Volume 6, Year 2014-Issue 1
Impact of thymoquinone supplementation on immobilisation stress-induced changes in reproductive characteristics of male mice
Suzanah Abdul Rahman*, Norul Athirah Mohamed Anwar, Shaik Sadak Basha and Saheera Kamarzaman
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, MALAYSIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in the reproductive parameters during stress and the impact of thymoquinone during the period. The effects of stress were measured through immobilisation stress on mice. Group I was administered normal saline daily via intraperitoneal injection while Groups II and III were subjected to 2 and 6 hours of immobilisation stress respectively. Groups IV and V were subjected to stress for 2 and 6 hours respectively followed by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg thymoquinone which was continued on alternate days. The level of significance was set at p<0.05 and statistical analysis showed significant difference in testicular weight of mice in groups II and III compared to the controls but no significant difference was obtained for sperm count between all groups. Sperm motility, however, was significantly different among the groups under stress for 2 and 6 hours and that of 6 hours with the treatment of thymoquinone when compared to the controls. The histology of the testes also indicated a few alterations in comparison to the controls in the germinal epithelium and spermatogenic pattern in groups III and V.
Keywords : Histopathology, Immobilisation Stress, Male mice, Sperm, Testis, Thymoquinone
Assessment of soil physical health and productivity of Kharkhoda and Gohana blocks of Sonipat district (Haryana), India
Rakesh Kumar*, Pramila Aggarwal, Ravendra Singh, Debashis Chakraborty, Ranjan Bhattacharya, R. N. Garg, Kalpana H. Kamble and Brijesh Yadav
Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In order to assess soil health of Kharkhoda and Gohana blocks of Sonipat district (a part of western Yamuna canal irrigated region), important parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity (EC), texture, bulk density (BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC), soil organic carbon (OC), available water retension capacity (AWRC) and non capillary pores (NCP) were measured by collecting undisturbed soil samples in nearly 66 villages. Soil physical rating index (PI) method was used to compute PI which was an indicator of soil physical health of that region. Results revealed that in Gohana and Kharkhoda blocks, nearly 90% area had pH <8.0 and EC>4 dS m-1, which indicated that soils were saline. Prediction maps of soil BD showed that 75% of the total area in 15-30 cm soil layer had BD above >1.6 mg m-3, which indicated the presence of hard pan in subsurface. HC data of subsurface layer also showed that 60% of the area had values<0.5 cm hr-1 which reconfirmed the presence of hard pan. For both surface as well as subsurface soil layers, mostly AWC was >10% which indicated adequate water retention capacity of these soils. However 85% of subsurface had poor soil aeration capacity as indicated NCP range < 10 %. Prediction map of PI for subsurface layer showed that majority of area had PI<0.4 which indicated that expected yield of the crop cannot be more than 70% of the potential yield even under normal or higher levels of fertilizer and water inputs.
Keywords : Soil physical health, Soil physical rating index, Sub surface compaction
A study on few biochemical parameters of clinically suspected and laboratory confirmed Leptospirosis cases
D. B. Zala¹, Vikram Khan², and V. K. Das*
*Department of Medicine, Sri Vinoba Bhave Civil Hospital, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Silvassa -396230, INDIA
¹Department of Microbiology, DPHL, VBCH, Directorate of Medical & Health Services, Dadra & Nagar Haveli,Silvassa - 396230, INDIA
²Directorate of Medical & Health Services, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Silvassa, 396230, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:email@example.com
Abstract : A study on biochemical parameters in clinically suspected and laboratory- confirmed leptospirosis cases was conducted in the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Out of 50 clinically suspected samples of leptospirosis, 38% were positive from both ELISA IgM and rapid card test. In the present study, liver markers such as bilirubin, Serum Glutamate Oxalo acetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) encountered elevation 68%, 100% and 89% respectively in leptospiosis positive patent while 89% and 48 % of positive patients showed elevation in kidney marker, creatinine and blood urea. On the basis of liver and renal functions, a hospital can develop its own clinical algorithm to suspect the case of leptospirosis.
Keywords : Biochemical parameters, Immunochromatography, SGOT, SGPT, Leptospirosis
Vinay Kumar1, Binod Kumar Vimal2 , Rakesh Kumar2 *, Rakesh Kumar3 and Mukesh Kumar4
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Munger, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210, Bhagalpur (Bihar), INDIA
2 Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210, Bhagalpur (Bihar), INDIA
3Indian Council of Agricultural Research- Research Complex North Eastern Hill Region, Nagaland Centre Jharnapani-797106 (Nagaland), INDIA
4Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa-848125, Samastipur (Bihar), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Soil is recognized as one of the most valuable natural resource whose soil pH property used to describe the degree of acidity or basicity which affect nutrient availability and ultimately plant growth. Fifty soil samples were collected and their pH was determined by using digital image processing technique. Soil colour is visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories i.e red, green, blue and others. Soil colours are the parts of visual perceptual property where digital values of red, green and blue (RGB) provide a clue for spectral signature capture of different pH in soil. For the capturing images, digital camera was used. Transformation of the multispectral image was carried out through TNT Mips spatial software. On the basis of RGB grey values, pixels properties and their digital correlations, results showed that there was a clear cut gap in grey values of colours in the images 1, 2, 3, 4,10,11,14 and 16. Ranges of soil pH and pH index values were 7.30-7.50 and 0.0070-0.0261, respectively in deep brown colour. Similarly, soil pH range varies from 6.80-7.04 and 5.58-6.58 in light yellowish and greenish colour respectively while their corresponding pH index values were 0.0071-0.0451 and 0.0084-0.0239. Thus soil pH range varies from 7.30-7.50, 6.80-7.04 and 5.58-6.58 in deep brown colour, light yellowish colour and greenish colour respectively.
Keywords : Colour, Digital images, Signature capture, Soil pH
M. Thirunavukkarasu* and K. S. Subramanian
Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Surface modified nano-zeolite (SMNZ) was used as carrier to develop nano-zeolite based nano-sulphur fertilizer. A laboratory study on sulphur nano-fertilizer and conventional sulphur fertilizer were studied with percolation reactor system to evaluate the slow release of sulphur from both fertilizers in ambient temperature. SMNZ and sulphur nano-fertilizer were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Zeta Analyzer, Raman Spectroscopy, XRD and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Raman spectroscopy confirmed the sulphur attachment at 480 cm-1 in the SMNZ. The FTIR spectra at 1030 cm-1 confirmed the sulphate attachments in the SMNZ spectrum. Zeta analyzer showed the surface charge of sulphur nano-fertilizer had (-) 52.6 mV. SEM imaged the sulphur loaded SMNZ in irregular flake like structure. A comparative study of the release of sulphate (SO4 2-) from fertilizer-loaded SMNZ and (NH4)2 SO4 fertilizers were performed using the percolation reactor. The results showed that the SO42- supply from fertilizer-loaded SMNZ was available even after 912 h of continuous percolation, whereas SO42- from (NH4)2 SO4 was exhausted within 384 h. These properties suggest that SMNZ has a great potential as the fertilizer carrier for slow release of SO42-.
Keywords : FT-IR, Percolation reactor, Slow release of sulphate, Surface modified nano-zeolite, XRD
Efficacy of essential oils against Varroa destructor infesting Apis mellifera Linn. colonies and their impact on brood development
Vimla Goswami*, Poonam Srivastava and M. S. Khan
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Varroa destructor is a dangerous pest directly for beekeeping and indirectly for crops that require insect pollination. The present investigation has been carried out to study the efficacy and persistence of some essential oils and formic acid against Varroa mite in colonies of Apis mellifera Linn. at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The results revealed that highest mite mortality (77.54 %) with highest brood development (21.74 % increase) recorded in garlic oil followed by turmeric oil (75.84 %) with 15.39 per cent increases in brood development. The hives treated with T1 (tulsi oil), T3 (turmeric oil), T4 (ajwin oil), T5 (cinnamon oil), T5 (clove oil) and T7 (formic acid) also showed good persistence with mite mortality ranging from 66.54 to 77.54 % and brood development -3.12 to 21.74 per cent increase after 3 weeks exposure of the treatments.
Keywords : Apis mellifera, Varroa mite, Essential oils, Formic acid
V. Rajagopal1, H.L. Ramesh2, V.N. Yogananda Murthy3* and K.N. Ninge Gowda4
1Department of Chemistry, V.V. Pura College of Science, K.R. Road, Bangalore-560004 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Department of Sericulture, V.V. Pura College of Science, K.R. Road, Bangalore-560004 (Karnataka), INDIA
3Department of Life Sciences, Ganga Kaveri Institute of Science and Management, Dr. Rajkumar Road, Rajajinagar, Bangalore-560021 (Karnataka), INDIA
4Department of Fashion and Apparel Technology, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Silkworm Bombyx mori L. is prone to be attacked by pathogen and more notably Beauveria bassiana L. Bed disinfectant Kavach was inoculated in different dosages (0.2%-1.6%) to IV and V instar silkworms of both bivoltine and cross breeds. Potency of disinfectant was assessed for the parameters such as survivability, larval duration, physiological, chemo and bio-assay tests. It was revealed that, bivoltine (NB4D2) silkworms were highly susceptible to diseases compared to cross breeds (PMxNB4D2). In bivoltine silkworms, survivability was found to be 61.15% at 1.6% of Kavach, when dusted twice during IV and V instar and crossbreed silkworms exhibited better resistance of 63.10% with the same treatments. Kavach treated silkworms showed decreased larval duration compared to control worms. Crossbreed silkworms were capable of maintaining high level of soluble proteins in spite of infection on 3rd day (17.40%), 4th day (20.50%) and 5th day (21.55%) whereas in bivoltine silkworms soluble protein level was brought down on 3rd day (19.30%), 4th day (22.40%) and 5th day (23.40%). Total soluble sugars varied from third day till fifth day in both the races. Kavach dusted twice at 1% proved to be very useful in the improvement of various commercial cocoons characters.
