Ion chromatography determination of anionic change in surface and groundwater due to industrial effluents in Jammu (J&K), India
Sajaad Iqbal Khan, Raj Kumar Rampal* and Nishu
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In present investigation of anionic (fluoride, chloride, bromide, phosphate and sulphate) change in surface and groundwater due to industrial effluents by ion chromatography technique has been determined in area of Jammu using Ion-chromatograph (IC-850). Surface and groundwater samples were taken before and after discharge of industrial effluents. All required standards for calibration and all the samples (water as well as industrial effluents) have been prepared by using ultra pure water obtained from M Millipore. Both the peak height (PH) and peak area (PA) were used to assess the IC signals. All the peaks for anions were clear with good resolution and there were no interactions between them. The total time for anion analysis was recorded to be about 28 minutes .Anions like fluoride exhibited drastic change in concentration in surface and groundwater samples taken after discharge of industrial effluents.
Keywords : Common anions, Ground water, Industrial effluents, Ion chromatography and Surface water
Physiological attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) influenced by different sources of nutrients at foothill of eastern Himalayan region
Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar (West Bengal), INDIA
Abstract : The present investigation was aimed to assess the influence of different organic manures (Farmyard manure and vermicompost), inorganic fertilizers and Azophos biofertilizer on different physiological attributes of tomato. The field experiment was conducted during 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya (UBKV), Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India by combining 14 treatments in randomized block design with 3 replications. The results revealed that nutrient sources significantly influenced different physiological attributes as the chlorophyll content of leaves and LAI (Leaf area index) kept on increasing and peaked at 60 DAT(Days after transplanting) and 75 DAT respectively and declined thereafter. The dry matter production was highest at 75 DAT. Again application of vermicompost (4 t/ha) with 75% of inorganic fertilizers inoculated with biofertilizer resulted in significant improvement of physiological attributes as well as yield. Vermicompost emerged as better organic nutrient source over farmyard manure. Inoculation with biofertilizer exerted more positive results over uninoculated treatments and benefits of biofertilizer application were more in presence of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure.
Keywords : Biofertilizer, Farmyard manure, Inorganic fertilizers, Physiological attributes, Tomato, Vermicompo
M. Shelly1,2*, S. Biswas1, M. S. Reddy2 and Sohan Lal1
1NCDC, NTI Campus, 8 Bellary Road, Bangalore-560003, INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Rodent fleas have been considered as the main vector for plague transmission in the rodent population and human plague outbreak usually occur due to the close association of infected rodent fleas with the human being. A total of 910 fleas were retrieved from the 2128 rodents collected from the different areas like Kolar, Palamner, Pune, Surat, Rohru and Chennai. Mainly two types of rodent fleas i.e. Xenopsyalla astia and X. cheopis were found in these areas except the Dodra Kawar area of H.P. state. In Dodra Kawar area Neopsylla kawar species were found and it was very sensitive to the temperature variation. Dodra kawar area usually remains under snow for about nine months and even in the rest of period the maximum temperature does not go more than 20oC. The distribution of X. astia and X. cheopis were found uneven. In surat of Gujarat state X. cheopis was predominantly high, whereas in rest of the area X. astia were found more. In Chennai the main species found was X. astia only. The female percent of rodent flea may be considered as a good indicator for the fast propagation of rodent flea. The breading season for the fleas mostly depends on the climatic condition like temperature below 22oC-25oC, humidity more than 70% even if the outside temperature is more still the shady area the favorable and do help in the survival of fleas. The rapid urbanization and mass use of pesticide in agriculture sector has got significant impact on the rodent flea population and development of resistance to pesticides.
Keywords : Biodiversity, Flea index, Plague, Rodent fleas, Xenopsylla spp.
Studies on pollinator fauna and their relative abundance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India
Vimla Goswami*, M. S. Khan and Usha
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part on pollinator populations from adjacent semi natural habitats.The diversity and abundance of different insect visitors on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were studied at Pantnagar. A total of 12 insect visitors belonging to order Hymenoptera (9), Diptera (1), Lepidoptera (1), and Coleoptera (1) were observed visiting the blossom of sunflower. The abundance (percentage of insect/m2/2min.) of Hymenopterans were maximum (86.09 %) followed by the Dipterans (22.80 %) and others (3.87%). In Hymenopterans, the honeybees (Apis bees) were observed maximum (65.22 %) followed by non Apis bees (20.39 %) and the scolid wasp (1.69 %).
Keywords : Abundance, Diversity, Helianthus annuus, Pollinator
Kumkum Pandey* and Aditi Vats
Department of Family Resource Management, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This study was done with the aim to identify the specific ergonomic risk factors in the workplace affecting the both male and female workers while doing raw brick making activities and to analyze the pain/discomfort related to it. Twenty male and twenty female workers from the raw brick making unit were randomly selected and a detailed ergonomic risk factors were analyzed with the help of NIOSH Ergonomic Hazard Identification checklist. The questions were based on the primary job responsibility of the workers. Data revealed that nearly 8 percent males and 10 percent females were in ‘usually’ category, 25 percent males and 28 percent females in ‘sometimes’ and approximately 18 percent male and 13 percent females who never performed the task were kept in the category ‘never’. It was found that all the male and female workers usually require exerting force with their hands and used the hand tools to do the task. About 8 percent males and 5 percent females were usually, 15 percent male and only 10 percent female were sometimes and 28 percent males and 35 percent female were never stood continuously for a period of more than 30 minutes. On the whole all the male and female respondents were lifting or lowering the objects between floor and waist height or shoulder height and most of the workers were becoming exposed to the vibration while performing the task and they were carrying the weight more than 50 lb. The study indicates that the majority of the activities are in the high risk category and demands immediate ergonomic intervention in the form of tool, workstation and process design.
Keywords : Brick factories, Ergonomics hazards, Musculoskeletal disorders, Workplace repetition
Richa Kohli and Piyush Malaviya*
Department of Environmental Science,University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study has been focused on the impact of tannery effluent on germination pattern of ten varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum).The physico-chemical analysis of the tannery effluents showed that it had high salinity (45.97 ppt) and an acidic pH (3.61). For screening test, a setup with various concentrations of tannery effluent (4.5%, 9%, 13.5%and 18%) was prepared in petri plates to check the impact of tannery effluent on various varieties of wheat. Among ten varieties, PBW-343 and HS-365 showed better performance at 4.5% tannery effluent and considered to be more tolerant, whereas HS -295 was the most sensitive to tannery effluent treatment.
Keywords : Chromium, Germination, Screening, Tannery effluent, Toxicity
Nitin Kamboj* and Mohrana Choudhary
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar -249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study was carried out to study the impact of domestic wastes disposal on groundwater quality at Delhi, India. Ground water is one of the major sources of drinking water in arid and semi-arid regions. Ground water quality data and its distributions are important for the purpose of planning and management. The samples of groundwater were collected and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters viz. conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, fluoride, sodium and potassium. Among these parameters, TDS were found higher 1400, 1068, 1524, 1656, 840, 1106, 1540, 1330, 1900, 1960, 1914, 2061 mg/l at all the Ga1,Ga2, Ga3, Ga4, Ga5, Ga6, Ga7, Ga8, Ga9, Ga10, Ga11, Ga12, Ga13, Ga14, Ga15, Ga16 sampling sites respectively. TDS were observed beyond the desirable limits of BIS at all the sampling sites. Maximum value of TDS (2061 mg/l) was found at the sampling site Ga12 while the minimum value of TDS (1061 mg/l) was found at the sampling site Ga2. Maximum value of chloride (560 mg/l) was found at sampling site Ga4, while the minimum value of chloride (60 mg/l) was found at sampling site Ga5 and rest all other parameters were found within permissible limit. The present study concluded that the chloride and TDS in water samples were above to the desirable limit and below to the permissible limit of BIS and rest all other parameters were within desirable limit.
