-rice cropping sequence when NPK were applied with FYM. Hence, combination of inorganic and organic (FYM) fertilizer could achieve target yield and maintain the soil fertility status.
Keywords : Economics, Jute, Nutrient management, Nutrient uptake, Rice, STCR, Yield
Soil quality indicators based recommendation to maximize sugarcane productivity in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India
K. Jeevika*, B. Bakiyathu Saliha1 and M.Vijayakumar2
*Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi - 642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
2Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625104 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
3Department of Soil science and Agricultural Chemistry, Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur - 635112 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An assessment study was conducted in five sugarcane yielding blocks of theni district viz., Jeyamangalam, P.C.Patti, Chinnamanur, Andipatti and Usilampatti.The cane yielding zones of the district was classified into three categories viz., low yielding (less than 75 t ha-1), medium (75 to 100 t ha-1) and high yielding (more than 100 t ha-1). The key physico-chemical and biological indicators of soil were assessed in the surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) soils samples of each zone. The indicators assessed in the low cane yielding zone reflected slightly acidic pH (6.70), lower CEC (11.9 cmol (p+) kg-1) and low organic carbon (0.14 percent). The positive effects of soil physico - chemical and biological indicators on the sugarcane yield was well proved through the yield data of the high yielding zone. Almost 93 percent of the farms surveyed in the high yielding zone registered an average cane yield of 120 t ha-1. This may be attributed to a neutral pH of 7.21, non-saline soil with an average EC of 0.36 dSm-1, maximum organic carbon status (0.59 percent) and higher range of soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) (20 to 58.0 cmol (p+)kg-1) which resulted in maximum cane productivity. It was concluded that application of organic matter, amendments rich in calcium and magnesium in acidic soil and application of gypsum and other amendments rich in sulphur in alkali soils of low cane yielding zone can maximize productivity of sugarcane.
Keywords : Biological indicator, Physicochemical indicators, Soil quality, Sugarcane productivity
Genetic diversity assessment using RAPD primers in insecticide resistant populations of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linn.)
V. Sunitha1*, T.V. K. Singh1 V. Ramesh Babu2 and J. Satyanarayana3
1Department of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030 (Telangana), INDIA
2Crop protection Division, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, Barrackpur, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA
3Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030 (Telangana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Genetic diversity in acephate, spinosad and Cry2Ab resistant Plutella xylostella collected from three states of India was assessed by RAPD markers. The DNA extracted from larvae was subjected to polymerase chain reaction using 10 RAPD primers. The highest number alleles (7) were produced by primer ABA-13, followed by six alleles each by primers ABA-2, 7, 8, 11, 14; five alleles each were produced by ABA-4, 9, 10, 12. UPGMA analysis clustered the acephate, spinosad and Cry2Ab treated P.xylostella populations into two groups with overall similarity level of 33%, 27% and 34% respectively. Cluster A consisted 11 samples while Cluster B consisted only F1 of acephate and spinosad treated Karnataka population. In Cry2Ab treated population Cluster B comprised 11 samples and Cluster A had out grouped singly i.e. F0 generation from Karnataka. The genetic variability between the acephate, spinosad and Cry2Ab treated populations ranged from 33 to 69%, 27 to 56% and 34 to 69% respectively. Acephate and spinosad treated F1 population and Cry2Ab treated F0 population from Karnataka were out grouped from rest of the populations.
Keywords : Acephate, Cry2Ab, Molecular characterization, Plutella xylostella, RAPD markers
Effect of different sources of organic matter on the yield of rice and soil health in red and lateritic zone of West Bengal, India
G. Sardar*, K. Jana1, S. Ghosh and G. K. Mallick
*Rice Research Station, Bankura – 722101, West Bengal, INDIA
1Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani- 741235, Nadia, West Bengal, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field experiment was conducted to study effect of different sources of organic matter on the yield of rice and soil at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal, India during kharif season of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Average of three years data revealed that inclusion of vermi-compost in the fertilizers schedule of rice cultivation [variety: Swarna (MTU 7029)] increased the grain yield (30.26%) as well as straw yield (32.70%). However higher pH was observed in treatments receiving paddy straw application and organic carbon (%) was also higher in the respective plots where vermi-compost and paddy straw was applied. Regarding available P2O5, there was an increasing trend up to 13-20 kg ha-1 in vermi-compost and green manure applied plots. In case of available K2O, there was a decrease value in all treatments were observed. So there was a positive balance of P and negative balance of K.
Keywords : Chemical fertilizers, Physico-chemical properties, Organic matter, Rice, Red and lateritic zone
Assessment of manual load carrying and health status of women farm workers of district Sonipat (Haryana), India
S. Jena*, A. Kumar and J.K. Singh
Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Enhancing the vase life of cut foliages is one of the prime goals of floriculturist and it is very interesting and important aspect of floriculture.The efforts were made to find out best waxing treatment for enhancing the vase life along with excellent quality maintenance for few cut foliage species .The objective was to evaluate optimum percent wax solution for improving post harvest life and quality of ornamental plants. Different wax emulsion treatments (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 %) showed significant results in both quantitative and qualitative attributes of ornamental species. In Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’ and Eucalyptus teritecornis, 0.75% wax emulsion concentration recorded minimum foliage weight (5.62, 20.49 g) and minimum water uptake (5.60, 32.73 ml) respectively on 3rd day, while maximum foliage weight (0.90, 6.84 g) and maximum water uptake (1.13, 13.77 ml) was recorded on senescence day. In Caryota urens (Fishtail palm) 0.50% wax emulsion concentration recorded minimum foliage weight (9.71 g), minimum water uptake (6.53 ml) on 3rdday, while maximum foliage weight(1.83 g) and maximum water uptake (1.20 ml) on senescence day. In Heliconia psittachroum cv. Golden Torch, 1.00 % wax emulsion concentration recorded minimum foliage weight (28.85 g), minimum water uptake (20.35 ml) on 3rdday, whereas maximum foliage weight (15.83 g)and maximum water uptake (5.75 ml) on senescence day. There was improvement and increament in post harvest quality and vase life of studied ornamental cut foliages.
Keywords : Cut foliage, Emulsion, Post harvest, Vase life, Wax.
Evaluation of genetic diversity for yield and quality parameters of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasm
Sanjay Datta1, Rajib Das2* and Dhirendra Singh1
1Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2*Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252 (W.B.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An investigation was carried out at Vegetable Research Centre, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar during spring-summer season 2011 and 2012 to study the genetic diversity using Mahalanobis’s D2-technique among thirty five potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasm for important yield attributing and quality traits. The D2 values were calculated and thirty five potato genotypes were grouped into nine clusters for growth characters and ten clusters for quality traits respectively. All the genotypes included in the present investigation, were indigenous, but their grouping in different clusters, suggested that genotypes did not follow the geographic distribution. The cluster I contained the maximum number of genotypes with respect to both yield attributing and quality traits. The inter cluster distance in most of the cases were higher than the intra-cluster distance indicating wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different groups. Average tuber weight of potato plant contributed maximum (31.76%), followed by number of tuber per plant (27.56%), internodal length (14.45%) and plant dry matter content (13.61%) for growth characters. For quality characters, ascorbic acid content (24.70%), protein content of tuber (20.84%) and TSS of tuber (20.00%) contributed effectively towards genetic divergence. So, these traits will offer a good scope for improvement of yield and quality through rational selection of parental genotypes for future potato breeding. The findings indicated that use of parents selected from the same cross or from across involving a common parent should be avoided in hybridization. The results broadly showed there was no parallelism between geographical and genetic divergence.
Keywords : Genetic diversity, Germplasm, Mahalanobis’s D2 technique, Solanum tuberosum, Yield traits
Sukhpreet Kaur* and Poonam Aggarwal
Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out to develop papads (Indian cookie) from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa) blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into papad. Based on preliminary sensory trails, papads with boiled potato mash (60%) and gelatinized rice (30%) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these papads were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Results were compared with rice papads (control). Protein content and yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher in control papads compared to potato supplemented papads. Oil uptake significantly (p<0.05) increased on supplementation with potato. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly (p<0.05) on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, papads enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched papads compared to control. During storage of papads at room temperature for up to 3 months, significant (p<0.05) changes in the moisture content, phytochemical content and antioxidant activity were observed. Storage studies showed that the potato supplemented papads can be stored safely for 3 months of storage at ambient temperature.
Keywords : Antioxidant activity, Oil uptake, Papads, Phytochemicals, Potato
Measuring homogeneity of ethno-medicinal knowledge related with different corporeal system: A top down approach
18E/564 Chopasni Housing Board, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA Present Address: Plant Ecology Laboratory, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In the present study the top down approach has been utilized to quantify homogeneity of ethno-knowledge, frequency of species utilized for a disease related to a specific system as well as identification of corporeal system that are outliers with aim to identify the species and their usefulness for a specific disease that make the system as outlier. The study was carried out for medicinal plants of arid and semiarid region of the Indian Thar area. Three statistical parameters namely, evenness, frequency distribution and regression and residual value analysis were utilized. The study revealed that ethno-medicinal knowledge about 136 species were related with 12 different corporeal systems and frequency distribution classified these 136 species and 12 corporeal systems under 9 different classes. Maximum numbers of taxa are recorded for skeletal, muscle and connective tissues (114) followed by the digestive system (111) and skin and sub-cutanuous system (89). Homogeneity of ethnic- knowledge are restricted for few corporeal systems like respiration, fever, blood and hematopoietic organ, central nervous system, genito-urinary system and circulatory systems, while random and clumped types knowledge distribution were recorded for other corporeal systems. Platykurtic and leptokurtic types of distributions were observed for different corporeal systems. Through use of standard residuals analysis of medico-ethnic-knowledge, digestion system was designated as positive outliers while fever and genito-urinary systems were the negative outliers. Further regression analysis has revealed that within this region ethnic knowledge about the medicinal properties of a species is largely associated with the regional abundance of taxa.
