Volume 6, Year 2014-Issue 2
Effect of Cassava mill effluent on some soil chemical properties and the growth of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.)
Ehi Robert Orhue*, Enogiomwan Esther Imasuen and Daniel Enuenweyoi Okunima
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the trials, Cassava mill Effluent was used for fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) cultivation in order to verify the influence of the effluent on the growth and some soil chemical properties. In this regard, a completely randomized and randomized complete block designs were used in the greenhouse and field trials respectively with 6 treatments replicated 3 times. In the greenhouse, the following rates of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ml per 5 kg topsoil were used while in the field trial, 0, 40000, 80000, 120000, 160000 and 200000 litres/ha were utilized. The rates used in the field were equivalent to those of greenhouse. In both trials, the cassava mill effluent was applied 2 weeks prior to transplanting the seedlings. Results indicated that the cassava mill effluent significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil pH, organic carbon, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and Zn whereas the exchangeable acidity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with corresponding increase in cassava mill effluent treatments. Except N and Na, which declined with corresponding increase in the cassava mill effluent treatments, an improved P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn components was achieved in cassava mill effluent polluted plants compared to control. The plant height, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increased cassava mill effluent treatment in the greenhouse trial while in the field trial, 120000 litres/ha was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other treatments. In the greenhouse trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of leaves was attained in 100 ml treatment compared to other treatments whereas in the field trial, the 120000 and 200000 litres/ha were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to other treatments.
Keywords : Effluent, Fluted pumpkin, Growth, Pollution, Soil properties, Treatments.
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Stage specific upregulation of antioxidant defence system in leaves for regulating drought tolerance in chickpea
H. K. Oberoi*, A. K. Gupta, S. Kaur and I. Singh1
Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, INDIA
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Leaf is one of the early sensors for the drought stress and is important to study drought tolerance mechanism. Activities of antioxidative enzymes and status of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline and total phenols were studied in leaves of drought tolerant (PDG 3 and PDG 4) and susceptible (PBG 1, GPF 2, PBG 5, L 550 and BG1053) chickpea cultivars under irrigated and rainfed conditions at different development stages. In general, with the age of plant, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased but the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) decreased in leaves. With some exceptions, in general, higher status of APX and POX in leaves at vegetative stage I (30 days after sowing) and II (60 days after sowing); GR at vegetative stage II and pre-flowering stage and SOD and CAT at seed filling stages in tolerant cultivars under drought stress reflected stage specific upregulation of antioxidant defence system in them. The relatively lower activities of APX and POX in old leaves during seed filling stage make them more prone to enhanced oxidative injury than the young leaves. Lower content of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in leaves of tolerant cultivars during seed filling reflects the impact of antioxidant defence system operative at that time. The higher accumulation of proline and total phenol in leaves of tolerant cultivars might be playing important role in drought stress tolerance. These results indicated the importance of upregulation of different antioxidant enzymes at variable stages of leaf development.
Keywords : Antioxidative enzymes, Chickpea, Drought stress, Leaves.
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Dimensional stability and strength properties of wood plastic composites produced from sawdust of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.)
D. N. Izekor* and M. E. Mordi
Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : This study evaluates the effects of densities and mixing ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites boards at mixing ratio of 1:1 to 1:1.4 and nominal densities of 700kg/mm3 and 800kg/mm3. The quantity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and saw dust used in the production of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) was weighed to a nominal density of 700kg/mm3 and 800kg/mm3. The materials were thoroughly mixed and fed into a neatly primed oil mould with a dimension of 300 x 300 x 10 mm. Test samples used for physical and mechanical properties determination were collected from each board produced from the mould. The results showed that WPCs board produced from mixing ratio 1:1 had the highest Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) values of 6.52 mm N-2 and 564.95 mm N-2 respectively. Water absorption, thickness swelling and linear expansion of WPCs produced from wood/plastic ratio of 1:1.4 had the lowest mean values of 6.67, 0.83, 0.68% and 21.61, 1.33, 5.35% respectively after 2 hours and 24 hours of water immersion test. Analysis of variance carried out at 0.05% probability level showed that the effect of density and mixing ratio were significant on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites boards.
Keywords : Linear expansion, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rupture, Thickness swelling, Water absorption, Wood plastic composites.
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Phenological performance of groundnut varieties under sowing environments in hyper arid zone of Rajasthan, India.
R. S. Meena* and R. S. Yadav1
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), INDIA
1Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, -334 006 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An experimental trial was conducted on groundnut during kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010. The experimental soil was loamy sand in texture. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications, assigning 32 treatments consisting of four date of sowing (20th April, 15th May, 9th June and 4th July) and two varieties (HNG-10 and TG-37A) as main-plot treatments and four fertility levels of nitrogen and phosphorus application (0, 20 N-40 P2O5, 30-60 P2O5 and 40 N-80 P2O5 kg/ha) as sub-plot treatments. The results showed that significantly higher plant stand was observed in 9th June and 4th July sowing date of the groundnut at harvest. 20th April sowing had significantly higher dry matter accumulation, CGR of 30-60 and 60-90 DAS of HNG-10 variety. Further delays in sowing significantly reduce growth parameters. However, growth parameters viz. dry matter accumulation, CGR, RGR etc. in all the sowing dates in TG-37A was statistically at par with each other. All the fertility treatments produced significantly higher dry matter, CGR, RGR etc. Application of 30 kg N-60 kg P2O5 / ha significantly enhanced the dry matter accumulation over 20 kgN-40kg P2O5/ha but statistically at par with 40 kg N- 80 kg P2O5/ ha.
Keywords : Date of sowing, Dry matter, Fertility levels, Varieties.
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Phenology and thermal indices of maize (Zea mays L.) influenced by subsoil compaction and nitrogen fertilization under semi-arid irrigated conditions.
Jagdish Singh* and M. S. Hadda
Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The magnitude of yield reduction due to soil compaction is variable and depends on the soil type, fertility status and other soil and environmental factors. The present investigation was carried out at the research farm, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of subsoil compaction and nitrogen fertilization on maize phenology, yield and heat use efficiency. The C2 (subsoil bulk density (Db)= >1.8 Mg m-3) treatment reduced yield by 15.5 and 24.3 % and heat use efficiency (HUE) by 15.2 and 20.9 % than that in C0 (subsoil Db=1.55-1.65 Mg m-3) treatment during the year 2012 and 2013, respectively. The tasseling and silking stage was delayed, while physiological maturity was advanced under C2 subsoil compaction treatment than that in C0 treatment. The N2 treatment improved the yield by 14.9 and 13.9 % and HUE by 15.2 and 14.3 % than that in N0 treatment during the year 2012 and 2013, respectively. Maize took more days to reach physiological maturity under N2 treatment as compared to N0 treatment. Phenothermal index (PTI) showed that crop reached different stages earlier under C1 and C2 than that of C0. The data emphasized the need to take care of soil strength and soil temperature related parameters along with weather conditions for better yield prediction using thermal time.
Keywords : Accumulated growing degree days (AGDD), Heat use efficiency (HUE), Nitrogen levels, Phenology, Phenothermal index (PTI), Subsoil compaction.
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D. Chandrasekaran1*, P. Venkatesan2, K. G. Tirumurugaan2, A. P. Nambi1, P. S. Thirunavukkarasu1, K. Kumanan2 and S.Vairamuthu3
1Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, INDIA
2Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, INDIA
3Centralized Clinical Laboratory, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. The study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of Methicillin resistant S. aureus from clinical mastitis milk samples and their antibiotic resistance profile and characterised with respect to the molecular features that contributed to the resistance in these pathogens. Isolation and identification of Methicillin resistant S. aureus were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay micro dilution technique for MIC to 8 different antimicrobial drugs. A total of 235 clinical mastitis milk samples from dairy cows were cultured for incidence of S. aureus. Methicillin resistant S. aureus was isolated from a total of 12 (44.25%) of the 116 S. aureus samples. Based on the antimicrobial sensitivity and MIC results, MRSA isolates were found sensitive to gentamicin, enrofloxcain, amoxicillin+sulbactam, ceftriaxone and resistant to amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G and oxacillin. Most of MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant. MRSA alert kit test and mecA and blaZ target gene PCR were found to be useful in the confirmation of MRSA.
Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, Antimicrobial drug resistance, Bovine mastitis, MIC, mecA, MRSA, PCR blaZ, PVL gene.
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Differential response of phosphorus utilization efficiency in rice by tracer technique using phosphorus-32 under phosphorus stress environment.
V. Sanjivkumar* and P. Malarvizhi
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In most soils, soil and fertilizer Phosphorus (P) are easily bound by either soil organic matter or chemicals and thus are unavailable to plants unless hydrolyzed to release inorganic phosphate. Therefore, the development of P-efficient rice varieties that can grow and yield better with low P supply is a key to improve crop production. P efficient plants play a major role in increasing crop yields due to shortage of inorganic P fertilizer resources, limited land and water resources and increasing environmental concerns. Based on the P uptake efficiency, four rice genotypes viz.,TNRH 180, CB08504, CB06732 and ADT 47 were selected from the field experiment and used in pot culture experiment with three levels of P using radio isotope technique to quantify the P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and P use efficiency (PUE) and also to determine the native P supplying power of the soils using 32P in low P soils. Growth and yield parameters, grain and straw yield and major nutrients uptake of rice genotypes were increased with enhanced level of phosphorus application. Among the four genotypes, TNRH 180 recorded the highest grain yield and uptake. Increasing the P application rate from 25 to 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 increased the %Pdff in grain and straw for all the genotypes. The mean per cent phosphorus utilization (PPU) ranged between 18.74 and 23.72. The PPU of the genotypes followed the order TNRH 180 (23.72 %) > CB08504 (23.36 %) > CB06732 (20.54%) > ADT 47 (18.74%). The PPU values were higher at lower level of P application (25 kg P2O5 ha-1) for the genotypes TNRH 180, CB08504 and CB06732. From this study showed that rice genotypes have the ability to utilize the both available and unavailable form of phosphorus by secreting some organic acids in the root portion to solubilize. Hence rice genotypes indicated above have the ability to increase phosphorus utilization efficiency.
Keywords : Pdff, Pdfs, Phosphorus-32 (32P), P utilization, Rice, Yield.
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Optimization of fermentation conditions for producing Indian rock bee (Apis dorsata) mead using response surface methodology.
N. Srimeena*, S. Gunasekaran and R. Murugesan
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Mead is a traditional drink which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae KF233529). The present investigation was carried out for the optimization of fermentation parameters for maximizing the yield of ethanol. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based central composite design was employed to obtain best combination of temperature, fermentation time and total soluble solids (TSS). The optimum conditions for ethanol yield were temperature 28°C, TSS 15°Brix and 6 days after fermentation. The model showed that the value of R2 (0.9998) was high and p- value of interaction of variance was <0.0001. Hence the model can be said to be of highly significant.
Keywords : Ethanol, Fermentation time, Mead, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Temperature, TSS.
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Impact of abiotic factors on build-up of citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama population in Punjab, India.
Hijam S. Devi1* and D. R. Sharma2
1Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, INDIA
2 Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Seasonal abundance of citrus psylla (Diaphorina citri) Kuwayama was studied on Kinnow mandarin under Punjab conditions during 2012 and 2013. Population of D. citri was present throughout the year but only adults found surviving during December and February. There was no nymphal population when maximum temperature was > 39°C or < 7°C. Two population peaks of nymphs were observed, first in April-May and second in August- September. Thereafter, there was abrupt decline in nymphal population during June and July during both the years when the weather conditions i.e. maximum, minimum temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), rainfall (m m) and sunshine (hrs) ranged from 24.4-44, 22.4-31.8, 25.5-100, 0-108.0 and 0-13.5, respectively. Highest peaks of adult were found during May followed by June. With the decrease in temperature from the end of September, the population of D. citri started to decrease and reached its lowest during winter season. Correlation analysis for both the years indicated that maximum and minimum temperature, sunshine and rainfall were positively correlated with nymphal, adult and mixed population but the effect of rainfall on adult population was non-significant, while relative humidity was negatively correlated. The study is useful to find out the weak links of psyllid populations in relation to abiotic factors and that could be exploited to curb its infestation and disease transmission.
Keywords : Citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Mandarin, Psyllidae, Punjab, Seasonal abundance.
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Arvind Kumar Yadav1*, Anil Kumar1, Jagdev Singh1, R.D. Jat1, H.S. Jat2, Ashim Datta3, Kuldeep Singh4 and Rakesh Chaudhary1
1Department of Agronomy, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University- Hisar (Haryana)-125001, INDIA
2Research Platform Coordinator, CIMMYT-Karnal, India, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
3Division of Soil and Crop Management, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute-Karnal (Haryana)-132001, INDIA
4Department of Soil Science, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University- Hisar (Haryana)-125001, INDIA
*Corresponding author.E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was carried out at Research Farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India to evaluate the performance of pearl millet genotypes (HHB 67 ‘Improved’, HHB 197, HHB 223 and HHB 234) under different environment (rainfed and irrigated). Results showed that irrigated condition recorded significantly (p < 0.05) higher plant height, dry matter accumulation, root dry weight, ear head girth, test weight and yield of pearl millet than rainfed condition. Root length was significantly (p < 0.05) higher under rainfed than irrigated condition. Genotypes were found significant (p < 0.05) with respect to plant height at harvest and HHB 234 recorded higher plant height. Genotype HHB 223 recorded higher earhead girth (2.6 cm) and test weight (11.16 g) compared to other genotypes. Interaction effect was also found significant (p < 0.05) with respect to plant height, dry matter accumulation, root length and weight and yield. These were higher in genotype HHB 223 and HHB 234 under irrigated and rainfed condition respectively but at 20 days after sowing, longest root was observed in genotype HHB 67 ‘Improved’ under rainfed condition and genotype HHB 197 under irrigated condition. To examine the performance of pearl millet genotypes in terms of survivality and yield potential, evaluation trials are necessary under different environment. Therefore, release of those varieties under different situations are essential for the sustainability of the fragile arid and semi arid regions of country.
Keywords : Genotypes, Irrigated, Pearl millet, Rainfed.
Effect of anthropogenic disturbances on biomass and carbon storage potential of a dry tropical forest in India.
G. V. Pawar, Lalji Singh, M. K. Jhariya* and K. P. Sahu
Department of Forestry College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur- 492012 (C.G.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The forests of Chhattisgarh are very well known for its species richness, diversity, biomass, carbon stock and productivity. The present study was carried out at Katghora forest division under Bilaspur circle of Korba district, Chhattisgarh considering three sites viz., least, moderately and highly disturbed site to estimate biomass and carbon storage in relation to anthropogenic disturbances. For collection of data quadrats were selected under stratified random sampling design. For enumeration of tree and saplings ten quadrats of 10 m × 10 m were laid and each species counted separately. The tree density varies from 100-510 stems ha-1 across study sites. Total biomass in the present study was between 127.69 t ha-1 and 227.71 t ha-1. Total above ground biomass was between 111.20 t ha-1 and 199.42 t ha-1, whereas total below ground biomass varied from 16.49-28.29 t ha-1, respectively. The total carbon storage across the sites were ranged from 55.125 to 98.548 t C ha-1 found higher under least disturbed site and lowest under medium disturbed site. Carbon storage pattern according to girth class followed the similar trend of distribution as was in the case of biomass. It has least proportion in small girth class and maximum storage under the higher girth class. It is evident from the study that disturbances have significant impact on density, vegetation diversity, biomass accumulation and carbon storage pattern. Conservation affords are required to control on disturbances and for the natural recovery of forest ecosystem.
Keywords : Biomass, Carbon storage, Diversity, Species richness, Tropical forests.
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Specific identification, biology and symptoms of whitefly species infesting sunflower in South India.
V. N. Ghante, L. Rajesh Chowdary*, M. R. Govindappa, M. Bheemanna and Arunkumar Hosamani
Department of Agril. Entomology, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Whitefly species related to sunflower was identified as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Further the identified whitefly species was confirmed to be indigenous B. tabacion molecular basis by using B-biotype specific SCARs and biological silver leaf assay on sensitive pumpkin (cv Big variety). None of the whitefly samples could positive for the presence of B biotype. The results of the study on the pest life cycle under the laboratory conditions showed that, B. tabaci passed through four nymphal instars before the adult stage. The mean duration values of these stages were 5.6, 4.2, 4.4 and 5.6 days respectively. The total duration of the life cycle of B. tabaci ranged from 23-42 days at the temperature of 29±2°C with a mean of 34.5. The damage to sunflower crop caused by the whitefly species is discussed with a special emphasis on its ability to transmit leaf curl viral disease.