Keywords : Domestic waste, Ground water quality, Landfill, Gazipur dumping site
Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College, Champawat (Uttarakhand), INDIA
Abstract : Assessment of different sources of carbon and nitrogen in terms of dry weight biomass of four selected aquatic hyphomycetes viz; Flagellospora penicilloides Ingold, Pestalotiopsis submersus Sati and Tiwari, Tetrachaetum elegans Ingold and Tetracladium marchalianum De Wildeman was made for their nutritional requirements. Eight carbon sources and ten nitrogen sources were singly added to the basal media in order to provide 4g of carbon and 1g of nitrogen per litre of distilled water. Among carbon compounds glucose and sucrose were found to be most suitable sources of carbon for all the four fungal isolates, whereas fructose proved good for T. marchalianum, P. submersus and F. penicilloides fairly. Cellulose was found a poor source of carbon for the growth of all these isolates. The inorganic sources of nitrogen were found as good nitrogen sources with preference for ammonium ions. Suitability of amino acids was found variable from species to species for nitrogen. T. elegans and T. marchalianum had their maximum growth in asparagines, whereas, P. submersus had their highest growth in proline. Cysteine was observed as a good source of nitrogen for almost all the fungal isolates used. Anova calculated for these observed data showed significant variations in the dry weight production of different fungal species grown in different sources of carbon and nitrogen(P<0.01).
Keywords : Aquatic hyphomycetes, Carbon sources, Nitrogen sources, Nutritional requirements.
Effect of wood particle geometry and pre-treatments on the strength and sorption properties of cement-bonded particle boards
S.O. Amiandamhen* and D. N. Izekor
Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Benin, P.M.B.1154, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effect of particle geometry and pretreatments on the strength and sorption properties of wood particle cement composite boards was investigated. Wood particles (flakes and sawdust) of Gmelina arborea were mixed with cement and water in the production of composite boards. The wood particles were pretreated with hot water, calcium chloride and a combination of both treatments to enhance bonding with cement. The slurry was poured into rectangular moulds for board formation. After demoulding, the boards formed were tested for modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS). The results revealed that the mean MOR for flakes boards was 3.23N mm-2 while the mean MOR for sawdust boards was 3.01N mm-2. Hot water and calcium chloride treatment produced the best effect in flake composite boards with MOR and MOE values of 6.90 N/mm2 and 1897.36 N mm-2 while sawdust composite boards had mean MOR and MOE values of 5.69N mm-2 and 1664.31N mm-2 respectively. The WA rate after 24 hours of flakes and sawdust boards treated with hot water and calcium chloride was 3.63% and 4.28% while the TS rate was 0.69% and 1.44% respectively. Particle geometry and pretreatments significantly improved strength and sorption properties of wood particle cement composite boards (p<0.05).
Keywords : Composite boards, Particle geometry, Pretreatments, Sorption properties, Strength properties
Effect of Imidacloprid and Triadimefon on microbial phosphatase, protease and urease enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum sp.) cultivated soil
B. Vineela Deborah* and R. Jaya Madhuri
Department of Applied Microbiology, Sri Padmavathi Women’s University, Tirupati-517502 (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abstract : The laboratory studies were conducted to resolute the effects of Imidacloprid (insecticide) and Triadimefon (fungicide) singly and in combination on enzymatic activities of soil microorganisms in tomato cultivated soils at different concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7 kg per hectare. It was observed that phosphatase, protease and urease activities were elevated noteworthy at 0.5kg per hectare after 10 days of incubation. At lower concentration the activities of these enzymes showed no significant difference from that of control. The combination of the two pesticides led to a pronounced decline of phosphatase and protease enzyme activities at higher concentration. Triadimefon had no effect on urease activity at low concentrations whereas at 0.5 and 0.7 concentrations there was a significant increase when compared to control.
Keywords : Imidacloprid, Soil enzymes, Tomato cultivated soil, Triadimefon.
Biomethanated distillery spentwash and pressmud biocompost as sources of plant nutrients for groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
M. Selvamurugan*, P. Doraisamy and M. Maheswari
Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of biomethanated distillery spentwash and pressmud biocompost in various proportions with inorganic fertilizers on yield attributes, yield, oil and protein content of groundnut at Research and Development Farm of M/s. Bhavani Distilleries and Chemicals Ltd., T. Pudur, Thimiri, Tamil Nadu. Results of the field experiment revealed that yield and yield attributes viz., number of matured pods, 100 kernel weight and shelling percentage of groundnut were improved by the application of biomethanated distillery spentwash and pressmud biocompost compared to recommended NPK as chemical fertilizers. One-time pre-sown application of BDS @ 100 m3ha-1 along with recommended NP in groundnut registered higher pod, grain and haulm yield of 1774, 1272 and 4668 kg ha-1, respectively and the increase was to the tune of 35.83, 43.57 and 46.01 per cent, respectively over control. Similar to yield, BDS application increased the protein and oil content of groundnut kernels significantly. The net returns and benefit cost ratio of sugarcane were also as high as Rs.19,612 ha-1 and 1.90 for the treatment that received pre-sown application of BDS @ 100 m3ha-1 along with recommended NP as compared to control of Rs.19,612 ha-1 and 1.38, respectively. This concludes that the biomethanated distillery spentwash can be conveniently used as source of plant nutrients for groundnut.
Keywords : Biomethanated distillery spentwash, Groundnut, Pressmud biocompost, Yield attributes.
M. Saraswathi2* and N. Mallikarjuna1
1Department of Microbiology, S.V.University, Tirupati-517 501, INDIA
2Department of Applied Microbiology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati-517 502, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem worldwide. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), a major complication in Type 2 diabetes are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. To screen various bacterial pathogens present in diabetic foot ulcers and to determine their antibiotic sensitivity to actinomycetes isolated from various fields of Chandragiri, Tirupati, twenty four actinomycetes isolates were isolated and screened by primary and secondary screening methods to determine potent antibiotic producers by using test organisms. Among 24 isolates, 4 were more potent and they showed varied range of antibacterial activity of pathogens, isolated form diabetic foot ulcers. Four isolates were compared with lenezoid antibiotic. Enterococcus was resistant to lenezoid antibiotic but four actinomycetes inhibited the growth of Enterococi.
Keywords : Actinomycetes, Diabetic foot ulcers, Lenezoid, Antibacterial activity.
P. B. Chauhan* and P.B. Desai1
Department of Microbiology, K.B.S. Commerce & Nataraj Professional Sciences College, Vapi-396195 (Gujarat), INDIA
1Department of Microbiology, Shree Ramkrishna Institute of Applied Sciences, Athwalines, Surat-395001 (Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Pseudomonas aeruginosa has an ability to rapidly develop resistance to most antimicrobial compounds, and to check this ability. The isolates were collected from different pathological human sources and tested for their sensitivity to aminoglycoside antibiotic and to honey, a natural product that is generating renewed interest for its therapeutic application using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Aminoglycoside antibiotic which is normally active against gram-negative bacteria was used alongside honey. The 29 isolates of P. aeruginosa showed 100% sensitivity to honey tested in their undiluted form. This was not the case with gentamicin (10µg) and amikacin (30 µg), both of which varied in their antipseudomonal activity, like even 1:2 aqueous dilution of honey appreciably inhibited pseudomonal isolates than either of the two aminoglycoside antibiotic. Honey is therefore suggested as an effective natural product in overcoming the widespread antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa.