Keywords : Arid and semi arid plants, Ethnic knowledge, Frequency distribution, Residual value analysis, Smith, Wilson Index
Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation on little millet (Panicum sumatrense)
Pampangouda1*, K. B. Munishamanna2 and H. Gurumurthy1
1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065, INDIA
2Food microbiologist PHT scheme, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The fermentation of little millet (Panicum sumatrense) carried out by probiotic yeast (Saccharomyces boulardii) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus). The germinated little millets grains were fermented for 5 days grains were dried and grounded in a grinder and sieved. The sieved flours were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and phytic acid content. The results showed that the little millet fermented by combined inoculation of Saccharomyces boulardii and L. acidophilus significantly enhanced protein content (10.95%)and decreases the fat (2.61%) and carbohydrate (82.01%) and single inoculation with L. acidophilus decreased the fibre (1.05%) and ash (2.30%). Single inoculation of L. acidophilus enhanced the minerals content Ca (41.44mg), Mg (141.08 mg) , phosphorus (238.43mg), Fe (7.98 mg) and Zn (4.69mg) and over dual inoculation and control treatments. Similarly, Single inoculation of Lactobacillus acidophilus showed significant reduction in phytic acid (114.76 mg) content over dual inoculation (126.49 mg) and control (188.95 mg) treatments. The results indicated that fermentation of little millet by L. acidophilus enhanced mineral contents and reduction in phytic acid content.
Keywords :Lactobacillus acidophilus, Little millet, Probiotic, Saccharomyces boulardii
Growth and ectomycorrhization of banj oak plants co-inoculated with Scleroderma bovista and mycorrhizosphere bacteria
Anurag Yadav1*, R.C. Dubey2 and Kusum Yadav3
1Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Science and Humanities, S.D. Agricultural University, S.K. Nagar (Gujarat), INDIA
2Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Department of Biochemistry, University of Lucknow, Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Effect of composite treatment of ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF), Scleroderma bovista, along with mycorrhizosphere bacterial inoculants was studied for nine months on Quercus leucotrichophora plants grown in nursery glasshouse. Seven treatments comprising of one uninoculated control; two bacterial controls, Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Pseudomonas fluorescens MB 9, respectively; EMF control, S. bovista; two combinations of two bacterial treatments with EMF and one triple treatment of two bacteria with EMF, were used in the study. The ninth month of sampling showed that triple treatment of two strains of bacteria with EMF maximally enhanced root length (38.86 cm), dry weight (6.746 g), short roots (351.6), lateral roots (24.8) and EMF colonization (34.8%) of banj oak plant, which was fairly higher than uninoculated and bacterial controls. Bacteria treated plants showed no plant growth enhancement, whereas EMF treatment fairly enhanced plant growth. The co-inoculation practice can help oak plant in achieving the mycorrhization rate even with lower EMF doses. These findings will be beneficial for achieving the effective banj oak replantation in the Himalayan region.
Keywords : Ectomycorrhiza, Growth enhancement, Mycorrhiza helper bacteria, Scleroderma bovista
Gyanchand1, Manoj Kumar Sharma1, Sandeep Kumar1, Sushma Sagar1, Vinay Kumar2 and Mukesh Kumar1*
1Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, S. V. P. University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110 (U. P.), INDIA
2National Institute of Biotic Stress Management, Raipur (Chhatisgarh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important fruit crop of tropics and subtropics. It has high nutritional value, as well as medicinal and industrial applications. Papaya is a polygamous species with three sex types male, female, and hermaphrodite. Conventional methods of papaya breeding are time consuming and needs advent of anther culture which may be effective for shortening of breeding cycles. The present study on in vitro androgenesis in papaya cv. Pusa Nanha observed the highest embryo induction rate (8.0%) when anthers were cultured on agar medium with 0.1 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L NAA after incubation in liquid MS medium with 2.0% sucrose for 7 days at 35ºC. The high temperature (35ºC) was more suitable for embryo induction in papaya than slightly low temperature (25ºC). At these both temperatures longer incubation of anthers in water reduced embryo induction rate. Sugar starvation results were ambiguous. Shoots were also developed in the media when used in liquid form. The highest rooting (75.0%) was observed at 2.0 mg/L IBA. Increasing IBA concentration reduced rooting. All well rooted plants were hardened in hardening chamber and successfully transferred to field. The present findings indicated that anther culture can be efficiently contributed for the direct micro-propagation of papaya plants. This study would also be helpful to the researchers to develop more efficient anther culture protocols for further improvement of papaya through in vitro androgenesis.
Keywords : Anther culture, embryogenesis, MS media, papaya, plant growth regulators
Efficacy of new herbicide (bispyribac sodium 10% sc) against different weed flora, nutrient uptake in rice and their residual effects on succeeding crop of green gram under zero tillage
S .T. Kumaran*1, G. Kathiresan2, P. Murali Arthanari3, C. Chinnusamy4 and V. Sanjivkumar5
1234Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA.
5Department of Soil Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field experiment was conducted in the wetland farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during rabi season (August to February) of 2011-12 to evaluate the herbicide (Bispyribac sodium 10% SC) on weed control and their nutrient management in direct seeded lowland rice. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The results revealed that Early Post Emergence (EPOE) application of bispyribac sodium 10% SC 40 g ha-1 recorded higher weed control efficiency and lesser weed density, nutrient uptake at reproductive stage of the crop. Different weed management practices imposed on rice crop did not affect the germination of succeeding green gram.
Keywords : Early post emergence, Rice, Soluble concentration, Weed management
Larval growth, silk production and economic traits of Bombyx mori under the influence of honey-enriched mulberry diet
N. Thulasi and S. Sivaprasad*
Department of Zoology, Smt. N.P.S. Government College for Women, Chittoor- 517001 (A.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The impact of honey on the silkworm, Bombyx mori was demonstrated with reference to the larval growth, silk gland proteins and economic parameters of sericulture. The honey works well at a concentration of 2% in distilled water. At this concentration it promotes growth rates in the silkworm larvae during fifth instar development. It positively reinforces the day-to-day larval growth rate by 4.75 additional percentile points, silk gland growth rate by 4.45 additional percentile points and the gland-body ratio by additional 6.64 percentile points. It stimulates silk protein synthesis in all the three segments of the silk gland, viz., the anterior, middle and posterior parts. Under its influence, the silk gland protein profiles grew significantly by 14.85 additional percentile points in the anterior silk gland (ASG), minimally by 8.68 additional percentile points in the middle silk gland (MSG) and maximally by 15.17 additional percentile points in the posterior silk gland (MSG), compared to their control values. It also stimulates the core shell protein synthesis by 18% and retards floss protein synthesis by ~25% in the three segments of silk gland. In doing so, it contributes to sericulture industry by causing improvements in profit making economic traits such as gland-body ratio, cocoon weight, shell weight, raw silk weight, denier and renditta and by reducing the production of floss, which contributes to loss in the sericulture industry. Honey is suggested as a profitable supplementary diet for silkworm.
Keywords : Bombyx mori, Larval growth, Honey, Silk proteins, Economic traits
M. A. Beigh1, Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer2*, S. K. Kher3 and N. A. Ganai4
1Division of Extension Education & Communication, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Tech-nology Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
2Department of Agriculture Statistics, Economics and Extension, FOA, Wadura, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
3Division of Extension Education, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology Jammu (J&K),INDIA
4Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kupwara, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Diseases and pests are one of the limiting factors for low productivity of the fruit crops in Kashmir valley, India. A study on management of resources with respect to disease and pest management of apple and extent of adoption of recommended plant protection technology was undertaken for increasing apple production in Kashmir valley of J and K State. District Baramulla was selected purposively on the basis of maximum area and production under apple crop. A sample size of 200 apple growers 50 each from 4 villages were selected randomly. The study revealed that the perception index regarding attributes of technology recommended in two diseases viz. San Jose Scale and Apple Scab was 68.88% and 80.76% in respect of profitability 83.97%, simplicity-complexity each 63.57 % and 54.27 % for practicability attributes of technology. The data further showed that the farmers adoption level under Chemical control was high at silver tip to green tip stage (80%) and fruit let pea size stage (78%) and medium adoption was observed at pink bloom (bud) stage (74%), petal fall stage (74%) walnut size apple stage (70%) on Apple Scab similarly, the extent of adoption was low (45%) for mechanical and no chemical control measures under clean cultivation. In case of San Jose Scale the farmers adoption level regarding name of chemical, its dose, quantity of water required per acre for preparing spray solution and time of spray at late dormant spray, (feb, March) was high (80%). The findings will help to improve the level of farmers’ knowledge to increase apple production in Kashmir valley.