Keywords : Beauveria bassiana, Bombyx mori, Commercial characters, Kavach, Silkworm
V. Khan1*, D. B. Zala,1 K. M. Joshi and V.K. Das2
1Directorate of Medical and Health Services, UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Silvassa -396230, INDIA
2Sri Vinoba Bhave Civil Hospital, UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Silvassa -396230, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The injuries caused by dog bites have grown to such epidemic proportions that they are now considered a major public health concern. The epidemiology of dog bites in the UT of Dadra & Nagar Haveli has been evaluated, for the year 2012. This assessment included victims age, sex, biting site and season of the year. During the study, a total of 938 dog bites, were reported from aforesaid place. Of all the dog bites reported, 39.6% victim belonged to age group upto 0-15 year (children) and 60.4% were more than 15 years old (adults). The majority of the incidents 40.8% occurred during the pre monsoon period (1-20 weeks). There was no case of rabies. There is a need to educate the public about the magnitude of dog-bite problems, enforce leash laws and impound stray dogs as an integral part of prevention programs.
Keywords : Dog bite, Hydrophobia, Rabies
Effect of elicitors on physiomorphological and biochemical parameters of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and rapeseed (B. napus)
Meenakshi Thakur* and B.S. Sohal
Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation was aimed to assess the effect of different concentrations of elicitors viz., salicylic acid (SA) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) on physiomorphological and biochemical parameters of Brassica juncea and B. napus cultivars. The field experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Four different treatments of elicitors and a fungicide treatment were given to 10 week old plants up to four consecutive weeks. Content of total soluble protein, free amino acids, total sugars and reducing sugars of leaves of both B. juncea and B. napus were evaluated after each spray. The content of total soluble protein increased, whereas the contents of free amino acids, total sugars and reducing sugars decreased in all the treatments after each spray. Among all the treatments, the combinations of elicitors, i.e., BTH (3 ppm) + SA (33 ppm) and BTH (7 ppm) + SA (17 ppm) exhibited maximum contents of total soluble protein, free amino acids, total sugars and reducing sugars than control in both the cultivars. These treatments were more pronounced in increasing plant height, internodal distance and number of pods per plant in both the cultivars. Our results suggest that the combinations of elicitors act synergistically to promote growth and metabolic activities in B. juncea and B. napus cultivars leading to the induction and regulation of disease resistance.
Keywords : Benzothiadiazole, Brassica, Free amino acids, Salicylic acid, Total soluble protein, Total sugars
Removal of Zn2+ and Pb2+ using new isolates of Bacillus spp. PPS03 and Bacillus subtilis PPS04 from Paper mill effluents using indigenously designed Bench-top Bioreactor
Pushpendra Pal Singh* and A. K. Chopra
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (UK), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Biosorption processes have the potential to decrease environmental hazards through their factors such as initial metal ion concentration, temperature, pH and biomass concentration in the solution. In the present study biosorption process was performed using the strains of Bacillus spp. PPS 03 (KF710041) and Bacillus subtilis PPS 04 (KF710042) isolated from sediment core of Paper mill effluent (PME) for the removal of Zn2+and Pb2+ in an indigenously designed Bench-top Bioreactor. The temperature, initial pH, biomass and incubation period of PME for Zn2+ and Pb2+ reduction was standardized. The strains exhibited significant reduction in Zn2+ and Pb2+ of PME to the extent of 73.29% and 85.64% with PPS 03 and 78.15% and 87.57% respectively with PPS 04 after 120 hrs of aerobic treatment. The reduction in the metals occurred from first day of the treatment, but the maximum reduction in these metals was observed after 120 hrs. at pH (7.0±0.2), temperature (35±1.0°C) and biomass (5% v/ v) of the bacterial strains. The removal of metals with strain PPS 04 was more in comparison to the strain PPS 03. The Freundlich isotherms on the data showed that it was linearly fitted for Zn2+and Pb2+. The values of correlation coefficient (R2) of Freundlich isotherms were greater than 0.812 for Pb2+ and Zn2+. The kinetic study for the rate of removal of Pb2+ and Zn2+ by both species was found to best fit a Pseudo first order reaction. The rate constant was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of parameters. Thus, the microbial strains were found efficient for the biosorption/removal of Pb2+ and Zn2+.
Keywords : Aerobic treatment, Biosorption, Freundlich isotherms, Pb2+ and Zn2+, Pseudo first order, PME
Quantitative variations in ovarian follicles of female Sprague Dawley rats after exposure to low dose gamma radiation
S. Singh¹*, J. Sharma² and P. K. Goyal³
¹Department of Zoology, Nari Shiksha Niketan P.G. College, Lucknow, INDIA
²,³Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In the present experiment, an attempt was made to assess the genetic risk of low dose radiations in mammals. For this purpose female Sprague Dawley rats, 11-12 weeks old, were irradiated with whole body Co 60 gamma rays in three fractionated doses of 0.10 Gy (cumulative dose 0.30 Gy) given at an interval of one month at two different dose-rates (0.00368 Gy/min. and 0.0589 Gy/min.). Ovaries were studied for quantitative evaluation of follicles at 1, 4, 12, 28 and 52 weeks after last fractionated exposure. Quantitation revealed lower number of ovarian follicles in irradiated animals than in controls. The follicular number decreased with the advancement of time after last exposure (i.e. 2 months) and reached a peak level on 28 weeks. After that the recovery was evident but the number remained below 25% of total follicles even at 52 weeks autopsy interval, which indicated an irreversible damage in ovarian tissue. Primary follicles were found to be the most radiosensitive among the various types of follicles. The highest loss in these follicles was noted at 12 weeks after exposure with the high dose-rate, where only 10.61% of them were scored. Dose-rate exhibited an inverse relationship with the number of surviving follicles. At the higher dose-rate (0.0589 Gy / min.), depletion in the total follicular number was significantly higher than at the low dose-rate (0.00368 Gy/min.) used.
Keywords : Dose-rate, Gamma radiation, Late effects, Ovarian follicles, Sprague Dawley rats
Field efficacy of some biorationals against the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Kanika Tehri* and Rachna Gulati
Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (125004), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field trials were conducted to evaluate the acaricidal potential of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana and aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera and Glyccirrhyza glabra against the mobile stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch on cucumber. The treatments responded in a concentration dependent manner. Highest reduction in T. urticae population was achieved with Omite (0.05%) followed by Nimbecidine (5ml/l), B. bassiana (1010 spores ml-1), W. somnifera (7.5%), B. bassiana (108 spores ml-1), G.Glabra (7.5%), G. Glabra (5%), G. Glabra (2.5%), W. somnifera (5%) and W. somnifera (2.5%). Higher yield was recorded in all the treatments as compared to control. In terms of percent increase in yield, Omite caused highest increase (23.65% over control) followed by Nimbecidine, B. bassiana (1010 spores/ ml), W. somnifera (7.5%), B. bassiana (108 spores/ ml), G. Glabra (7.5%), W. somnifera (5%), G. Glabra (5%), G. Glabra (2.5%), and W. somnifera (2.5%) showing 13.97, 11.82, 10.75, 8.67, 8.67, 8.6, 6.76, 6.48 and 6.45 percent increase over control, respectively. These data suggest that the tested biorationals at higher concentrations have the potential to be employed in pest management programs designed for T. urticae control.
Keywords : Beauveria bassiana, Cucumber, Glyccirrhyza glabra, Tetranychus urticae, Withania somnifera
Efficacy of animal origin products and ajwain powder against honey bee diseases in Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) colonies in Uttarakhand-A novel eco-friendly approach
Ruchira Tiwari*, Meena Dhami, Vaibhav Mathur and Brijesh Bisht
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar, Distt. Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The studies to manage the honey bee bacterial European foul brood ( EFB) disease caused by Melisococcus plutonius and ectoparasitic brood mite disease caused by Varroa destructor in the colonies of Apis mellifera (L.) at different locations of Uttarakhand were conducted during 2012- 2013 by applying eco-friendly formulations i.e. spraying of cow urine (desi cow breed), plant decoctions prepared in cow urine, cow dung cake and cow dung ash powders , ajwain seed powder and compared to an antibiotic, terramycin sugar syrup and synthetic chemicals, sulphur and thymol powder with two applications in a month. The data revealed that the cow urine sprays @ 50, 75 and 100% reduced the disease infection to below detectable limit in 10 to 14 days, respectively, as terramycin treated infected colonies where only 50-55% recovery was seen in EFB infection with highest sealed worker brood areas ( SWBA) in cow urine treated honeybee colonies in comparison to terramycin and untreated colonies. Similarly, on the other hand, cow urine (100%) significantly reduced brood mite infestation (72.10%) with highest mean mite fall (48.73) and highest (SWBA) (854.00 cm2) followed by ajwain powder with reduction in brood mi te infestation(65.84%) with mite fall (46.39) and SWBA (749.00 cm2), cow dung powder with reduction in brood mite infestation (71.35%) ,mite fall ( 42.87), SWBA (682.33 cm2), , followed by cow dung ash powder, cow urine @ 25%, in comparison to plant decoctions prepared in cow urine, synthetic chemicals i.e. thymol and sulphur powder after 4 weeks of treatments. Thus, the animal origin products and ajwain powder can serve as a potential eco- friendly measure for management of honeybee diseases in A. mellifera colonies at different locations of Uttarakhand as they significantly increased sealed worker brood area without affecting the activities of workers, queen bee and bee brood in comparison to chemicals and plant decoctions.