Keywords : Bemisia tabaci, Indigenous, Leaf curl viral disease, Sunflower, Vector, Whitefly.
Influence of Panchagavya foliar spray on the growth attributes and yield of baby corn (Zea mays) cv. COBC 1
Vimalendran Loganathan* and K. Ahab
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608002, Chidambaram (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Vimal.firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field experiments were conducted at experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram during July to September (2008) and January to March (2009) in two seasons to study the effect of foliar spray of Panchagavya on the growth and yield of Baby corn cv. COBC 1. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Block Design with fourteen treatments and replicated thrice. The treatments included foliar spray and inorganic nutrient application at various stages of baby corn. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) [N150: P60 (P2O5): K40 (K2O)] and 4 sprays (15, 25, 35 and 45 DAS) of 3 % Panchagavya recorded the highest growth attributes and yield of fresh Baby corn and this was followed by application of recommended dose of fertilizers (100 %) along with 3 sprays (15, 25 and 35 DAS) of 3 % panchagavya during both the seasons. The least growth and yield parameter were recorded in 3 sprays of 4 % Panchagavya without use of inorganic fertilizers. The increase in growth and yield of baby corn was mainly attributed by greater availability of nutrients through soil application (100 % RDF) and foliar spray of panchagavya at various stages of crop growth.
Keywords :Baby corn, Growth attributes, Panchagavya, Yield.
Effect of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition on yield parameters and protein composition in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].
A. Sharma* and S. Sharma
Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Accumulation patterns of various protein fractions in seed, yield and protein quality parameters of soybean cultivar SL 525 harvested at different stages of development from plants grown under different treatments viz., nitrogen (urea @ 31.25 kg N ha-1), sulphur (gypsum @ 20 kg S ha-1) and combined application of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) were investigated. Application of S alone or combined with N significantly increased plant height, number of seeds per pod and total seed yield. Sulphur-containing amino acids viz., methionine and cysteine increased significantly (P≤0.05) by all the treatments in comparison to control and maximum increase of 1.3 fold was observed by urea application. The contents of different protein fractions viz., albumin, globulin and glycinin (a subfraction of globulin) increased under the effect of N and S applied alone or in combination from 30 DAP to maturity with maximum accumulation at maturity as compared to control (without N or S application). Gypsum @ 20 kg S ha-1 resulted in higher accumulation of glycinin (11S) relative to β-conglycinin (7S) fraction of globulin protein in soybean seed thereby increasing 11S:7S ratio indicating improvement in soybean seed quality. The current study showed that improvement of soybean nutritional quality can be achieved by application of gypsum @ 20 kg S ha-1 along with recommended N doses under agroclimatic conditions of Punjab.
Keywords :Nitrogen, Protein quality, Soybean, Sulphur, Yield.
Effect of variety and planting date of rice on population of natural enemies of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).
A. S. Tetarwal*, Lakhi Ram, Ram Singh and Manoj Kumar Jat
Department of Entomology, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study on the effect of variety and planting date of rice on population of natural enemies of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) showed that during August, the mean population of spiders was statistically on par on CSR 30 and PR 114. The population differed with dates and was significantly (p=0.05) higher (9.0/10 hills) in D2 during 2011 only. There was no significant difference in the population of spiders on two varieties and dates of transplanting during September 2011 only. However, significantly higher population of spiders was recorded in variety PR 114 (21.65/10 hills) and D2 (20.52/10 hills) than on CSR 30 (13.67/10 hills) and D1 (14.80/10 hills) during September, 2012. The mean population of spiders did not differ significantly with the dates during October, 2011 and 2012. However, it was significantly higher on variety PR 114 (27.65/10 hills) than on CSR 30 during both the crop seasons. Mirid bugs did not appear in the month of August, 2011 and 2012 whereas during September 2011, the variety CSR 30 and D1 registered significantly higher population than other variety and date. However, a reverse trend was observed with varieties and dates during 2012. The mean population of coccinelid, carabid and staphylinid beetles remained very low on both the varieties in the month of August during 2011 and 2012. However, the population of these predators was influenced significantly by the varieties and dates during 2012. The population of nymphal-adult parasitoids also remained very low during both years and was not influenced by varieties and dates.
Keywords : Coccinelids, Mirid bugs, Nymphal-adult, Planting dates, Population dynamics, Spiders.
Growth physiology of Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson under integrated nutrient management and seed soaking approaches in eastern sub-Himalayan plains.
Saikat Mookherjee*, Ganesh Chandra Malik1 Subhendu Bandyopadhyay and Biplab Mitra
Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar -736165 (West Bengal), INDIA
1Palli Siksha Bhavana, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731236 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The field experiment was conducted at Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India during rabi 2007-08 to 2008-09 to study the growth and productivity of yellow sarson under different nutrient managementi practices and pre-sowing seed soaking. The highest value of LAI (4.00), apart from the maximum plant height (129.97cm), dry matter accumulation (481.93g m-2) at 90 days, crop growth rate (12.29 g m-2 day-1) in between 45 to 60 days, root dry weight (1.645 g plant-1) with the highest average root diameter (0.932 mm) were observed in treatments receiving 75% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer with farm yard manure, Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing bacteria as non-chemical source. Similarly at 45 days of crop age, significantly higher stomatal conductance (701.68 m mol m-2 s-1) and transpiration rate (4.55 m mol m-2 s-1) were reflected by the same treatment combination. These were attributed to the production of maximum seed yield (1374 kg ha-1), which was 39.91% higher than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer application. On an average, seeds soaked with water before sowing reflected 9% lesser yield (1103 kg ha-1) against chemical soaking. Yellow sarson crop grown with integrated nutrient management practice consisting 75% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer along with farm yard manure (5t ha-1), Azotobacter (5kg ha-1) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (5kg ha-1) coupled with seed soaking in 100ppm KH2PO4 confirms to be the best treatment combination from the treatment schedule considered during the study for the sub-Himalayan plains of West Bengal, India in terms of crop growth and productivity.
Keywords : Growth attributes, Nutrient uptake, Root growth, Seed yield, Yellow sarson.
Nandini Math, K. S. Jagadeesh*, Shakuntala Masur1 and Pushpa Bharati1
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad 580 005, INDIA
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad 580 005, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The lactic fermentation of cereals is known to improve the food quality through the development of flavor, enhancement of the nutritional value and shelf life, and by removing toxic or antinutritional factors of food products. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains are able to improve the shelf life of several food products. The efficiency of the LAB cultures determined in vitro assays was confirmed in bread manufacture. The sourbread prepared using 50 per cent yeast and 50 per cent LAB starter (based on cell density) was found to be superior to the conventional bread in textural characteristics, flavor, appearance and even taste. It contained enough protein (10.15%) and the least fat value (7.68%). It scored the highest acceptability index of 81.70. These results point out the advantages of using selected LAB strains as starter cultures for sourdough fermentation.
Keywords : Bread, Lactic acid bacteria, Nutritional profile, Sensory characters, Sourdough, Starter culture.
Effect of dietary supplementation of marigold oleoresin on growth, survival and total muscle carotenoid of Koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
Himanshu S. Swian*, S. Ratnamanjari Senapati1, S. J. Meshram2, R. Mishra3 and H. Shivananda Murthy2
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, Kolkata- 700120, INDIA
1Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai- 400061, INDIA
2College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Mangalore-575002, INDIA
3College of Fisheries, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, BBSR-760007, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of carotenoid (marigold oleoresin) on growth, survival and total body carotenoid of Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The experiment was carried out in 12 fiber aquarium tanks of size 12"×6"×6"(20l capacity). Each tank was stocked with 15 fishes of uniform size. The marigold oleoresin were as dietary supplement at levels 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 ppm/kg of the feed and designated as treatment T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively and diet without marigold oleoresin supplementation served as a control (T0). The result of the experiment showed that there was significant difference found in absolute growth rate and specific growth rate of the fish (P >0.05). However, 180ppm marigold oleoresin fed fishes showed higher mean weight gain of 3.98±0.22g and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.81±0.04 than the other treatment groups. The body coloration and total carotenoid concentration of muscle tissue (30.16±0.60μg/g) was significantly higher in fish fed with 180 ppm marigold oleoresin diet. The study showed that incorporation of 180ppm of marigold oleoresin in diet was found better to enhance the growth and coloration in C. carpio.
Keywords : Carotenoid, Cyprinus carpio, Koi carp, Marigold oleoresin.
Induction of water stress tolerance of mustard plants using Trichoderma as biological seed treatment.
K. K. Sharma1*and U. S. Singh2
1Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora-263601, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2IRRI, 9th Floor, Aggarwal Corporate Tower, Plot No. - 23, Rajendra Place, New Delhi - 110 008, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Water scarcity is one of the main consequences of changing climate which adversely affects the plant growth and productivity. Enhanced root development results in increased surface area of active absorption for water and nutrient uptake which helps in tolerating abiotic stresses including drought in plants. Trichoderma is well known for its biocontrol and growth promontory effect in plants in addition to alleviate abiotic stress. In our study, thirty isolates of Trichoderma were grown on sterilized cow dung at different moisture content ranges from 5 to 30 percent to investigate their ability to grow and multiply under water stress condition. Mustard plants were grown under glass house condition by treating seeds with selected isolates of Trichoderma subjected to water stress subsequently. All isolates of Trichoderma grew upto 20% moisture whereas only eleven isolates exhibited growth at 10% moisture. Isolate PB23 was only isolate which was able to grow and resulted in 1.0 x109 cfu/g air dried cow dung even at 5% moisture content and induced the tolerance of mustard plants under water stress conditions when applied as seed treatment before sowing.
Keywords : Mycorrhiza, PGPF, Tensiometer, Trichoderma, Water stress.
Vishal K. Ingle* , A. K. Mishra, A. Sarangi, D. K. Singh and V. K. Seghal1
Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi –110012, INDIA
1Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi –110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study area Tapi River catchment covers 63,922.91 Sq.Km comprising of 5 five Sub-catchments: Purna river catchment (18,473.6 sq.km) Upper Tapi catchment (10,530.3 sq. km), Middle Tapi catchment (4,997.3 sq km), Girna river catchment (10,176.9 sq.km) and lower Tapi catchment (19,282.5 sq.km.). The drainage network of 5 Sub -catchments was delineated using remote sensing data. The morphometric analysis of 5 Sub-catchments has been carried out using GIS softwares – ArcMap. The drainage network showed that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Stream orders ranged from sixth to seventh order. Drainage density varied between 0.39 and 0.43km/ km2 and had very coarse to coarse drainage texture. The relief ratio ranged from 0.003 to 0.007. The mean bifurcation ratio varied from 4.24 to 6.10 and falls under normal basin category. The elongation ratio showed that all catchment elongated pattern. Thus, the remote sensing techniques proved to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis.
Keywords : Catchment, Geomorphology, Shape parameters, Stream network, Tapi river basin.
Cultural and morphological characterization of rhizospheric isolates of fungal antagonist Trichoderma.
K. K. Sharma1* and U. S. Singh2
1Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2International Rice Research Institute - 9th Floor, Aggarwal Corporate Tower, Rajendra Place, New Delhi - 110008, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The genus Trichoderma contains species that are of a great economic importance due to their ability to act as biological control agents against a large variety of fungal plant pathogens. In the present investigation thirty isolates of the Trichoderma sp. were obtained from the rhizosphere soils of different plants at different locations at Nainital, Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Derhadun, Haridwar and Tehri Garhwal districts of Uttarakhand (India). The isolates were characterized on the basis of their cultural and morphological characteristics. The cultural characteristics included linear growth, colony colour, pigmentation and growth pattern. Morphological characteristics studied were structure, shape and arrangement of conidiophores, phialides and conidia. Out of thirty isolates, 6 isolates namely PB10, PB13, PB23, PB26, PB27 and PB28 were identified as T. virens and remaining 24 isolates as T. harzianum.
Keywords : Characterization, Cultural, Morphological, Phialides, Trichoderma.
Yield, water use and water use efficiency of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] under drip fertigation system.
L. Vimalendran* and K. R. Latha
Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field experiments were carried out during two seasons (August-February) of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Millet Breeding Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to study the effect of drip fertigation on productivity, water use and water use efficiency of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) cv. LRG 41. The treatments included three irrigation regimes (50 %, 75 %, 100 % computed water requirement of crop) and surface irrigation along with three fertilizer levels with water soluble fertilizer (WSF) and conventional fertilizers (CF). The treatments were laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results revealed that drip irrigation at 100 % WRc with fertigation at 125 % RDF through WSF registered significantly highest grain yield of 2812 and 2586 kg ha-1 during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Surface irrigation with conventional method of fertilizer application recorded lower water use efficiency of 3.70 and 3.38 kg ha-1 mm-1 whereas it was reverse with drip irrigation of 100 % WRc + 125 % RDF through WSF with a WUE of 6.97 kg ha-1 mm-1 during 2011-12 and during second season (2012-13), the highest WUE of 6.72 kg ha-1 mm-1 was recorded in drip irrigation at 50 % WRc along with fertigation at 125 % RDF through WSF. The increase in grain yield with drip irrigation at 100 % WRc + fertigation with 125 % RDF through WSF was mainly attributed by greater and consistent availability of soil moisture and nutrients which resulted in better crop growth, yield components and ultimately reflected on water use efficiency and yield of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan.
Keywords : Drip fertigation, Water use, Water use efficiency, Yield.
Combined effect of different plant nutrients of organic and inorganic sources on nutrient uptake and yield of groundnut crop.
K. V. Nathiya* and V. Sanjivkumar
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of combined use of organic manures with inorganic fertilizers on uptake of available nutrients and yield of groundnut crop at Tamil Nadu Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai during kharif season of 2008-2009. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (factorial) with two replications. Main pot treatments comprised of three types of manures viz, control ( M0 ), pressmud @ 5 t ha-1 ( M1 ), vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1 ( M2 ), farmyard manure @12.5 t ha-1 ( M3 ) and sub pot treatment comprised of 4 levels of K viz, 0 (K0), 100 ( K1 ) , 75 ( K2 ) and 50 kg of K20 ha-1 ( K3 ) with a recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) respectively. The results revealed that highest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake of 1.01, 0.96 and 0.80 g/pot was recorded in the treatment that received 75 kg K2O ha-1 and Pressmud @ 5 t ha-1 (K1M1) and in the pots which treatment received K1M1 showed the highest Haulm and pod yield of (28.25 and 24.5 g/pot) of groundnut crop respectively.
Keywords : Groundnut crop, Inorganic plant fertilizers, organic manures, Uptake of nutrients Yield.
P. K. Sahoo*, L. K. Behera1 and S. K. Nayak
College of Forestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, INDIA
1ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The selected healthy branches of Jatropha curcas were cut into 15 cm and 25 cm length having 4 to 5 nodes in each category of apical portion (thickness < 1cm), middle portion (1.0 to 1.5 cm) and basal portion (1.5 to 2 cm). The base positions of apical, middle, basal portions of cuttings were dipped in the 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ppm of IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) and IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) respectively for four hours. After which the cuttings were planted in the polypots filled with rooting media consists of sand, soil and farm yard manure (FYM) in the ratio of 1:2:1. Maximum sprouting (100%) was observed in 25 cm as well as 15 cm length cuttings of different portions. In case of 25 cm length different sections like apical cuttings when treated with 200 ppm, 800 ppm IAA and 400 ppm IBA, basal cutting with 800 ppm IAA and 200, 400 ppm IBA and middle cuttings with 200 ppm IAA, similarly 15cm length basal portion cutting treated with 400 ppm IAA produce 100 per cent sprouting. Other characters like rooting percentage (93.33%), root length (37.66cm), fresh biomass (73.21g) and dry biomass (34.06g) were observed maximum in apical portion cutting of 25 cm length treated with 100 ppm IBA, 800 ppm IBA, 100 ppm IAA and 100 ppm IAA respectively whereas root number (17.0) found maximum in middle portion cutting of 15 cm length treated with 1000 ppm IAA. It showed that the apical portion of 25 cm length cuttings treated with IAA and IBA resulted in maximum sprouting, rooting percentage, root length, fresh biomass and dry biomass production.
Keywords : IAA, IBA, Jatropha curcas, Stem cutting, Vegetative propagation.