Keywords : Apple, Adoption, Disease, pest management and Plant protection
Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum strains for the production of bioactive components and their potential use as antimicrobial agents
Harsimran Kaur, Shivani Sharma*, P.K. Khanna and Shammi Kapoor
Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana –141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the present study, mycelial biomass of Ganoderma lucidum strains was produced in mushroom complete media under optimized culture conditions of temperature, pH, agitation and the fruiting bodies were raised on wheat straw supplemented with 5 per cent rice bran. Maximum biomass (16.39 mg ml-1) was recorded in strain GL-3 and minimum (10.99 mg ml-1) was observed in strain GL-1 after 28 days of incubation period. Maximum biological efficiency of 13.1 per cent was obtained in 57 days in GL-2 strain. Moreover, weight of fruiting bodies was highest (91 g bag-1) in 5 per cent wheat bran supplemented bags in strain GL-2. Polysaccharides were extracted, characterized and analysed. The maximum yield of polysaccharides was obtained from fruiting bodies (30.06- 63.70%), followed by mycelial biomass (7.61- 21.32%) and culture filtrates (0.86- 2.86%). Non-reducing sugars were the main fraction of sugars which constituted 69.82- 70.39 per cent in fruiting body extracted polysaccharides, 62.08- 83.39 per cent in biomass and 59.75- 77.54 per cent in crude extracts. The extracts from fruiting bodies and biomass of G. lucidum strains also exhibited antibacterial effect against some pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The present study clearly indicated that variations existed among G. lucidum strains with respect to the production of bioactive molecules, yield and antimicrobial activity. Bioactive components from G. lucidum strains are promising antimicrobial agents that can be harnessed as potent antimicrobial toxicant.
Keywords : Antimicrobial activity, Biological efficiency, Ganoderma lucidum, Polysaccharides
D. Chandrasekaran*, A. P. Nambi1, P. S. Thirunavukkarasu, P. Venkatesan2, K. G. Tirumurugaan2 and S. Vairamuthu1
*Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600007(Tamil Nadu), INDIA.
1Centralized Clinical Laboratory, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600007 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA.
2Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600007(Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The incidence of resistant mastitis in dairy cows in Tamil Nadu, India was 56.l %. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was Escherichia coli (50.64 %) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (44.25 %) and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (5.11 %). Incidence of resistant mastitis was high in Holstein Friesian cross breed followed by Jersey cross breed and non descript. Highest incidence was observed in early stage of third lactation. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test revealed the E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin +sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. The study highlights the need for preventing the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.
Keywords : Escherichia coli, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Antioxidant potentials and quality aspects of Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) supplemented unleavened flat bread (Indian chapatti)
Swati Kapoor*, Pushpinder Singh Ranote and Savita Sharma
Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Enriched chapattis prepared by supplementing whole wheat flour with Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) pulp at 5, 10 and 15% were assessed for antioxidant activity and quality. Jamun pulp supplementation enhanced the bioactive composition of chapatti in terms of increased anthocyanins, total phenols and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased 99.73% and 44.38%, respectively after incorporation of Jamun pulp (15%) to whole wheat flour Indian chapatti. Anthocyanins were not observed in control chapatti and in Jamun supplemented chapatti the range was 1.41-2.64 mg/100g content for 5-15% supplementation level. Qualitative evaluation revealed non-sticky behavior of dough supplemented with Jamun at 5 and 10% level and slight stickiness at 15% level. Chapattis exhibited full puffing at all supplementation levels. Sensory scores were highest for 10% Jamun supplemented chapatti. Crude fiber content improved significantly (13.77% increase) in chapattis on supplementation of Jamun pulp. The study concluded that supplementation of wheat flour with Jamun pulp improved nutritional and antioxidant status of chapatti.
Keywords : Antioxidant activity, Chapatti, Colour, Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.), Texture
Genetic diversity assessment in Indian cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties using RAPD markers
Pravas Ranjan Kole1, Manoj Kumar Sharma2*, Sanjay Kumar1 and Rakesh Kumar2
1National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, PUSA, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
2*S. V. P. University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut, (UP)-250110, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In the present study, the genetic diversity and inter-relationships among 12 varieties of pea were analyzed by using RAPD markers. A total of 118 bands were generated with 20 RAPD primers, of which 107 bands were polymorphic (90.81%). The PIC value ranged from 0.602-0.863 with an average of 0.754. High level of polymorphism and low genetic similarity within pea varieties suggested that they have a high level of genetic diversity. Unique RAPD fragments (700bp-1500bp) were also observed in five varieties i.e., AP-01, Aparna, Uttra, Rachna and Rachna-1D. In the dendrogram, 12 varieties were broadly grouped into 2 main clusters consisting of 5 (Cluster-I) and 4 (Cluster-II) varieties, respectively, while other three varieties i.e., KPMR-522, Aparna and AP-03 were out of group. In cluster-I, Ambika and AP-01 and Rachna and Vikas showed 62% and 58% similarities whereas, HUDP-15 grouped with 56% similarities with rest two varieties. In cluster II, Uttara and Prakash showed maximum similarity (65%) whereas, Rachna1-D showed (58%) similarities with them. KPMR-400 showed 52% similarity in this group. KPMR-400, Aparna and AP-03 were more diverse in comparison to others. A two-dimensional plot generated from principal co-ordinate analysis of RAPD data also supported the clustering pattern of dendrogram. This study indicated the presence of high genetic diversity among pea varieties, which could be used for developing core collections of pea germplasm for breeding and germplasm management purposes.
Keywords : Genetic diversity, Pea, PCA, RAPD, UPGMA
Scanning electron microscopic studies on tongue of open-nesting honey bees Apis dorsata F. and Apis florea F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Neelima R. Kumar, Kalpna Nayyar, Ruchi Sharma and Anudeep*
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Taste stimuli play vital role in the life of honey bees. Sensory structures observed on tongue of the honey bees with the help of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have become an important tool in analyzing honey bee biodiversity which offers an advanced diagnostic tool to study honey bee biogeography and determine adaptive variations to native flora. Tongue of honey bees present a high geographic variability in regard to the floral resources visited by the bees. The present study has determined to determine differences in the tongue of open-nesting bees by scanning electron microscopy of Apis dorsata and Apis florea. The two bees showed distinct morphological variations with respect to the lapping and sucking apparatus. It was observed that the ridges on the proximal region exhibited rough surface on A.dorsata whereas spinous in case of A.florea. Moreover, the arrangement of hair in the middle part of the tongue also differed in the two species. The shape of flabellum differed in the two species reason being the influence of native flora. It was observed that the shape of flabellum was oval in A.dorsata whereas in A.florea it was triangular. These differences indicated for the role of native flora and honey bee biodiversity.
Keywords : Apis dorsata, Apis florea, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Tongue
Effect of botanicals and insecticides seed treatment and containers on seed longevity of black gram under natural ageing conditions
N. Amruta*, G. Sarika, Umesha, J. B. Maruthi and G. V. Basavaraju
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Good storage is the basic requirement in seed production programme as maintenance of high seed viability and vigour from harvest to planting is of utmost importance in a seed production programme. Therefore, inexpensive, simple and practicable technology to prolong the shelf life of seeds under ambient condition is immensely needed. Hence, an experiment was carried out to study the effect of seed treatment with neem oil, nimbicidin, emamectin benzoate 5 SG, deltamethrin 2.8 EC, novuluron EC on black gram seed quality under ambient conditions. The seeds without any seed treatment were included as control. The treated and untreated seeds were stored in cloth bag and polylined cloth bag. The results revealed that, botanicals and emamectin benzoate seed treatments were significantly superior in controlling the storage insect and maintaining higher seed quality up to 10 months of storage when compared to control. Among the chemicals, the emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 40 mg kg-1 of seed found better by recording significantly higher germination percentage (80.28), vigour index I (2124) and dry weight of seedlings (43.14 mg) and lower electrical conductivity (0.939 dSm-1) and seed damage (0.00 %) compared to control (78.78%, 2012, 38.90 mg, 0.942 dSm-1, respectively) at the end of 10th month of storage. The emamectin benzoate 5 SG and nimbicidin treated seeds stored in polylined cloth bags were considered as effective seed storage management approach in blackgram.
Keywords : Blackgram, Botanical products, Emamectin benzoate, Insecticides
Effect of cultivars and seed size on field performance of potato micro-tubers in North Eastern Himalayan region in India
A. K. Srivastava*, S. K. Yadav1, L. C. Diengdoh1, R. Rai1 and T. K. Bag1
Indian Council of Agricultural Research- Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur-208024 (U.P.), INDIA
1Indian Council of Agricultural Research- Central Potato Research Station, Shillong-793009 (Meghalaya), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out at Central Potato Research Station, Shillong during 2013 and 2014 to assess the growth and yield performance of three grades of in-vitro produced micro-tubers viz. >8 mm, 4-8 mm and <4 mm of two potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars namely Kufri Girdhari and Kufri Megha under field planting conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomised block design with four replications using a common spacing of 50 × 20 cm. The larger grade micro-tubers generally exhibited better physiological growth as well as yield parameters. The larger sized micro-tuber (>8 mm) showed significantly superior plant survival, canopy cover, plant height, number of compound leaves per plant, number of stems per plant and plant vigour followed by 4-8 mm grade and <4 mm grade micro-tubers. Similar trend was observed for all the yield parameters. Among varieties, Kufri Girdhari out performed Kufri Megha in all the growth and yield parameters in all the micro-tuber grades. Thus both micro-tuber size and genotype influenced the field performance. The overall finding indicates that micro-tubers irrespective of the size for both the varieties can produce mini-tubers successfully under direct field conditions in the NEH region which will facilitate quality seed production.