Keywords : Common anions, Ground water, Industrial effluents, Ion chromatography and Surface water
Ranjan P. Kuvad, Kiran S. Chudasama, Vibhuti M. Jhala and Vrinda S. Thaker*
Centre for Advanced Studies in Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Terminalia arjuna is one of the many such plant that used in indigenous system of medicine for curing different diseases. For effective formulation of herbal drug selection of proper age of the plant is imperative. In the present study, the T. arjuna plant (leaves) was collected from the Botanical garden of Saurashtra University. The leaves were grouped into various size and growth analysis was performed. Each extract homogenized in methanol and was used for chlorophyll estimation and antioxidant activities. Radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract of different stages leaves were determined using a stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), using Micro plate assay. Further the phenolic compounds were separated by Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (RP-HPLC). At the leaf stage when maximum antioxidant activity was observed, phenol like Gallic acid showed distinct peak. The role of phenolic compounds in antioxidant activities is discussed.
Keywords : Antioxidant activity, Chlorophyll content, Growth, Terminalia arjuna
Sucheta Singh1*, Sudha Jukaria2 and A.K. Sharma3
1Farm Science Center, Dhanauri, Haridwar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Farm Science Center, Jeolikote, Nainital (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Dairying at the household level is largely the domain of women. They are contributing for more than 90% of household activities. In livestock management activities, males are contributing only about 10% in form of fodder arrangement, livestock management such as, vaccinations, artificial insemination and selling milk. Considering women’ participation in dairy production system, their different needs and widening gaps the need was felt to have a study on this aspect. The paper describes rationale and importance of the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach. The methodology involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and categorization, planning for PRA, diffusion of results. In this paper, the planning and implantation of integrated interventions have been made to assess women empowerment in dairy production system and improve dairy productivity. The Neeli ravi breed of buffalo was giving higher yield of milk (average 8 liters per day) over the indigenous breed (average 6-7 liters per day). Among the cow the cross bred was giving an average milk yield of 10 lt/day which was more than the 5-6 lt/day given by the indigenous breed. The occurrence of diseases was mainly June to September and the management practices were carried before their onset in May-June only. But, it should be carried out throughout the year for various diseases. The matrix ranking of technology adoptions for buffalo breeds were found to be 34 points against the 26 points for the indigenous breeds.
Keywords : Dairy production system, Gender empowerment, Participatory approach, Sustainable farming
Germination response of Treculia africana (Dacne) seeds in relation to moisture content, storage method and its duration
E. G. Oboho* and E. L. Ngalum
Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Benin, Benin-city, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Edible seeds of forest tree crop may be unavailable in sufficient quantity for tree planting projects and so there is need for storage. The germination response of Treculia africana seeds to storage method, duration and moisture content was investigated. Three storage methods were used namely; open basket, jute bag and air-right bottle. Moisture content over time under the storage regimes was investigated for five weeks while the storage aspect was monitored for 20 weeks. The experimental layout was completely Randomized design with three treatments and three replications. Data was analysed using one way ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Fresh seeds had 100% germination. After first week of storage, this valued decreased to 73.3% and 83.3%, and drastically reduced to 3.3% and 13.3% for seeds stored in the open basket and jute bag respectively. The air-tight bottle maintained values of between 93.3-100% throughout the investigation period. There was statistical difference between storage method and duration. The moisture content of freshly extracted seeds was 36.95% and air-tight bottle maintained steady values were between 35.95 – 35.98%; the values for the open basket and jute bag dropped to 18.97 and 20.13% respectively within five weeks and the critical moisture content of < 24.16% was attained in three weeks after which there was no further germination. It is recommended that fresh seeds of T. africana be sown and where long term storage is needed, the air-tight bottle should be used, but resource poor farmers may employ the jute bag to store the seeds for only two weeks if seeds are meant for sowing. Further research is needed in getting appropriate storage devices for large scale storage of seeds for this important crop.
Keywords : Germination, Moisture content, Seed, Storage and duration, Treculia africana
Effect of bioagent application time against bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Uyeda and Ishiyama) Dowson
Gokil Prasad Gangwar* and A. P. Sinha
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263 145, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Present investigation was carried out to test the effect of time of application on efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens formulations against bacterial leaf blight of rice, under field condition. Foliar sprays with bioagent(s) in three time sequences i.e. 7 days before, simultaneously and 7 days after inoculation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae inoculation significantly reduced disease severity over check during Kharif 2006 and 2007. Maximum reduction in bacterial leaf blight disease was obtained with the application of T. harzianum on 7 days before inoculation of pathogen during Kharif 2006 and 2007 and maximum increase in grain yield was obtained with the application of PBA-2 seven days before inoculation of pathogen. It was revealed that prophylactic spray of bioagents one week prior to pathogen inoculation was significantly (106 cfu/g) effective in reducing disease severity of bacterial leaf blight of rice as compared to chemical treatment.
Keywords : Bacterial leaf blight of rice, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Time of application, Trichoderma harzianum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
A study on biochemical composition of the sting gland (poison gland) and the reservoir (poison sac) of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea F. workers
Neelima R. Kumar and Anita Devi*
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The glands associated with the sting apparatus of worker honey bee Apis florea produce Venom which is known to be composed of a wide spectrum of biomolecules ranging from biogenic amines to peptides and proteins. The Venom apparatus showed the presence of two important associated exocrine glands i.e. Venom gland and Dufors gland. The secretions of both glands are apocrine and are released into the lumen to be stored in the venom sac. The presence of some exocrine cells in the distal part of venom sac which is otherwise known to only store the component of Venom gland led to the present study. The present study that there were considerable differences in the biochemical composition of Venom gland and Venom sac secretions of Apis species The concentration of lipids (Sting gland =1.423±0.0001 and Reservoir = 1.21±0.0067), proteins (Sting gland=0.440±0.0226, Reservoir = 0.390± 0.032), activity of acid phosphatase (Sting gland=112.09±21.100, Reservoir=22.63±1.467) and hexokinase (Sting gland=20.7±4.016, Reservoir=10.66±2.465) was found to be more in case of Venom gland while cholesterol(Sting gland=0.138±0.0161 reservoir=0.324±0.00323), glucose (Sting gland=189±1.31, Reservoir=321±7.19), free amino acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase (Sting gland=21.03±0.195 Reservoir=22.4±0.685) was more in Venom sac. Glycogen was absent in both Venom gland and Venom sac of Apis species as confirmed by the absence of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. It is established from the present study that Venom sac also secretes various biochemicals and enzymes which are added to the total Venom.
Keywords : Apis florea, Dufors gland, Honeybee, Venom, Venom gland
Effect of three decade long application of chemical fertilizer and amendments on crop yield under maize - wheat cropping system in an acid alfisol
R. P. Sharma, Vandana Kaushal, Gayatri Verma* and S. P. Sharma
*Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Gurdaspur (Punjab), INDIA
Department of Soil Science, CSK HPKV, Palampur (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The results on the effect of three decade long term application of chemical fertilizers and amendments on the yield of continuous maize-wheat crop rotation in an acid alfisol at Palampur revealed that continuous omission of essential nutrients in a maize-wheat sequence resulted in an appreciable decline in the grain yield of maize and wheat crops. A remarkable reduction in crop yield was noticed in plots where nitrogen was applied alone. Use of recommended level of N alone through urea had deleterious effect on crop productivity. The continuous exhaustion of native pools of K in 100% NP treated plots appreciably reduced percent grain yield. Application of farmyard manure (FYM) and lime along with NPK fertilizers increased the crop yield. The integrated use of optimal dose of NPK and FYM give better and more sustainable yields.
Keywords : Farmyard manure, Long-term fertilization, Maize, Wheat and Yield
Mass exchange evaluation during optimization of osmotic dehydration for Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sajor-caju) in salt-sugar solution
H. G. Ramya*, Satish Kumar and Mahesh Kumar
Department of Processing and Food Engineering, COAE&T, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The objective of this study was to investigate the osmotic dehydration of Oyster mushrooms in salt-sugar solution at different solution concentrations, immersion times, temperatures and solution to fruit ratio to analyze the water loss, solute gain and weight reduction. Salt-sugar uptake and water transfer were quantitatively investigated during osmotic dehydration of Oyster mushrooms using response surface methodology. Experiments were conducted in a thermostatically controlled agitating incubator. With respect to water loss, solute gain and weight reduction both linear and quadratic effects of four process variables were found to be significant. For each response, second order polynomial models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis. ANOVA was performed to check the adequacy and accuracy of the fitted models. The response surfaces and contour maps showing the interaction of process variables were constructed. Applying desirability function method, the optimum operating conditions were found to be: solution temperature – 42.3°C, immersion time – 44.21 min, salt-sugar concentration – 15 %: 52.57° B and solution to fruit ratio 4.99:1. At these optimum values, water loss, solute gain and weight reduction was 41, 2.15 and 38.6 (g/100 g initial mass) respectively.
Keywords : Mushrooms, Optimization, Osmotic dehydration, Response surface methodology, Salt-sugar solution
Assessment of toxic potential of three different heavy metals to Clarias batrachus (Linn.) utilizing static acute bioassay
S.S. Gandhewar1*, S.B. Zade2 and S.R. Sitre3
1J.B. College of Science, Wardha (M.S.), INDIA
2P.G. Department of Zoology, R.T.M. Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur- 440033 (MS), INDIA
3N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati, District Chandrapur-442902 (M.S.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Acute toxicity bioassay of three different heavy metals copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) for the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus were conducted for evaluation of the toxicity. The 96h LC50 values recorded for Cu, Pb and Cd were 15 ppm, 29 ppm and 35 ppm respectively. The results of this study indicate that the order of toxicity of these heavy metals is Cu>Pb>Cd in short duration acute toxicity experiments. The toxicity was found to be dependent on dose and duration of experiment for all these heavy metals. Cu was found to be much more toxic than Pb and Cd to C. batrachus.