Burkholderia sp. from rhizosphere of Rhododendron arboretum: Isolation, identification and plant growth promotory (PGP) activities.
Shweta Nailwal, Md. Shahbaz Anwar*, Kamal Kant Budhani, Amit Verma1, Tapan Kumar Nailwal
Department of Biotechnology, Kumaun University Nainital, Bhimtal Campus, Bhimtal-263136 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Biochemistry, GBPUA and T, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by wide variety of mechanism like phosphate solubilisation, etc. Use of PGPR has steadily increased in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. The present research work was designed to isolate and characterize the PGP activity of Burkholderia sp. For this purpose rhizospheric soil from Rhododendron arboreum of Kumaun Himalaya was collected and efficient bacterial strain was screened on the basis of phosphate solubilization. Further, assessment of various parameters of plant growth promotion activity was done and enhanced production of IAA (16.4 μgml-1) and (20.8 μgml-1) was observed in the presence of 250μgml-1 and 500 μg ml-1 of tryptophan, respectively. Correspondingly, in respect of 7.8 μg ml-1 IAA without tryptophan, and their confirmation was executed by TLC. A remarkable change in color from green to reddish-brown zone on CAS plates, suggests the positive result for siderophore production, and finally the seed germination and pot trial experiment depicted the growth index of wheat plant. Therefore, the present study suggests that Burkholderia sp. is beneficial for plant growth promotion.
Keywords : Burkholderia sp., IAA, PGPR, Phosphate solubilization, Siderophore.
Trend analysis of annual and seasonal rainfall to climate variability in North-East region of India.
G. T. Patle* and A. Libang
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology (Central Agricultural University), Gangtok-737135, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Global warming, climate change and its consequences are major threat for the global agriculture. The agriculture in the North-East region of India is supposed to more in danger due to its topographic features. Agriculture in the state of Arunachal Pradesh is dependent on rainfall and variability in rainfall due to climate change is expected to threaten the food production in future. This study examines the impact of climate change on rainfall using the trend analysis technique for the four districts of Arunachal Pradesh. For this purpose temporal trends in annual and seasonal rainfall were detected using nonparametric Mann-Kendall test at 5% significance level. The daily time series rainfall data for the period 1971-2007 were analyzed statistically for each district separately. The results of Mann Kendall test showed decreasing trend in annual mean rainfall in east Siang, upper Siang and lowers Dibang valley and no trend in the west Siang district over the period of 1971-2007. In case of east Siang, upper Siang and lower Dibang valley districts, decreasing trend of rainfall was observed in the post monsoon season with slope magnitude of 3.01 mm/yr, 3.32 mm/yr and 3.95 mm/yr respectively. Decreasing pattern of rainfall in post monsoon season may affect the vegetable and fruit production in the winter season.
Keywords : Climate change; Mann-Kendall; Rainfall; Seasonal; Trend analysis.
Growth status and site quality of different seed production areas of teak (Tectona grandis L. f) in Karnataka, India.
Rajesh P. Gunaga1*, Avinash M. Kanfade2 and R. Vasudeva3
1College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat), INDIA
2Research Coordinator, Institute of wood Science and Technology, Bangalore (Karnataka), INDIA
3College of Forestry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Sirsi Campus (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding authors. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the present study 20 SPAs of teak distributed in southern, central and northern parts of Karnataka, India are selected. Phenotypic parameters of standing trees of different SPAs were recorded. Further, seed yield was also recorded and compared with site quality and stand growth parameters. Result showed that there was a greater variation among SPAs for phenotypic growth characters as well as site quality. The overall growth of SPAs of Madikeri zone (Southern region) was found to be superior with respect to tree height, clear bole height and DBH. SPAs belonged to Dandeli (Northern region) recorded more DBH and nearly round stem. SPAs of Yallapur seed zone showed comparatively less growth over Madikeri zone. SPA of Dandeli zone recorded the more tree volume and top height, followed by SPA of Madikeri zone. Considering site quality of different SPAs, all the studied SPAs of Karnataka are growing under relatively poor site conditions. Sixteen out of twenty SPAs, nearly 80% were growing in areas with site quality classes IV and V. Interestingly, none of the studied SPAs belonged to either class I or II. Association study showed that tree height (r=0.403) and clear bole height (r=0.412) showed positive relationship with seed yield. Furthermore, site quality showed a weak positive relationship with seed yield (R2=0.052) among SPAs indicating poor site quality could be a major factor for low seed yield. It is concluded that SPAs of Madikeri and Dandeli zones performed better in growth and stem form. Therefore, it is suggested to collect quality seeds from these seed zones.
Keywords : Fruit yield, Phenotypic traits, Seed production area, Tectona grandis.
Effect of different sowing times and spacings on growth, yield and quality of water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) under terai region of West Bengal.
R. K. Sarkar1, J. C. Jana and S. Datta*
Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA
1SMS, Darjeeling Krishi Vigyan Kendra, UBKV, Kalimgpong, Darjeeling (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An experiment was conducted to find out suitable sowing time and spacing as to increase the production of both green and seed yield and its quality of water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) during the year 2007-08 and 2008-09. The experiment was comprised of three sowing times (1st week of May; 1st week of June and 1st week July) and three spacings (30 cm × 15 cm; 30 cm ×30 cm and 30 cm ×45 cm). It was found that early sowing on 1st week of May and closest spacing of 30 cm ×15 cm alone and their combination executed best results with respect to all parameters. The sowing on 1st week of May with closest spacing of 30 cm ×15 cm produced about 3.26 times higher green yield (18.83 t/ha). On the other hand, sowing on 1st week of June with 30 cm ×15 cm spacing contributed 52.95 percent higher seed yield (0.78 t/ha). All the seed quality testing parameters viz. shelling percentage (62.53), 1000 seed weight (40.56 g), germination percentage (82.40), seedling vigour index (5.38) and seedling growth rate (0.091 g/plant/day) were observed to be highest in 1st week of June with widest spacing of 30 cm ×45 cm. On economic point of view, the combination of 1st week of May along with 30 cm ×15 cm spacing was noticed to be superior amongst all other treatment combinations and that may be adopted for its commercial cultivation in medium to upland situation under terai region of West Bengal.
Keywords : Growth, Ipomoea reptans, Quality, Sowing time, Spacing, Water spinach.
Combining ability and heterosis for yield, its component traits and some grain quality parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Kumari Priyanka, H. K. Jaiswal and Showkat A. Waza*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, IAS, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The experiment was conducted to estimate combining ability and heterosis for yield, yield attributing traits and few grain quality parameters in rice. The crosses were made among three CMS lines i.e., IR58025A, Pusa6A and IR68897A and seven pollen parents viz., Sarjoo-52, Jaya, Sasyashree, Swetha, HUR 5-2, PR-106 and BPT 5204. Twenty one hybrids were generated in line x tester design. The superior hybrids were identified on the basis of combining ability effect and heterosis. Cross combination IR68897A/Jaya and IR68897A/BPT 5204 exhibited good x good parental GCA effects suggesting that there is additive x additive type of gene action. The cross IR68897A/Jaya showed highest positive SCA effect. The higher magnitude of heterosis for all the yield and quality traits were not expressed in a single hybrid combination. It varied from cross to cross due to diverse genetic background of their parents. The two crosses IR68897A/Jaya and IR68897A/BPT 5204 were found to be heterotic for yield and yield traits as well as the grain quality characteristics.
Keywords : GCA, Heterosis, Line x Tester, Rice, SCA.
Archana Rani*, M. Kumar and Sanjeev Kumar1
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, (FBS and H), Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa-848125 (Bihar), INDIA
1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur- 482004 (MP), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An efficient protocol for micropropagation through in vitro culture of Rauvolfia serpentina was standardized. Out of different combination of phytohormone tested, MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1Indole Acetic Acid + 0.5 mg L Nephthalene acetic acid was found to be finest for mean callus induction (62.66%) as well as callus mediated shoot regeneration with mean percentage response (56) and number of shoot per culture (5). In direct shoot regeneration, best growth of axillary shoots was obtained on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 Indole Acetic Acid + 0.5 mg L-1 Benzyl Amino Purine with maximum mean percentage response(77.33) and number of shoots per culture (9.0) ,however the best shoot elongation of shoot was found on MS media supplemented with 3.0 mg L-1 IAA plus 3.0 mg L-1BAP with 6.50(mean) . Higher induction of root (88%) with mean number of root per culture (12) was observed in MS medium supplemented with Indole Butyric Acid (3.0 mg L-1). The rooted plantlets were successfully established in the field. The protocol was optimized by manipulations of different PGRs for enhanced multiplication. Protocol explained in this research paper provides a rapid plant regeneration system which could be used for production of large number of true to the type, uniform, disease free, elite, plantlets right through the year, which will make things easier for large scale cultivation of this endangered important medicinal plant.
Keywords : Growth regulators, Medicinal plant, Micropropagation, Rauvolfia serpentina.
Eco-friendly livestock management practices followed by tribal households of Narmada valley region of India.
N. B. Patel*, S. D. Kavad1, T. K. S. Rao
Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Waghai, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field survey was undertaken in Narmada valley region, four taluka of Narmada district of south Gujarat to collect first hand information on management practices of dairy animals followed by tribal peoples. The breeding, health care and milking management practices were studied using pre tested questionnaire through three stage sampling. Two villages, from four taluka were selected. From each village, 10 tribal farmers were selected randomly with a total of 80 respondents. Study revealed that maximum farmers (41.30 %) of this area were less educated belongs to middle age (53.80% 30-50 years) category having medium size family (5-8 members). The estrus detection in cattle was based on sign and symptoms (100.0%) rather than using teaser, moreover main symptoms for identification of animal in heat were bellowing and thin mucus discharge (58.80%). The farmers (86.30%) were observed to inseminate their animals within 12-18 hrs of heat. Method of breeding adopted in area was mostly (46.30%) by combination i.e., Natural and artificial insemination (A.I.). Mostly the pregnancy diagnosis (P.D.) was practiced by 18.80% of the farmers. Dry period was more than three months in both indigenous cows (92.40%) and buffaloes (91.20%). Castration was performed in 72.70% of male animals of age more than 2 years. Vaccination was adopted by 53.80% of farmers. Regular de-worming was also practiced by 3.80 and 7.50% farmers for milch cow and calf respectively. Clean milk production was well adopted by farmers of the area. Knuckling (95.0%) was common method of hand milking followed by full hand type (3.80%) and stripping (1.30%). The management practices followed by tribal farmers of area were exceptional for few facets however most of the practices required to be improved a lot.
Keywords : Breeding, Buffalo, Cattle, Health care, Management, Milking.
Kulwinder Kaur* and Gurinder Kaur Sangha1
College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
1Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The soil in the vicinity of stream of Buddah Nullah in Ludhiana, Punjab has been found to be contaminated with heavy metals. The objective of this paper was to conduct studies with earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) exposed to five soil samples collected from different sites around the stream of Buddah Nullah, since no such work has been done using earthworm as bio- indicator of soil pollution in that area to check the hazardous effects of heavy metals on soil organisms. Metal levels were recorded higher in contaminated soil samples than threshold concentration in soil of campus field. Adult E. fetida were exposed for a period of 80 days to evaluate the effects of elevated levels of heavy metals i.e. 0.29 ppm, 4.18 ppm and 2.29 ppm for cadmium, lead and nickel respectively on survival, growth, morphology and reproduction. Significant effects were observed on survival, growth and reproduction of the tested organisms along with various morphological abnormalities such as tail shedding, body fragmentation and extrusion of coelomic fluid. But no such deformity was observed in worms reared in reference soil of university campus field. Detrimental effects on rates of cocoon production and hatchling emergence were observed and a significant delay was also recorded in production of cocoons and emergence of hatchlings. Results of the study indicated that reproductive end points were more sensitive to elevated metal levels in contaminated soil than survival or weight change.
Keywords : Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Heavy metals, Reproduction, Soil contamination, Survival.
Surve Nilam, D. P. Patel, P. K. Shrivastava* and K. F. Satasiya
Department of Natural Resource Management, ASPEE College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari – 39450 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Studies on soils of Navsari Agricultural University (NAU) having different cropping system were carried out in the four micro watersheds that exist in the 400 ha University campus. Soil samples from 0-15 cm depth and water samples from adjacent bore wells were collected and analyzed from different locations of micro watersheds. Soils of watersheds showed that soils texture was clay in nature, having more than 65 % clay, whereas silt was more in watershed ‘A’. Soil organic carbon content (SOC) was 0.32 %, found in the field near University play ground and the highest 0.88 %, in Forestry farm, thus underlining the need of forest species in agricultural farms. SOC levels have reduced significantly due to intensive cultivation in all the watersheds. The result of exchangeable sodium percent (ESP) is supported by the topographic features, as, ESP was more in watershed ‘B’ (5.15) than C (2.95), this showed that infiltration rate was lesser in ‘B’ as compared to ‘C’ due to availability of more sodium (Na). Available N was highest in watershed ‘A’ (246 kg/ha) followed by ‘C’ (225 kg/ha) than ‘B’ (203 kg/ha), the reason was watershed ‘A’ had only horticulture crops whereas B and C had different crops of the region. Electrical conductivity (EC) of ground water collected from wells in watershed ‘C’ was found to be very high both before (3.44 dS/m) and after monsoon (2.95 dS/m), showing that water is highly saline and not fit for surface irrigation and there is need of ground water recharging..
Keywords : .Cropping pattern, Soil analysis, Water analysis, Watersheds
Bio-efficacy of phytoextracts and oil cakes on Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) causing stem rot disease of jute, Corchorus spp..
P. N. Meena* , A. N. Tripathi, B. S. Gotyal and S. Satpathy
Crop Protection Division, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Pnshera@yahoo.co.in
Abstract : In the present study efforts were made to explore the efficacy of various plant extracts and oil cakes against Macrophomina phaseolina. The efficacy of eight different plant species, Zingiber officianale, Aloe indica, Lawsonia inermis, Chenopodium album, Allium cepa, Piper betel, Murraya koenigii, Parthenium hysterophorus aqueous extracts including oil cakes of mustard and neem were evaluated by using of poisoned food technique in vitro for their inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of M. phaseolina causing stem rot of jute (Corchorus olitorius and C. capsularis). The rhizome extract of Z. officinale produced maximum growth inhibition (74.59%) of the pathogen followed by leaf extracts ofA. indica (63.57%), and leaf extract of L. inermis (60.17%) at the concentration of 10%. The maximum mycelial growth inhibition (52.40%) was recorded with neem cake (Azadirachta indica) at the concentrations of 20% followed by 42.61% and 29.60% with concentration of 15% and 10%, respectively. However, maximum mycelial growth inhibition (19.42%) was recorded with mustard cake (Brassica juncea) at the concentration of 20% followed by 16.64% and 12.20% at the concentration of 15% and 10% respectively. In general mycelial growth inhibition was dose dependent and it was maximum in case of neem cake than mustard cake. The present study revealed that, these plant extracts and oilcake extracts could be exploited for the possible control of deadly pathogen M. phaseolina. Accordingly, this is an important proactive measure in preventing the spread of the stem rot disease through a more ecofriendly approach..
Keywords : Jute, Macrophomina phaseolina, Oilcake extracts, Phytoextracts.
Effect of fertilizer levels on nutrient availability and yield of cotton on Vertisol at Rahuri, District Ahemadnagar, India.
A. N. Deshpande, R. S. Masram and B. M. Kamble*
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, Rahuri, Ahemadnagar- 413722 (Maharashtra), INDIA
Present address: Agricultural Research Station, K. Digraj, Sangli- 416305 (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The field experiment on effect of fertilizer levels on nutrient availability and yield of cotton on Vertisol was conducted at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri during May to September, 2008. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications and two main treatments i.e. hybrid Bt RCH-2 and Non-Bt RCH-2 and nine sub treatments with different fertilizer doses i.e. F1 - No recommended doses of fertilizer (RDF), F2 -50 % RDF, F3 - 75 % RDF, F4 - 100 % RDF, F5 -125 % RDF, F6 - 150 % RDF, F7 - 100 % RDF + 2% DAP spray, F8 -100 % RDF + 1 % MgSO4 and F9 -100 % RDF + 1% KNO3. The results revealed that the non-Bt hybrid recorded maximum nitrogen (435.67 kg ha-1) and potassium (565.45 kg ha-1) content in 100 % RDF + 1% KNO3 treatment at boll development stage as compared to Bt hybrid. However, magnesium (0.09 kg ha-1) and iron (3.66 ppm) were maximum in 100 % RDF + 1 % MgSO4 treatment in non-Bt as compared to Bt hybrid and phosphorus content (17.58 kg ha-1) was maximum in 100 % RDF + 2 % DAP treatment in Bt as compared to non-Bt hybrid at boll development stage. The application of 100 % RDF + 1 % MgSO4 sprays were recorded highest yield of Bt (33.53 q ha-1) and non-Bt cotton hybrids (31.27 q ha-1).