Keywords : Amikacin, Antipseudomonal activity, Gentamicin, Honey.
Vineeta Jagtap, Manish Tripathi1 and Yogesh Joshi1*
G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi Katarmal, Almora-263643 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Lichenology Division, Department of Botany, S.S.J. Campus, Kumaun University, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The paper documents the distribution of three species [Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Flörke) H.Mayrhofer and Poelt, Paromotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale and Punctelia subrudecta (Zahlbr.) Hale] of lichens from 14 years old nylon nets collected from Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development (G.B.P.I.H.E.D.) located in temperate region of Central Himalaya. These three species were previously reported as corticolous and saxicolous, but for the first time are reported as plasticolous.
Keywords : Himalaya, Lichens, Plasticolous, Uttarakhand.
Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Dwarahat, Almora (Uttarakhand), INDIA
Abstract : Overgrazing by livestock has caused major changes in the productivity and composition of rangeland vegetation in India. The main problem stems from the fact that the carrying capacity of rangelands is low as a result of low vegetation cover, and is decreasing with range degradation. This has an impact on land degradation which affects the rangeland hydrology. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the physio-hydrological responses of soil to different intensities of livestock grazing and land management by comparing the effect of uncontrolled grazed land and fenced off (ungrazed) land. There is a need to understand the hydrology of rangeland so as to propose ways of improving carrying capacity of rangeland. The study site had two different treatments: fenced off to prevent grazing, and uncontrolled grazed treatments. Plant biomass was measured at the end of the season. The results showed that there is a significant difference in infiltration rate and soil moisture among the two treatments. Infiltration rates were substantially greater in summer than in winter. On day 1 the steady infiltration rate in summer was twice the winter rate. The infiltration rate in summer on day 2, which is a better measure of the steady rate, was 2.5 times the winter rate. The differences between seasons were statistically very significant (p < 0.001). The effect of treatments on soil moisture was proportional to the effect of vegetation, as well as the effect of soil type on soil moisture, thus vegetation production depends on soil moisture.
Keywords : Biomass, Infiltration, Livestock, Rangeland, Soil hydrology.
Studies on influence of genotypic diversity on yield, quality and incidence of white fly and yellow mite in Capsicum annuum L.
S. Datta* and G. Chakraborty1
Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA
1AINP on Jute and Allied Fibre, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A field experiment was conducted with fifty one chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes to study the growth, yield, quality characters, white fly and yellow mite incidence during Rabi season of 2007-08 and 2008-09. The data on growth, yield performance, quality characters and pest incidence revealed significant variation among the different genotypes. Significantly the highest number of fruits per plant was recorded in genotype CA-29 (168.23) and it was lowest in genotype CA-2 (52.30) and it was statistically at par with genotypes CA-15 (56.09) and CA-43 (56.20). Like number of fruits per plant, the significantly highest fresh yield was recorded in CA-29 (14.58 t/ha). Higher fruit yield was also recorded in genotype CA-47 (13.35 t/ha) and CA-48 (13.18 t/ha). Ascorbic acid content in red ripe fruit varied from 75.89 to 167.21 mg/100 g fresh. The highest capsaicin content in the red ripe fruit was recorded in genotype CA -17 (1.13 %) followed by CA-4 (1.07%) and it was lowest in CA-7 (0.33%). Genotype CA - 45 was almost free from white fly incidence and lower incidence was also recorded in genotype CA-43 (0.40 /plant) followed by CA - 23 (0.50 / plant) and CA - 21 (8.10/ plant) was found most susceptible to white fly incidence. Among the different genotypes, CA - 22, CA - 24, CA - 25, CA - 27 and CA - 30 were free from mite infestation whereas CA - 13 (13.60/leaf) was most susceptible to yellow mite incidence.
Keywords : Chilli, Growth, Mite, Quality, White fly, Yield.
Analysis of bioactive phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant activity of a medicinal plant, Boerhaavia diffusa L.
Deepti Malhotra, Fouzia Ishaq1, Amir Khan2* and A. K. Gupta3
Department of Biotechnology, Shri Guru Ram Rai (P.G.) College, Dehradun (U.K.), INDIA
1Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (U.K.), INDIA
*2Glocal School of Life Science, The Glocal University (GU), Ali Akbarpur, Mirzapur Pol, Saharanpur - 247001 (U.P.), INDIA
3Department of Chemistry, Shri Guru Ram Rai (P.G.) College, Dehradun (U.K.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: amir email@example.com
Abstract : Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Family: Nyctaginaceae) commonly known as Punarnava is an herbaceous, spreading vine widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions in the world. The plants are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, protein and carbohydrate. The present study was carried out to determine the concentration of some bioactive phytochemicals (ascorbic acid, carotenoids, total phenolics, protein and carbohydrate) and their antioxidant activity in punarnava. Results showed the values for ascorbic acid (16.75±1.72 and 18.86±1.12 mg/100g of Fresh Weight), carotenoids (1.36±0.10 and 1.98±0.11 ìg/g of Fresh Weight), protein (122.975±6.27 and 134.45±6.23 mg/g of dry weight) and carbohydrate (56.67±5.77 and 60.11±5.23 mg/g of dry weight) for aqueous and methanolic of root extracts of B. diffusa respectively. Methanolic root extracts showed greater antioxidant activity than the aqueous extracts using DPPH method.
Keywords : Antioxidant property, Boerhaavia diffusa, DPPH, EC50, Flavonoid content.
Quantitative environmental impact assessment of the Open cast mining in Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India
Ajai Mishra* and Vinay Kumar Pandey1
Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (U.P.), INDIA
1GIPL, Energy Division, 5th floor, Orbit Plaza, New Prabhadevi road, Prabhadevi, Mumbai (Maharastra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The district Sonbhadra, previously a part of Mirzapur district in Uttar Pradesh, India, was created as a separate district in 1991.Geologically the area consists of Vindhyan supergroup, Mahakoshal group and Dudhi granitoid complex.The district Sonbhadra has rich mineral resources and their potential. The area is known for production of cement grade Limestone and Dolomite; the other minerals are Clay, Calcite, Silimanite and base metals for more than last three decades. These mining areas show impacts on the environmental status of the district. In the present study, the different mining and environmental parameters have been considered for analysing the environmental impact assessment (EIA). A matrix method has been used to delineate the quantitative EIA in the area. Finally, the resulted assessment impact value index (-2861.76), shows significant impact on environment such as degradation of forest land, air contamination due to mining dust, water quality and related health aspect of the area. Thus, major environmental control measures should be taken for sustainable development of the study area such as improvement of mining equipments, proper dumping of the mining waste and large scale plantation.
Keywords : Environmental impact assessment, Environmental parameters, Matrix method, Parameter importance value.
Fish diversity of Laster stream, a major tributary of river Mandakini in Central Himalaya (India) with regard to altitude and habitat specificity of fishes
Gurnam Singh and N. K. Agarwal*
Fish Reproduction and Conservation Biology Research Lab., Department of Zoology, School of Life Science, H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus Badshshithaul-249199, Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Laster stream is a major tributary of river Mandakini, which in turn is a major tributary of river Alaknanda. Stream traverses a distance of ~40 km before joining with river Mandakini at Suryaprayag (Tilwara) in Rudraprayag district (Uttarakhand), India. Present study reports existence of twenty one indigenous fish species belonging to eight genera, three families and two orders from the Laster stream. Schizothorax richardsonii (Cyprinidae family) was the dominating species followed by S. plagiostomus, Barilius sp., Tor sp.,Noemacheilus sp., Pseudecheneis sp., Glyptothorax sp. The distribution pattern (diversity and abundance) of these species had negative co-relation with the increase in stream altitude. Habitat conditions in the stream varied considerably from headwater to main stream. Present study also describes the habitat specificity of fish assemblage. Maximum species diversity (18 species) was recorded from pool habitat and was the most preferred habitat. Least species diversity (09 species) was recorded from cascade habitat. Riffle and rapid habitat recorded no difference in species diversity.
