Volume 5, Year 2013-Issue 1
O. K. Onanuga and J. O. Coker*
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel derived from chemical reactors produced from palm kernel oil, is currently spreading like a wind dust in the air. It is considered as the fuel for the future without rise in global warming. It has advantages over the fossil fuel diesel as sustainability (renewable resources), ease of production, and availability of raw materials. The study examines the biodiesel produced through transesterification of palm kernel oil (1% fatty acid) with methanol using granulated sodium hydroxide as catalyst through ultrasonic method. The palm kernel oil biodiesel produced was characterized as alternative diesel fuel through standard tests (ASTM) for basic fuel properties such as viscosity, cloud point, pour point, flash point and specific gravity as well as economical feasibility for Nigeria. The result showed that 875g of palm kernel oil (1% fatty acid) with 175g of methanol using 13g of sodium hydroxide (granulated) subjected to ultrasonic method for 1 hour through transesterification process produced 96.23% of biodiesel and 16.89% of glycerol plus high excess methanol was allowed to settle for 6 hours. Two layers were observed containing unwashed biodiesel at the top and darker layers of glycerin. After washing the biodiesel with warm water, the cleaned, biodiesel was dried by heat to remove the moisture from and allowed to settle down. A bright colour biodiesel was obtained which was within the international standard for biodiesel fuel.
Keywords : ASTM, Biodiesel, Diesel fuel, Transesterification, Ultrasonic Method
Effect of Nymphaea meal incorporated diets on growth, feed efficiency and body composition in fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio L.
G. Sivani, D.C. Reddy and M. Bhaskar*
Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517502. (A.P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effect of varying levels of Nymphaea leaf meal on the growth and survival of common carp, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. In a feeding trail of 45 days, three experimental diets containing nymphaea leaf meal at 300, 400 and 500g kg-1 level of incorporation were fed to triplicate groups of 10 fish each. The conventional feed used in India, consisting of a mixture of groundnut oil cake and rice bran in 1:1 ratio served as the control. Best growth in terms of weight gain (35.2g), specific growth rate (4.67), protein efficiency ratio (PER) (2.7), feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.5) was obtained for the test diet with 400g kg-1 nymphaea meal inclusion level. However no statistical difference was observed between the three experimental diets. Digestive enzyme activity and digestibility studies also indicated the same pattern. Thus the results of the present study indicate that a diet of 300g kg-1 overall protein with nymphaea meal included at 400g kg-1 can elicit good growth response and survival in common carp.
Keywords : Cyprinus carpio, Digestibility, Enzyme activity, Growth, Nymphaea meal
M. N. Shiva Kameshwari*, H. L. Geetha1 and K. J. Tharasaraswathi
Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore - 560056, INDIA
1Department of Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore- 560056, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In the present study on Urginea indica, twelve different populations from southern part of India is considered. Fifteen parameters have been scored for each population to understand the relationship between different races. The main objective is to trace phylogeny in populations of U. indica to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree obtained is an unrooted tree. The parsimony tree describes that Shimoga and Chamundi hill populations have parallely evolved and forms the out group. Dopaegowdanapura population has given rise to Gopalaswamy betta, Gopalaswamy betta has given rise to Banganavadi and Banganavadi has given rise to one population which is missing in the tree and the missing population has given rise to Gorur on one hand and to Krishna Raja Sagar island and Gandhi Krishi Vighnayana Kendra on the other hand. Krishna Raja Sagar island and Gandhi Krishi Vighnayana Kendra shares a common clade. Gorur has given rise to Papanasini and Papanasini has given rise to Channamallipura, from Channamallipura another population has been evolved which is missing and the missing population has given rise to Basavanahalli and Ranganthittu which shares a Common clade. The Parsimony tree shows that these populations have evolved parallel. Dopaegowdanapura is the oldest from which all others are evolved. Ranganathittu and Basavanahalli form the youngest and latest. Therefore it is an unrooted tree with distance. Each population varied in their morphology and chromosome number and called as cytotypes. Difference in morphological character is mainly because of genetic characters. Habitat does not seem to play major role to mould morphological features.