Keywords : Field performance, Micro-tuber grades, NEH India, Potato micro-tubers
Influence of crop geometry on yield, yield attributes and glycoside yield of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
Zahida Rashid1, Suhail Inamullah2, Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer3*, Mudasir Rashid and Souliha R
1Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, INDIA
2Department of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
3Division of Agriculture Statistics, Economics and Extension, FoA, Wadurs, SKUAST-Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field experiments were conducted in a loamy sand soil during 2006 and 2007 at Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana to evaluate the performance of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under varying planting geometry. The studies revealed that in case of row to row spacing, highest number of leaves per plant (533.0, 447.6), leaf area (8113.1, 6322.6 cm2/plant), leaf area index (5.1, 8.7) and dry matter accumulation per plant (86.0, 76.9 g/plant) during 2006 and 2007, respectively were found under wider row spacing of 75 cm. Which was significantly higher than narrower row spacing of 60 cm and 45 cm. Whereas, the fresh biomass yield (9861 and 11801 kg/ha), dry biomass (2080 and 2550 kg/ha), leaf yield (6129 and 4414 kg/ha) and stem yields (7611 and 5447 kg/ha) during 2006 and 2007, respectively and glycoside yield were registered higher under closer row spacing of 45 cm than the wider row spacing of 60 cm and 75 cm. In plant to plant spacings, the maximum number of leaves (5681.3 cm2/plant) was recorded under plant spacing of 45 cm which was statistically at par with plants spaced at 37.5 cm and 30.0 cm but significantly higher than 22.5 cm and 15.0 cm plant spacing, leaf area and dry matter accumulation per plant were highest with than other closer plant spacings.Whereas, the fresh and dry biomass, leaf and stem yields and glycoside yield were recorded highest under closer plant spacing of 15 cm which was statistically at par with 22.5 cm plant spacing.
Keywords :Glycoside yield, Spacing Yield, Stevia
M. Ramesh Naik1*, Mukesh Kumar1, D. Barman1, P.N. Meena1, A. Anil Kumar2 and D.K. Kundu1
1Crop Production Division, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre, Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA.
2Crop Improvement Division, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibre,Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The environmental stress such as salinity of soil or water is serious threat for field crops in the world, especially in arid and semiarid regions. To study salinity stress on jute (Corchorus capsularis), an experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design keeping nine capsularis varieties (JRC-698, JRC-321, JRC-517, JRC-7447, JBC-5, JRC-212, JRC-80, JRC-532 and UPC-94) as one factor and four levels of salt concentrations i.e. control (Distilled H2O), 100, 160, 240 and 300 mM NaCl with three replications. Adverse effect of salinity increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride. Among nine jute varieties the highest germination percentage (89.5%), root length (0.6 cm), shoot length (1.2 cm), fresh weight (93 mg) and dry weight (9.5 mg) of seedling were observed in ‘JRC-698’ at salt concentration at 160 mM NaCl as compared with other salt concentration. All growth parameters were recorded higher in control than other treatments. All growth parameters were decreased up to 240 mM NaCl concentration and it was completely inhibited at 300 mM NaCl. Variety ‘UPC-94’ was the most susceptible to salinity stress. Hence, white jute varieties, JRC-698 and JRC-517 can be grown at 160 mM NaCl concentration.
Keywords : Corchorus capsularis, Germination percentage, Salinity stress, Salt tolerance index (STI)
Prahlad Jakhar1, S.S. Yadav2 and Rakesh Choudhary3
1Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334006 (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Department of Agronomy, S.K.N. COA, Jobner, Jaipur (Rajasthan), INDIA
3Department of Agronomy, .CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field Investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of hand weedings and herbicides on the weed flora, growth and yield of urdbean (Vigna mungo). The experiment was conducted during kharif season 2011 in loamy sand soil, to study the effect of different Ten weed management treatments comprising weedy check, weed free, one hand weeding (HW) at 20 days after sowing (DAS), two HW at 20 and 40 DAS, trifluralin at 0.75 kg/ha, alachlor at 1.5 kg/ha, imazethapyr at 0.10 kg/ha, trifluralin at 0.75 kg/ha + HW at 30 DAS, alachlor at 1.5 kg/ha + HW at 30 DAS and imazethapyr at 0.10 kg/ha + HW at 30 DAS on urdbean. Results showed that the maximum plant height was recorded under weed free treatment at all the growth stages and the maximum dry matter accumulation of 108.88 and 159.31 g per metre row length at 50 DAS and harvest stages was obtained under imazethapyr at 0.10 kg/ha + HW at 30 DAS treatment that was significantly higher by 17.8, 21.8, 24.6, 31.8 and 56.0 per cent at 50 DAS and 20.4, 17.6, 25.4, 29.0 and 50.1 per cent at harvest stage over imazethapyr at 0.10 kg/ha, one HW at 20 DAS, alachlor at 1.5 kg/ha, trifluralin at 0.75 kg/ha and weedy check treatments, respectively.. Application pre emergence application of imazethapyr at 0.10 kg/ha + HW at 30 DAS was found the most effective treatment with regard of grain yield (1403 kg/ha) and net returns (Rs 34815/ha). Two hand weedings done at 20 and 40 DAS also produced grain yield of 1392 kg/ha with net returns of Rs 33469 /ha.
Keywords : Economic viability, Growth parameters, Urdbean, Yield
Study on yield potentiality and spatial requirement of rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) in system of rice intensification (SRI) under red and laterite zone of West Bengal, India
Kalyan Jana1*, G. K. Mallick2, S. Ghosh2 and G. Sardar2*
1Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani- 741235, Nadia, West Bengal, INDIA
2Rice Research Station, Bankura – 722101(West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station, Bankura during kharif season 2009 and 2010 to study the yield potentiality and spatial requirement of rice varieties in system of rice intensification (SRI) under red and laterite zone of West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a three replications with two rice varieties (Swarna and Lalat). Performances of swarna and lalat varieties in SRI as compared to conventional method of rice cultivation (CMRC) were investigated. Swarna (MTU 7029) has yielded maximum grain yield (6.07, 5.66 and 5.86 t ha-1 during 2009, 2010 and in pooled, respectively) from the treatment T7 (25 × 25 cm spacing) under SRI. Lowest grain yield (3.55, 3.23 and 3.38 t ha-1 during 2009, 2010 and in pooled, respectively) was recorded from treatment T9 (Lalat at 20 × 15 cm spacing) under CMRC. SRI technology has potential in increasing more grain yield, it saves seed requirement and irrigation water and chemical fertilizer considering than conventional method of cultivation. Rice cultivation is more sustainable and profitable for the farmers in SRI under the red and laterite zone of West Bengal.
Keywords : Grain yield, Plant-hill spacing, Rice cultivation, Rice intensification, Sustainable system
Chandan Kumar Mondal*, Prabir Kumar Garain, Nilendu Jyoti Maitra and Atit Maji
Ramkrishna Ashram Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nimpith, South 24 Parganas-743338 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:email@example.com
Abstract : Fruit fly (Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) is the major pest of Guava grown in Baruipur region of West Bengal, contributing upto 90% yield loss. The present study was undertaken during 2011-12 at farmers’ field to validate the wrapping of individual fruits at tree and to standardize the wrapping material and the correct technique of wrapping. Performance of nine different types of wrapping materials (butter paper bag, polypropylene bag of 20μ gauge with and without paper piece inside, non-woven poly fabric bags of white, green and blue colour with 20 gsm and 40 gsm thickness) along with two chemical approaches were studied against untreated control. Fruit fly infestation varied between 1.32 % and 17.31% in all treatments using wrapping materials and 13.14% in case of combined use of pheromone trap (Bacu lure) and Dichlorvos spray as compared to 21.71% in sole use of Dichlorvos and 66.67% in control plots. Wrapping resulted in increased weight of individual fruits (112.58 g in butter paper bag compared to 68.40 g in control). Wrapping with transparent polypropylene bags (20μ gauge) with partial paper cover inside, resulted in lowest yield loss (1.66%), earlier fruit maturity, better fruit quality (in respect of colour and glossiness), highest market price (`30 per kg) and highest net profit (1.357 lakh/ha). This material is durable enough to be reused for 4-5 times. The partial paper cover helped to prevent scorching injury to the fruit as well as to control the humidity inside the polypropylene bag.