Keywords : Fish diversity, Stream habitat, Stream gradient, Substratum heterogeneity.
Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James: Distributional range and its habitat preference in Indian subcontinent
Y. Joshi* and M. Tripathi
Lichenology Division, Department of Botany, S.S.J. Campus, Kumaun University, Almora-263601 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present paper deals with the new distributional record of Byssoloma subdiscordans for Western Himalayan lichen flora and a new habitat record for Indian subcontinent. A note on its brief taxonomic description, distribution, ecology and occurrence in India is also provided. Previously the species was reported as corticolous and foliicolous from tropical and montane regions of India, viz. Eastern Himalaya and Western Ghats, but this is for the first time that authors have reported it as saxicolous in temperate regions of Western Himalaya, thus extending its habitat preference along with distributional range within Indian subcontinent.
Keywords : Byssoloma, Foliicolous, Indian subcontinent, Kumaun Himalaya, Lichenized fungi, New record, Saxicolous.
Compatibility of fungal bioagent for bacterial leaf blight of rice with chemical pesticides, commonly used in rice cultivation
Gokil Prasad Gangwar
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263 145, INDIA
Abstract : Though the pesticides have adverse effects but they still are very important in crop protection. Hence, present study on compatibility of fungal bioagent (Trichoderma harzianum) of bacterial leaf blight of rice with chemical pesticides which are commonly used in rice cultivation was carried out with aim to look the possibilities of integrating biological control with chemical control to manage bacterial leaf blight of rice effectively. All the chemical pesticides (fungicides, antibiotic, insecticides and herbicides) exhibited varying adverse effect on mycelial growth of T. harzianum but none of these was antisporulant. Among fungicides and antibiotic, copper oxychloride and streptocycline was compatible with T. harzianum at all concentrations (2000, 1000, 500 and 250 ppm) but mancozeb exhibited compatibility only on lower concentrations (500 and 250 ppm). All insecticides and herbicides were compatible with T. harzianum at all concentrations (2000, 1000, 500 and 250 ppm). Further studies are required in this area of research.
Keywords : Bacterial leaf blight of rice, Compatibility, Fungicides, Herbicides, Insecticides, Trichoderma harzianum.
Genotoxicity and tumor inducing potential of roadside soil samples exposed to heavy traffic emissions at Amritsar (Punjab), India
Rajwant Kaur1, Yogesh B. Pakade2 and Jatinder Kaur Katnoria 1*
1Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, (Punjab), INDIA
2Hill Area Tea Science Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresources and Technology, Palampur (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Noxious gases released from vehicles adversely affect the microbial population of the roadside soil as well as exerts influence on plant growth and development. Considering the increasing vehicular pollution in Amritsar, a holy city of Punjab (India) and their serious consequences in terms of health problems, the present study was planned to estimate genotoxic and tumor inducing potentials of soil samples from Golden temple (GT) and Putlighar Chowk (PG) by employing Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay (AlRCAA) and Potato disc tumor assay (PDTA), respectively. The genotoxic potential in terms of percent aberrant cells in A. cepa was found to be 29.24 % (GT) and 29.24 % (PG) during in situ treatment and 39.00 % (GT) and 39.48 % (PG) during root dip treatment. The average number of tumors was found to be 14.4 in PG sample, followed by 13.0 in GT sample. Both samples have shown high content of lead viz., 39.81 (GT) and 56.48 (PG) during physicochemical analysis of the samples.
Keywords : Automobiles, Genotoxic, Heavy metals, Physico-chemical analysis.
Effect of bioagent formulations on progress of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice under field conditions
Gokil Prasad Gangwar
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263 145, INDIA
Abstract : In the present study, effectiveness of different fungal (Trichoderma harzianum) and bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens) bioagent formulations in reducing progress of the bacterial leaf blight disease of rice under field conditions was studied and compared with chemical treatment and untreated check. The results exhibited that after 23 to 30 days after first application, bioagent formulations were more effective then chemical treatment in reducing progress of disease. Bioagent formulations exhibited long lasting effect in reducing progress of disease during Kharif, 2006 and 2007. Application of bioagent formulations resulted in significant reduction (60.5 – 142.8%) in area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) as compared to check during Kharif, 2006 and 2007. Significant increase in grain yield (14.3 - 21.5 %) was observed with the application of bioagent formulations as compared to check during Kharif, 2006 and 2007.
Keywords : AUDPC, Bacterial leaf blight of rice, Disease progress curve, Infection rate, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum.
Yield of aerobic rice affected by high temperature stress during summer season -A study from red and laterite zone of West Bengal, India
K. Jana*, G. K. Mallick and S. Ghosh
Rice Research Station (Govt. of West Bengal), Bankura - 722 101 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Field experiment on the performance of aerobic direct seeded rice (ADSR) under red and laterite zone of West Bengal was conducted at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal, India during summer season, 2012. The experimental soil was sandy loam with acidic in nature (pH: 5.2). The results exhibited that the grain yield (1 t ha-1) of rice in aerobic situation was low. This might be due to high atmospheric temperature during flowering period, which results in poor grain setting in panicle and most of them became chaffy due to spikelet sterility. Ultimately, it produced low grain yield of rice in aerobic situation during summer season due to high temperature at flowering period, grain formation and grain ripening stages. Thus, aerobic rice system of cultivation needed good management practices.
Keywords : Aerobic rice, High temperature, Low yield, Spikelet sterility.
Seasonal variation of the nematode Camallanus anabantis in the fish Anabas testudineus in Loktak Lake, Manipur, India
Th Ranibala*, M. Shomorendra1 and Devashish Kar
Division of Wetlands, Fishery Science and Aquaculture, Department of Life Sciences, Assam (Central) University, Silchar-11, INDIA
1Fish disease Research Lab, Department of Zoology, Thambal Marik College, Oinam-795134 (Manipur), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present paper deals with the study of the seasonal variation on the occurrence of the Nematode Camallanus anabantis from the fish host Anabas testudineus from Loktak Lake, Manipur during May 2010- April 2011. A total of 460 number of A. testudineus has been sampled for the parasite infection and 335 fishes (71 %) has been found to be infected with the nematode thereby indicating high prevalence of infection of the nematode parasites in the fish.
Keywords : Anabas testudineus,Camallanus anabantis, Loktak lake, Seasonal variation .
Prevalence of Menopon gallinae Linn. (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Menoponidae, Amblycera) upon poultry birds (Gallus gallus domesticus) of selected locality of district Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand), India
Surman Arya*, Sandeep Negi and Suneel Kumar Singh1
Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College, Gopeshwar, Chamoli (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh - 249 201 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Prevalence and intensity of infestation of Menopon gallinae (Linn.) was recorded from 688 poultry birds belonging to 30 selected locality of district Chamoli (Uttarakhand) during March, 2012 to February, 2013, out of which 310 were found infested (45.06%). Prevalence rate were higher in female (46.8%) than male (42%) birds in present investigation. Higher infestation were noted in certain parameters like captivity (larger group), poor health, poor hygienic condition, poor feather condition, black feather colour, desi breed and older birds. Singly reared, good health, good hygienic condition, good feather condition, mix colour, broiler breed and younger poultry birds were found to have least infestation. Intensity of infestation was noted by coding system. Maximum poultry bird bore very light (VL) infestation (29.68%) while very few were found with very heavy (VH) infestation (4.52%). Relative monthly intensity of infestation remained more or less similar in all the categories. Lice were peaked during summer in comparison to the winter. Strong positive correlation existed between monthly lice index and temperature (+0.79); lice index and photoperiod (+0.84), while the same were found insignificant with humidity (-0.23) and rainfall (-0.17).