Keywords : Cotton, Fertilizer, Nutrient availability, Yield.
P. N. Meena1*,A. Roy3, B. S. Gotyal1, S. Mitra2 and S. Satpathy1
1Crop Protection Division, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres (CRIJAF), Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA
2Crop Production Division, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres (CRIJAF), Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120 (West Bengal), INDIA
3AINP on jute and allied fibre, Uttara Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (UBKV), Pundibari, Coochbehar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field experiment was conducted for disease management with seven eco-friendly treatments in Corchorus olitorius jute during 2012-2013 under randomized block design (RBD) in three replications with variety JRO-524. The ecofriendly treatment 50% N: P: K + seed treatments with Azotobacter and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) @ 5g/Kg+ Trichoderma viride (seed treatment @ 5g/Kg of seed and soil application @ 2Kg/ha at 21DAS) + Psuedomonas fluorescens spray @ 0.2% at 45DAS was found superior with minimum per cent disease incidence (3.46 and 1.43%) as compared to control (13.17 and 4.96%). The second best treatment was found with Farm yard manure (FYM) @ 5t/ha + seed treatment with Azotobecter and PSB @ 5g/Kg+ T. viride (seed treatment @ 5g/Kg of seed and soil application @ 2Kg/ha 21DAS)+ P. fluorescencs spray @ 0.2% at 45DAS and showed 3.61 and 2.0% disease incidence. The treatment with N: P: K @ 60:30:30 and seed treatment with carbendazim 50WP @ 2g/Kg at 45DAS showed 4.56 and 2.10 % disease incidence. Dry fibre yield was highest (30.33q/ha) in the plots treated with FYM @ 5t/ha + seed treatment with Azotobacter and PSB @ 5g/Kg+T. viride (seed treatment @ 5g/Kg of seed and soil application @ 2Kg/ha at 21DAS) + P. fluorescencs spray @ 0.2% at 45DAS) and it was lowest in untreated control (15.69 q/ha).Variation in yield was attributed due to difference in plant height.
Keywords : Bioagents, Biofertilizers, Ecofriendly management, Jute and Macrophomina phaseolina.
Effect of cutting frequencies and nitrogen levels on growth, green and seed yield and quality of water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.).
R. K. Sarkar1, J. C. Jana2 and S. Datta3*
1Darjeeling Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalimpong, Darjeeling, INDIA
2Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya Pundibari, Cooch Behar- 736165 (W. B.), INDIA
3R.R.S., Terai zone Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya Pundibari, Cooch Behar- 736165 (W.B.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : To study the effect of cutting frequencies and nitrogen levels on growth, green and seed yield and quality of upland water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) an experiment was undertaken with four cutting frequencies (C0 = no cutting; C1 = one cutting at 45 days after sowing (DAS); C2 = two cutting at 45 and 65 DAS and C3 = three cutting at 45, 65 and 85 DAS) and five nitrogen levels (N0 = no application; N1 = 50 kg/ha; N2 = 100 kg/ha; N3 = 150 kg/ha and N4 = 200 kg/ha). Results revealed that all growth, seed yield and seed quality attributes were found to decrease significantly with higher cutting frequencies, whereas, reverse effects on all physiological attributes, green yield and its quality parameters. On the other hand, nitrogen level (upto 150 kg N/ha) had significant effect and all these parameters. The highest green yield was recorded at three cuttings and 150 kg N/ha individually and also at their interaction (16.34, 12.57 and 17.77 t/ha, respectively). Maximum value of quality parameter like vitamin A (3072.9 μg/100 g) was recorded in one cutting with 150 kg N/hectare, whereas, maximum ascorbic acid was recorded maximum (45.31 mg/100 g) in one cutting without N fertilizer application Maximum net profit of Rs. 114324.00 with B: C ratio of 2.22:1 was obtained with combination of three cuttings and 150 kg N/ha and that may be adopted for its commercial cultivation in medium to upland situation under terai region of West Bengal.
Keywords : Cutting frequency, Growth, Ipomoea reptans, Nitrogen, quality, Water spinach, Yield.
Impact of post biomethanated spentwash on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of soybean – wheat cropping sequence.
B. M. Kamble1* and A. N. Deshpande
Agricultural Research Station, Kasabe Digraj, Sangli- 416 305 (Maharashtra), INDIA
1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, Rahuri, Ahemadnagar (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted on Sawargaon series of isohyperthermic family of Vertic haplustepts to study the effect of application of primary treated biomethanated spentwash (PBSW) through irrigation on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of soybean – wheat cropping sequence. The bulk density and hydraulic conductivity of soil were improved in 100% recommended dose (RD) of N through PBSW with and without P chemical fertilizer at soil depths of 0-15 and 15-30 cm. The lowest soil pH, calcium carbonate and highest electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available K, exchangeable sodium (Na), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and pooled bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes populations in surface (0-15 cm) soil depth were observed in 100% RD of N through PBSW + with and without P chemical fertilizer at all three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) over the other treatments. The highest pooled available soil P was recorded in 50% RD of N through PBSW application through irrigation and remaining N and P through chemical fertilizers in all three soil depths. The significantly highest total NPK uptake by cropping sequence and highest mean Benefit : Cost (B:C) ratio of soybean and wheat was recorded in 25 % RD of N through PBSW + remaining N and P through chemical fertilizers over the rest of the treatments. The 25 % N-recommended dose of soybean and wheat crop can be replaced by application of PBSW through irrigation in sequence without disturbing soils by salt load..
Keywords : Economics, Effluent, Soybean-wheat sequence, Soil properties.
Deteriorating rural ponds : A threat to overseas migratory wetland birds in Kurukshetra suburbs, Haryana, India.
Tirshem Kumar Kaushik* and Rohtash Chand Gupta
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra -136119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-Mail:-email@example.com
Abstract : The present study addresses the problem of ongoing destruction of traditional age old rural wetlands in Haryana in the last 10 years. It is a grave issue which stands accelerated due to anthropogenic unawareness and in deliberate destruction. In all, 59 species of wetland birds belonging to 10 orders and 17 families were recorded from Palwal rural pond in Kurukshetra district in India during 2005-2012. The presence and that too in higher numbers of Purple Moorhen Porphyrio porphyrio and Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus hints towards the over excessive growth of hyacinth and water reeds thus making it an ideal place for these birds which are the harbingers of total eutrophication of a certain water body. The other birds seen in the pond are White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus, Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus, Large Egret Ardea alba and Median Egret Mesophoyx intermedia. Pond Herons Ardeola grayii were in few numbers. Black winged Stilts Himantopus himantopus were in more number thus indicating the presence of sludge in water and its shallowness. Cattle egrets were in large number indicating its negative character. The lackluster attitude of Govt. of Haryana will result in its total destruction in 5-10 years. Similar situation may be extended to nearby village ponds to worsen their condition too. Ramsar Convention (1971) pleads for preservation, protection and conservation of wetlands of all hues. Village ponds in Haryana should be revived by seeking co-operation from the Head Quarter of Ramsar Convention at Switzerland..
Keywords : Kurukshetra, Village pond, Winter migratory birds.
Pavneetpal Kaur, Jagmeet Kaur1*, Satvir Kaur2, Sarvjeet Singh1 and Inderjit Singh1
Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, INDIA
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics*, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, INDIA
2Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Plant growth and development are adversely affected by salinity- a major environmental stress that limits agricultural production. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is sensitive to salinity that affects its yield and there is need to identify the tolerant genotypes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salinity on chickpea genotypes with specific physiological and biochemical attributes contributing to their adaptability to salinity stress. Seven chickpea genotypes both desi (ICC8950, ICCV10, ICC15868, GL26054) and kabuli (BG1053, L550, L552) were evaluated for salinity tolerance. Maximum decrease in relative leaf water content and chlorophyll content was observed with ICC15868 and GL26054 among the desi and L552 from the kabuli genotypes. The photosynthetic pigments, activity of nitrate reductase and relative leaf water content was also reduced in response to salt application with effect being more pronounced in ICC15868, GL26054 and L552 as compared to ICC8950, ICCV10, BG1053 and L550. Lipid peroxidation increases with the increase in NaCl concentration, maximum increment was observed in genotypes ICC15868, GL26054 and L552. Accumulation of proline in response to environmental stresses seems to be widespread among plants. Higher protein fractions were observed with tolerant genotypes in contrast to sensitive genotypes. Salt imposed stress finally caused a higher decline in number of filled pods. On the basis of physiological and biochemical parameters genotypes ICC8950 and ICCV10 from the desi genotypes and BG1053 and L550 from kabuli were identified as the tolerant while ICC15868, GL26054 as the sensitive ones and L552 as the moderately tolerant genotypes. These genotypes could be used as a source of tolerance in breeding programme to develop salt tolerant genotypes.
Keywords : Biochemical, Chickpea, Physiological, Salinity.
Jyotish Barman*, A. K. Jaiswar, S. K. Chakraborty, Shrinivas Jahgeerdar and W. S. Lakra
Central Institute of Fisheries Education (Deemed University), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Panchmarg, Off Yari road, Versova, Mumbai – 400061, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An abnormal case of anopthalmia in a striped catfish Mystus tengara (66.8 mm in standard length) from Assam is reported in this communication. Thirty eight morphological characters of the abnormal specimen were also studied and compared with normal specimens to observe variation in the morpho-meristic traits, if any. In the abnormal specimen, the proportionate height of the dorsal fin (31.1 mm) and nasal barbel length (75.9 mm) was found to be higher compared to that of the normal specimens (21.6 – 26.5 mm and 47.9 – 72.5 mm, respectively). While the body depth of anus was higher in case of normal specimens (19.1 – 29.2 mm) compared to abnormal specimen (14.5 mm). However, no marked variation was observed in meristic characters. This anomaly does not seem to have affected morphological aspects. Factors like weed infestation, pesticide and herbicide application adversely affecting the habitat is believed to be the cause of such deformity. The abnormality does not seem to have affected the overall growth of the fish..
Keywords : Anopthalmia, Environmental stress, Morphological anomalies, Mystus tengara.
R. Das*, U. Thapa, S. Debnath, Y. A. Lyngdoh and D. Mallick
Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : An experimental study was conducted during 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 at Horticulture Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Monhanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India, to evaluate the performance of fourteen different bush type French bean genotypes for seed yield and to study varietal characterization based on plant morphology. The genotypes, studied under this experiment were namely, Abhay, Shillong Local-3, Arjun, Selection-9, Arka Anoop, Arka Komal, Badshah, Anupam, Arka Suvidha, Falguni, Sonali, Local, Victoria and Vaishnavi-264. From overall point of view of the outcome of the experiment, it has been revealed that genotype with relatively bolder seeds with more number of seeds per pod, and higher bearing capacity per plant generally gives higher seed yield. Among the genotypes under study, Arka Suvidha was the best one as it produced the highest seed yield (2180.92 kg/ha) and relatively good plant vigour and fairly high seed vigour index (2944.38). Falguni and Mohanpur Local also can be considered promising once for seed production point of view.
Keywords : French bean, Genotypes, Seed production, Seed quality, Yield.
H. S. Thakare, P. K. Shrivastava* and Kirti Bardhan
Department of Natural Resource Management, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari – 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Global warming is casting its shadow in the form of climatic changes that is affecting the local weather conditions which has its bearing on crop production and water availability, the basic necessities for survival of life on the planet. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the cause of poor production of cotton in 2011-12 in Surat, Gujarat as compared to 2012-13 and 2013-14. Weather data since 2000 was analyzed and compared with the data of 2011-12 and comparison was made to find the abnormality in cotton crop productivity. It was found that during 2011-12, there was delayed monsoon, as well as during squaring and flowering stage (i.e. in August 2011) there was high rainfall (595.6 mm), maximum and minimum temperatures were above normal, during development (June-August) and flowering stage of crop (October-December) which disturbed the crop physiology indirectly affecting the yield of cotton. The combined effect of rainfall and temperature was on relative humidity that created conducive atmosphere for insect and pest attacks on crops. Due to changes in temperature and relative humidity, evaporative water demands would have further aggravated the watering needs of crop. The study concludes that erratic monsoon or delayed monsoon hampers crop physiology ultimately yield due to erratic weather conditions. Further, such changes in cotton growing areas could form the basis of planning and decisions on pricing, crop insurance, export and import policies of cotton crop.
Keywords : Cotton, Rainfall, Relative humidity, Temperature.
Effect of different modes of pollination on quantitative and qualitative parameters of Egyptian Clover, Trifolium alexandrinum L.
M. K. Jat, O. P. Chaudhary, H. D. Kaushik, Sunita Yadav* and A. S . Tetarwal
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effect of different modes of pollination on quantitative and qualitative parameters of Egyptian clover, Trifolium alexandrinum L. was studied at Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012 and 2013. Maximum seed setting (81.5%) was recorded in A. mellifera pollination with an 8 frame colony (BP-8F) followed by 4 frame colony (BP-4F) (75.1%), open pollination (OP) (73.8%) and 2 frame colony (BP-2F) (71.5%). Maximum seed yield (2662.3 seeds) was observed in treatment BP-8F followed by BP-4F (2373.8), OP (2316.3) and BP-2F (2235.5). Still lower yield of 2103.0 seeds was found in hand pollination (HP) treatment that was significantly higher than the without insect pollination (WIP) treatment (1114.2). Minimum 1000-seed weight was observed in WIP (2.64 g). The seed weight of BP-4F (3.30), HP (3.20), BP-2F (3.17) and OP (3.03), the heaviest seeds were recorded in BP-8F (3.62 g/1000 grains) and it was at par with the treatment BP-4F (3.30 g). Highest seed germination per cent was recorded in BP-8F (94.7) followed by OP (90.7%). Lowest germination was found in WIP (84.7%). Though some work has been done on this aspect in India but comprehensive pollination studies has not been worked out.
Keywords : Bee Pollination, Egyptian clover, Germination per cent, Seed setting, Seed weight.
Screening of mango genetic resource for tolerance against its malformation incidence in Madhya Pradesh, India.
Department of Plant Pathology, J.N.K.V.V., College of Agriculture, Rewa-486001 (M.P.), INDIA
Abstract : The age old enigma of mango malformation control is still unresolved and eluding the scientists to develop a proper control for the malady. Strengthening of the mango genetic resource base for tolerance traits may seem to be viable criteria of research. Though, prior studies have been undertaken in mango malformation incidence, but screening of large set of germ plasm for tolerance traits in multiple years has so far been a lacuna. The current study evaluated the genetic resource comprising of 65 mango varieties for three consecutive years under natural conditions for incidence of floral malformation. The mean malformation incidence varied from 0.47 % to 60.24%. This study revealed that a group of seven varieties namely Bangalora, Baneshan, Dahiyar, Rammanna, Shakul and Safeda showed resistant type of reaction during both the years of evaluation. However, Moovandan showed highly susceptible type of reaction during both the years. Similarly, germplasm were categorized under moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible category on the basis of their reaction to malformation incidence.
Keywords : Floral malformation, Inflorescence type, Mangifera indica.
Vivek Powar1*, Bhavya Bhargava2 and Ghumare Vikas3
1ASPEE Cllege of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari- 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA
2Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali College of Horticulture, Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal-246123 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Enhancing the vase life of cut foliages is one of the prime goals of floriculturist and it is very interesting and important aspect of floriculture. The efforts were made to find out best waxing treatment for enhancing the vase life along with excellent quality maintenance for few cut foliage species .The objective was to evaluate optimum percent wax solution for improving post harvest life and quality of ornamental plants. Different wax emulsion treatments (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 %) showed significant results in both quantitative and qualitative attributes of ornamental species. In Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’ and Eucalyptus teritecornis, 0.75% wax emulsion concentration recorded minimum foliage weight (5.62, 20.49 g) and minimum water uptake (5.60, 32.73 ml) respectively on 3rd day, while maximum foliage weight (0.90, 6.84 g) and maximum water uptake (1.13, 13.77 ml) was recorded on senescence day. In Caryota urens (Fishtail palm) 0.50% wax emulsion concentration recorded minimum foliage weight (9.71g), minimum water uptake (6.53 ml) on 3rd day, while maximum foliage weight(1.83 g) and maximum water uptake (1.20 ml) on senescence day. In Heliconia psittachroum cv. Golden Torch, 1.00 % wax emulsion concentration recorded minimum foliage weight (28.85 g), minimum water uptake (20.35 ml) on 3rdday, whereas maximum foliage weight (15.83 g)and maximum water uptake (5.75 ml) on senescence day. There was improvement and increament in post harvest quality and vase life of studied ornamental cut foliage.