Keywords : Fruit fly, Fruit wrapping, Guava, West Bengal
Delineating soil moisture dynamics as affected by tillage in wheat, Rice and establishment methods of rice during intervening period
Rajan Bhatt*1 and S. S. Kukal2
1Farm Advisory Service Scheme, TarnTaran, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
2Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004(Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Intervening cropping period perhaps the most ignored period, which could be exploited for cultivating the intervening crops which further add to the soil, crop and water productivity and finally livelihood of the farmers of the region. The present investigation was carried out after rice- 2014, to monitor the residual effect of different tillage (wheat), establishment methods and tillage (rice) on the fluctuating behaviour of the soil moisture during intervening period. Our findings suggested that CTW-DSRZT (conventionally tilled wheat and zero till direct seeded rice) plots conserved more moisture than ZTW-DSRZT (zero till wheat and zero till direct seeded rice) plots an exception of CTWDSRCT plots which were almost equally effective in conserving the soil moisture. On an average, soil matric tension (SMT) was reported to be 36% higher in CTWDSRZT than CTWDSRP plots at 10cm soil surface. Further, ZTW-DSRZT plots on an average dried 8% faster than ZTW-DSRP plots. At 20cm, DSRZT plots dried 3% faster than its allied plots while at 30cm depth, in DSRP plots, SMT values increased 12% and 11% higher under CTW block and ZTW blocks, respectively than its allied plots. SMT readings in all the ZTW plots on an average increased at much more faster rates (24%) than CTW plots. The ZT plots had 1.4% higher water depths than the CT plots. Evaporation losses pragmatic to be higher (17.2% and 7.3%) in ZTW-DSRZT plots as compared to the ZTW-DSRCT and CTW-DSRCT plots which might improve declining crops and water productivity in the region.
Keywords : Direct seeded rice, Intervening period, Mechanically transplanted rice, Soil moisture, Zero tilled wheat
Growth, yield, yield attributes and economics of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by integrated nutrient management
J. H. Chaudhary*, Ramdev, Sutaliya1 and L. J. Desai1
*Department of Agronomy, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, (Gujarat), INDIA
1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Tharad (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted at Sardarkrishinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University Sardarkrushinagar to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield attributes of summer groundnut in 2012. The soil of experimental field was loamy sand in texture, low in organic carbon (0.17 %) and available nitrogen (149 kg ha-1), medium in available P2O5 (29.3 kg ha-1) and rich in K2O (287 kg ha-1) status. Result revealed that the significantly highest pod yield (2650 kg ha-1), haulm yield (4633 kg ha-1), growth and yield parameters viz., plant height (43.9 cm), filled pods plant-1 (22.6), total pods plant-1 (31.4), pod weight plant-1 (22.3 g) and 100 kernel weight (43.9 g) were recorded under the treatment which received 125 % recommended dose of nitrogen through vermicompost. While in case of phosphorus application @ 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher pod (2824 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (4655 kg ha-1) over PSB only and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 which was at par with the application of phosphorus @ 25 kg ha-1 + PSB for yield attributing characters viz., filled pods plant-1, total pods plant-1, pod weight plant-1. Maximum net realization of `1,13, 056 ha-1 with CBR 4.49 was obtained under application of 125 % RDN through vermicompost with 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 (V3P4). Vermicompost and phosphorus did not exert its interaction effects during course of investigation. This concludes that the groundnut crop should be inoculated with PSB culture @ 200 g per 8 kg seeds before sowing and crop should be fertilized with 125% RDN through vermicompost and phosphorus @ 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 loamy sand soil of North Gujarat agro-climatic condition.
Keywords : Economics, Phosphorus, PSB, Vermicompost, Yield, Yield attributes
Impact of Piriformospora indica, Pseudomonas species and Mesorhizobium cicer on growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Pallavi Mansotra*, Poonam Sharma1, Asmita Sirari1 and Sunita Sharma1
*Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was conducted to examine synergistic interactions among Piriformospora indica (PI) with potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Mesorhizobium cicer (LGR33, MR) in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties viz. desi PBG1 and kabuli BG1053. Different PGPR species were used viz. native isolates of Pseudomonas argentinensis (LPGPR1), Pseudomonas sp. (LPGPR2) along with national check Pseudomonas sp. (LK884). Compatibility of MR, PI and differentPseudomonas spp. was studied by streak assay method and growth of fungal pellicle in-vitro. Consortium of MR+PI+LPGPR1 (0.605 g dry weight fungal pellicle/100ml nutrient broth) was found as the best compatible treatment. In vivo the synergistic effect of consortia was studied for improving dry weight of roots, nutrient acquisition, colonization and stress tolerance ability in chickpea. Significant improvement in dry weight of root was observed with MR+PI+LPGPR1 (1.316 g plant-1) in comparison to MR alone treatment (0.980 g plant-1) at 90 days after sowing (DAS). Percentage colonization of P.indica improved significantly with consortium MR+PI+LPGPR1 (75.5 and 78.3 %) treatment at 90 DAS. All the treatments significantly improved total soluble sugar content (12.2-26.9 %); amino N content (1.36-1.80 fold) and stress tolerance ability (4-6 fold) over the MR alone treatment. Reducing sugar content significantly improved with MR+PI+LPGPR1 (0.62 and 0.79 mg mL–1) over MR alone (0.42 and 0.58 mg mL–1) treatment in desiPBG1 and kabuli BG1053 chickpea, respectively. The tripartite combination MR+LPGPR1+PI can be explored as potent biofertilizer for improvment in chickpea productivity.
Keywords : Chickpea, Mesorhizobium sp. cicer, Multipartite interactions, Piriformospora indica, Pseudomonas species
Biological and molecular evidences on host range of leaf curl begomovirus disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
M. Vindyashree1, M. R. Govindappa2*, V.N. Ghante2, D.S. Aswathanarayana1 and I. Shankergoud2
1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA
2All India Co-ordinate Research Project on Sunflower, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study was conducted to identify the alternate hosts of new leaf curl virus disease of sunflower. In the present study several crops and weed hosts were cross inoculated with leaf curl virus of sunflower under laboratory through insect vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), further all inoculated samples were retested (3-4 weeks after inoculation) by molecular based Polymerase chain reaction diagnosis for the presence of virus. The results revealed that the causal virus of the disease was successfully transmitted from sunflower to sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and weed hosts such as Acanthospermum hispidum, Amaranthus viridis and Parthenium hysterophorus in a short incubation period (2-3 weeks after inoculation), while on other hosts Chilli (Capsicum annuum L) and Datura stramonium, infection occurs in delayed incubation period. Further molecular analysis thorough polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic technique using virus specific primers also confirmed the presence of coat protein (CP) of leaf curl begomovirus in virus inoculated hosts viz., chilli, sunflower, tomato, and tobacco and weed hosts such as Acanthospermum hispidum, Amaranthus viridis, Datura stramonium and Parthenium hysterophorus. Thus, findings substantiate that the above hosts are major sources of the virus inoculum and served as potential alternate hosts of the disease during the off season.
Keywords : Begomovirus, Host range, Polymerase chain reaction, Sunflower, Whitefly
J. B. Kambale*, D. K. Singh1 and A. Sarangi1
*Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agriculture, Bheemarayanagudi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, INDIA
1Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Irrigation has helped in increasing food production and achieving food security in India. However, climate change is expected to affect the crop production in irrigated area particularly in groundwater irrigated areas. This study was undertaken for suggesting strategies to climate change impact on irrigated crops based on projected change in crop water requirement and groundwater availability for irrigation in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Prevailing groundwater recharge in the study area during monsoon was 4.01 MCM (Million cubic meter). The same for various scenarios varied from -15.47 MCM to 5.08 MCM. It was revealed that groundwater recharge would increase if it is estimated based on the climate prediction done using local weather data. The impact of climate change on groundwater availability is evident in scenarios based on INCCA and IPCC predictions where it varied from -2.66 MCM to 1.02 MCM. Contrary to common perceptions, crop water requirement of prevailing cropping system would not increase in future if all the important climatic parameters are considered for its prediction. This may be due to the fact that effect of increase in temperature on crop water requirement may be compensated by decrease in other climatic parameters such wind speed and duration of daily sunshine hours. Results indicated that climate change may not have much impact on sustainability of prevailing cropping system as per the crop water requirement is concerned. Based on water requirement and groundwater availability under various climate change scenarios, appropriate strategies to cope up the climate change impact on irrigated crops have been suggested.
Keywords : Coping strategies, Crop water requirement, Cropping system, Groundwater availability
Efficiency of letrozole loaded PLGA nanoparticles on sex reversal of Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859)
Harshavardhan D. Joshi1*, Gajanan S. Ghode2 and Sandeep B. Gore3
1Aquaculture Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Andheri (West), Mumbai-400061, INDIA
2Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Andheri (West), Mumbai-400061, INDIA
3Department of Fisheries Engineering, College of Fishery Science, Nagpur- 440001, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Males of Poecilia reticulata showed extreme diversity in color, particularly of their fins, while the females lack the bright colors and are largely whitish. Such extreme variability of color and finnage lead to demand of males in the markets. The aim of present work was to develop a new Letrozole (LTZ)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for effective delivery of the masculinization drug, letrozole, as an alternative to commercially available masculinization agents. The LTZ-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by solvent displacement technique. The particle size of LTZ-loaded PLGA NPs was analyzed using LICOMP particle size analyzer and was found to be in the range of 72 nm to 520 nm with average size of 221.5±63.3 nm. Zeta potential was estimated to be about 21.35 mV with loading efficiency of 43.63±4.63 %. In the present study, a series of experiments were carried out to induce masculinization using LTZ-loaded PLGA nanoparticles during the sex differentiation period. Guppy (P. reticulate) fry were treated with LTZ-loaded PLGA nanoparticles at dosages 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg diet for 10, 15 and 30 days. The gonopodium index and GSI showed increasing order in male and female respectively with dose of LTZ-loaded nanoparticles. The results indicated an increase in the proportion of males with dosage and duration of treatment. This has been done for the first time using nanotechnology efficiently which has shown an increase in the male population of Poecilia reticulata with lesser dose of nano-encapsulated Letrozole (LTZ)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles drug as compared with naked control Letrozole (LTZ) drug delivery.