Keywords : Menopon gallinae, Phthiraptera, Poultry bird, Prevalence.
Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in some endemically afflicted villages of district Doda, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Sunil Arya, Sehrish Gazal and Anil K. Raina*
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of three villages of Doda district, J&K. A total of 391 individuals (202 males and 189 females) were examined from 60 households by house to house survey for recording the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis by using Dean’s Index (1942) along with WHO health assessment form (1997b) and Community fluorosis Index. Of the total studied population 299 (76.47%) have found to be affected with various grades of dental fluorosis with moderate (33.5%) level of fluorosis to be the most frequent category observed. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was more in males (86.61%) than females (63.49%). No significant relation (P>0.05) between prevalence of dental fluorosis to the socioeconomic status was found. Community fluorosis Index was found to be 2.05 which denotes “marked” category of public health significance. High prevalence and high community fluorosis Index suggest that fluorosis is a major public health problem in the area.
Keywords : Dean fluorosis Index, Dental fluorosis, Doda district, Fluoride, Prevalence.
Response of walnut (Juglans regia. L.) leaf aqueous extracts, on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) in agri-silvi system of Uttarakhand
Abhishek Bahuguna1, 4, Sandhya Bahuguna2* and Birendra Prasad3
1Shri Venkateshwara University, NH 24, Rajabpur, Gajraula, Dist. J. P. Nagar (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
2Shridhar University, Pilani - Chirawa Road, Pilani (Rajasthan), INDIA
3Department of Plant Breeding, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
4College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Effect of different doses of aqueous extracts of walnut leaf was studied on germinating seeds and early seedling growth of wheat variety (cv. VL-616) recommended for hills under West Himalayan agri-silvi system. Seven treatments comprised of distilled water control (0%), 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% concentration of leaf extracts were treated. The effect of aqueous extracts was found inhibitive; indicate a direct proportional relationship with concentration dependent manner on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth of wheat. The wheat variety exhibited extent of phytotoxicity at 60% extracts application in comparison to untreated control. Invariably there was a decrease in first count, germination, seedling root and shoot length, seedling fresh and dry weight and vigour index with increasing aqueous extracts concentration on germinating wheat, however the shoot length was observed maximum at 60% concentration.
Keywords : Germination, Leaf extract, Vigour index, Walnut, Wheat.
Study of health and nutritional status of the workers working in knitting industry located at Kanpur, India
Meenaxi Tiwari* and Sudha Babel
Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing, College of Home Science, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001(Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Knitting industry occupies a pivotal position in the economic dynamism of various countries. The workers in the knitting industry suffer from various types of health risk factors. The risk in the knitting industry is higher and the ability to control it is lower. The majority of the problems are due to poor work environment, manual work condition and long hours of static working posture in the knitting industry. The present study was conducted to study the health and nutritional status of the workers in knitting industry, located in the city Kanpur, India. Body mass index (BMI) technique was used to study the health and nutritional status of the workers. The 300 workers of knitting industry from four different sectors (spinning, knitting, dyeing, and printing) of the industry who worked in a knitting sector were randomly selected from each unit of industry. The anthropometric measurements viz., height in cm, weight in kg of each respondent was recorded. The results revealed that the selected sample was suffering from occupational stress and health problems. Out of total 300 workers, majority of the respondents (22.00%) were in CED Grade III (Severe) category followed by 16.00% in CED grade IV (Moderate), 14.00% in low weight normal, 12.00% in CED Grade I (Mild), 11.00% in obese grade I and 10.00% in obese grade II. Only 17.00% respondents were observed under normal nutritional status. Thus, the respondents were suffering from occupational stress and health problems.
Keywords : Body mass index, Knitting industry, Nutritional status, Workers health.
Rajinder Kaur, Preeti Kalia*, Neelima R. Kumar and Kusum Harjai1
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
1Department of Microbiology, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The aim of present study was to compare the phytochemical composition of different extracts of bee pollen, propolis and honey and to analyse the best solvent for maximum phytochemicals extraction. These preliminary studies are significant in locating the pharmacological bioactive compounds in different extracts of bee products. The tests showed greater number of constituents present in bee pollen and propolis as compared to honey. The concentration of these bioactive constituents was greater in ethanolic extract of propolis and water extract of bee pollen and honey. Ethanolic extract of propolis showed higher concentration of tannins and glycosides. Bee pollen had more concentration of saponins, flavonoids and proteins in water extract. Reducing sugars and carbohydrates were present in larger amount in water extract of honey. These studies will be useful to select the best solvent for honey, pollen and propolis for various research purposes.
Keywords : Honey, Phytochemical, Pollen, Propolis.
Field efficacy of formulation of fungal bioagents against bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae(Uyeda and Ishiyama) Dowson
Gokil Prasad Gangwar
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263 145, INDIA
Abstract : In the present study, Trichoderma harzianum, T. hamatum, T. virens and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. were evaluated for their comparative efficacy against bacterial leaf blight of rice, under field conditions. All the bioagent formulations were significantly effective in reducing disease severity over check during Kharif season 2006 and 2007. T. harzianum was found to be most effective and resulted 48.26 and 59.22 % reduction in disease severity during Kharif season 2006 and 2007, respectively. Maximum increase in grain yield (16.21%) was recorded with T. harzianum followed by isolate 40 (14.58%), during Kharif season 2006. Whereas during Kharif season 2007, maximum increase in grain yield (18.95%) was recorded with T. harzianum which is followed by T. virens (14.65%) and isolate 40 (12.57 %). Present study revealed that T. harzianum (isolated from rice phylloplane) was found to be most effective in reducing disease severity and increasing grain yield as compared to other isolates obtained from different sources.
Keywords : Bacterial leaf blight of rice, Field efficacy, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.
Effect of liquid Biofertilizer (Vrikshayurveda) prepared from Brassica alba on the cultivation of rice
Anjan Kumar Sinha* and P. K. Mishra
Department of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag-825301 (Jharkhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Brassica alba, one of the very anciently well known plants, was used as biofertilizer long time before. Pot culture technique was introduced and three different pots were prepared. Plants of first pot provided only normal dose of urea, in second pot additionally 10% B. alba liquid manure sprayed along with the normal dose of urea. Third pot was provided with blue green algal fertilization and 10% of B. alba liquid manure. Various parameters like plant height, leaf length, leaf number and inflorescence length were evaluated in test culture receiving different dose of urea and bio-fertilizer. In pot-1, plant height, length of inflorescence, grain yield , husk yield , grains per panicle , number of panicle per plant and weight of 1000 grains was found to be 84.30 cm, 19.50 cm, 2800 kgha-1, 4300 kgha-1, 42 grains per panicle, 4 panicle and 24.80 gm respectively, whereas in pot-2 plant height, length of inflorescence, grain yield, husk yield, grains per panicle, number of panicle per plant and weight of 1000 grains was found to be 98.50 cm, 21.40 cm, 3700 kgha-1, 5600 kgha-1, 56 grains, 6 panicle and 29.30 gm respectively and in test pot-3, plant height, length of inflorescence, grain yield, husk yield, grains per panicle, number of panicle per plant and weight of 1000 grains was found to be 112.80 cm, 24.30 cm, 3850 kg ha-1, 5630 kgha-1, 60 grain per panicle, 6 panicle, and 30.60 gm respectively. The results clearly indicated that in comparison to urea, B. alba treated paddy plant performed higher plant height, higher yield production, higher husk production, larger number of grain per panicle and panicle length and higher grain weight.