Keywords : Cut foliage, Emulsion, Post harvest, Vase life, Wax.
Heterosis, dominance estimate and genetic control of yield and post harvest quality traits of tomato.
Pemba Sherpa1, Tania Seth2, Varun Durwas Shende1, N. Pandiarana2, Subhra Mukherjee1 and Arup Chattopadhyay3*
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
2Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA
3All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani-741235, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Paucity of research on the development of tomato hybrid having desirable post harvest/or processing quality in the tropics compel to undertake this study. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to identify potential donors and crosses, to study the extent of heterosis and dominance behaviour, and to ascertain the genetic control of fifteen yield components and post harvest quality traits through line x tester mating design in tomato. Non-additive gene action controlled all characters studied, suggesting heterosis breeding for their improvement. Among parental lines, CLN2777-G’ and ‘FEB-2’ were the best general combiners for yield and processing traits and could be utilized further in tomato breeding programme. Crosses (‘CLN2768-A x A.C.AFT’ and ‘CLN2777-G x FEB-2’) showing high specific combining ability and yield involved parents showing high general combining ability for fruit yield per plant and other horticultural traits. All 9 F1 hybrids had significantly higher number of fruits per cluster and number of fruits per cluster over both mid-and better-parental values, while for the other traits, hybrids expressed average heterosis in both directions. The maximum extent of heterobeltiosis (53.56%) was found in lycopene content of fruit followed by number of fruits per cluster (32.59%) and fruit yield per plant (31.77%). The performances of the hybrids illustrated the presence of various degrees of dominance effects i.e., partial to over dominance /or no dominance. We could able to improve processing quality in spite of yield in the cross (‘CLN2777-G x FEB-2’) which can substantially make a dent for processing industry in the tropics.
Keywords : Combining ability, Dominance estimate, Gene action, Heterosis, Tomato.
Exploring the potential of seed flour from pigeon pea genotypes to retard the growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera.
Sheetanshu Grover1, Satvir Kaur Grewal1*, Anil Kumar Gupta1 and Gaurav Kumar Taggar2
1Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA
2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most devastating known pest causing major economic losses. Development of insect resistance against chemical pesticides and the environment concerns are forcing researchers to pave way towards biopesticides. Our study aimed to test the efficacy of seed flour from ten pigeon pea genotypes against H. armigera development. H. armigera fed with diet containing pigeon pea seed powder exhibited larval and pupal weight reduction and certain abnormalities. Larval weight reduction varied from 19 % (AL 1495) to 37 % (AL 1677). Increase in larval duration was seen in genotypes containing higher trypsin inhibitor, phenols and phytic acid. AL 1677 was found to be the most resistant genotype with 37 % larval weight reduction followed by AL 1735. Larval-pupal intermediates were observed in diets containing AL 1495 and AL 1747 seed powder. The pupal weight reduction varied from 15.5 % to 44.5 %. Results from this study suggest the inhibitory potential of PIs and other bioactive compounds such as phenols and phytic acid from pigeon pea cultivars against H. armigera development, that can be further exploited in pest management..
Keywords : Helicoverpa, Inhibitors, Insect, Pigeon pea, Proteases.
Preeti Kalia1*, Neelima R. Kumar1 and Kusum Harjai2
1Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
2Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Propolis is widely used since ages for the treatment of various ailments. Present study focussed on the toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of propolis on BALB/c mice. The effect of different concentrations of propolis (300, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) was analysed by studying the biochemical, haematological and histological changes in mice for 28 days. No significant difference in various parameters were observed in groups of mice treated with propolis and the normal control (p>0.05). Histological findings on liver, spleen, kidney and brain revealed normal architecture. The ethanolic extract of propolis did not produce significant toxic effect in mice and hence can be utilized for nutraceuticals formulations.
Keywords : Biochemical, Histological, Propolis, Toxicology.
Determination of thermal constant and development threshold of Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua Walker.
K. Selvaraj*, B. S. Gotyal, V. Ramesh Babu and S. Satpathy
Division of Crop Protection, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Effect of six constant temperatures viz., 18±1, 21±1, 24±1, 27±1, 30±1 and 33±10C was studied on the egg hatchability, larval pupal development and adult survival of Spilarctia obliqua. Development rate of egg, larva and pupa gradually increased with increase in temperature, while total developmental period decreased. Mean developmental period of the pest decreased from 93.73 days at 18±10C to 31.20 at 33±10C. The lowest and the highest temperatures at which no development took place were found to be 12±10C and 39±10C, respectively. Regression equations between development rate and temperature were found to be Y= 0.0189 X -0.1998 (R2=0.88) for egg, Y=0.00122 X -0.0248 (R2=0.84) for small larva (1-3rd instar), Y=0.0058 X -0.0675 (R2=0.76) for large larva (4-6th instar), Y=0.0074 X-0.1075 (R2=0.94) for pupa and Y=0.0142 X-0.4363 (R2=0.79) for adults. Developmental threshold were determined to be 10.57, 11.27, 11.55, 15.28 and 10.92oC for egg, small larva, large larva, pupa, and adult respectively with corresponding thermal constant being 52.91, 344.82, 243.90, 142.85 and 70.42 degree days (DD). Thermal constant to complete a generation was found to be 854.90 DD. This was the first studies on this aspects, these estimated thermal thresholds and degree days could be used to predict the S. obliqua activity in the field for their effective management through pest forecasting..
Keywords : Constant temperature, Degree day, Spilarctia obliqua, Thermal constant, Threshold of development.
In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of carotenoid pigment extracted from Sporobolomyces sp. isolated from natural source.
M. R. A. Manimala* and R. Murugesan
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to isolate and study about the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of carotenoid pigment. Sporobolomyces sp. isolated from the phyllosphere surface of rice plant has found to produce carotenoid pigment. The present investigation was carried out for antioxidant assays viz., DPPH, iron reducing and metal chelating activity. A steady increase in the antioxidant activities was observed in the carotenoid pigment with raising the pigment concentration. In the present study, the maximum antioxidation characteristics of carotenoid by DPPH, iron reducing and metal chelating assays (75.04 %, 1.88 % and 59.32 %) were achieved by pigmentation of Sporobolomyces sp. at the concentration of 100 μg ml-1. The antibacterial activity was studied on several organisms like Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the six pathogens, the pigment was found to be more effective against E. coli(2.9 cm) and S. aureus (2.6 cm). This study revealed that yeast carotenoid pigment was a potential source for its use in food and pharmaceutical applications..
Keywords : Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Carotenoid pigment, Sporobolomyces sp.
Pragya Ojha* and Seema Kwatra
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production constitutes the major economic activity and a key source of employment for the rural population of India. Manual transplanting of paddy in puddle field is a very tedious job and involves lot of fatigue and drudgery. To reduce the labour demand and time consumption, power operated transplanters are also available but the poor socio- economic conditions of Indian farmers restrict them to adopt modern technology. Keeping this in view, the present study was planned to compare the economic cost and the rate of human drudgery among female farm workers, during manual hand transplanting with the power operated eight- row paddy transplanter. For the ergonomical evaluation, twenty female subjects were selected in the age group of 20- 55 years. Physiological parameters like HR, energy expenditure, TCCW and PCW etc. were measured in different transplanting operations. The mean value of working heart rate was assessed to be maximum 138.32±7.67 beats/ min in manual hand transplanting and 110.12±5.79 beats/min in eight- row paddy transplanter. The energy expenditure rate was measured 18.40±0.95 kJ/min in local transplanting method and reduced to 15.17±1.68 kJ/min with paddy transplanter. TCCW was found to be 1965.5±63.66 beats for manual transplanting of paddy and 770.58±39.93 beats by the use of paddy transplanter whereas the PCW was calculated 227.98±22.17 in traditional method and 85.23±2.64 in improved method. The economic cost of mechanized transplanting was 47% less than conventional method..
Keywords : Drudgery assessment, Economical cost, Female agriculture workers, Paddy transplanting, Physiological parameters.
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Jasvinder Kaur*, Joginder S. Malik, P. S. Shehrawat, Sushila Dahiyaa and Quadri Javeed Ahmed Peer1
Department of Extension Education, Department of Sociology, CS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
1Division of Extension Education, FOA, Wadura, Sher - E - Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir-193201 ( J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The main purpose of this study was to know the preference of farmers for different services provided by private and public extension agencies. In recent times involvement of private extension agencies has been increased in agricultural sector and up to some extent it has sidelined the public extension agencies, but public extension agencies have potential to do better and to reach farmers at their best. In view of this, present study was undertaken to find out the farmers’ preference towards public and private extension services in Ambala, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Hisar and Fatehabad districts of Haryana state. From each district two blocks were selected randomly and from each block two villages were selected. A manageable size of 10 farmers was selected from each village thus making total sample size of 200 farmers. Various aspects related to agricultural services provided by both public and private agencies were identified and response were obtained by putting a tick mark as per farmers’ preference for private and public agencies. On the basis of statistical tools like rank and mean score, results showed that farmers had great preference for ‘Input supply’ in private extension as compared to public extension followed by ‘Infrastructure facilities’. While for ‘Consultancy and diagnosis services’, ‘Information’ and ‘Technical services’, public extension was preferred as over the private extension.
Keywords : Agricultural services, Preference, Private extension, Public extension.
Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer1*, M. A. Dar2, H. A. Malik3 and Jasvinder Kaur4
1Department of Extension Education, FOA, Wadura, SKUAST-Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
2Division of Extension Education & Communication, SKUAST-Kashmir(J&K), INDIA
3Directorate of Extension Education, SKUAST-Kashmir(J&K), INDIA
4Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The research identified the significant and negative relationship between socio-economic parameters with the level of adoption of recommended crop production technologies reveals that such information could be useful to Department of agriculture, and concerned SAU who strive to maximize production and productivity levels of potato crop. They have to gear-up there extension wings for imparting correct and scientific knowledge of crop production. It also suggested to State Govt. officials to ensure adequate facilities for fertilizers to reap full benefits of this cash crop. The study on determining the correlation between socio-economic standards of potato growers with the level of adoption of the recommended crop production technologies was conducted in sub-tropical zone of Jammu division. Three districts namely Jammu, Kathua and Samba were selected purposively on the basis of maximum area under potato crop. Sample size of 225 potato growers was selected randomly from 15 villages from selected districts and their socio-economic standards were correlated with the level of adoption of crop production technologies as recommended by SKUAST-JAMMU, the concerned SAU. The study revealed that age, education, operational land holding, net income, mass media exposure and extension contact had significant correlation at p≤ 0.05 level of probability with the level of adoption. Studies revealed that 45.78% of respondents adopted recommended seed rate per hectare, whereas 57.33%, 40.89% and 8.89% respondents adopted recommended application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to the crop. The study further highlighted highest adoption level for insecticide like dimethoate 30 EC (52.05%) and fungicide like metalxyl+mancozeb (57.38%) respectively..
Keywords : Crop production technologies, Level of adoption, Multiple regression, Socio-economic standards.
Effect of age of plantation on seed characters and growth performance of Tokopatta (Livistona jinkensiana Griff.) seedling.
N. Lyngdoh1, Mukul Kumar1* Naresh Kumar2 and A. K. Pandey3
1Department of Tree Improvement, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat- 791102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Forest Product Utilization, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791102 ( Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA
3Dean’s Office, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791102, (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Tokopatta palm (Livistona jinkensiana) is a valuable non timber multiple end uses forest species of Arunachal Pradesh. In order to establish improved plantation, the production of quality seedling of this species is essential. The present study was undertaken to determine tree age effects on seed characters, seed germination and performance of seedlings. The 500 seeds sample from each plantations aged 18, 25, 35, 45, 54, 63 and 74 years old around Pasighat town under East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh, India were taken to see the effect of tree age on seed morphological characters, seed germination and seedling performance. Significant variation was observed for seed diameter and seed weight between plantations of different ages. The age effect was also seen in the germination patterns with middle aged plantations producing most superior seeds in terms of seed morphological parameters and germination behavior. Seedling attributes after 12 months showed that seedling obtained from young and middle aged plantations (between 18 to 45 years) performed better than those beyond 50 years..
Keywords : Arunachal Pradesh, Livistona jinkensiana, Mother tree age, NTFP, Seed parameters.
Dimple Das* and M. M. Goswami
Department of Zoology, Guwahati University, Guwahati-14 (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Anabas testudineus (Bloch) is a popular eatable fresh water fish. The fishes infested with helmnthic infection may be died off and the production may be decreased. Besides, the parasites could pass through man and other animals. The occurrence of parasites and their prevalence and intensity in the fish was studied from March, 2012 to February, 2013 in Hasila, Kumri and Urpad wetlands of Goalpara district of Assam. Three trematodes and six nematodes were collected from 309 out of 547 host fish. The trematodes were identified as Asymphylodora kedarai, Brahamputratrema sp., Neopodocotyl sp. and the nematodes were Camallanus anabantis, C.trichuris, C.intestinalus, Onchocamallanus sp., Parascarophis sp, and Cosmoxynemoid nandusi.
Keywords : Anabas testudineus, Goalpara, Hasila, Helminth, Kumri, Urpad.
Geetanjaly* and Ruchira Tiwari
Department of Entomology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The laboratory studies were conducted to assess the bio-efficacy of cow urine and jatropha seed extracts prepared in water and cow urine (@ 5% and @10% against different stages of Spilarctia obliqua. The cent percent mortality of neonate larvae was observed in jatropha seed water extract @10% followed by significantly less larval survival in cow urine @10% (13.35%), jatropha seed cow urine extract @10% (16.64%) in comparison to untreated control (93.32%).Similarly cent per cent larval mortality of 7 days old larvae was observed in JSWE @ 10% and JSCUE @10% with significantly less growth index in JSCUE 5% (0.66), JSWE@5%( 0.67), CU @10% (0.88) and CU @5% ( 0.99) with 2.23 growth index in untreated control. For 14 days old larvae the mean leaf area consumed and larval weight was observed significantly very less in JSWE@10% with cent percent larval mortality followed by JSCUE@10% and cow urine treatments. Similarly, regarding antifeedant activity of eco-friendly formulations according to the calculated preference indices, the strong antifeedant action was showed by JSWE@10% (0.50) followed by JSCUE@10% (0.55)and JSWE@5% (0.60) showed moderately antifeedant action with slight antifeedant action in JSCUE@5% (0.81) and cow urine @10% ( 0.82) and CU@5%(0.85). These observations clearly demonstrated the efficacy of cow urine based eco-friendly formulations against S. obliqua under laboratory conditions which indicated the potential of cow urine based formulations which are eco-friendly, easily prepared and low cost organic approach for sustainable agriculture.
Keywords : Antifeedant, Cow urine, Jatropha seed, S. obliqua.
Biochemical responses of cucumber to Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) mediated biotic stress.
Kanika Tehri*, Rachna Gulati, Monika Geroh and Shashi Madan1
Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004, INDIA
1Department of Biochemistry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The effect of two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) feeding on leaf level physiological characteristics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linnaeus) was investigated. Young cucumber plants were artificially infested with different densities of T. urticae (5, 10, 15 and 20 mites/ grown up leaf) while uninfested plants acted as control. Post infestation, the plants differed in their support to mite density in accordance with initial infestation density and observation period. Highly significant negative correlation of -0.92, -0.93, -0.95 and -0.92 for total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, respectively, at the highest infestation level) was recorded between mite density and photosynthetic pigments in infested leaves as compared to uninfested ones. There was a significant decrease (P= 0.05) in the level of (a progressive decline from 2.82, 0.36 and 2.17% dry weight in control to the maximum of 2.09, 0.26 and 1.87% dry weight for N, P and K, respectively, at highest infestation level) in the infested leaves in response to mite infestation. Interaction between initial infestation level and observation period also suggested a significant impact of T. urticae infestation on the leaf phytochemicals of cucumber (P= 0.05)..