Keywords : Acute toxicity, Cadmium, Copper, LC50, Lead
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Bhim Singh* and C.K. Arya
College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar -326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was undertaken to investigate the kinetics of transformation process of applied and native Zn as influenced by soil moisture regime, available moisture and organic matter additions in Aridisols of western Rajasthan. The incubation experiment was conducted with exact amount of the soil samples (250 g), put in a number of small containers, made of corning glass. Three levels of moisture regimes i.e. field capacity (W0), continuous submergence (W1), alternate submergence and saturation (W2) and two levels of organic matter as starch at 0 per cent (M1) and 0.5 per cent (M2) of the soil weight; and two levels of zinc i.e. native (N) and applied (A) (Zn @ 5 mg kg-1 soil as ZnSO4.7 H2O). The soils then incubated for 30, 60 and 90 days. Destructive sampling was done after each incubation period, and then different fractions of Zn were sequentially extracted by different extracting solutions and determined with the help of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the transformation of Zn is largely controlled by organic matter, moisture regimes and Zn application due to considerable changes in the chemical and electrochemical properties of soil and thereby influence the transformation of zinc. Organic matter application significantly increased Zn fractions due to the retention of Zn on exchange complex owing to producing organic acid by decomposition of organic matter in soil. Further, the results showed that if such condition was maintained in the field, and it increased the availability of Zn for different crops in Aridisols.
Keywords : Amorphous sesquioxide bound, Aridisols, Calciorthids exchangeable, Crystalline sesquioxide bound Zn, Organic complexed
Some lesser known fiber yielding weeds used by Gujjar and Bekarwal tribes of District Rajouri, Jammu and Kashmir
Amandeep Singh*, L.R. Dangwal and Tajinder Singh
Herbarium and Plant Systematic Lab., H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, S.R.T. Campus, Badshahithaul, Tehri - Garhwal-249199 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present communication pertains to some lesser known fiber yielding weeds used by Gujjar and Bekarwal tribe of district Rajouri (J&K). The study was based on extensive and intensive field surveys conducted in 6 blocks of district Rajouri i.e. Budhal, Rajouri, Thanamandi, Manjakote, Nowshera and Sunderbani. Three sites were selected in each block which was densely inhabited by Gujjar and Bekarwal tribe to document traditional knowledge on fiber yielding weeds. The botanical names of the reported weed species with family, local names and part used have been documented in the present work. During the study period a total of 17 fiber yielding weeds belonging to 2 monocot and 8 Dicot families were reported. Out of total 10 angiospermic families of fiber yielding weeds, the predominance was shown by family Malvaceae having 6 weed species followed by family Tiliaceae and Urticaceae each representing 2 fiber yielding weeds. The study would not only help in documenting the traditional knowledge, it would also help in removal and management of weed species and in promoting growth of major crops.
Keywords : Blocks, Families, Fiber, Weeds
*Gajanan Sontakke and Satish Mokashe**
*Padambhushan Dr. Vasanraodada Patil Mahavidyalaya, Tasgaon, Sangli (Maharashtra), INDIA
**Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Zooplanktons by their heterotrophic activity play a key role in the cycling of organic materials in aquatic ecosystems and are used as bioindicators of environmental quality. The present study was carried out from February 2009 to January 2010 which deals with diversity and abundance of zooplankton in Dekhu reservoir from Aurangabad district. A total 25 species of zooplankton were recorded in which rotifers were more abundant with 11 species followed by copepods and cladocerans 6 species each and 2 species of Ostracods. Results indicated that Dekhu reservoir is more productive.
Keywords : Dekhu reservoir, Diversity, Zooplankton
1M. Jansi Rani, 2*M. Murugan,3P. Subramaniam and 4E. Subramanian
1Department of Chemistry, Govindammal Aditanar College for Women, Tiruchendur-628215, Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
2Department of Chemistry, Sri K.G.S. Arts College, Srivaikuntam-628619, Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
3Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur-628216, Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
4Department of Chemistry, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli-627012 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The sorption of diesel, lubricant and castor oils onto different parts (root, stem and leaf) of the dry biomass water hyacinth was studied at the laboratory scale. The parts of the aquapyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) were characterized by physico-chemical methods and the characteristics were used to elucidate the oil sorption process. Hydrophobicity, wettability (capillarity), buoyancy and sorption capacity of oils in the presence/ absence of water were studied to evaluate the suitability of the sorbent for application. In all the three sorbents, the oil sorption capacity increases with the increase of oil film thickness. However of the three parts, the stem has a greater sorption capacity of 9.3, 7.8 and 11.08 g/g for the three oils such as diesel, lubricant and castor oils respectively, even though the root of water hyacinth showed a higher hydrophobicity and surface area. These sorption capacities are comparable with widely used commercial oil sorbent such as nonwoven polypropylene which has a sorption capacity in the range of 10-16 g/g.
Keywords : Buoyancy, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrophobicity, Oil spillage, Sorption, Wettability
Priyanka Bhatt*, Nitin Thodsare and R. P. Srivastava
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Comparative toxicity of Andrographis paniculata (leaves), Anethum graveolens (leaves), Azadirachta indica (fruits), Cassia fistula (seeds), Cuscuta reflexa (stem), Dendropthoe falcata (leaves), Lantana camara (leaves and fruits), Melia azedarach (leaves) and Vitex negundo ( stem) plant extracts against 2nd days (first instar) and 6th days(third instar) old larvae of Spodoptera litura was studied at 5 and 10mg/ml concentration. D. falcata leaves (98.58%) and A. indica fruits= C. reflexa (85.72%) were most effective in reducing weight gain in 2nd days old larvae at 5mg/ml and at 10mg/ml, C. reflexa (98.58) followed by C. fistula seeds and L.camara fruits(both 92.86%) were effective in retarding growth. L.camara fruit extract (99.43 and 99.93%) showed greater toxicity and reduced growth as compared to A. graveolens leaves (76.16% ) at 5mg/ml. At 10mg/ml L.camara (99.94%) and A. paniculata (89.54%) leaves exhibited reduction in weight gain over control against 6d old larvae. All the medicinal plants showed varying degree of toxicity. D.falcata, A.indica and L.camara exhibited high larval mortality as compared to the other plant extracts.
Keywords : Botanicals, Medicinal plants, Mortality, Spodoptera litura, Toxicity
Effect of DEM data resolution on low relief region sub-watershed boundaries delineating using of SWAT model and DEM derived from CARTOSAT-1 (IRS-P5), SRTM and ASTER
Kishan Singh Rawat1*, Gopal Krishna2, Amresh Mishra2, Jitendra Singh2 and Shashi Vind Mishra3
1Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
2Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
3Division of Environment, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Watersheds are natural integrators of hydrological, biological, and geological processes and as such require an integrated approach to data analysis and modeling, which usually starts delineating accurately a polygon vector layer of watershed boundaries as input. In that way, Garrah sub-watershed in Shahjahanpur district of U.P., India, had been isolated with the objective of evaluate the accuracy of sub-watershed boundaries derived from three different sources: One was delineated by 2.6 m resolution CARTOSAT-1 DEM (IRS-P5) and other two were derived from a 30 m ASTER DEM and a 90 m SRTM DEM, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In this analysis we found that the accuracy of CARTOSAT-1 DEM is so best for accurate delineation of a sub -watershed in the management of the watershed, and the coarse spatial resolution SRTM DEM (90 m) performed much better and significantly than the high spatial resolution ASTER DEM (30 m) it’s cause of the errors in the ASTER DEM, map algebra was used to define where the “Fill” tool had filled the sinks finding that the errors in the stream network occurred where some especially large fills had occurred. Not only the visual interpretation of the produces figures indicate the SRTM DEM delineated sub-watershed as relatively more accurate from ASTER DEM delineated sub-watershed boundaries, also statistics for the SRTM DEM elevation turned in significantly higher than that of the ASTER DEM. Overall SRTM DEMs offer more precise elevations while, ASTER DEMs offer more details. Therefore, the accuracy of the sub-watershed delineation depends on the first place on the accuracy of the DEM.
Keywords : ASTER, CARTOSAT-1, DEM, GIS, SRTM and SWAT
Optimization of osmotic dehydration process for Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sajor-caju) in sodium chloride solution using RSM
H. G. Ramya1*, Satish Kumar1 and Shammi Kapoor2
1Department of Processing and Food Engineering, COAE &T, PAU, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA
2Department of Microbiology, COBS & H, PAU, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Sodium chloride (NaCl) and water transfer were quantitatively investigated during osmotic dehydration of Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sajor-caju) using response surface methodology with the NaCl concentration (10– 20%, w/v), solution temperature (30–60° C) immersion time (15–240 min) and solution to fruit ratio (4:1 to 8:1) were taken as independent process variables. Experiments were conducted in a thermostatically controlled agitating incubator. For each response, second order polynomial models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to check the adequacy and accuracy of the fitted models. The response surfaces and contour maps showing the interaction of process variables were constructed. Applying desirability function method, the optimum operating conditions were found to be: solution temperature – 45o C, immersion time – 53.54 min, salt concentration – 14.09% and solution to fruit ratio 6.08:1. Corresponding to these optimum values water loss, solute gain and weight reduction were 38.13, 2.1 and 36.02 (g/100 g initial mass) respectively.