Keywords : Biofertilizer, Brassica alba, Rice, Vrikshayurveda.
Growth promotion of rice seedlings by fungal and bacterial bioagents effective against bacterial leaf blight of rice
Gokil Prasad Gangwar
Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, INDIA
Abstract : In the present investigation, fungal and bacterial bioagents which were effective against pathogen of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) was tested for their effect on germination of rice seeds and growth of nursery seedlings under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Two isolates of fluorescent pseudomonas isolated from rice phylloplane (Pf 83 and FLP 88), Trichoderma species were isolated from soil of rice field (isolate 40) and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from rice phylloplane. Two commercial formulations (PBA-1 and PBA-2) were tested in the present investigation and compared with chemical treatment (0.76 g Emison + 0.18 g Streptocycline/kg seeds) and untreated check. Under laboratory conditions, chemical treatment was found most effective in increasing seed germination (43.90%) followed by Pf 83 and PBA-1 (34.15 %). Bioagent formulations were significantly effective in increase in root and shoot length as compared to check and chemical treatment. Under glasshouse conditions, maximum increase (29.42%) in seedlings emergence was exhibited by chemical treatment. Maximum increase in root length (100.15%) and shoot length (50.06%) was recorded with FLP 88 and T. harzianum, respectively. Bioagent formulations also increased fresh and dry root weight over check and chemical treatment. All bioagents formulations were effective over chemical treatment and check in increasing fresh shoot weight. Results of the present study revealed that in the absence of pathogen of bacterial leaf blight of rice, fungal and bacterial bioagents significantly enhanced germination of rice seeds and growth of nursery seedlings.
Keywords : Bacterial leaf blight of rice, Growth promotion, Pseudomonas spp., Rice, Trichoderma harzianum.
Characterization of a bacterial collar and rhizome rot of banana (Musa paradisiaca) caused by strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca
Dipak T. Nagrale1 ,2*, Suresh G. Borkar1, Shailesh P. Gawande1, 4, Asit K. Mandal3 and Satish A. Raut1
1Department of Plant Pathology and Agricultural Microbiology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722, Ahmednagar (M.S.), INDIA
2National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms (NBAIM), Kusmaur, Maunath Bhanjan-275101 (U.P.), INDIA
3Directorate of Seed Research, Kushmaur, Maunath Bhanjan-275101 (U.P.), INDIA
4Ramie Research Station, CRIJAF (ICAR) Regional Station, Sorbhog-781317 (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A serious collar and rhizome rot disease of banana was observed in the north region of Maharashtra state in post rainy season. The disease was caused by the bacterial strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca identified and characterized by morphological, physiological, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. The infection occurred on new banana plantation of one month old in poorly drained soil. In post rainy season, banana plantations of 8 to 10 weeks were found severely infected. E. chrysanthemi pv.paradisiaca produced soft rot symptom on healthy banana rhizomes within three weeks. Two strains were isolated from the collar and rhizome rotted diseased samples which were similar in morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, however they differed in the virulence aggressiveness to cause the disease in banana. Strain II caused soft rot symptoms within 19 days, however strain I produced it within 23 days of inoculation with suspension of 3×108 CFU ml-1. The result of this study revealed that strain II was more aggressive as compared to strain I of E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca.
Keywords : Banana, Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca, Rot, Strains.
E. G. Oboho* and J. N. Iyadi
Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The growing of trees could be hindered by seed dormancy problems or unavailability of sufficient quantities of seeds, hence vegetative propagation using simple propagules like stem cuttings is a valued option especially for resource poor farmers. The rooting potential of mature stem cuttings of Gambeya albida, Irvingia gabonensis, Annona muricata, Garcinia kola and Triplochiton scleroxylon was investigated in a humid tent propagator without enhancement by artificial hormones. Propagation indicative parameters were estimated using percentages. G. kola had the highest root-ability indices with cutting survival rate of 85%, callus formation (75%), leaf loss (35%), days to axial bud sprout (55 days), days to leaf loss (23 days) and number of new leaves produced (9) at termination of study. T.scleroxylon had no survivals; an axial bud sprouted at 51 days but withered off by the third day. Other species were between these two extremes. Root-ability potential categorization for the species on the basis of this investigation was: easy to root for: G.kola and A.muricata, moderately easy to root for I.gabonensis and G.albida, unable to root for T.scleroxylon. The use of artificial hormone, juvenile stem cutting and somatic embryogenesis trials has been suggested especially for the moderately easy and unable to root categories.
Keywords : Callus, Propagation, Root-ability, Social forestry, Stem cutting.
Micro-histological analysis of faeces of Chukar partridge Alectoris chukar gray in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India
Manish Kukreti*, Surman Arya and Suneel Kumar Singh11
Department of Zoology, Government Post Graduate College, Gopeshwar, Chamoli, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh - 249 201, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In vivo studies on the feeding of Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar Gray) in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand and micro-histological analysis of 104 samples of its faeces were investigated during January 2011 to December 2012, to get information on vegetative and non-vegetative diet and feeding behaviour. Plant matter constituted a major portion of the faecal content (87.73±4.31µg) and represented by 14 families. Non- vegetative matter could be recorded as 9.36±1.46µg of dry weight which represented by 8 orders of the arthropods. Fine organic matter + grits constitute was found to be 2.84%±1.17µg in faecal content. Saxifragaceae, Graminaceae, Rosaceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae were found the best plant families for Chukar diet while arthropod insects order like Diptera, Dissotera, Hymenoptera and Araneae remained favorite feeds. Flowers and fruits of Rhus parviflora, leaves of Rumax, roots/tuber of Vigna and fruits of Rubus were found important diet of Chukar partridge along with Triticum in Rabi crop and Oryza in Kharif. Flies, grasshoppers, spiders were observed the main insects diet of Chukar partridge.
Keywords : Arthropods, Chukar partridge, Faecal analysis, Plants.
N. Kannadasan1, Nirmala Natarajan1, N. Anbusaravanan1*, P. Sekar2 and R. Krishnamoorthy3
1Research Department of Zoology, Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli-620023, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
2Research Department of Zoology, National College, Tiruchirappalli- 620021, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
3Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli- 620024, (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present work has assessed sustainable vermiconversion of aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes). The garden soil, water hyacinth and cow dung were taken in the following the combinations of 1: 2 : 1, 2 : 1: 1 and 1 : 1: 2. Two species of earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida was used for the experiment. The total nitrogen (0.18% in control and 1.68% in earthworm treated) and phosphate (0.63 % in control and 1.64 % in earthworm treated) levels were increased and toxic heavy metals zinc (7.66 ppm in control and 2.58 ppm in earthworm treated) and copper (6.68 ppm in control and 1.15 ppm in earthworm treated) were significantly decreased. The earthworm enriches the compost with various nutrients for plant and microbial growth. Plant growth studies were conducted in all the combination of water hyacinth, maximum growth of root length (8.9cm and 7.2 in control) and shoot length (21.6cm and 16.2 in control) observed compare to control. Gut microbial analysis revealed that Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus were predominantly present in the earthworm. The study recommended that the aquatic weed compost was suitable of agricultural usage.
Keywords : Earthworms, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, Vermiconversion, Water hyacinth.