Keywords : Parsimony, Phylogeny, Population, Urginea indica
Quantitative osteological study of a bottom feeder hillstream cyprinoid fish Crossocheilus latius latius (Hamilton- Buchanan)
S. N. Bahuguna*, Ashish K. Chowdhary and Shurveer Singh
Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, P.B.70, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar-Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The quantitative osteological study has been conducted on a Hillstream bottom feeder fish Crossocheilus latius latius. C. latius latius is a common hillstream fish of Snowfed Rivers of Alaknanda. The bones have been taken from different sized fishes ranged from 13 to 27 Cm in length and 39 to 132 gm in weight. The correlation is applied between Body Weight and the Weight of different disarticulated bones of C. latius latius. The correlation (r) is highly significant among the different parameter of body in relation to osteology which ranged from r = 0.952; P< 0.1 to r = 0.999; P< 0.1.
Keywords : Articulated and disarticulated bones, Correlation coefficient, Crossocheilus latius latius, Quantitative osteological study
Impact of pesticide Rogor toxicity on serum phosphomonoesterase levels of freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus
P.G. Department of Zoology, B.S.N.V. College, Lucknow – 226001, INDIA
Abstract : The exposure of pesticide Rogor had significantly altered serum alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus at different concentrations and duration under static conditions. However, the intensity of activity of both the enzymes were interestingly different. The fish elicited marked behavioral changes with increasing concentrations and exposure duration. The rising trend in enzyme levels which mediate membrane transport mechanism and biosynthesis of macromolecules, have been correlated with the induction and leakage of respective enzymes from liver following membrane damage and necrosis due to pesticide toxicity.
Keywords : Catfish, Rogor pesticide, Serum phosphatase, Toxicity
A study on fungicides potential and incidence of sheath rot of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada)
Lalan Sharma1, D. T. Nagrale1*, S. K. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and A. P. Sinha
1National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, Kusmaur, Maunath Bhanjan-275101(U.P.), INDIA
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (UK), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Sheath rot, Sarocdadium oryzae (Sawada) Gams. and Hawksw., has recently become a serious disease of rice when climatic conditions are unfavorable during flag sheath development. In this study systemic and non-systemic fungicides were tested against S. oryzae. Maximum inhibition of radial growth (76.53%) was recorded at 10.0ppm of tebuconazole fungicides. In non-systemic fungicides, maximum inhibition of radial growth (78.86%) was recorded at 200.0ppm. Comparative efficacy of fungicides on sheath rot was tested during Kharif 2008-2009. Foliar spray of tebuconazole was found superior overall other treatments giving reduction in disease severity (59.01-64.33%), which was followed by followed by carbendazim (48.70-55.28%), and also increased grain yield per plant (45.06-65.84%), grain yield per plot (45.57-65.85%), 1000-grains weight (10.80-52.58%) and reduction in chaffiness (48.07-53.80%). Among non-systemic fungicides chorothalonil was found best in managing sheath rot, giving reduction in disease severity (35.68-38.85%), and also increased grain yield per plant (24.78-44.74%), grain yield per plot (24.52-44.57%), 1000-grains weight (4.25-35.47%) and reduction in chaffiness (15.74-45.96%) as compared to check. Another field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2009-10 to observe sheath rot incidence on rice cultivars in Tarai region. The incidence was recorded in thirty three varieties; only varieties (Type-3 and Basmati-370) were recorded as free from disease symptoms.
Keywords : Fungicides, Germplasm, Sarocladium oryzae, Sheath rot.
J. Olakunle Coker* and B. Abdulrahaman Ogunji
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics unit), Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study is basically on electricity generation in which solar cell or module is used to power an inverter. This can also be called photovoltaic system, because it consists of solar modules, solar charge controller, 24V.d.c battery and an inverter. Solar modules serve as source of charger through solar charge controller to the battery and inverter are used in converting the direct current into an alternating current for the domestic appliance. This study is very useful in electricity generation especially in a developing country such as Nigeria where there is epileptic power supply. It-’s use is far better than generating set because it needs less maintenance, it does not use fuel, it is not heavy, it is rugged, it does not need an alternating current for its charging and it is noiseless.
Keywords : Battery, Electricity generation, Inverter, Solar cell, Solar charge controller
Allelopathy effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum viscosum, Ageratum conyzoides and Parthenium hysterophorus on the seed germination and seedling vigour of Chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) in vitro
Oinam Ibetombi Devi*, Biman Kumar Dutta and P. Choudhury
Microbial and Agricultural Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar -788011 (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : In present study the allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Clerodendrum viscosum, Ageratum conyzoides and Parthenium hysterophorus was observed on the seed germination of Chickpea in vitro (Cicer arietinum.L.).Seed germination was found to be inhibited in all the leaf extract concentrations used i.e. 2%,4%,6%,8% and 10%. However higher inhibition was observed in the 10% leaf extract of the test plants (i.e. Cl. viscosum, Ag. conyzoides and P. hysterophorus). In compare to all allelopathic plants extracts more inhibition was found in P. hysterophorus leaf extract followed by Cl. viscosum and Ag. conyzoides. Higher inhibition of radical and plumule growth of the Chickpea seeds was found with the increase in concentration of the leaf extracts used. Percentage of germination of Chickpea seeds was found to be low in 10% concentration whereas in untreated seeds it was found to be more.