Keywords : Optimization, Osmotic dehydration, Oyster mushrooms, Response surface methodology
Archana Rani*, M. Kumar and Sanjeev Kumar1
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, (FBS & H), Rajendra Agricultural University Pusa-848125 (Bihar), INDIA
1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Jabalpur- 482004 (M.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In vitro rapid micropropagation of Withania somnifera; has been achieved using shoot apex explants, when cultured on MS medium with different auxins: Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) 0.5-4 mg/l, Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) 2 mg/l and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) 0.5-3 mg/l and cytokinin: Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) 0.5-4 mg/l. NAA and BAP stimulated direct as well as callus mediated multiple shoot. IBA alone and in combination with IAA stimulated rhizogenesis, while IBA with NAA proliferated callus-mediated rhizogenesis. The rooted plantlets through sequential hardening process could be established in the field.
Keywords : Micropropagation, Shoot apex explant, Rhizogneesis, Withania somnifera
Exploration of wild edible plants used by Gujjar and Bakerwal tribes of District Rajouri (J&K), India
L. R. Dangwal, Tajinder Singh* and Amandeep Singh
Herbarium and Plant Systematic Lab., H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, S.R.T. Campus, Badshahithaul, Tehri-Garhwal-249199 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The analysis of wild plant exploration was carried out to document the wild edible plants of district Rajouri (J&K), India. The present investigation of wild edible plants were based on extensive and intensive field survey during 2009- 2011. A total of 58 wild edible plant species belonging to 50 genera and 39 families have been reported from the area. Rosaceae was the dominant family that represented 7 taxa, while Brassiceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae and Poaceae represented with 3 taxa each and other 33 families have less representation. Tree make up was the highest proportion of the edible species 28 (41%) followed by 26 were herbs (38%) and 14 were shrubs (21%). Based on the requirements/edibility, majority of the plant species (26 species) are commonly used as fruits, 14 serve as vegetables, 1 species as flavoring agents (spices), roots, tubers of 3 species are eaten as raw and seeds/grains from 8 species for various substitute of food, whereas 2 species are used in making special drinks.
Keywords : District Rajouri, Gujjar and Bakarwal tribe, Wild edible plants
Damage potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch to cucumber fruit and foliage: Effect of initial infestation density
Kanika Tehri*, Rachna Gulati and Monika Geroh
Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125 004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field trials were conducted to assess the damage potential of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linnaeus). Young cucumber plants were artificially infested with different densities of T. urticae (5, 10, 15 and 20 mites/ grown up leaf) while uninfested plants acted as control. Post infestation, the plants differed in their support to mite density in accordance with initial infestation density and observation period. Grown up leaves were found to be the most susceptible to mite infestation (5.86 mites/ sq. cm leaf). The number of feeding (chlorotic) patches on cucumber leaves significantly increased from 1.38/sq cm at a pre -count of 5 mites per grown up leaf to 1.71/sq cm leaf at a pre-count of 20 mites as compared to no patch recorded in control. Highly significant negative correlation was recorded between mite population and photosynthetic pigments. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids decreased to a maximum of 40, 43.63, 45.45 and 47.27 percent at the highest infestation density as compared to control. Results revealed differences among various treatments in terms of yield attributes of cucumber. The percent reductions from 6.15 to 12.42 in number of fruits, 0.59 to 1.56 in fruit length and 0.93 to 3.28 in fruit width at different inoculums of T. urticae were recorded over uninfested plants. The cumulative effect led to the ultimate reduction in average fruit weight in the range of 10.16 to 17.19 per cent in the infested plants.
Keywords : Cucumis sativus, Chlorotic patches, Damage potential, Fruit parameters, Tetranychus urticae
Occurrence of the genus Amblyceps Blyth (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from the Indo-Bhutan streams of the Brahmaputra drainage of Assam, India
Sewali Pathak1*, Mrigendra M. Goswami2 and Nripendra Nath Sarma3
1Department of Zoology, Bijni College, Bijni, Chirang-783390 (Assam), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014 (Assam), INDIA 3Department of Zoology, Bajali College, Pathsala, Pin-781346, Barpeta (Assam), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Three species of the genus Amblyceps, namely, A. apangi, A. arunachalensis, A. mangois are described from Kanamakra and Langkhar (26°45′0″ ̶ 26°48′0″N and 90°35′0″ ̶ 90°40′0″E) hill streams of Chirang district of Assam. The torrent catfishes are distinguished within the genera on the basis of their general appearance of the body and the caudal fin structure, adipose fin, eye diameter, inter-orbital space, fold on lip and number of vertebrae. The caudal peduncle height for A. apangi (12.36 ̶ 12.73%SL), A.mangois (14.25 ̶ 15.36% SL) and A. arunachalensis (10.01 ̶ 11.42% SL), caudal peduncle length for A. apangi (20.29 ̶ 20.87% SL), A. arunachalensis (22.00 ̶ 22.11% SL) and A. mangois (19.09 ̶ 19.31% SL) and other taxonomic details of the congeners with their distributional status are discussed.
Keywords : Brahmaputra drainage, Catfish diversity, Foot hill streams, Siluriformes
Soil degradation due to heavy metal accumulation under long term fertilization of paddy (Oryza sativa L.)
E. Parameswari1*, V. Davamani2, S. Arulmani1 and A. Rathinasami2
1Tamilnadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai, INDIA
2Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Long term fertility experiment (LTFE) under double rice cropping system was investigated in Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai, India with two varieties (ADT 43 and ADT 45) in two seasons (Kharif and Rabi) under six fertilizer treatments to study the heavy metal accumulation in soil and its impact on paddy. There was a significant variation in physico-chemical properties of soil due to different fertilizer treatments. The surface soil (0-15cm soil depth) in all the treatments showed relatively higher heavy metal accumulation than subsurface. In the long run, there was a build up in the total heavy metal content in soil and it was found to be relatively high in phosphatic fertilizer applied treatments than others. Total Cd and Pb was found high, but the availability was below detectable limit indicated that Cd and Pb were found in unavailable forms, while Cu and Zn were slightly in mobile forms which had been translocated into grain and straw of paddy. The DTPA (Diphenyl Triamine Penta Aceticacid) extractable Cd and Pb in the soil was low, but there was heavy increase in Cu and Zn comparing with initial period. The rate of increase in Cd and Pb content was lower in N alone and control plots. This might be due to the long term application of phosphotic and zinc sulphate fertilizers. Cd and Pb were evenly distributed at low concentrations in grain and straw under various treatments. In case of Cu and Zn, it was relatively higher in grains and paddy straw among various fertilizer treatments. There was no significant difference among the varietal (seasons) treatments for the accumulation of heavy metals in grain and straw.
Keywords : Fertilizer, Grain, Heavy metal, Paddy, Straw
L.K. Behera*, M. R. Nayak, D. Nayak and D.B. Jadeja
ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari- 396 450 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigation was conducted for mass multiplication of Jatropha curcas L. through axillary bud culture. For this nodal segment from 3-5 months old nursery grown plants were used as explants for axillary bud culture. The sterilization treatment involving dipping explants in 0.1 per cent HgCl2 solution for 5 minutes resulted in minimum contamination and maximum establishment of nodal explants. The treatment MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP and 1.0 mg/L IAA was the best for culture establishment, shoot proliferation and multiplication of the axillary buds which exhibited highest value in each parameter like establishment (76.1%), number of days taken for shoot initiation (3.1 days), length of longest shoot (6.8 cm), number of leaves on main shoot (7.1) and number of shoots per explant (6.3). Among different treatments for root initiation, half MS media fortified with 1 mg/L IBA, 3 mg/ L NAA and 0.25 g AC gave best result in maximum number of rooting percentage (60) with minimum time taken for root initiation (13.3 days), produced maximum number of roots per shoots (5.1) and length of longest root (4.9 cm) when established shoots were treated with it. Such produced plantlets showed nearly cent per cent survival after hardening and acclimatization. It showed that explants surface sterilized with 0.1 per cent HgCl2 solution for 5 minutes inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP and 1.0 mg/L IAA and half MS media fortified with 1 mg/L IBA, 3 mg/L NAA and 0.25 g AC were best in shoot establishment and root development respectively for mass multiplication of J. curcas L. through axillary bud culture.
Keywords : Axillary bud culture, In vitro, Jatropha curcas, Mass multiplication, Plantlets
A study on communication behaviour of agricultural input users of Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand, India
Sandeep Rastogi* and Shamsul Hasan
Department of Agricultural Communication, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:email@example.com
Abstract : This research aims to study the communication behaviour of the agricultural input users or farmers in order to find the deficiencies in this field with expectation to highlight the sources of information preferred and extent of extension agency contacts in the areas. Based on this, a strategy can be worked out to disseminate effective agricultural information to the farmers. The communication behavior in this study includes four variables i.e. mass media exposure, extension contacts, source of information and information satisfaction, covering both overt and covert behavioural components. This study was conducted at Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand state, where two villages namely; Chhinki and Deoria were selected randomly and from these villages, the data were collected with the help of semi structured interview schedule from randomly selected 160 respondents. The findings revealed that the most preferred (61.25%) personal localite communication sources for seeking information regarding agricultural practices were their neighbours or family members followed by local agricultural inputs sellers (13.75%). From personal cosmopolite sources, 51.87 % respondents were preferred to the representatives of the private companies followed by the agricultural university staffs (40%). The majority of respondents (83.75 %) were not associated with any membership in their social system followed by membership (16.25%). It has been reported that even after the sixty six years of independence farmers are still traditionalists, hardliners, shy and ignorant about the agricultural and overall development of the country.