Keywords : Cucumis sativus, Feeding, Infestation density, Phytochemicals, Tetranychus urticae.
Changes in protein profile and RNA content of Apis mellifera worker pupa on parasitization with Tropilaelaps clareae.
Jamuna Negi* and Neelima R. Kumar
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Tropilaelaps infestation of Apis mellifera pupa caused reduction in total protein concentration of the infested pupa. This may be due to protein feeding by mite. The additional protein fractions observed by SDS-PAGE and the difference in the nature of free amino acids suggested synthesis of newer proteins perhaps related to the stress response of the host. This opinion is strengthened by the increase in concentration of RNA (184.580±36.987 in non-infested pupa and 293.402±50.329 in infested pups) observed in the present study which was responsible for increased transcription of genes encoding antiparasite peptides as reported by other workers..
Keywords : Apis mellifera, Peptides, Topilaelaps clareae.
Manoj Kumar*, S. N. Ojha, Arpita Sharma and Raushan Kumar
Fisheries Economics, Extension and Statistics (FEES) Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai – 400061, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A study was undertaken to ascertain constraints faced by fish farmers in adoption of scientific aquaculture practices in East Champaran and West Champaran districts of Bihar. Information from 144 respondents was collected and analysed by calculating the Rank Based Quotient (RBQ) values. RBQ value for constraint faced by farmers were extreme climatic conditions (84.03), less extension programs and technical support (78.47), lack of contact with extension personnel’s (71.33), lack of awareness about scientific culture practices (65.28), inadequate credit facility (60.42), labour scarcity (57.64) and higher cost of material input (52.08).These constraints could be categorised under five heads namely extension constraints, financial constraints, production constraints, marketing constraints and social constraints. Average RBQ value for constraints related to extension was found to be 71.76 and ranked first. This was followed by financial constraint with RBQ value of 52.78. Production related constraint ranked third with an average RBQ value of 49.3 followed by marketing (32.87) and social constraints(27.08). Hypothesis that there is no significant difference with reference to rankings of constraints was tested by single factor ANOVA. Null hypothesis was rejected as Ftab=3.48>FNcal=2.61 with df=4 at 5% level of significance. There was a significant difference with reference to rankings of constraints. As the extension related constraints had the highest average RBQ value, it is clear that there is an urgent need of making effective strategy, engaging more fisheries extension professionals in this field along with capacity development of the existing extension professionals..
Keywords : Adoption, Constraints, Scientific aquaculture practices.
In vitro method for predicting the bioavailability of iron from Bathua (Chenopodium album) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves in Indian cookies.
R. Prasad, A. Gupta*, R. Parihar and K. Gangwar
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Ethelind School of Home Science, Sam Higginbottom, Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : This study was considered to determine the nutritional composition and in vitro bioavailability of iron of the prepared food products. The in vitro bioavailability of iron was determined in fresh and dehydrated bathua (Chenopodium album) and methi (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves (in the ratio of 1:1) and their based product i.e. Indian cookies (paratha and laddoo) by using thiocynate method at pH 1.35 and 7.5, using pepsin. At pH 1.35 the soluble iron and ionizable iron were higher than pH 7.5. when pH was increased from 1.35-7.5 there was decreasing trend soluble as well as ionizable iron contents. There was highly significant (F< 0.05) difference between the control and treatments of products indicating that the addition of 20% of fresh and dehydrated leaves of bathua and methi improved the overall acceptability of products. The total iron content was found 11.69mg/100g in paratha incorporated with fresh GLVs whereas in vitro bioavailability of iron was found 2.16mg/100g in paratha. The total iron content was found 15.16mg/100g in laddoo incorporated with dehydrated GLVs whereas in vitro bioavailability of iron was found 2.78mg/100g in laddoo.
Keywords : Bioavailability, Chenopodium album, Iron, Trigonella foenum graecum.
Enhancement of seed germination in stored seeds using different pre-sowing treatments in Bauhinia purpurea L.
M. Hanumantha, Rajesh P. Gunaga1*, Suma S. Biradar, Roopa S. Patil and P. Shankar2
College of Forestry, Sirsi Campus/ University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, INDIA
1College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA
2Forest Training Institute, Gungargutti, Dharwad (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Bauhinia purpurea L. is one of the important avenue tree species used in garden, road side plantations and other places. Fresh seed produce good germination upto 75 to 100 per cent. Seeds of this species stored for five months produced less germination (38.00 %) and it could be due to seed dormancy. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate different seed treatments to enhance seed germination in stored seeds of B. purpurea. Treatment like soaking seeds in hot water for 2 min to 5 min followed by overnight soaking in normal water resulted in highest germination of about 59.00 per cent over control (40.00%). Significant variation for germination parameters such as mean daily germination, germination rate index and germination value as well as early seedling vigour was recorded among different pre-sowing treatments in stored seeds..
Keywords : Bauhinia purpurea, Dormancy, Seed germination.
Studies on the variation in germination and seedling growth of Abies pindrow Spach. (Royle) in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
Haseeb Ul Rashid Masoodi1*, Manisha Thapliyal1 and V. R. R Singh2
1Silviculture Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand-248006, INDIA
2Additional PCCF (M&E), HPSFD, Solan (H.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Abies pindrow species is facing a problem of natural regeneration and the absence of adequate regeneration in Indian fir forests has drawn the attention of forest officers, researchers and scientists for a long time. The present study was undertaken in the state of Uttarakhand where four sites bearing A. pindrow forests were selected. The study was conducted to compare the seeds of the four sites to draw relevant conclusions. Two sites Mundali and Deoban fall under Chakrata forest division and Bhukki and Dharali sites fall under Uttarkashi forest division. The aim of the study was to determine variation in germination of seeds of A. pindrow collected from four locations in the state of Uttarakhand. A significant variation was observed in seed germination (germination percent, mean germination time, peak value, germination energy, germination value, germination speed) and seed growth parameters (seed length, seed width and seed thickness). The seed source of Dharali site was found as the best source followed by Deoban in comparison to other two sites. Dharali site showed highest germination percentage (25%), highest germination value (2.664) and highest germination energy (25.00) from its seed source, thereby concluding to be the best seed source site. The viable and healthy seed source can be considered to be most fruitful in propagation and regeneration techniques..
Keywords : Abies pindrow, Germination percent, Germination time, Germination speed, Germination value.
Studies on growth and survival of stone grafts as influenced by age of seedling rootstock in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Amrapali.
Niranjan Singh1, S. M. Tripathy2 and Vikas Ghumare3*
1Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Horticulture, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
3*Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Stionic relationship is an important factor for successful graft production. Stone grafting was performed by cleft method in the month of July-August on seedling rootstocks (Mango seedlings) of on four age groups i.e. 5 days, 10 days, 15 days and 20 days using Amrapali as scion stock at Kanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. The objective was to analyze age effect of mango seedling rootstock after stone grafting of cultivar Amarpali. Statistically data was analyzed with randomized block design replicating single interval five times. The height (24.4 cm) and sprouting percentage (83%) of scion, girth of rootstock and scion (6.3 mm) was significantly higher on grafts made on 10 days old rootstocks and minimum-sprouting percentage was recorded with 20 days old rootstocks. In vegetative parameters length (17.12 cm) and width (4.80 cm) of leaf was recorded maximum on 10 days old and minimum on 5 days old rootstock. The higher survival percentage was exhibited by 5 days and 10 days old rootstock, which shows suitability for this technique. It was revealed that stone/epicotyl grafting performed better in terms of growth and survival when rootstocks up to 10 days old were used for grafting.
Keywords : Mango, Rootstock, Sprout, Stone grafting, Survival.
Ethno-botanical survey for wild plants in fringe villages around Shimla Water Catchment Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Dipika Rana1* and Haseeb Ul Rashid Masoodi2
1Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla-171009 (H.P.), INDIA
2Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In this study an ethno-botanical survey was carried out in the fringe villages located at the periphery of Shimla Water Catchment Sanctuary. As the sanctuary area is not completely fenced the villagers have an access inside the sanctuary. An attempt was made to prepare a document of important flora and information from local community about their ethnic uses. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional uses was collected by personal interviews during field trips. Plants with their correct nomenclature were arranged by family name, vernacular name, part use, ethno-botanical remedies and uses. Plants having uses in medicine, ornamental, fodder and many other were studied. The study was entirely focused on revealing the medicinal potential possessed by the plants growing wild in this area and their sustainability for the betterment of mankind.
Keywords : Catchment, Ethno-botanical, Fringe village, Sanctuary
Biochemical attributes of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and rapeseed (B. napus) as influenced by salicylic acid and benzothiadiazole.
Meenakshi Thakur1*, B. S. Sohal1 and Sanjula Sharma2
1Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, INDIA
2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during 2011-12 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India to assess the effect of foliar application of elicitors viz., salicylic acid (SA) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) on biochemical constituents of Brassica seeds. Seeds of Brassica juncea and B. napus were sown in the field during rabi season. Four different treatments of elicitors along with a fungicide and control were given to 10 week old plants up to four consecutive weeks. After harvesting, the seeds were analyzed for oil, total soluble protein and glucosinolate content. Results indicated that the elicitor treatments increased the oil, total soluble protein and glucosinolate content in seeds of both the Brassica species. In B. juncea, BTH (7 ppm) + SA (17 ppm) showed 12.5% higher oil content than control. In B. napus, the combinations of elicitors viz., BTH (3 ppm) + SA (33 ppm) and BTH (7 ppm) + SA (17 ppm) exhibited 15% increase in oil content compared to control. Treatment containing BTH (3 ppm) + SA (33 ppm) showed 18.72 and 15.86% higher total soluble protein content in B. juncea and B. napus seeds, respectively compared to control. In B. juncea, BTH (3 ppm) + SA (33 ppm) exhibited 7.13% higher glucosinolate content compared to control. In B. napus, BTH (7 ppm) + SA (17 ppm) showed 11.23% higher glucosinolate content than control. In conclusion, the application of elicitors, i.e., SA and BTH could be a useful tool for improving the nutritive value of B. juncea and B. napus seeds..
Keywords : Benzothiadiazole, Brassica, Glucosinolate, Oil, Total soluble protein, Salicylic acid.
Rotifer communities of religious water bodies of Haryana (India): Biodiversity, distribution and ecology.
Anita Bhatnagar* and Pooja Devi
Department of Zoology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra -136119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The rotifer communities of eight religious water bodies of Haryana characterized by different trophic status reveal 44 species belonging to 15 genera and 12 families, represent the richest biodiversity of rotifers. Brachionus, Asplanchna and Keratella genus were found to be pollution tolerant species and common at all the selected water bodies viz., Brahmsarovar and Jyotisar at Kurukshetra; Saraswati tirth, Pehowa; Kapalmochan, Yamunanagar; Phalgu tirth, Kaithal; Banganga tirth , Dayalpur; Pandu Pindara, Jind and Kultarn Tirth, Kirmach. whereas Gastropus, Testudinella, Monostyla clasterocerca, Lecane arcula, Filina terminalis were found to be specific at Brahmsarovar (site 1);Filinia longiseta at Phalgu (site 2); Lecane ploenensis, Euchlanis dilata at Pehowa (site 3); B. budapestinensis, B. nilsoni, Asplanchna brightwelli, Asplanchna sieboldii, Polyurthera were specific to Kirmach (site 4); Monostyla decipiens, Anauraepsis nevicula at Jyotisar (site 5); Trichocera porcellus at Kapal mochan (site 7); Keratella cochlearis, Trichocera capucina were found to be specific at the BanGanga (site 8,). However, no specific species appeared at Pandu Pindara (site 6). Seasonal variations were also observed at all the sites during spring, monsoon, post monsoon and in winters. A positive correlation of rotifer abundance was observed with temperature (r = 0.356, P < 0.05), BOD (r = 0.413, P < 0.05) and Ammonia (r = 0.378, P < 0.05) whereas a negative correlation was observed with DO (r = -0.385, P < 0.05) showing that these were the main factors affecting the richness, diversity and density of rotifers. The rotifer communities of each site can be reconstructed from the tables and figures making this inventory an important benchmark for evaluating future regional environment change.
Keywords : Plankton, Religious activities, Rotifer community, Species Diversity Indices, Zooplankton.
F. O. Oboite1* and V. D. Ade-Oni2
1Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, NIGERIA
2Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture, P.M.B.2373, Makurdi, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Felixoboite@gmail.com
Abstract : Yield models are important for effective forest management and as such were developed for the University of Benin Gmelina arborea plantation, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to develop, evaluate and compare predictions from some non-linear models for timber volume estimation. A total of nine non-linear models comprising of three models each for weibull, logistic and log-normal models were developed using the three independent variables combinations (Basal area and merchantable height, diameter at base and merchantable height, diameter at middle and merchantable height). The assessment criteria (correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of estimate (SE)) with the validation results (using percentage bias and probability plots of residuals) showed that all categories of weibull and logistic models generated in this study discovered to be very adequate for tree volume estimation. The highest R2 (93.80), lowest SE (0.25) and lowest bias% (1.29) in the study were achieved from Weibull model 1a. The log-normal models were the least adequate for tree volume estimation with the highest bias%. The one way analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant differences in the performance of the non-linear models when varying predictor variables were used. The weibull, logistic models were therefore recommended for further use in this ecosystem and in any other forest ecosystem with similar site condition. Keywords: Gmelina arborea, Plantation,.
Keywords : Gmelina arborea, Plantation, Tectona grandis, Yield models.
Interpretation of genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for grain yield of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.).
B. Arunkumar1*, S. Muniswamy2 and P.S. Dharmaraj2
1Agricultural Research Station, Bidar-585401 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Agricultural Research Station, Gulbarga-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Fourteen pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) genotypes were evaluated for their yield performance at two locations during kharif season of 2009-10 and 2010-11. A significant genotypic difference for yield character was observed. Highly significant genotype–environment interaction indicated differential response of the genotypes to the environmental changes. The stability analysis showed significance of linear component of variation for grain yield. The genotypes TJT-501 (1728.667Kg/Ha) and GRG-2009-3 (1570.000 Kg/Ha) exhibited low mean performance along with regression value nearer to unity (bi=1) and non significant deviation from regression (S2 di=0) indicating, the high stability and wider adaptability across the different environments. The genotype ICPH-2671 (3134.833 Kg/Ha) exhibited highest mean value and regression value (bi>1) and non significant deviation (S<sup>2 di < 0). But genotypes JKM-197 (3072.667 Kg/ha), GRG-2009 (29993.167 Kg/ha), TS-3R (2823.333 Kg / Ha) and ICP-8863 (2740.417 Kg/Ha) exhibited high mean performance but higher regression value (bi>1) and significant deviation (S2 di < 0) value indicating adapted for high performance environments showing these genotypes are sensitive to environments and give maximum yield when inputs are not limited.
Keywords : Cajanus cajan, Environment interaction, Genotype , Pigeonpea, Stability.
M. Ameer Junaithal Begum1*, P. Balamurugan1, K. Vanagamudi1, K. Prabakar2 and R. Ramakrishnan1
1Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
2Department of Plant pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A change in enzyme activity in seeds due to ageing is a topic of scientific importance. Vigour is essentially a physiological phenomenon influenced by the reserved metabolites, enzyme activities and growth regulators. The exact cause of loss of seed vigour and viability is still unknown as deterioration of seed is a complex process. In the presence of oxygen, ageing of seed can lead to peroxidative changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The free radical -induced non-enzymatic peroxidation, which has the potential to damage membrane, is likely to be a primary cause of deterioration of stored seeds. Certain anabolic enzymes help in maintaining viability while some catabolic enzymes decrease viability. The seed catalase and peroxidase activity seem to be decreased during storage. The results revealed that the peroxidase enzyme activity decreased from 0.236 to 0.444 OD 10 min-1 when storage period increased. A decrease in catalase activity from 0.454 to 0.444 μg H2O2 mg-1 min-1 followed by a small increase from 0.434 to 0.452 μg H2O2 mg-1 min-1 was observed during storage. But the activity of lipase enzyme increased from 0.236 to 0.231 meq min-1g-1 of sample when the storage period was increased. The study would help to know the deterioration pattern of stored groundnut seeds.
Keywords : Enzyme changes, Groundnut, Seed, Storage.