Keywords : Letrozole, Masculinization Nanoparticle PLGA, Poecilia reticulata
Nazia Haleem, Neelima R. Kumar and Rajinder Kaur*
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Honey bees are an important means of earning a living both at small and commercial levels. Maximum benefits can be obtained from strong colonies and in order to maintain strong colonies a good beekeeper requeens the colonies every second year. This requires a number of queens. The advances in beekeeping technology have made it possible to rear queens artificially or naturally. There is scope for improvement of these methods. The aim of the present study was to investigate if nutritional supplements could facilitate queen cell production in spring and autumn seasons. Becosule, thiamine, yeast and sugar solutions were fed to the honey bee colonies. The greatest number of queen cells was produced in the yeast fed colonies in spring. Bee mortality was observed in case of becosule. Perhaps the formulation contained some components which were toxic to honey bees. The effect on queen cell production by the different nutrients was in the order of Yeast > Thiamine > Becosule.
Keywords : Honey bee queen, Nutritional supplements, Protein, Seasons, Yeast
Evaluation of CSM-CERES-wheat in simulating wheat yield and its attributes with different sowing environments in Tarai region of Uttarakhand
R. K. Pal1*, K. S. Rawat2, J. Singh3 and N. S. Murty4
1*Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda-151001, INDIA
2Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama University, Chennai-600119, INDIA
3Department of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agriculture. Research Institute, New Delhi-110016, INDIA
4Department of Agrometeorology, G.B. Pant Uni. of Agri. & Technol., Pantnagar-263145, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail email@example.com
Abstract : Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CSM-CERES)-Wheat model was used to simulate responses of two wheat varieties with various sowing environments. In this context, during the year 2007-08 and 2008-09, experiments on three sowing dates viz. November 20, December 15, and January 9 and two varieties (PBW-343 and WH-542) with three replications were conducted at the Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (29°N, 79.29°E with 243.80 m above msl). Soil, plant, management and climatic data were collected from the experimental field. The data of 2007-08 and 2008-09 were used for model calibration and validation, respectively. Results revealed that the for model outputs were in good agreement with their corresponding observed values with 20th November sown crop than other sowings of crop in terms of phenological events, biomass accumulation and grain yields. However, variety PBW-343 showed close proximity between simulated and observed outcomes with all sowing dates. The percent root mean square error (% RMSE) values ranged from 5.9 – 15.6%, 2.2 – 7.6% for days to attain anthesis and physiological maturity, respectively. Moreover, %RMSE and t-value ranged from 5.7 – 12.2% (t= -4.5 to 1.8), 1.6 – 3.3% (t= -4.1 to 4.5) and 1.9 – 5.8% (t= -3.7 to 1.5) for product weight, vegetative weight and product harvest index, respectively. In Spite of that, model fails to simulate maximum leaf area index having % RMSE from 53.2 – 62.9%. These results indicate that CERES-Wheat model can be used as a tool to support decision-making for wheat production in Tarai region of Uttarakhand.
Keywords : CERES-Wheat, Sowing dates, Wheat varieties
Anil Kumar1*, Suresh Kumar2, Kuldeep Dahiya3, Sundeep Kumar4 and Mukesh Kumar5
1Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004, INDIA 2Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004, INDIA
3CCS Haryana Agricultural University Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sonipat, INDIA
4Department of Dryland Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004, INDIA
5CCS Haryana Agricultural University College of Agriculture Kaul, Kaithal, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field study was conducted during Kharif season of 2011 and 2012, to evaluate direct seeded rice options as compared to transplanted rice with an objective to improve farm productivity and efficiency. Labour and cost saving of 97% and 80% were observed in direct seeded rice (DSR) as compared to manual puddled transplanted rice in sowing/transplanting. Tillage and crop establishment methods had a significant effect on rice yields. Yield of manual puddled transplanted rice was significantly higher (10-12%) than DSR during both the years. DSR consumed 12-17 percent less water as compared to puddled transplanted rice during 2011, whereas, it consumed 5-9 per cent more water as compared to puddled transplanted rice during 2012. When compared to manual puddled transplanted rice, a labour saving of 7-8 percent (overall) was observed in DSR during both the years. The B: C ratio was highest in DSR in zero till condition (1.74) as compared to manual puddled transplanted rice (1.62). The study showed that the conventional practice of puddled transplanting could be replaced with zero till DSR to save water and labour.
Keywords : Direct seeded rice, Energy output, Field capacity, Tillage, Water use efficiency
Comparative study of medicinal plants on feeding behaviour of seven day old larvae of Tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) and Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua (Walk.)
Preeti Sharma, Neeta Gaur and Renu Pandey
College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author, E-mail: Preetisharmaentomology@gmail.com
Abstract : Eight medicinal plants viz., Sinduri, Bixa orellana (Bixaceae); Dalchini, Cinnamomum zeyanicum (Lauraceae); Camphora, Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae); Gular, Ficus racemosa (Moraceae); Arjun, Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae); Nagkesar, Messua ferrea (Calophyllaceae); Sarpgandha, Rauwolfia serpentina (Apocynaceae); Putranjeeva, Putranjeeva roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae) at 5% and 10 % concentrations were tested for the feeding against larvae of Spodoptera litura and Spilarctia obliqua. At 10% conc. C.camphora (hexane, diethyl ether, and acetone) was found extremely antifeedant against the larvae of both insects (S.litura and S.obliqua) while C.zeylanicum(hexane, diethyl ether, and acetone) and P.roxbughii (diethyl ether, and acetone), B.orellana (Acetone) showed extremely antifeedant activity only against the larvae of S.litura. At 5% concentration, the same plants were also effective against the larvae but their efficacy was less than at 10% concentration. The observation showed promising results with these plant extracts against the feeding and management of these two insect pests of agricultural importance.
Keywords : Antifeedant, feeding behaviour, medicinal plants, Spodoptera litura and Spilarctia obliqua
Milind B. Katare1*, N. Basavaraja1, Harshavardhan D. Joshi2 and Chirom Archana2
1Department of Aquaculture, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, College of Fisheries, Mangalore- 575002 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Aquaculture Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Andheri (West), Mumbai-400061 (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of letrozole (a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor) on masculinization of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Different doses of letrozole 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm (mg/kg feed) were incorporated into diet and fed for periods of 30, 40 or 50 days. Immersion treatment of letrozole at selected doses (250, 500, 750 and 1,000μg/l) for 3 h each on third, fifth and eighth day-post-hatching (dph) (Trial 1) and fourth, sixth and eighth dph (Trial 2) was given.The oral administration of letrozole for 30, 40 or 50 days did not have any significant effect on the sex ratio of B. splendens. The immersion treatment of letrozole induced 100% masculinization at 500 and 1000μg/l in trial 1, while it yielded only 66.66 and 90% male population at 500 and 1000 μg/l in Trial 2. The dietary administration of letrozole for 30 and 50 days caused tail deformities and/or rudimentary and absence of dorsal fin. The progeny testing of males from letrozole treated (both oral and immersion) groups indicate that the sex ratio of progenies of each of the males tested did not differ significantly from that of control, indicating that all those males carried XY genotype. Letrozole treatments suppressed ovarian development (atretic oocytes were common). However, the testicular development was unaffected. The study revealed that immersion treatment of letrozole was more effective in inducing masculinization of B. splendens than the oral administration of letrozole.
Keywords : Aromatase inhibitor, Deformity, Fighting fish, Masculinization, Histology
Assessment of knowledge of medicinal plants and their use in tribal region of Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh, India
V. K. Painkra1, M. K. Jhariya2 and A. Raj1
1College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur-492012 (C.G.), INDIA
2Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001 (C.G.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medicinal plants and their use in tribal region of Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh. Under the socio-economic profile, farmers of middle age (36-55 yrs) people showed the maximum percentage (78%) distribution and frequency, 50 per cent of respondents belonged to primary to middle school level of education and 63 per cent of respondents were having medium size of family (5 to 8 members). A total number of 50 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families were recorded, in which Euphorbiaceae registered as the largest family with 4 plant species (8%). Shrub showed their maximum presence (34%) followed by tree (32%), herb (20%) and climber (14%). As per knowledge of respondents about medicinal plants Haldi and Bhui-neem is mostly use as medicinal purpose as 5.2% (n=40) followed by Harra, Munga, Karanj and Hadjod (3.9% each). This information through respondent (tribals) showed very diverse nature of medicinal flora, their usage in healing purpose with socioeconomic/ living standard upliftment. Therefore, it is needful aspect of conserving these biological resources for sustainable ecosystem.
Keywords :Biological resource, Ecosystem flora, Medicinal plants
Rajender Singh*, Ratan Tiwari, Davinder Sharma, Vinod Tiwari and Indu Sharma
ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal- 132001 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Mutagenesis is one of the powerful genetic strategies for crop improvement programmes. A chemically induced mutated genetic resource for detecting novel variations by Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) has been developed in recently released bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar DPW621-50. A total of 3,478 M2 plants were evaluated for plant height, number of tillers/plant, thousand grain weight, number of seeds/ spike and grain yield/plant. A large variation was observed for all the traits. The highest frequency (52.2%) of lines had similar height between 91-100 cm to the non-mutagenized DPW 621-50 control followed by 28.9% of lines with height between 81-90 cm. A large variation was observed in number of tillers/plant which ranged from 1-35 tillers/ plant. The highest frequency (32.09%) lines had 31-40 seeds/spike followed by 29.84% lines with 41-50 seeds/ spike. Few lines (0.35%) had more than 70 seeds/spike with normal seed size as their thousand grain weight ranged between 34.82-43.82g. Chlorophyll deficient, grassy type and sterile mutants were also observed. This population may serve as new genetic resource for functional genomics studies and novel variants for different traits in elite germplasm can be made available to the plant breeders for wheat improvement.