Keywords : Agriculture input, Communication behaviour, Respondents Attitude, Udham Singh Nagar
Normalizing of estrous cycle in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) induced rats with Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers.
Akanksha P. Thakor* and Anuradha J. Patel1
Department of Biotechnology, N. B. Mehta Science College, Bordi-401701, INDIA
1Department of Zoology, Bhavans College, Andheri, Mumbai, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : This study evaluates the potentiality of an herbal plant Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. in the treatment of Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using female Albino wistar rats. Seed powder of T. purpurea at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight with milk as a carrier vehicle 3ml/kg body weight, given for at least 3 consecutive estrous cycles. Vaginal smear, FSH, LH, Testosterone, and Estrogen were analyzed to determine the fluctuations in sex steroid level in PCOS induced rats. The plasma testosterone and estrogen level were found to be significantly increased in rats with PCOS whereas Follicle stimulating hormone and Leutinizing hormone did not show any changes. When compared with control the PCOS induced rats showed characteristic ovary with high incidence of ovarian cyst. All the parameters assessed were significantly improved after the treatment with T. purpurea and achieved level close to 80% normalcy. Effect of T. purpurea significantly reduced histopathological changes in ovary and endocrinological and biochemical changes induced by hyperandrogenism. Further to check ovulation and fertility female rats were mated and pregnancy was confirmed. Thus potential of T. purpurea in the treatment of PCOS using an animal model suggested being a good alternative therapy in the treatment of PCOS.
Keywords : Carboxymethyl cellulose, Estrogen, Estrous cycle, Letrozole, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Testosterone, Tephrosia purpurea
Built in refuge for the management of Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders (Gelichidae: Lepidoptera) in Bt cotton
L. Rajesh Chowdary1*, M. Bheemanna2, A.C. Hosamani2, A. Prabhuraj2, M. K. Naik3 and J. M. Nidagundi4
1Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA
2Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA
3Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA
4Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field experiment was conducted at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur during 2012-13 to identify and evaluate the suitable refuge strategy systems for pink bollworm resistance management in Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivation. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with nine refuge systems : 0 % N-Bt (BIR), 5 % N-Bt (BIR), 10 % N-Bt (BIR), 15 % N-Bt (BIR), 20% N-Bt perimeter refuge, 100% Non Bt, 50% Non Bt, 10% structured refuge and 20% structured refuge as treatments with three replications in replacement series. Significantly lowest incidence (3.55 larvae/plant) and number of bolls with exit holes (11.22) due to pink bollworm was recorded in 0% BIR (41.25 q/ha) followed by 5 % N -Bt (BIR) with yield of 38.74 q/ha and this was on par with 10 % N-Bt (BIR) with yield of 37.79 is next best refuge systems with Bt cotton for higher production and greater economic benefits.
Keywords : BIR (Built in refuge), Cotton, Larval incidence, Pink bollworm, Structure refuge
Optimization of machine parameters of Parvatiya Sugam motorized thresher using response surface methodology
Divya Singh and Deepa Vinay*
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (UK), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A Parvatiya Sugam Thresher was designed and developed at College of Home Science GBPUA & T, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. It is a low cost motorized machine for threshing paddy crops especially for hill region, it is user friendly and more efficient in its working. The machine performance was evaluated for optimal design parameters viz, height 755 mm, time 5.1 minutes and crop load 1.5 kg. Comparative performance tests between the newly developed (Parvatiya sugam thresher) and existing thresher were conducted to the optimization. Test result indicates that Parvatiya sugam thresher gives better result compared to existing thresher. It was inferred that ½ hp motor was introduced to have optimum drum speed and threshing performance of paddy thresher.
Keywords : Agriculture, Design and development, Optimization, Thresher
Analysis of rainfall data for storage and irrigation planning in humid south-eastern plain of Rajasthan in India
Bhim Singh1*, C.K. Arya1, Jitendra Singh1 and K.K. Mourya2
1College of Horticulture and forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Department of Agricultural Statistics, NDUAT, Faizabad-224229 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A study was carried out to analyze the rainfall data for storage and irrigation planning under humid south-eastern region of Rajasthan using a time series record for 32-year (1980-2011) periods. It was observed that most of the years under observation were having adequate rainfall for all round the year crop production provided the water were collected during the rainy season. The area received 921.5 mm annual rainfall out of which 92% occurred during southwest monsoon (June-September) season. Of the total study period of 32 years, 19% were drought years, 66% were normal years and the remaining 15% were the abnormal years. The annual rainfall during the period showed negative trend (-6.955 mm/year). It showed decreasing trend (-7.782 mm/year) during the month of August and positive trends with 0.864, 3.909 and 1.192 mm/year, respectively, during month of June, July and September. The analysis generally showed that water deficit appeared during the period of November up till May and rain water was excess during the period of June up till September. During these months, rain water can be stored with the help of rainfall harvesting system. If only 50% of total rain water is collected, it forms approximately 44.16 lacs litres of water on a unit hectare basis of land. This rainfall water will be adequate for all rounds the year crop production with conservation of rain water and judicious use of rain water resources.
Keywords : Abnormal, Drought, Irrigation planning, Normal, Rainfall, Storage
Development and evaluation of the retail cuts, yields and sensory properties of smoked grasscutter (Tryonomys swinderianus)
Peter Akhere Ebabhamiegbebho, John Oamen Igene and Smith Etareri Evivie*
Food Science and Technology Unit, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin city, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study was carried out to develop retail cuts, evaluate the effect of the method of pelage (removal/ scalding) on the yield and organoleptic quality of smoked grasscutter (Tryonomys swinderianus). Sixteen grass cutters were purchased from Abico bush meat market in Benin City, Nigeria. The pelages were removed by water and fire scalding. Some were brined in 15% salt solution for 3 hrs while others were not. The carcasses were cut into seven retail cuts. All samples were smoke-dried for 6 hrs. Sensory evaluation was done by a 12-man panel using a 5-point hedonic scale. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the yield of fresh salted and non-salted grass cutter samples. There was also significant difference (P<0.05) in the smoked yield of salted smoked grasscutter with WSS giving the highest yield of 1.03 kg. The method of pelage removal did not have any significant effect (P>0.05) but there was significant effects in the smoked yields. Sensory evaluation showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the colour, tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptability. Salted samples had the highest scores all organoleptic properties. It was recommended that further studies be carried out to evaluate the effects of salting and smoking on economic and sensory parameters of other sources of bush meat in Nigeria.
Keywords : Development, Grasscutter, Retail cuts, Salting
Diversity of common bean in Jammu and Kashmir, India: a DIVAgeographic information system and cluster analysis
Sheikh Mohammad Sultan1*, Sher Ahmad Dar2, Suheel Ahmad Dand3 and Natarajan Sivaraj4
1NBPGR Regional Station Srinagar, Srinagar-190005 (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA
2KD Farm, SKUAST (K), Old Airfield, Srinagar-190007 (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA
3IGFRI Regional Station Srinagar, Srinagar-190005 (Jammu & Kashmir), INDIA
4NBPGR Regional Station Hyderabad, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad-500030 (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A total of 80 diverse germplasm accessions of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were collected from 31 different locations known for marginal and risk prone farming systems in remote and hilly areas of North-Western Indian Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. The variability was observed in seed color, shape, size and 100- seed weight. Thirteen colors of bean seeds were represented in these 80 accessions with high predominance of red colored seeds. Cuboid, kidney and oval seed shapes observed were represented respectively in 61.25%, 25% and 13.75% of the accessions. There were significant variations in seed length, width and 100-seed weight being highly significant in the later case. All the three seed size classes (small, medium and large according to CIAT categorization) were represented in the collected accessions. 22.5% accessions have 100-seed weight less than 25g, 53.75% accessions have 100-seed weight between 25-40g while 100-seed weight of more than 40g was recorded in 23.75% of the accessions. Highly positive correlations were found between 100-seed weight and seed length and width and between seed length and seed width. The 80 accessions were grouped in three clusters at a coefficient level of 0.3 with largest cluster of 59 accessions followed by a medium cluster with 20 accessions and the least with a single accession. Grid maps generated through DIVA-GIS software indicated that diverse accessions of common bean in terms of seed size and weight can be sourced from the areas falling in Budgam, Shopian and Kulgam districts of the state. Conservation of this remarkable genetic diversity is recommended for future propagation, breeding and the investigation of the genetic relationships.
Keywords : Cluster analysis, Common bean, DIVA-GIS software, Germplasm, Phaseolus vulgaris
Growth promotion of transplanted rice plant by bioagents effective against bacterial leaf blight disease of rice under glasshouse conditions
Gokil Prasad Gangwar* and A. P. Sinha
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263145 (Uttarakhand) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The experiment was conducted to evaluate growth promotion of transplanted rice by fungal and bacterial bioagents effective against bacterial leaf blight of rice, under glasshouse conditions. Bioagent formulations (PBA -1, PBA -2, FLP 88, Pf 83, Isolate 40 and T. harzianum) were applied as seed treatment, seedling root dip and foliar spray and compared with chemical treatment and untreated check. All bioagent formulations were significantly effective in increasing number of tillers per hill, root length, total phenolic content in rice leaves, fresh and dry root weight, fresh and dry shoot weight, flag leaf area, grain yield and 1000 grain weight over check. Present study revealed that potential fungal and bacterial bioagents effective against bacterial leaf blight disease of rice, exhibited plant growth promoting activities and resulted 22.38 to 32.08 % increase in grain yield over untreated check, even if there is no disease.