Bhavana Gupta1, Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer2* and Jaswinder Kaur3
1Division of Agricultural Extension Education, FOA, SKUAST-J, Chatha, INDIA
2Division of Agricultural Extension Education, FOA,Wadura, SKUAST-Kashmir, INDIA
3Department of Dry Land Agriculture, CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The concept of entrepreneurship has assumed prime importance in research and development for accelerating economic growth in developing countries. The Entrepreneurship development institution has been focusing its attention on developing programmes for entrepreneurship development and innovative training technique for trainers. The entrepreneurs are responsible for many economic decisions that rests on anticipating demand and bearing risks. The investigation on 210 agri-entrepreneurs thirty each from seven agri-enterprises namely vegetable growing, strawberry growing, dairy farming, mushroom growing, bee-keeping, poultry farming and flower growing, selected purposively from Jammu and Kathua districts of Jammu and Kashmir state revealed that one-half (50.48%) of the agri-entrepreneurs were in the high category of decision making ability followed by medium (46.19%) and low (3.33%) levels. Majority (76.67%) of vegetable entrepreneurs were in the high level of decision making ability followed by poultry entrepreneurs (56.67%). Majority (61.43%) of entrepreneurs had not received any training. Only 38.57% of entrepreneurs had received training. Bee-keepers were highest (66.67%) who received training regarding their enterprise. Majority (61.72%) of entrepreneurs received training for a period of seven days followed by 23.46% of entrepreneurs who got training for fifteen days and 14.81% who attended thirty days training. The study inferred that high level of decision making ability of agri- entrepreneurs might be due to individual ownership, high achievement motivation and high risk taking capacity. The appropriate decisions with regard to finalizing different technical, financial and marketing aspects at right time, results in the progress of the enterprise.
Keywords : Agri-entrepreneurship, Bee-keepers, Decision-making ability, Marketing.
Growth parameters and yield attributing characters of PR-118 (V1) and PR-116 (V2) varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by different planting methods.
Amandeep Kaur* and L. K. Dhaliwal
School of Climate Change and Agricultural Meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field experiments were conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) to study the effect of different agronomic aspects of bed planting on growth and yield of rice during Kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013. The 30 days old seedlings of both rice varieties PR-118 (V1) and PR-116 (V2) were transplanted on 15th June (D1), 30th June (D2) and 15th July (D3). The two rice varieties were transplanted under bed planting (M1) and conventional planting (M2) methods respectively. The results showed that growth parameters like number of tillers per plant, dry weight per plant leaf area index (LAI) and plant height were significantly higher in bed planting than conventional method. In bed planting method, grain yield of rice (48.82q/h) was found to be more than the conventional method (35.74 q/h) during 2012.Varieties PR-118 yielded 47.61q/h more than PR-116 (39.97 q/h) in bed planting. Yield contributing characters like number of effective tillers, number of grains per plant and 1000-grain weight of rice were more in bed planting than conventional method. Harvest index and biological yield was also found to be more in bed planting method than conventional planting. Rice transplanted on 15th June yielded (50.15q/h) more than 30th June (41.45q/h) and 15th July (35.27q/h). Similar results were found in Kharif 2013. Interaction between dates of transplanting and varieties and between varieties and planting methods were found significant.
Keywords : Planting methods, Rice, Transplant, Varieties, Yield, Yield attributed characters.
Popularization of improved maize (Zea mays L.) production technology through frontline demonstrations in semi arid zone IVA of Rajasthan.
B. L. Meena,1 R. P. Meena, R. R. Meena2 and Bhim Singh3*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Post Box No. 8, Rajsamand, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313324 (Rajasthan), INDIA
1Present Address: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhalawar -326001 (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhalawar -326001 (Rajasthan), INDIA
3College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar -326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Front line demonstrations (FLD,s) on maize (Zea mays L.) were laid down at 661 farmers’ fields to demonstrate production potential and economic benefits of improved production technologies comprising high yielding varieties namely PM-3, PM-5, PEHM-2, Bio- 9681 and Mahyco 3765 in Rajsamand district of Semi Arid Zone IVa of Rajasthan state during kharif seasons from 2006 to 2012 in rainfed farming situation. The improved production technologies recorded an additional yield ranging from 2.50 to 15.78 qha-1 with a mean of 7.94 qha-1. The per cent increase yield under improved production technologies ranged from 33.17 to 68.16 (PM-3), 14.09 to 59.82 (PM-5), 46.61 to 66.97 (PEHM-2), 55.83 to 92.82 (Bio 9681) and 80.12 (Mahyco 3765) in respective years. The average extension gap, technology gap and technology index were 9.10 qha-1, 5.94 qha-1 and 20.08 per cent, respectively in different varieties of maize. The improved production technologies gave higher benefit cost ratio ranging from 1.28 to 3.00 with a mean of 2.45 compared to local checks (1.10) being grown by farmers under locality. The productivity of maize per unit area could be increased by adopting feasible scientific and sustainable management practices with a suitable variety. Considering the above facts, frontline demonstrations were carried out in a systematic and scientific manner on farmer’s field to show the worth of a new variety and convincing farming community about potentialities of improved production management technologies of maize for further adoption by the farming community.
Keywords : Front Line Demonstrations, Maize, Production technology, Zea mays.
Biology and management of mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink on Jatropha curcas L.
Veeresh Kumar*, S. C. Topagi, B. S. Rajendra Prasad, Revanasidda, K. B. Tharini and C. T. Ashok Kumar
Department of Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Jatropha cultivation is gaining importance as potential source of biofuel. Recently Paracoccus marginatus has been found to cause serious damage on Jatropha. Studies on the biology and management of P. marginatus at GKVK, Bangalore revealed that the females had three nymphal instars without any pupal stage, while the male had three nymphal instars besides, pre-pupal and pupal stages. The total nymphal period for female ranged from 14 to 21 days, (mean- 17.32±1.6 days) while for male the range was 16 to 23 days, (mean- 18.9±1.3 days). Bisexual and parthenogenetic modes of reproduction were observed. The fecundity of the female mealybug ranged from 248 to 967, with an average of 618.9±19 eggs. Evaluation of insecticides revealed that during first spray and second spray, mean per cent reduction of mealy bug population was highest in profenophos 0.05% (68.05 and 79.35) followed by buprofezin 0.025% (63.61 and 72.69). Least per cent reduction of mealy bug was observed in the NSKE 5% (17.94 and 25.77) treatment.
Keywords : Insecticides, Insect pests, Jatropha, Natural enemies, P. marginatus.
Description of a new species of Neocressionella Gupta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from North western India.
Priyanka Kumari* and Neelima R. Kumar
Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh- 160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A new species, Megachile (Neocressionella) patialensis is described from Patiala, India. Full description of male with their floral relationship, morphological measurements and specimens examined is provided. Knowledge of the life history and nesting habits of Megachile bees will pave the way for their manipulation so that these can be used to increase pollination. Documentation of the genera and species will increase our knowledge of the biodiversity of these bees in the study area..
Keywords : Collection, Floral relationship, Leaf cutter bees, Megachile.
Genotype and environment interaction and stability analysis for seed yield in yellow mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).
B. Arunkumar* and C. R. Konda
Agricultural Research Station, Bidar, Raichur- 585102 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Nine yellow seeded mung (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes were evaluated along with three checks for their yield performance during three years (2007, 2010 and 2011). Pooled analysis of variance and stability analysis were performed. The genotypic (G) × environment (E) interaction and both variance due to genotypes and environment were significant. The portioning of G × E interaction into linear and non-linear components indicated that both predictable and unpredictable components shared the interaction. On the basis of stability parameters, the top yielding genotypes such as BGS-9 (605.444 Kg/Ha), Sel-4 (519.778 Kg/Ha) and China mung (567.000 Kg/Ha) exhibited high mean yield. Based on stability parameters the genotypes YM-5 (459.889 Kg/Ha), YM-8 (451.333 Kg/Ha) exhibited low mean performance along with regression value nearer to unity (bi=1) and non significant deviation from regression (S2 di=0) indicating the high stability and wider adaptability across the three environments. The genotypes BGS-9 (605.444 Kg/Ha) and Sel-4 (519.778 Kg/Ha) exhibited high mean value and bi values (bi>1) and non significant deviation (S2 di < 0) value indicating adapted for high performance environments (These genotypes are sensitive to environments and give maximum yield when inputs are not limited).
Keywords : G × E Interaction Green gram, Seed Yield, Stability analysis, Vigna radiata ( L.) and Yellow mung.
D. Chandrasekaran1*, A. P. Nambi1, P. S. Thirunavukkarasu1, S. Vairamuthu2, P. Venkatesan3 and K.G .Tirumurugaan3
1Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, INDIA
2Centralized Clinical Laboratory, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, INDIA
3Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and treatment of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was Escherichia coli (50.64 %) followed by S. aureus (44.25 %) and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcal aureus (5.11%).These isolates were found sensitive to gentamicin, enrofloxcain, amoxicillin+sulbactam, ceftriaxone and resistant to amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G and oxacillin. In all the treatment groups of E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA mastitis, the post treatment pH, SCC was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased when compared to pre treatment pH, SCC values and the post treatment electrical conductivity was significantly (P < 0.01) increased when compared to pre treatment electrical conductivity value. In E. coli mastitis, treated with amoxicillin+sulbactam, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin and gentamicin showed 74.1%, 67.75 %, 76.67 % and 64.52 % clinical recovery and in S. aureus mastitis, showed 65.25 %, 65.25 %, 72.43 % and 68.98 % clinical recovery. In MRSA mastitis, enrofloxacin was found to be highly effective in comparison to amoxicillin+sulbcactam.
Keywords : Antimicrobial sensitivity, Bovine mastitis, E. coli, Electrical conductivity, S. aureus.
Biochemical analysis of Psophocarpus tetrgonolobus L. (Winged bean) and its role on restoration of degraded land of Raniganj and Barjora coalmine areas of West Bengal, India.
Anjan Kumar Sinha
Department of Botany, Bankura Sammilani College, Bankura- 722102 (West Bengal), INDIA
Abstract : To meet the growing demands of energy, continuous supply of coal is necessary because coal is the primary source of energy. About 70% of coal mining is being done by open cast methods which is most destructive activity and it severely damages the ecosystem. Reclamation of degraded land is therefore necessary after any mining activity. The biochemical parameters like Chlorophyll, carbohydrate and protein content of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (Winged bean) studied here were considered as measure to test the suitability of Winged bean in various soil-OB dump compositions (P1 to P5). The findings revealed that biochemical property like chlorophyll and protein content of Winged bean was retained up to 1:1 soil-OB dump condition but after that it was decreased significantly whenever OB dump composition was increased. Chlorophyll content of the plant in P1 to P3 condition was 8.2, 8.17 and 8.02 mg/100 gm respectively but it was decreased significantly in P3 and P4 condition, i.e. 7.72 & 7.47 mg/100gm respectively. Carbohydrate content of the plant in P1 to P3 condition was 3.72, 3.7 and 3.61 gm/100 gm respectively but it again decreased significantly in P3 and P4 condition, i.e. 3.32 & 3.1 gm/100gm respectively. In spite of these findings, seeds of winged bean contained high protein and rest of the plant parts were also very important as food and fodder and this plant was able to grow on less water condition which made it suitable for the land restoration of degraded mining land both from ecological and socio-economic point of view.
Keywords : Barjora, Coal mine, Land reclamation, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Raniganj.
Chakresh Pathak*, A. K. Chopra, Ashutosh Gautam1 and Sachin Srivastava
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Environment Management Divison, India Glycols Limited, Kashipur (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to estimate the accumulation of heavy metals in Spinacea oleracea plant grown in Distillery Effluent (DE) irrigated soil. The results revealed that there was an increase in the metal contents Fe (+2.39%), Zn (+14.27%), Ni (+70.45%), Cd (+34.15%)and Cr (+20.46%) of soil irrigated with DE. In case of S. oleracea grown in the DE irrigated soil, it was observed that there was maximum concentration of Fe (353.24±7.94 mg/kg) and Zn (78.95±7.59 mg/kg) in leaves and that of Cr (54.19±8.39 mg/kg), Cd (7.73±1.41 mg/kg) and Ni (66.47±3.65 mg/kg) in root. The value of Bio-concentration factor (BCF) was found maximum for Cr (2.00) in comparison to other metals in the S. oleracea irrigated with DE. The value of Transfer factor (TF) was found maximum for Zn (TF- 1.51) for the soil irrigated with DE in comparison to soil irrigated with Bore well water (BWW). The DE can be a source of contamination to the soil as some toxic metals may also be transferred to roots and then to leaves in S. oleracea. The practice of continuous irrigation of agricultural land by DE may increase the risk of metal contamination in growing food crops to cause human health risks.
Keywords : Bio-concentration factor, Distillery effluent, Heavy metals, Spinacea oleracea, Transfer factor.
R. Ushakumari, R. Muthukamatchi and G. Thamodharan*
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai- 625104, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An experiment was conducted in rice to study the heterosis for drought tolerance and grain yield in 24 hybrids developed from six landraces viz., Kallurundaikar, Kuliadichan, Kuruvaikalangiam, Mattaikar, Nootripathu and Vellaichithiraikar used as lines and four high yielding varieties viz., PMK 3, MDU 5, ASD 16 and ADT 36 used as testers for physio-morphological traits by Line x tester analysis. The experimental results revealed that the hybrids viz., Nootripathu / MDU 5, which had significant standard heterosis for eight characters namely days to 50% flowering, plant height, productive tillers, root length, root dry weight, root : shoot ratio, harvest index and grain yield per plant, Nootripathu / PMK 3 exhibited significant standard heterosis for seven characters namely plant height, root length, root dry weight, root : shoot ratio, 100 grain weight, harvest index, and grain yield per plant were found to be superior hybrids over the standard check variety PMK 3. High proline content which is an index for drought tolerance was recorded in hybrid Kuruvaikalangiam / ADT 36 (11.94%) exhibited significant standard heterosis which is found to be drought tolerant among the hybrids.
Keywords : Drought tolerance, Land race, Physico morphological traits, Significant standard heterosis.
Exploration of various flours as pollen substitutes for Apis mellifera L. during Dearth period at Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India.
Usha*, Poonam Srivastava, Vimla Goswami and M. S. Khan
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar -263145, U. S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Studies on evaluation of various flours as pollen substitutes and availability of pollen resources for Apis mellifera honey bees were conducted at Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, India during 2010. Four flours were taken viz. Soybean, Maize, Wheat and Gram as pollen substitutes for A. mellifera. All the flours were mixed with honey and water to make a total of 4 treatments (4 flours + honey + water). Treatment T1 (Soybean flour + honey + water) were found to be best in reference to visitation of bees with a mean number of 32.59 honey bee foragers /5min/day and weight loss in flours was 19.12 g due to foraging by bees followed by the treatment T3 (Maize flour + honey + water) and T2 (Wheat flour + honey + water) were found 29.30 and 23.05, respectively. Gram flour + honey + water (T4) combination were found to be least preferred pollen substitute for A. mellifera (19.76 honey bee foragers/5min/day) with a weight loss 6.66 g. The overall study has great significance for bee keepers. The use of pollen substitute is important for growth and development of the bee colonies not only in dearth periods but also at other times (during foraging, pollination process and to overcome pesticide exposures.). From the present findings it can be concluded that although bees have accepted and grew on all the diets.
Keywords : A. mellifera, Gram, Honey, Maize, Pollen, Soybean, Wheat.
Monthly variations in physico-chemical characteristics of water, MPN index and zooplankton of Devak stream, at Shiv temple complex, Udhampur, Jammu ( J & K), India.
S. P. S. Dutta
UGC Emeritus Fellow, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu- 180006 (J&K), INDIA
Abstract : Water quality characteristics, MPN index/100ml, and zooplankton of sacred Devak stream, Udhampur were analyzed during February, 2010 to January, 2011. Various water quality parameters showed a well marked seasonal variation including MPN index/100 ml which remained above 240 during all the observations. Zooplanktons comprising of 46 species showed qualitative dominance of protozoa (33 species) followed by rotifera (7 species), annelida (2 species) and insecta (1 species), water nematoda, turbellaria (1 species) and cysts. Zooplankton was qualitatively and quantitatively poor/absent during monsoon floods (June to September) and was diversified and rich during February to May. Comparison of water utility parameters and MPN count/100 ml with national and international agencies suggested that water of this stream was not fit for consumption.
Keywords : Devak stream, Most probable number, Physico-chemical parameters, Water quality, Zooplankton.