Keywords : Mutagenesis, TILLING, Triticum aestivum
Resource management for apple scab and sanjose scale control of apple in Kashmir Valley of J&K State
M.A. Beigh1,Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer2*, F. Sibat3 and Sheikh Mehraj4
1,3Division of Extension Education & Communication, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
2Division of Agriculture Statistics, Economics and Extension, FOA, Wadura, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
4Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study on resource management for apple scab and sanjose scale of apple in Kashmir Valley of J&K State was conducted purposively in Sopore and Patten tehsils of Baramulla district covering 4 villages with a sample size of 200 apple growers selected through random sampling method. The study revealed that all the apple growers (100%) from rainfed and irrigated areas were applying the resource management practices such as checking the expiry of chemical before purchase, undertake precautions while using chemicals and sprayers, purchase economical and convenient packing’s of plant protection chemicals, check the working condition of the sprayers on regular basis, undertaking care and maintenance of sprayers regularly and were able to repair the minor defects of sprayers by self followed by (66%) apple growers who had decided to planed plant protection schedule in advance. The data further showed that hired labour for disease and pest management of apple were available easily and locally, and as per requirement (100%). As regards prevailing wage rates (88%) farmers from rainfed and (91%) from irrigated area reported that these were reasonable. Plant protection chemicals needed for control of disease and pest of apple were found adopted by cent per cent farmers. The plant protection chemicals were also available in suitable packings (97%) and before the expiry date (96%). The critical evaluation of the plant protection chemicals and equipments before their use with regard to their quality being taken care by all the apple growers would help in eradication of the disease from the region.
Keywords : Apple scab, Resource management, Sanjose scale
Biomass production, carbon sequestration and economics of on-farm poplar plantations in Punjab, India
S. K. Chauhan1, R. Sharma1, B. Singh2 and S. C. Sharma3
1Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
2Krishi Vigyan Kendra Sri Muktsar Sahib
3Regional Research Station for Kandi Area, Ballowal Saunkhri, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Abstract : Six years poplar plantations were assessed for productivity, carbon storage and economics in comparison to sole cropping. Wheat grain yield was significantly higher in control plots (4.55 t/ha) than boundary plantation (3.28 t/ha) and block plantation (2.03 t/ha). Similar trend was recorded for straw yield (6.61 t/ha in control plots, 4.83 t/ha in boundary plantation and 3.5 t/ha in block plantation. The boundary plantation produced higher DBH (24.23 cm) than the block plantation (19.71 cm). The crown spread itself followed the same trend but both the planting methods had almost similar plant height. However, the total tree biomass was higher with block plantation (96.31 t/ha) than boundary plantation (30.14 t/ha) but per tree biomass was more in boundary plantation than block plantation. The total carbon storage was higher in block planting method (55.43 t/ha) than in boundary plantation (32.70 t/ha) and lowest total carbon storage in sole cropping system (31.20 t/ha). The heat from biomass combustion and carbon storage from coal substituted of timber was also higher in the block plantation (18.67t C/ha) as compared with boundary plantation (4.43t C/ha). Agro forestry systems likely had a greater capacity to sequester C in the long-term than the annual cropping systems because of their diverse configurations. The economic benefits were also higher in block plantation than boundary and sole cropping of rice-wheat (B : C ratio of 3.30, 1.90 and 1.61, respectively). Adoption of on-farm poplar plantations will develop new opportunities for enhanced income in addition to employment and environmental amelioration.
Keywords : Boundary/block plantation, Carbon sequestration, Energy, On-farm poplar
Effect of mutagens on regeneration and growth of in vitro grown epicotyl segments of rough lemon seedlings (Citrus jambhiri Lush.)
Horticulture Section, Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station Gurdaspur-143521, (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract :The present study on the effect of mutagens on regeneration and growth of in vitro grown epicotyls segments of rough lemon seedlings (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) was carried out during the years 2009- 2010 and 2010- 2011 in the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Developmental characteristics of the in vitro grown epicotyls segments on regeneration media were treated employing gamma radiation in Gray(Gy) at 0, 5,10,15, 20,25,30,35,40 and 45 Gy; the alkylating agent ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) each at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,0.5 and 0.6% (v/v) were evaluated. Epicotyl segments from one month old in vitro grown seedling were cultured in regeneration medium (MS+BAP 1.0 mglit-1) under controlled laboratory conditions (25±2⁰ C, 16 hr photoperiod, 2000 lux light). LD50, the dose required to kill half of the tested population corresponded to 35Gy for gamma radiation, 0.3% each for EMS and MMS treatments. Number of days taken for regeneration increased with increasing dose of gamma irradiation, EMS and MMS. Percent regeneration, number of buds, number of shoots, shoot length, number of leaves, internodal length, primary root length and number of secondary roots decreased with increasing dose of gamma radiation , EMS and MMS. The study would be beneficial to induce desirable variations in plant growth characteristics of rough lemon by the use of mutagens treatment.
Keywords : Ethyl methane sulfonate, Gamma rays, Germination, In vitro, Methyl methane sulfonate, Rough lemon
Analytical study of training needs of olive growers in various subject matter areas of olive cultivation in Uri Block of district Baramulla, J&K, India
M.A. Beigh1, Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer2*, Sheikh Mehraj3 and F. Sibat1
1Division of Extension Education & Communication, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
2*Division of Agriculture Statistics, Economics and Extension, FOA, Wadura, Sher-e-Kashmir, University of Agricultural Science & Technology Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
3Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The main purpose of this study was to know the training needs of olive growers in different subject matter areas of olive cultivation undertaken in Uri block of district Baramulla of Jammu and Kashmir State. A sample size of 150 respondents was randomly selected from 5 villages and from each village 30 farmers were selected randomly. It was observed during the study that majority of farmers require training and with emphasis on latest transfer of technology in establishing olive farm, procurement of root stocks of improved varieties, soil management, proper spacing and planting, manures and fertilizers, irrigation and drainage, insect-pests and diseases, harvesting and marketing, etc. The area of insect-pests and diseases require high training need followed by soil management, selection of varieties, manures and fertilizers, harvesting and marketing, irrigation and drainage, establishing olive farm and procurement of root-stocks of improved varieties. Therefore, the study has highlighted the need for restructuring the training programme to benefit the olive growers in the region. Such an approach would boost production and generate additional income for the orchardists.
Keywords : Olive growers, Pest disease management, Training needs
Effect of head decapitation and planting density on quality seed production of sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)
D.K. Mehta*, Tarun Singh and Rajesh Kanwar
Department of Seed Science & Technology College of Horticulture, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230, (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of head decapitation and planting density on plant growth, seed yield and quality of sprouting broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica L. using cultivar ‘Green Head’. The twenty treatments comprised of combinations of four head decapitation methods viz., D1 (decapitation of primary head at appearance and harvesting seeds from secondary heads), D2 (decapitation of primary head at marketable stage and harvesting seeds from secondary heads), D3 (removal of secondary heads at appearance and harvesting seeds primary head) and ‘D4’ (No decapitation- control) and five planting densities viz., S1 (60x60 cm), S2 (60x45 cm), S3(45x45 cm), S4 (60x30 cm), and S5 (45x30 cm). Decapitation of primary head at appearance and harvesting seeds from secondary heads (D1) and planting density S3 (45x45 cm) independently as well as in combination gave highest seed yield per plot and per hectare. This combination was also found comparable to other combinations for other characters like days to 50% flowering, days to seed harvesting, plant height at harvesting (cm), number of branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, siliqua length (cm), number of seeds per siliqua and seed quality parameters. Therefore, it is suggested that decapitation of primary head at appearance and harvesting seeds from secondary heads (D1) in combination with plant spacing of 45x45 cm i.e. D1S3 can be recommended for commercial seed production of sprouting broccoli.
Keywords : Head decapitation, Planting density, Quality, Seed yield
Prevalence, serodiversity and antibiogram of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in diarrhoeic calves and lambs of Kashmir valley (J&K), India
Rusheeba Manzoor1, Mohammad Irfan Shah2, Asma-ul-husna1, Shakil Ahmad Wani1, Farhat Pandit1, Pervaiz Ahmad Dar1, Mohammad Iqbal Mir3
1Division of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir Shuhama Campus, Srinagar- 190006, INDIA
2Division of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, Uttar Pradesh
3Division of Fish Pathology, Faculty of Fisheries Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir, Rangil, Ganderbal 190006
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the major cause of diarrhoea in neonatal animals. This study determined the prevalence, serological diversity, virulence gene profile and in-vitro antibiogram of ETEC isolates from diarrhoeic faeces of calves and lambs. The prevalence rate of ETEC in lambs was recorded 18.46 % with O8 as predominant serotype. However, in calves the prevalence rate was recorded 8.57 % with O15 and O26 as predominant serotypes. The antibiogram screening showed differential susceptibility pattern among ETEC isolates with highest resistance to ampicillin and highest sensitivity to enrofloxacin. In the present study, for the first time it was reported that the diarrhoea in calves and lambs occur due to virulent gene est not due to elt gene, which was absent in all the isolates.