Keywords : Foliar application, Growth promotion, Pseudomonas spp., Rice, Seedling root dip, Trichoderma harzianum
Demand analysis for chicken meat, beef and fish among urban households in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria
C.O. Emokaro* and O. Dibiah
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Edo State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Recent increases in population growth has created an additional demand for meat in developing countries. Nigeria has the largest population in sub-Saharan Africa, with about 47% of the population residing in the urban areas where the population growth rate is estimated at three times that in rural areas. This suggests a shift in increased food demand from the rural to the urban areas and explains the need to know the demand for meat (which is an important source of nutrient) from different animal sources. This study focused on demand analysis for chicken meat, beef and fish among urban households in Edo and Delta States. The complete demand functions of the various meat types were estimated. The primary data used in this analysis were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of urban chicken meat, beef and fish consuming households in Edo and Delta States. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents for this study. The Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System was used in analyzing the demand functions of chicken meat, beef and fish. Findings showed that the demand for chicken meat, beef and fish in the study area was so much a matter of own-price, cross-prices and income. The results of the LA/AIDS showed that for the entire sample, chicken had an expenditure coefficient of -0.0007 (p ˂ 0.01). With respect to Edo State, chicken had a budget share of -0.2253, cross price effect of 0.1938 with beef and expenditure coefficient of -0.0006 (p ˂ 0.01, p ˂ 0.05 and p ˂ 0.01 respectively). With regards to Delta State, chicken had a budget share of 0.1939. Chicken had a cross price effect of -0.2790 with beef (p ˂ 0.10), while beef had a budget share of 0.5694, cross price effect of -0.2790 with chicken and expenditure coefficient of 0.1170 (p ˂ 0.01, p ˂ 0.10 and p ˂ 0.05 respectively). It is recommended that production of chicken meat and the other selected meat types should be increased to meet the present demand. Prices of these commodities should be regulated to avoid the erratic price fluctuations and efforts should be geared towards improving the income earning capacity of households so as to enable them demand for these commodities effectively.
Keywords : Cross-prices, Demand analysis, Households, Own price, Urban
Seasonal activity pattern of Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) in Dudhwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh, India
Kaleem Ahmed* and Jamal A. Khan
Conservation Ecology Research Group, Conservation Monitoring Centre, Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh- 202002 (U.P.) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The data on activity pattern and time budget of Swamp deer (Rucervus duvauceli duvauceli) were collected through instantaneous scan sampling from Dudhwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh, India Diurnal activity pattern of Swamp deer showed marked reduction in resting in winter as compared to summer. In winter resting in adult males showed polymodal pattern with peaks occurring at different hours of the day and continued throughout the day without any break. Feeding of adult females in winter and summer seasons showed a polymodal pattern with peaks occurring at different hours of the day without break. In yearling males feeding and resting was observed to occur throughout the day during winter season with peaks occurring between 11:00 to 12:00 hours. Yearling females showed continuous feeding throughout the day with peaks in different times in both the seasons. The seasonal distribution of activity patterns of the fawns showed that feeding was slightly more in summer as compared to winter. In time budget, of the expenditure on different activities, resting accounted for 63.77% and feeding 24.70%. In both the seasons resting was the major portion of their activity. Analysis showed that in all age and sex categories of Swamp deer in the Dudhwa NP, resting dominated on all other activities. The observation on endangered Swamp deer indicates synchronization in activity only in the feeding in the morning and evening hours and resting throughout the day.
Keywords : Activity pattern, Swamp deer, Dudhwa, Seasonal, Time budget, Terai
Effect of fungal and bacterial bioagent application on total phenolic content in rice leaves pre-inoculated with Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Uyeda and Ishiyama) Dowson
Gokil Prasad Gangwar* and A. P. Sinha
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Present study was carried out to observe the effect of fungal and bacterial bioagents on total phenolic content in rice leaves pre-inoculated with Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae and on disease severity of bacterial leaf blight of rice. Two commercial formulations of Trichoderma harzianum (PBA-1) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (PBA -2) and four formulations of fluorescent pseudomonads and Trichoderma spp. viz, P. fluorescens (Pf 83, rice leaf isolate), fluorescent pseudomonad (FLP 88, rice leaf isolate), T. harzianum (rice leaf isolate), Trichoderma spp. (isolate 40, isolated from rice field soil) were evaluated. Significantly higher mean value of total phenolic content of rice leaves was observed with the application of bioagent formulations as compared to check (pre-inoculated with X. oryzae pv. oryzae), chemical treatment and healthy plant. Maximum mean total phenolic content (342.22 μl/g) in rice leaves was observed with Pf 83, which was followed by PBA-2 (334.44 μl/g) and T. harzianum (330.00 μl/g). Decrease in disease severity of bacterial leaf blight was observed with the increase of total phenolic content in rice leaves which resulted in increased grain yield and 1000 grain weight.
Keywords : Disease severity, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rice, Total phenolic content, Trichoderma harzianum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Screening of three promising rice genotypes for rainfed shallow lowlands of red and lateritic areas of West Bengal, India
G.K. Mallick*, K. Jana, S. Ghosh and G. Sardar
Rice Research Station, Nutanchati, Bankura – 722101 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011-12 at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal to screen promising rice genotypes suitable for rainfed shallow lowland situation of red and lateritic areas of West Bengal. Among the thirty genotypes of rice tested, only three genotypes gave significantly higher yields over best check variety Swarna sub-1 (5324 kg ha-1). These three promising genotypes of rice were IET 21987 (6898 kg ha-1), IET 21979 (6759 kg ha-1) and IET 21996 (6342 kg ha-1). It is to be noted that IET 21987 is a nomination from Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal. It was nominated to AICRIP trial IVT-RSL during 2010 in the designation of CN 1317-557-56-BNKR 42-2-3.
Keywords : Bankura, IET 21987, Rainfed shallow lowlands, Red and lateritic areas, Rice genotypes
Variation in morphometric and meristic traits of Aspidoparia morar from Brahmaputra and Barak Rivers of Assam, India
Simanku Borah*, Asha T. Landge, Birendra K. Bhattacharjya1, Sushant K. Chakraborty, Karankumar K. Ramteke, Jyotish Barman, Kaustubh Bhagawati and Bhaskar J. Saud1
Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Panch Marg, Off Yari Road, Versova, Andheri West, Mumbai- 400061, INDIA
1Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Guwahati Regional Centre, Housefed Complex, Dispur, Guwahati- 781006 (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The minor carp, Aspidoparia morar is a benthopelagic fish belonging to the sub-family Danioninae under the family Cyprinidae. It has emerged as the single most dominant species in the river Brahmaputra in Assam. In the present study, 240 specimens were collected from Guwahati and Tezpur in the Brahmaputra River and Silchar in the Barak River to investigate the morphometric and meristic variation among the populations. For this a total of 20 morphometric traits and 11 meristic traits were studied. The mean lengths for most of the morphometric traits were higher for the Barak River except eye diameter, inter orbital length and anal fin length which were significantly higher on the Brahmaputra River, while the post orbital length and pelvic fin length were found to be almost equal. The regressions of standard length with all the morphometric traits except pelvic fin length, pelvic fin base, pectoral fin length, dorsal fin length, anal fin length, pre orbital length, post orbital length, inter orbital length and eye diameter showed significant variation between the rivers. Two meristic traits viz. branched rays in anal fin and gill rakers on the first gill arch also showed significant variation in the samples of the rivers.
Keywords : Aspidoparia morar, Brahmaputra, Barak, Meristic, Morphometric
A study on heavy metals accumulation and its uptake by Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] fertilized with Sugar mill effluent and DAP treatment in two cropping seasons
Sachin Srivastava* and A.K. Chopra
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (UK), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A study was performed under natural environment to compare heavy metal accumulation in soil and Vigna unguiculata L. (Cowpea) irrigated with five rates of SME viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations and DAP treatment (applied @100Kg/ha i.e. 0.7g / per 5 Kg) and control (Bore well water) separately in both the rainy (Kharif) and summer (Zaid) seasons for 90 days. Results revealed that among various concentration of SME and DAP treatment, irrigation with 100% SME concentration significantly (P<0.001) increased Zn (323.07-341.02 %), Cu (371.23-389.04%), Ni (3666.66-4133.33%), Cd (525.00-725.00%), Cr (1444.4-1477.77%) and Fe (224.08-244.89%) in the soil. In case of V. unguiculata irrigated with different SME concentrations, maximum range of heavy metals such as Zn (2.43-2.98 mg Kg-1), Cu (2.39-2.73 mg Kg-1), Ni (0.55-0.91 mg Kg-1), Cr (1.01-1.21 mg Kg-1), Cd (0.13- 0.17 mg Kg-1), and Fe (5.54-6.18) were observed at 100% concentration of SME than that of DAP treatment in both the cultivated seasons. However, the concentration of all the metals Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Fe in soil and plant were lower than toxicity threshold i.e. within the permissible limit. Enrichment factor (Ef) for soil/V. unguiculata was recorded maximum with Ni (37.66-42.33) / (24-30.33) and minimum with Fe (3.24-3.44) / (2.28-2.52) after 90 days of SME irrigation than DAP in both the cropping seasons of Kharif and Zaid. The minimum accumulation of Fe in both soil and crop showed that metals with completely filled d orbitals (d8, Fe) were least incorporated into the V. unguiculata crop.