Human health risk assessment of temporal and spatial variations of groundwater quality at a densely industrialized commercial complex at Haridwar, India.
Tushar Arora*, Anand Mishra, Gagan Matta, A. K. Chopra, Ajendra Kumar1, D. R. Khanna and Vinod Kumar
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The observations of present investigation revealed that the groundwater regime at State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL) Industrial Estate (IE) was highly responsive to the anthropogenic stress of recharge and discharge parameters concerning the distressing industrial activities. The present study on groundwater characteristics of SIDCUL-IE, Haridwar in year 2013-2014 showed that the water of Sampling station-D (SSD) had relatively poor quality in comparison to the groundwater collected from Sampling station-A (SSA), Sampling station-B (SSB) and Sampling station-C (SSC). The samples had a high mineral load with relatively wider pH range. The physico-chemical parameters like pH (6.35 in October) at SSA, TDS (553.5 mg/l in November) at SSC, TH (600.0 mg/l in July) at SSB and alkalinity (525.0 mg/l in October) at SSD were beyond the prescribed limits of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The Karl Pearson correlation matrix showed moderate to significantly positive correlation between various parameters like COD-phosphorus (r=0.629), temperature-DO (r=-0.477) at SSA; pH and bicarbonate (r=0.668) at SSB; pH-temperature (r=-0.551),turbidity-BOD (r=0.467), BOD-phosphorus (r=0.518), bicarbonate-acidity (r=-0.833) at SSC and TSS-turbidity (r=0.616), BOD-COD (r=0.6771) at SSD and temperature-DO (r=-0.666), hardness-acidity (r=-0.6542) BOD-COD (r=0.654) at control site. The overall quality of groundwater, though hard, was found acceptable for drinking purpose. The divergence in the results of groundwater samples taken from SIDCUL-IE and the Control site, 2 km away from SIDCUL-IE, indicated that groundwater pollution is increasing alarmingly which may have serious threats to human health in near future.
Keywords : Groundwater quality, Human health-risk, Industrial effluents, Physico-chemical parameters, SIDCUL, Spatial, Temporal.
Effect of native Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the development of Cuscuta campestris on chickpea, Cicer arietinum.
C. Kannan*, B. Kumar, P. Aditi1 and Y. Gharde
Directorate of Weed Science Research, Maharajpur Jabalpur- 482004 (M.P), INDIA
1Department of Biological SciencesRani Durgavati University, Jabalpur- 482001 (M.P), INDIA
*Corresponding author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Cuscuta campestris Yuncker is a serious parasite on several leguminous crops including chickpea in India. Chickpea is an important pulse crop in India and severe incidence of Cuscuta may result in yield loss of about 85.7%. Management of Cuscuta is very difficult because of their intricate relationship with the host, wide host range and lack of resistant genes in the host. Thus induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant growth promoting microbes (microbial elicitors) may be an effective alternative method for the management of Cuscuta. In the current study, to induce systemic resistance, native isolates of Trichoderma viride Pers. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Flügge were used as seed treatments and foliar spray on chickpea and then infested with C. campestris. Salicylic acid and thiobenzamidazole (synthetic elicitors) were used as standard inducing agents for comparison. Results indicated that fresh seeds of C. campestris germinated rapidly even without scarification and that the germination was not influenced by the proximity of the seeds to the host. Seed treatment followed by foliar sprays with the bioagents and synthetic elicitors induced at 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS) induced increased production of defense enzymes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and thus delayed the development (1.8-5 days) and flowering (2.4-4.2 days) of C. campestris. Treatment with both the elicitors also resulted in the enhanced activities of scavengers of enzymes related reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus the above work would help in the integration of the application of bioagents for effective management of Cuscuta in chickpea.
Keywords : Chickpea, Cuscuta campestris, Defense enzymes, ISR, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma viride.
Greenhouse evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against Aphis craccivora (Das) on Fenugreek.
K. Selvaraj* and H. D. Kaushik
Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, INDIA
*Division of Crop Protection, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Kolkata-700120, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The bioassay studies were carried out to determine the LC50 and LT50 of Beauveria bassiana against Aphis craccivora on fenugreek under greenhouse conditions. The results revealed that, the cumulative corrected mortality (CCM) was 43.50% at higher concentration (1×1010 spores/ml) and it was 20.85% at lowest concentration (1×104 spores/ml) at one day after treatment (DAT). The CCM decreased with decreasing conidial spore concentration. Likewise, at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 DAT, almost same trend was observed. At 7 DAT, the CCM was 85.04% and 55.21% at 1×1010 spores/ml and 1×104 spores/ml, respectively. The LC50 value of B. bassiana against A. craccivora was 1.2×108 spores/ml. Mean lethal time (LT50) values were worked out 73, 89, 97, 112, 126, 138 and 157 hours for 1010, 109, 108, 107, 106, 105 and 104 spores/ml, respectively. By testing the field efficacy of B. bassiana against A. craccivora, this insect pathogenic fungus can be used as potential biocontrol agent for the sustainable management of aphid in fenugreek crop.
Keywords : Aphis craccivora, Beauveria bassiana, LC50, LT50 value, Pathogenicity.
R. Vijayan and V. Krishnasamy*
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. 641 003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A study was conducted at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in June - July season of two different years to find out suitable organics for enhanced productivity of rice cv ADT 43 for organic seed production. The results revealed among the organic soil application of neem cake (1786 kg ha-1) along with 3 per cent panchakavya foliar spray maximized the yield along with yield attributing characters (plant height, total number of tillers hill-1, productive tillers hill-1, chlorophyll content, panicle length) and resultant organic seed quality characters. However, the yield was higher with basal nutrients applied as inorganic (3537 kg ha-1 in initial and 4352 kg ha-1 in confirmation), which was on par with neem cake + panchakavya (3500 kg ha-1 in initial and 4315 kg ha-1 in confirmation), GLM + azolla (3380 kg ha-1 in initial) and GLM + azolla + panchakavya (4213 kg ha-1 in confirmation) treatments and sprayed with panchakavya at vegetative, flowering and maturity. These findings are highly useful for paddy organic seed production programme.
Keywords : Organic manures, Organic seed production, Quality seeds, Rice.
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BNKR-1 (Dhiren) – A newly released late duration high-yielding rice variety an alternative to Swarna (MTU 7029) for West Bengal, India.
G. K. Mallick1*, I. Dana2, K. Jana1, A. Ghosh3 and A. Biswas1
1Rice Research Station, Nutanchati, Bankura – 722 101, West Bengal, INDIA
2Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal, INDIA
3Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Krishnanagar, Nadia, West Bengal, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : BNKR – I (Dhiren), a new late duration high yielding rice variety developed at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal, India was released by “State Variety Release Committee” (SVRC), West Bengal in 2011 for cultivation in irrigated late areas of West Bengal, India. Before release as BNKR – I (Dhiren), this rice culture completed three years of national testing (2008-2010) in the designation of CN 1340-76-1-BNKR 23-7-1 (IET 20760) and had been recommended for release in irrigated areas of Bihar and West Bengal under transplanted condition in 46th National Group Meeting on Rice organized by Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR), Hyderabad, India during April 2011. It gave 7.65 to 12.12% yield advantage over national check in national level. Not only that this culture of rice tested extensively in the farm of Rice research Station, Bankura, West Bengal and farmer’s field. It showed 11.64% and 19.30% yield advantage during 2006 and 2007 in observational trial, 10.44 to 14.38% yield advantage in on station yield trial during 2008-2010 and 12.51 to 17.93% yield advantage in farmer’s field during 2009 and 2010 over Swarna (MTU 7029), which is the most popular rice variety of West Bengal. BNKR – I (Dhiren) is non-lodging, non-shattering and late maturing variety (seed to seed : 142 days). It is moderately resistant to leaf blast, neck blast, brown spot, sheath rot and leaf folder. It’s average yield is 5000 – 5500 kg ha-1. Grain type is short bold. It is expected that BNKR – I (Dhiren) can be able to replace Swarna (MTU 7029), the most popular rice variety of West Bengal, India.
Keywords : Bankura, BNKR – I (Dhiren), IET 20760, late duration, Rice Variety, Swarna (MTU 7029).
G. T. Patle*, K. K. Badyopadhyay1 and Mukesh Kumar2
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology, Gangtok -737135, INDIA
1Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA
2Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Indian agriculture has changed considerably in the past several decades. Since post green revolution era, Indian farming basically shifted from the conventional farming system to towards the mechanized farming system and relies heavily on agricultural inputs such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, heavy farm machineries and irrigation, which are dependent on fossil fuels. Large scale use of these inputs also contributed in emission of greenhouse gases which are mainly responsible for global warming and consequently climate change. Agriculture plays a unique role in the climate change mitigation because of its potential to lower greenhouse gases emissions through carbon sequestration. Organic agriculture is being considered as one of the appropriate farming systems that could serve the twin objectives of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Compared to conventional agriculture, organic agriculture is considered to be more energy efficient and effective both in reducing green house gases emission mainly due to the less use of chemical fertilizers and fossil fuel and enhancing the soil organic carbon. Promotion and adaptation of organic farming in developing country like India can serve as mitigation strategy of climate change.
Keywords : Climate change, GHG, INCCA, Mitigation, Organic agriculture.
C. Sarathambal*, K. Ilamurugu1, L. Srimathi Priya1 and K. K. Barman
Directorate of Weed Science Research, Jabalpur- 482004 (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA
1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In the context of increasing international concern for food security and environmental quality, the use of bioinoculants like diazotrophs and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture is a potentially important issue. The improvement in agricultural sustainability requires optimal use and management of soil fertility and soil physical properties, where both rely on soil biological processes and soil biodiversity. Biological nitrogen fixation by plant-associated bacteria is eco-friendly and has been effectively exploited for crop plants including legumes. Although associations of rhizobacteria with non-leguminous plants such as grasses have been known for decades, they have been poorly - studied. Weedy grass species normally thrive in adverse conditions and act as potential habitats for the diverse groups of elite bacteria with multiple beneficial characters remains unexplored. A more complete understanding of the diversity and functioning of rhizobacterial microorganisms, especially those that have symbiotic relationships with grass species is of great value for agricultural research and application.
Keywords : Agriculture, Bioprospecting, Plant growth, Rhizobacteria,Weeds.
Manoj Kumar Jhariya* and Abhishek Raj1
Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur- 497001 (C.G.), INDIA
1Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur- 492012 (C.G.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Fire is one of the most destructive threats faced by our forests. Fire is good servant but a bad master. The fire season starts in March/April continues up to June. Wildfires destroy not only flora (tree, herbs, grassland, forbs, etc.) and their diversity but also considerable long term negative impact on fauna including wild endangered species. Repeated fires can convert some shrub-lands to grass and fire exclusion converts some grassland to shrub-land and forest. Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. The extent of fire effects on animal communities generally depends on the extent of change in habitat structure and species composition caused by fire. Fire can also influence a physico-chemical property of soil including texture, color, bulk density, pH, porosity, organic matter, nutrient availability and soil biota. Drought, disease, insect infestation, overgrazing or a combination of these factors may increase the impact of fire on an individual plant species or communities. Common effects include plant mortality, increase flowering, seed production and numerous communal affects. Fire affected area showed reduction in species diversity both in flora and fauna. In a social context, fire directly affects people, property and infrastructure, thereby directly affecting the health and livelihood of individuals and communities.
Keywords : Diversity, Flora, Fauna, Habitat, Wildfires.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Home Science, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi- 284128, (U.P), INDIA
Abstract : In type 1 diabetes, there is a lack of insulin production and in type 2, diabetes resistances to the effects of insulin are predominant. Both type 1 and type 2 have the same long-term complications. Diabetes effects zinc homeostasis in many ways, although it is most probably the hyperglycemia which is responsible for the increased urinary loss and decreases in total body zinc. The role of Zn deficiency exacerbates the cytokine-induced damage in the autoimmune attack which destroys the islet cell in type 1 diabetes, is unclear. Since Zn plays a clear role in the synthesis, storage and secretion of insulin as well as conformational integrity of insulin in the hexameric form, the decreased Zn, which affects the ability of the islet cell to produce and secrete insulin in type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction in diabetes may be related to increased intracellular oxidants and free radicals associated with decrease in intracellular Zn and in Zn dependent antioxidant enzymes. There appears to be a complex interrelationship between Zn and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Zn plays a key role in the cellular antioxidative defense. Dysfunctional zinc signaling is associated with a number of chronic disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Cellular homeostasis requires mechanisms that tightly control the uptake, storage, and distribution of zinc. This is achieved through the coordinated actions of zinc transporters and metallothioneins.
Keywords : Antioxidants, Homeostasis, Hyperglycemia, Juvenile, Zinc.
Asima Gazal1*, Z. A. Dar2, Gul Zaffar2, A. A. Lone2, I. Abidi3, Alima Shabir4 and Khan1, Nida Yousuf1
1*Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar-190025 (J&K), INDIA
2Dryland (Karewa) Agricultural Research Station, Budgam, Srinagar- 190001(J&K), INDIA
3Directorate of Research, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025 (J&K), INDIA
4Division of Vegetable Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Oat is an economically important crop and ranks sixth in world cereal production after maize, wheat, rice, barley and sorghum. It has been primarily utilized as livestock feed. However, the utilization of oats for human consumption has increased progressively, owing to its dietary and health benefits which relies mainly on the total dietary fibre and β-glucan content, which significantly reduces postprandial blood glucose, insulin and blood lipids, especially serum total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Henceforth, enhancing Oat b-glucan content for human consumption is desirable. As it is a polygenic trait controlled mainly by genes with additive effects, phenotypic selection for greater b-glucan content would be effective for developing cultivars with elevated b-glucan contents. Oat b-glucan concentration has been found to be positively correlated with protein content and negatively correlated with oil content. β-glucan yield (i.e., Product of grain yield and β-glucan content) has been found to correlate positively with both grain yield (r = 0.92) and β-glucan content (r = 0.66). Hence, this nutritional oat grain quality has been improved through selection for improved grain yield as they both increase simultaneously. Among wild accessions, A. atlantica genotypes have high β-glucan content (2·2–11·3%) and have been used in breeding programmes for increasing the β-glucan content of adapted elite local germplasm. Besides conventional breeding approaches, molecular breeding approaches have made possible to identify several molecular markers linked to β-glucan rich regions across oat genome hence enabling mapping and dissection of β-glucan rich genomic regions and accelerating the improvement in nutritional grain quality.
Keywords : Avena sativa, β-Glucan, Breeding, Genetics, Health benefits, Oat grain quality.
Fungicidal effect of some non-conventional chemicals for management of alternaria blight disease of mustard.
Amarendra Kumar1*, Santosh Kumar1, Rakesh Kumar2,Gireesh Chand1 and S. J. Kolte3
1Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-821310 (Bihar), INDIA
2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-821310 (Bihar), INDIA
3Department of Plant Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar -263145, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Alternaria blight disease of mustard caused by a necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. Is one of the most important limiting factors, causing yield losses of up to 47% in mustard (Brassica juncea). The aim of this present investigation was to evaluate the fungicidal effect of non-conventional chemicals viz. calcium sulphate (CaSO4), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium sulphate (K2SO4), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) and borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) against alternaria blight disease of mustard. The significantly minimum size of spot was recorded in T1 CaS at 0.5% (1.73) followed by T3 CaS at 1.5% (1.75) and T2 CaS at 1.0% (1.78) respectively in comparison to check. The minimum number of average leaf spots/25 mm2 leaf area was observed in T3 CaS at 1.5% (1.78) followed by T1 CaS at 0.5% (2.26). T1 CaS @ at 0.5% showed significantly lowest disease index (13.00%) followed by T15 NaB at 0.75% (17.77%) and T8 KS at 1.0% (18.00%) respectively over check. The average minimum apparent infection rate was recorded in T1 CaS at 0.5% ( 0.504) followed by T9 KS at 1.5% (0.553) and T3 CaS at 1.5% (0.573) respectively. The AUDPC was significantly minimum in all the treatments of CaSO4 i.e. in T1 CaS at 0.5% (32.25), T2 CaS at 1.0% (33.8) and T3 CaS at 1.5% (35.55) in comparison to check (77.95). The foliar spray of CaSO4 at 0.5% concentration induced resistance significantly against alternaria blight and reduce pesticide residue in food and environment.
Keywords : Alternaria blight, Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., Mustard, Non-conventional chemicals.
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