Keywords : Calves, Diarrhoea, Lambs, PCR
Biopesticidal effect of leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on growth parameters and diseases of tomato
Gayatri Nahak and Rajani Kanta Sahu*
KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar-751024 (Odisha), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : This paper investigates the potential use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) aqueous leaf extract on the growth, yield and disease control of a common vegetable plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The neem extract increased shoot height, number of branches, number of leaves, number of buds, number of flowers and number of fruits of tomato plant over controls in different treatments. Numbers of diseases were calculated as percentage and disease/plant. The percentage of reduction of disease was calculated after the spray of neem extract on plants. Neem extract was found effectively in controlling canker (50.32%), early blight (55.12%), wilt (59.45%), leaf spot (55.48%), fruit spot (41.93%), blossom end rot (40.86%) and sun scald (25.61%) in comparison to controls under field condition. Thus, biopesticides can contribute in reducing use of chemical pesticides and subsequently minimize its hazards to the environment and human health.
Keywords : Biopesticide, Diseases, Growth parameters, Neem extract, Tomato
Inhibitory effect of bacterial antagonists on the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid. Causing charcoal rot of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) invitro
A. Karmel Reetha1* and S. Mohan2
1Department of plant pathology, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi - 642103 Tamil Nadu, INDIA
2Department of plant Pathology, Agricultural Collège and Research Institute, Madurai - 625104 Tamil Nadu,INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Charcoal rot caused by Macrophominaphaseolinais a major disease causing in sunflower plant. The pathogen invasion occurs from the seedling to maturity stage. To overcome this problem in vitro, sensitivity of M. phaseolina was determined through inhibition zone technique to various isolates of antagonistic bacteria like seven isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (EPf2, EDPf3, APf4, CPf5, MPf6, KPf7 and Pf1)and seven isolates Bacillus subtilis (EBs1, EDBs2, ABs3, CBs4, MBs5, KBs6 and Bs10) amended into PDA medium. The results showed that the entire bacterial antagonist were effective against the fungus M. phaseolina and exhibited appreciable amount of inhibition. Among these bacterial antagonist significantly compared to the control P.fluorescens (Pf1) proved to be the most effective (71.49 %) with an inhibition zone of 5.00 mm reducing the colony growth of M. Phaseolina followed B. subtilis (65.92 %)inhibition zone of 17.80 mm respectively over control. However, from these studies it is concluded that an isolate of various antagonist can vary in its sclerotia producing ability on root.
Keywords : Bacterial biocontrol, In-vitro, Macrophomina phaseolina, Sunflower
Maize (Zea mays L.) response to subsoil compaction and nitrogen fertilization under semi-arid irrigated conditions.
Jagdish Singh* and M. S. Hadda
Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, (Punjab) INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigation was carried out to access the optimal N dose and its impact on growth, yield and yield attributes of hybrid maize (Zea mays. L) under subsoil compaction condition. The experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during the summer seasons of the year 2012 and 2013. The experiment comprised three subsoil compaction treatments in main plots and three nitrogen levels in sub plots following split-plot design with three replications. Plant height, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation were negatively affected by subsoil compaction. However nitrogen fertilization mitigates the negative effect of subsoil compaction on growth of maize. Cob length was recorded lower with higher cob barrenness under higher degree of subsoil compaction. The grain yield was reduced by 13-16 per cent and biomass yield by 10-17 per cent due to subsoil compaction. The total N uptake was 14.6 and 18.2 per cent higher under C0 treatment than that in highly compacted subsoil (C2), while N2 treatment had improved the total N uptake by 18.6 and 14.9 per cent as compared to N0 treatment during the year 2012 and 2013, respectively. The results revealed that N1 fertilization level can be recommended under subsurface compacted soils as compared to N0 and N2 rates. This study further suggests the management option should be explored in addition to deep tillage to maximize yield of maize.
Keywords : Dry matter, Subsoil compaction, Maize, N uptake, Nitrogen, Yield, Yield attributes.
18E/564 Chopasni Housing Board, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
Present Address: Plant Ecology Laboratory, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Analysis of spatial distribution in ecology is often influenced by spatial autocorrelation. In present paper various techniques related with quantification of spatial autocorrelation were categorized. Three broad categories namely global, local and variogram were identified and mathematically explained. Local measurers captures the many local spatial variation and spatial dependency while global measurements provide only one set of values that represent the extent of spatial autocorrelation across the entire study area. Global spatial autocorrelation measures the overall clustering of data and it included six well defines methods, namely, Global index of spatial autocorrelation, Joint count statistics, Moran’s I, Geary’s C ration, General G-statistics and Getis and Ord’s G. The study revealed that out of the six methods Moran’s I index was most frequently utilized in plant population study. Based on their similarity degree, local indicator of spatial association (LISA) can differentiate the neighbors in to hot and cold spots. Correlogram and variogram approaches are also given.
Keywords : Correlogram, Global and Local Autocorrelation, Moran’s I Spatial Autocorrelation, Variogram approaches.
Kamla Malik1*, Jayanti Tokkas2, Ramesh Chander Anand1 and Nisha Kumari2
1Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, INDIA
2Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Rice straw, a by-product of the rice production is mainly used as a source of feed for ruminant livestock is the major forage in rice-producing areas in India. The disposal of the rice straw is a serious problem in areas where it is the major agricultural product. It is rich in polysaccharides and has a high lignin and silica content, limiting voluntary intake and reducing degradability by rumen microbes. By rice straw treatment, its quality and digestibility can be improved and enhanced the protein content. Several methods have been used to improve the utilization of rice straw by ruminants or supplemented by other ingredients to increase digestibility and nutrient value before it can be considered a suitable animal feed. In recent years, biological treatments have been investigated for improvement in nutritional value of rice straw. The use of ligninolytic fungi and their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes for treatment of rice straw results in degrading cellulose and hemicelluloses contents which improve its nutritional value. The use of fungi and enzyme treatments is expected to be a practical, cost-effective and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. Therefore, the treated rice straw has a good potential as feed for ruminants.
Keywords : Cattle, Feed, Nutritive value, Rice straw, Utilization.
K.K. Sharma1*, U.S. Singh2, Pankaj Sharma3, Ashish Kumar4 and Lalan Sharma5
1Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan-Almora-263601,(Uttarakhand), INDIA
2IRRI-9th Floor, Aggarwal Corporate Tower, Rajendra Place, New Delhi-110008, INDIA
3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PAU-141004, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA
4Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur-482004 (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA
5NBAIM, Kusmaur, Mau Nath Bhanjan-275101, (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Seed treatment refers to the application of certain agents physical, chemical or biological to the seed prior to sowing in order to suppress, control or repel pathogens, insects and other pests that attack seeds, seedlings or plants and it ranges from a basic dressing to coating and pelleting. Introduction and ban of arsenic (used from 1740 until 1808) is the key milestones in the history of modern seed treatment till then a continuous research and advancement in this technology is going on. The technological advancement prepared a roadmap for refining existing seed treatment technologies and future work on technologies like fluid drilling as a way to sow germinated seeds where gel can also serve as a delivery system for other materials, seed priming advances the early phase of germination without radicle emergence. Another advanced technology, solid matrix priming (SMP) has been evaluated as a means to advances the germination of seeds and serve as a carrier for useful material too. Physical and biological seed treatments alone an alternative to chemicals or in combination with a chemical treatment are being used worldwide because of their environmental safety and socioeconomic aspects. Biological seed treatments are expected to be one of the fastest growing seed treatment sectors in the near future, in part because they are easier to register at Environment Protection Agency (EPA). Lack of awareness to seed treatments at farmer’s level is one of the limiting factors in disease management and hence, efforts should be made at farmer’s level to adopt the technology. Keeping the all above facts in mind, selected seed treatment technologies with their improvement and significance will be discussed in this review.
Keywords : Biopriming, Fluid drilling, Pelleting, Seed coating, Seed treatment.
A review on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria acting as bioinoculants and their biological approach towards the production of sustainable agriculture.
Vibha Nehra* and Madhu Choudhary1
*Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA
1Division of Soil and Crop Management, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. There has been much research interest in PGPB and there is now an increasing number of PGPB being commercialized for various crops. Today a lot of efforts have been made for searching and investigating the PGPB and their mode of action, so that they can be exploited commercially as biofertilizers. Because of the various challenges faced in screening, formulation, and application, PGPB have yet to fulfill their promise and potential as commercial inoculants. Recent progress in our understanding of their diversity, colonization ability, mechanisms of action, formulation, and application should facilitate their development as reliable components in the management of sustainable agricultural systems. Several reviews have discussed specific aspects of PGPB as bioinoculants. We have tried to critically evaluate the current status of bacterial inoculants for contemporary agriculture in developed and developing countries. This review focuses on some important information regarding the bio-fertilizing potential of some important group of microbes, their formulations, their application for the development of sustainable technology, scope of improvement by genetic engineering, steps to be undertaken for their commercialization and their future prospects.
Keywords : Beneficial bacteria, Bioinoculants, PGPB, Carrier, Formulation, Sustainable agriculture.
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