Keywords : Enrichment factor, Heavy metals, Sugar mill effluent, Soil characteristics, Vigna unguiculata
Economics and yield performance of some short duration fruit and medicinal crops under agrisilvicultural system in rainfed uplands of Odisha
M. R. Nayak1*, L. K. Behera1, P. J. Mishra2and N. Bhola3
1Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, INDIA
2AICRP on Agroforestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, INDIA
3Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, College of Forestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted during 2011-12 in an agrisilvicultural system consisting of two silvicultural species viz. Acacia mangium (mangium) and Gmelina arborea (gamhar) planted in 2000 at a spacing of 8m x 2m and four agricultural crops viz. Ananas comosus (pineapple), Aloe vera (aloevera), Andrographis paniculata(kalmegh) and Curcuma amada (mangoginger) were raised in the 1st week of July, 2011.The maximum volume increment were achieved by mangium with pineapple (16.53 m3/ha). Pineapple also registered the maximum fruit yield of 9981Kgha-1 under mangium and minimum under gamhar (9106 Kgha-1). The fresh leave yield of aloevera (8635Kg ha-1) was maximum under mangium which is statistically at par with gamhar. However, kalmegh recorded maximum dry plant yield of 1239 Kgha-1 under open condition followed by 1072 Kgha-1 under gamhar and 823 Kgha-1 under mangium. Similarly, mangoginger exhibited maximum rhizome yield of 3300 Kgha-1 under open condition followed by 1979 Kgha-1 under gamhar and 1597 Kgha-1 under mangium. The trend of crop yield under both the trees and open condition was: Pineapple >Aloevera>Mangoginger>Kalmegh. A. mangium with pineapple based agrisilvicultural system recorded the highest gross return, net return and BCR as compared to other agrisilvicultural systems and sole crops.
Keywords : Agrisilvicultural system, BCR, Economics, Gamhar, Mangium, Yield
Influence of operating conditions on the electrolytic treatment for the removal of color, TSS, hardness and alkalinity using Al-Al electrode combination
Arun Kumar Sharma* and A. K. Chopra
Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigation observed the effect of current density (CD), operating time (OT), inter electrode distance (IED), electrode area (EA), initial pH and settling time (ST) using Al-Al electrode combination on the removal of color, total suspended solids (TSS), hardness (HR) and alkalinity (ALK) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW) of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), Jagjeetpur, Haridwar, India. The maximum removal of color (99.86%), TSS (98.7%), HR (78.9%) and ALK (43.69 %) from BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions of CD (2.65 A/m2), OT (40 mins.), IED (0.5 cm), EA (160 cm2), initial pH (7.5) and ST (60 min.). However, the maximum removal of ALK was found with the optimum operating conditions of CD (1.68 A/m2), OT (40 mins.), IED (1.0 cm), EA (80 cm2), initial pH (7.5) and ST (90 min.) The electrolytic treatment ( ET) brought down the concentration of HR and ALK to the desirable limit of the BIS standards of drinking water. There was no need of pH adjustment of the BTMW during ET as the optimal removal efficiency was close to the pH of 7.5. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01 $/m3 in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71x 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 Kwh/m3). The study revealed that BTMW can be effectively treated with the Al-Al electrode combination for color, TSS, HR and ALK removal.
Keywords : Al-Al Electrode combinations, Electrolytic treatment, Operating conditions, Removal efficiency
Effect of foliar application of GA3, ethrel and copper sulphate on flowering behaviour and sex ratio of Jatropha curcas L.
Paresh Gayakvad*, D.B. Jadeja and S. Bhalawe
Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Dandi Road, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Effect of various plant growth substances viz., GA3 (25, 50,100 ppm), ethrel (1500, 2000, 2500 ppm), copper sulphate (0.1, 0.2, 0.5%) as foliar spray treatment applied during January to October was studied at 15 days intervals. The flowering behaviour and sex-expression of Jatropha curcas was investigated during in randomized block design (RBD) at the College Farm, Navsari. Looking to the results, it was noticed that GA350 ppm resulted in increased number of inflorescence per plant (31.25), number of flower per inflorescence (76.87), number of (male 94.75/female 4.01) flowers, flower sex ratio (24.22) in J. curcas. The Male: Female flower ratio was the lowest at 14th spray stage under majority of treatments indicating increased number of female flowers which is ultimately reflected by increased fruit and seed yield of J. curcas.
Keywords : Flowering and male/female ratio, J. curcas, Plant growth regulators
Establishing monoxenic culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices through root organ culture
M. Srinivasan*, K. Kumar, K. Kumutha and P. Marimuthu
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are soil fungi distributed worldwide, forming symbiosis with most of the vascular plants for their growth and survival, which is used for sustainable agriculture and ecosystem management. This study investigated the establishment of monoxenic cultures of Glomus intraradices in association with transformed carrot hairy root. The G.intraradices spores were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere by wet sieving and decanting technique and propagated in open pot culture. Transformation into carrot hairy root was done using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Surface sterilization of G.intraradices spores co-cultured with transformed carrot hairy root in Modified Strulla and Romand (MSR) medium was found the host root growth as well as for germination AM spores. After three months of incubation in dark condition, significant production of extensive hyphal growth on MSR medium and an average of 8500-9000 spores per petri dish was observed. The in vitro inoculum exhibited higher potential of root colonization due to numerous intraradices mycelium with extensive spore load. The produced monoxenic inoculum can be used in place of traditional system where it has an advantage of producing contaminant free propagulas. Thus the monoxenic culture system, a powerful tool, of AM sporulation, can be used for the mass production of monoxenic inoculum of AM fungi besides studying its biology.
Keywords : Carrot hairy root induction, Glomus intraradices, Monoxenic inoculum, MSR medium, Sugarcane rhizosphere
Effect of integrated nutrient management on soil fertility and yield of maize crop (Zea mays) in Entic Haplustart in Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author.E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted to study the integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the soil fertility status of Entic Haplustart in maize at Malayalathanpatti village, situated at Madurai district during Kharif season of 2008-2009. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications in Annaiyur soil series (Entic Haplustert). The results revealed that highest grain yield of 4402 kg ha-1 was recorded in treatment that received vermicompost @ 5t ha-1 with 75 percent Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and it was found to be superior to over treatments. Application of vermicompost @ 5t ha-1+75 percent RDF recorded the highest calcium and magnesium content in pot harvest soil sample (0.139 and 0.281%). And also increased the crude protein (16.67 %) and starch (81.34 %) content in maize crop and it was followed by the treatment which received sewage sludge 2t ha-1 with 75 percent RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizers) and green leaf manure @12.5t ha-1whereas the lowest value was recorded in control plot respectively. The vermicompost along with inorganic fertilizers were efficiently used by maize crop for their growth and development and also maintainined soil fertility and increased yield of the crop.
Keywords : Maize crop, Organic and inorganic sources, Quality, RDF, Secondary nutrients
Ichthyofaunal diversity in Bachan Gad and Kakda streams of the Mid-himalayan Ganga river system of Garhwal in relation to stream gradient and distance
Yogendra Singh, Ashish K. Chowdhary and S.N. Bahuguna*
Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, P.B.70, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar-Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out to investigate the comparative seasonal distribution and relative abundance of fish fauna of streams Bachan Gad of river Alaknanda and Kakda Gad of river Mandakini of Mid-himalayan Ganga river System. Total length of the Bachan Gad is 14.5 km from origin to the confluence at main river Alaknanda with an altitudinal variation from 605.94 to 1418.23m (a.s.1), whereas, total length of the Kakda Gad is 15.5 km. from origin to confluence at main river Mandakini with altitudinal variation from 984.50 to 1993.70 m (a.s.1). Total 23 species from Bachan Gad and 20 fish species were identified from Kakda Gad. The differences in the availability of fish-fauna were directly related to the nature of the profile and slope of tributaries; which affects the migration and breeding grounds of the fishes inhabited in the main river Alaknanda and Mandakini of Ganga river system. Variation in the availability of fishes has been recorded from different sites of the stream. In streams and rivers the changes take place along their length is directly related to the eco-physico-chemical nature (water depth, current, substratum etc). All these factors which change along the length of streams are also the factors which control the distribution of the various sections of the biotic fauna and flora.
Keywords : Bachan Gad, Hill-stream fish fauna, Kakda Gad, Relative abundance, Seasonal distribution
D.R. Khanna, R. Bhutiani* and Neetu Saxena
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (UK), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Interactions between mathematical and biological sciences have been increasing rapidly in recent years. The use of system analysis and mathematical model for formulation and solving the environmental pollution is of relatively recent vintage and has been used widely since last three decades. These models can be used to conduct numerical experiments, test hypothesis and help to understand the response of environmental pollution. A mathematical model acts as a bridge between study of mathematics and application of mathematics in environment and other fields. Modeling is an abstraction of reality and its ultimate objective is to explore the complexity of functions and structure of the system under study. Today, a wide variety of models belonging to different nature and category are available to understand the processes of the environment around us. Various models such as WASP, CE-QUAL-ICM, QUAL W2, AQUATOX, QUAL2K, IITAQ, PEARL, GRAM, UGEM, and IITLT etc. related to water and air quality are developed so far along with their principles, intended use and applications. These models generally simulate the basic physical, chemical and biological processes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the concept and utilization of mathematical models in air and water quality management.
Keywords : Assessment, Environmental quality, Limnology, Mathematical models
Ultramorphology of antennal sensilla of open-nesting honey bees Apis florea F. and Apis dorsata F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Neelima R. Kumar, Kalpna Nayyar, Ruchi Sharma and Anudeep*
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Antenna of honey bees is geniculate and has been known to possess a wide variety of sensilla. The sensilla are sensitive to odor, temperature, humidity, air pressure and gustatory stimuli. In the present investigation, ultrastructural study on the antenna of the two open-nesting worker honey bees- Apis florea F. - the dwarf honey bee and A. dorsata F. - the giant honey showed considerable amount of variation in the types and distribution pattern of sensilla in the two species. The antennal form as well as the sensilla arrangement has been suggested to be adapted to the pheromone perception need of regarding a particular species.
Keywords : Apis florea, Apis dorsata, Antenna, SEM, Sensilla
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