Asha1, Rachna Gulati2, Deepika Thakur3 and Monika Giroh4
1Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
2Directorate of Research, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
3Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
4Departments of Zoology and Aquaculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Maximum incidence of Varrosis on adults of Apis mellifera L. (8%) was recorded in second fortnight of May 2008 corresponds to the peak in V. destructor population. Percent deformity was calculated by observing 100 adult bees. Deformity in adult bees was low which ranged between 0.0 to 3.0 per cent with an average of 0.52 per cent. Significant positive correlation (r = 0.77) was calculated between per cent mite infestation and percent bee deformity which revealed that with increase in mite infestation, there was a corresponding increase in deformity of bees.
Keywords : Adult bees, Apis mellifera, Deformity, Varroa destructor.
Antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots against certain gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains
Aparajita Gupta*, D. K. Maheshwari1 and G. Khandelwal1
Department of Microbiology, Kanya Gurukula Mahavidyalaya, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar- 249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar- 249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potency of grinded crude material (root of Glycyrrhiza glabra) against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Two solvents (methanol and acetone) were used to extract the phytochemicals from the test material. Four different concentrations (100%, 75%, 50% and 25%) of methanolic and acetonic extract were used to investigate the inhibiting properties against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia.coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis strains. Among methanol and acetone extracts, later exhibited low antibacterial activity. The 100% (w/v) concentration of both extracts showed maximum inhibition against B. subtilis followed by E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, S. typhi and V. Cholerae. Maximum activity in acetonic extract was obtained against B. cereus followed by S. typhi, E. coli, V. cholerae and S.aureus and minimum in B. subtilis. A reverse pattern of inhibition activity was found in both extracts (methanolic and acetonic) against B. subtilis. Maximum activity was found in methanolic extract against B. subtilis (18.6 mm) but it was only 14.3 mm against this strain in acetonic extract. The antibacterial activity of the crude samples corresponded to that of concentration. Hence there was positive correlation of antibacterial activity with the test material.
Keywords : Antibacterial activity, Glycyrhiza glabra, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria.
Fouzia Ishaq1*, D.R. Khanna1 and Amir Khan2
1Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Glocal School of Life Science, The Glocal University (GU), Ali Akbarpur, Mirzapur Pol, Saharanpur, 247001, (UP) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The physico-chemical and phytoplankton characteristics of the Tons River were analyzed during August 2011-July 2012. The samples were collected from Garhi Cant (Site 1) and Tapkeshwar temple (Site 2) at Dehradun. The results showed that temperature, velocity, DO, nitrate and phosphate affected the phytoplanktonic diversity of river Tons. Thirty five genera of phytoplankton belonging to three families of Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Myxophyceae were also identified in the river water. The family Bacillariophyceae was dominating the river with much abundance throughout the study period. Bacillariophyceae was recorded with the maximum of 222.25±90.84 Unit/L at sampling site 1 and 239.08±125.41 Unit/L at sampling site 2. The greater number of individuals was in family Bacillariophyceae (239.08±125.41 Unit/L) followed by Chlorophyceae (183.75±112.50 Unit/L) and Myxophyceae (40.91±36.16 Unit/L) during the study period. Both the number of genera and number of individuals belonging to each genera was maximum in case of family Bacillariophyceae followed by Chlorophyceae and Myxophyceae. The present study revealed that the water quality of river Tons was fairly good for the growth and survival of phytoplankton, and as a result it sustains the higher phytoplankton diversity of Tons river.
Keywords : Physico-chemical characteristics, Phytoplankton abundance, Pearson correlation coefficient, River Tons.
Arun Kumar Sharma* and A. K. Chopra
Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation observed the effect of current density (CD), operating time (OT), inter electrode distance (IED), electrode area (EA), initial pH and settling time (ST) using Fe-Fe electrode combination on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW) of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The maximum removal of COD (92.35%) from BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions of CD (2.82 A/m2), OT (40 mins.), IED (0.5 cm), EA (160 cm2), initial pH (7.5) and ST (60 min.), while the maximum removal of BOD (84.88%) was found with the ST (30 min.) at the same operating conditions. There was no need of pH adjustment of the BTMW during ET as the optimal removal efficiency was close to the pH of 7.5. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 54.29 Rs./m3 / 1.08 US$/m3 in terms of the electrode consumption (78.48 x 10-5 kg Al/m3 ) and energy consumption (108.48 Kwh/m3).
Keywords : Biologically treated municipal wastewater, Current density, BOD, COD, Electrochemical treatment, Electrode consumption, Energy consumption.
O. M. Odiase, J.O. Igene, S.E. Evivie* and P.A. Ebabhamiegbebho
Food Science and Technology Unit, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin city, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The increasing cost of animal protein has necessitated the need to investigate the use of cheaper and nutritive alternatives in various food formulations. The study was carried out to determine the appropriate level of soy flour inclusion in meatball production. The soy meat balls were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of full-fat soy flour which was combined with beef and some condiments. Treatments were analyzed in triplicates in a randomized complete block design. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to evaluate the sensory characteristics (colour, taste, texture and overall acceptance) of the products using a semi-trained taste panel. Nutrient proximate composition values and production cost were also determined. Results showed that on the average, soy flour inclusion in meatballs increased cooking yield by reducing weight loss from 27.33% to 12.96%. Meatballs with soy flour inclusions at 10% and 15% were most acceptable (very much liked). The 20% and 25% level of soy flour inclusion were moderately acceptable, thereby indicating acceptability up to 25% level of soy flour inclusion. Soy inclusion reduced production cost by N37.50 on the average at N5.00 per ball when compared with all meat products as well as, increasing the number of balls per mix from 64 balls (control) to an average number of 89.5 balls (soy meatball). It is recommended that further studies of the soy flour inclusion in meatballs production be carried out to ensure the availability of cheaper, nutritious and acceptable convenience food in the Nigerian market.
Keywords : Meatballs, Sensory evaluation, Soy flour-meat.
Food Science and Technology Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, NIGERIA
Abstract : The solvent evaporation technique was used in this study to evaluate probiotics microencapsulation in AQOAT/ dichloromethane matrix and cell viability was also measured to assess its potentials in industrial food formulation processes. Cumulative release experiments using water blue dye as a model molecule was also used to evaluate the prebiotic applications. Well-defined spherical AQOAT microcapsules [50.0 ìm ± (24.14)] were formed from 5% AQOAT solution. Cells of Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus plantarum were successfully encapsulated with this technique. However, a 7 log and a 5 log reduction were recorded for B. breve and L. plantarum respectively after 60 min in buffer (P<0.05). Results of this study showed that 1% AQOAT solution lowered viability by 1 log and cell exposure to 10 ml dichloromethane resulted in a 3 log reduction, thus confirming bactericidal properties of both polymer and organic solvent. DCM was however shown to have more bactericidal effects on the cells (P<0.001). Cumulative release trials using 0.2% water blue dye solution showed a 40% loss and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 73.8% (±14.76). It was recommended that viability counts using this technique be further evaluated using other organic solvents (such as ethyl acetate and chloroform) or other synthetic polymers so as to increase its applicability in the food industry.
Keywords : Cumulative release, Microencapsulation, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Viability.
D. R. Khanna, N. S. Nigam and R. Bhutiani*
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An ambient air quality study was undertaken in Bareilly city, U.P., India during the year 2010 and 2011. The seasonal air quality data was obtained from ten monitoring sites across the city considering sampling site of Cantt as control site. The maximum (713.06±55.64 µg/m3) suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) (80.08±4.77 µg/m3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) (64.98±3.53 µg/m3) level was found at Choupla during the winter 2011. Among the annual mean values of air pollutants were analyzed, SPM level was found to be above the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (200 µg/m3) at all the polluted sites. SO2 and NOx levels were below the threshold limits (80 µg/m3) as per NAAQS. The ambient air quality was correlated with the traffic density in the city. The pollution level was observed to be positively correlated with traffic density which is the major source of air pollution in the city. The ambient air quality at different monitoring sites was categorized into different pollution level on the basis of Oak ridge air quality index (ORAQI). Light to moderate air pollution conditions were present at different sites. Sampling site of Choupla (SVII) observe maximum ORAQI of 64.48 and 70.81 and falls under category of moderate pollution.
Keywords : Air quality, NOx, Oak ridge air quality Index, SO2, SPM, Traffic density.
Fishes of the genus Olyra McClelland (Teleostei: Bagridae) from Indo-Bhutan hill streams of Assam, India
Sewali Pathak1*, Mrigendra M. Goswami2 and Nripendra Nath Sharma3
1Department of Zoology, Bijni College, Bijni, Chirang-783390 (Assam), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014 (Assam), INDIA
3Department of Zoology (Ex-HOD), Bajali College, Pathsala, Pin-781346, Barpeta (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The type specimens described in this communication are collected from two hill streams, Kanamakra and Langkhar flowing from the Bhutan foothills of the Himalaya through Amguri and Amteka respectively in the Indo-Bhutan border of Chirang district (26015’ 0” - 2700’ 0” N and 90030’ 0” - 90045’ 0” E) of Assam. The occurrence of three catfishes species of the genus Olyra, of which Olyra horae is recorded as a new report from the type locality of Assam. The taxonomic variables of O. horae are compared with other two species namely, O. kempi and O. longicaudata. The O. horae is distinguished from the other two congeners in having the caudal fin forked but not high, upper lobe slightly elongated with 10 rays and lower lobe with 9 rays. It can also be distinguished in having the higher range of the caudal peduncle length (16.9 - 20.0 % SL), pre-anal length (60.1 - 71.4 % SL), head width (81.3 - 81.6 % HL) and the lower range of snout length (21.7 - 24.3 % HL), outer mandibular barbel length (55.7 - 57.3 % HL) in comparison to the other two congeners.
Keywords : Brahmaputra drainage, Indo-Bhutan streams, Olyra catfish species, Siluriformes.
Translocation and enrichment of heavy metals in Brassica juncea grown in Paper mill effluent irrigated soil
Chakresh Pathak*, A. K. Chopra, Sachin Srivastava and Deepika Thakur1
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India
1Department of Environmental Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study observed the accumulation of heavy metals in Brassica juncea irrigated with paper mill effluent (PME) and control Bore well water (BWW). The soil was treated to five rates of effluents viz. 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/Kg soil. It was revealed 100% PME irrigation of soil increased Pb (+46.44%), Cr (+83.21%), Ni (+38.43%) and Cd (+78.92%). The enrichment factor (Ef) for Cr and Cd showed moderate enrichment with 10% to 75% PME irrigated soil, except Cr (5.96) which showed significant enrichment with 100% PME irrigated soil. Ef value for Pb and Ni showed deficiency to mineral enrichment with different concentrations of PME irrigated soil. The maximum accumulation of Pb (42.66±2.05 mg/kg), Cr (39.80±5.95 mg/kg), Ni (88.64±11.29 mg/kg) and Cd (5.85±0.29 mg/kg) were recorded in leaves of B. juncea, while that of Pb (43.85±3.46 mg/kg), Cr (48.59±3.81 mg/kg), Cd (6.74±1.22 mg/kg) with 100% and Ni (74.93±2.54 mg/kg) were recorded with 75% PME after 60 days in roots of the B. juncea. Ef value was found maximum for Cr (5.08) in leaves and for Pb (6.64) in roots, while the Translocation factor (Tf) was found maximum for Pb (2.45) in root of the crop irrigated with PME. The use of PME with proper dilution and with the metallic concentrations in permissible limit can be used as biofertigant for irrigation of B. juncea.
Keywords : Brassica juncea, Heavy metals, Enrichment factor, Translocation factor.
Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Home Science, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur (Rajasthan), INDIA
Abstract : The present study presents an overview on floral diversity and identifies Non-timber Forest Products (NTFP) that can be used as Natural Dye sources in textile sector. This was a descriptive study; Historical, as well as current data was collected through surveys and interviews. Individual and focus group interviews with tribal members were conducted to gather information regarding details of forest proximity. This collective study indicates that the Aravalli hill ranges constitute the most dominant hilly area of Rajasthan. Most of the forests are over the hilly areas i.e. in Udaipur, Rajasamand, Kota, Baran Sawai Madhopur, Chittorgarh, Sirohi, Bundi, Alwar, Jhalawar and Banswara districts, which make up for about 50 per cent of the forests of the state. Khakara, semal, rohida, gadha palash, mokha, marod phalli, davai, van gulab etc. are identified as red chroma, amaltash, awla, gundhi, babool etc.are identified as yellow and related chroma. Forests are major components of the earth’s natural resources and they are increasingly critical to the welfare of the economy, environment, and population. Gum products, starch products, antimicrobial resources, paper industry products may be collected from hilly forest areas and can be easily adopted at cottage level for gainful employment of tribal women.
Keywords : Eco friendly, Forests, Sustainable economic growth, Tribal woman.
Rakesh Kumar*, Shweta Shambhavi, Rajesh Kumar, Yanendra Kumar Singh and Kisan Singh Rawat1
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 801302 (Bihar), INDIA
1Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance. Any attempt to improve water use efficiency must be based on reliable estimates of ET, which includes water evaporation from land and water surfaces and transpiration by vegetation. ET varies regionally and seasonally according to weather and wind conditions. Remote sensing based agro-meteorological models are presently most suited for estimating crop water use at both field and regional scales. Numerous ET algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data acquired by sensors on airborne and satellite platforms. The use of remote sensing to estimate ET is presently being developed along two approaches: (a) land surface energy balance (EB) method and (b) Reflectance based crop coefficient and reference ET approach. The reported estimation accuracy varied from 67 to 97% for daily ET and above 94% for seasonal ET indicating that they have the potential to estimate regional ET accurately. Automated contours are not confined to specific pre-determined geographic areas (as in MLRA), require less time and cost. The spatial and temporal remote sensing data from the existing set of earth observing satellite platforms are not sufficient enough to be used in the estimation of spatially distributed ET for on-farm irrigation management purposes, especially at a field scale level (~10 to 200 ha). However, research opportunities exist to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of ET by developing algorithms to increase the spatial resolution of reflectance and surface temperature data derived from K1VHRR/Landsat/ASTER/MODIS images using same/other-sensor high resolution multi-spectral images.
Keywords : Algorithms, Evapotranspiration, Radiometric, Radiation, Remote sensing.
An overview on green house gas emission characteristics and energy evaluation of ocean energy systems from life cycle assessment and energy accounting studies
Subhashish Banerjee*, L. Duckers and R. E Blanchard1
Department of Business, Environment and Society, Coventry University, Priory Street, CV1 5FB, UK
1Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11, 3TU, UK
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An analysis has been made as regards emission characteristics of ocean energy systems from life cycle assessment and scope of energy availability from energy accounting studies. Assessment tools developed and standardized were the indices like scope of Green house gases (GHG) emission per kWh power generation, percentage of CO2 saved compared to coal fired power station and the energy payback period. Emission characteristics of ocean energy systems were also compared with that from solar power, bio-fuels and wind energy systems. Four case studies were made comprising of wave energy converters, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system and tidal energy. It could be observed that CO2 emission percentage saved from ocean energy schemes were more than 95 per cent; and energy payback period varied between one year and a little higher than two years, depending on the type of the device.
Keywords : Barrage, Energy accounting, Global warming, Ocean thermal energy, Pelamis, Wave dragon.
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