Keywords : Ageratum conyzoides, Allelopathy, Cicer arietinum, Clerodendrum viscosum, Parthenium hysterophorus.
Culture and physiological variability in Rhizoctonia solani, responsible for foliar and lesions on aerial part of soybean
Lalan Sharma1*, Sanjay Goswami2 and D. T. Nagrale3
1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (UK), INDIA
2Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana- 141004, INDIA
3Department of Plant Pathology and Agricultural Microbiology, Mahatma Phoole Agricultural University, Rahuri- Rahuri-413722, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Foliar blight of soybean is one of the major fungal diseases. Rhizoctonia solani isolated from soybean growing in tarai regions of Uttarakhand. Six isolates of R. solani has been characterized on the basis of cultural and physiological nature such as colony diameter, growth, colour and sclerotia formation were recorded. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was found best for growth and development. Two isolates (Lakhimpur and Pantnagar) covered the whole plates (90 mm) in 48 hrs. However, maximum number of sclerotia and weight was recorded on Czapek Dox agar medium. Overall radial growth supporting is recorded Cornmeal Agar Medium. Varied range of temperatures i.e. 10, 15, 25, 30, 35 and 400C was tested and found better growth of different isolates of R. solani at 10 - 400C, with an optimum growth temperature at 300C. Isolates were grown on five broth media (Asthana & Hawkers, Potato Dextrose Agar, Czapek’s Dox Agar, Corn Meal Agar and Richards Agar) for fresh, dry weight and oatmeal broth culture filtrates of all isolates was used in phytotoxic effects. It recorded that maximum fresh and dry weight was observed on cornmeal agar medium. The maximum reduction in radical and plumule length of germinating seeds were recorded in Haldichaur isolate.
Keywords : Cultural, Foliar blight, Physiological, Phytotoxic, Rhizoctonia solani and Soybean.
Rashmi Bijalwan*, Monika Vats and S. P. Joshi
Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehra Dun-248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The impact of microclimatic variations on the developmental stages of common alpine plant species at four primary phenology sites at Dayara meadow of Garhwal Himalayas (Uttarakhand) was studied. The study revealed that the variations in the topographical features and environmental conditions directly influenced the phenology of the alpine plant species. Site I and IV showed great variation in the timing of phenological phases whereas, site III and IV showed approximately similar phenological timings. Anemone obtusiloba and Anaphalis contorta showed early flowering whereas Aconitum heterophyllum, Bupleurum longicaule and Parnassia nubicola flowered in late August and early September. P. nubicola had a shorter flowering period whereas Tanacetum longifolium and A. nepalensis had the longest flowering period. Taraxacum officinale and Geum elatum flowered twice in the season.
Keywords : Alpine, Microclimatic variations, Phenology, Topographical features.
A. R. Khan*, A. Rahman and R. D. Singh
Indian Council of Agricultural Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna – 800014 (Bihar), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Soil temperature is recognised as one of the most important factors in crop production. Some degree of manual control of soil temperature is possible through regulation of soil surface cover. The effect of eight mulch treatments ( rice husk, rice husk incorporated, paddy straw, saw dust, water mulch, transparent polyethylene, black polyethylene and bare) on the soil temperature during various growth phases of peanut crop (Arachis hypogaea L.) were investigated on a lateritic sandy loam soil (ultisols). These experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons. Plastic mulches raised the temperature upto 5°C generally during afternoon whereas vegetative mulches depressed the same. Between the plastic mulches, black polyethylene covered field recorded lower soil temperature (upto 2°C) than the transparent one. Water mulches due to their high specific heat capacity acted as a heat sink during the day and heat source at night. The vegetative mulches suppressed the soil temperature and did not allow the radiant energy to contact the soil directly and emitted back the energy to the atmosphere. Among the vegetative mulches, rice husk and saw dust proved better than paddy straw and rice husk incorporated. The type and amount of soil cover which modify micro-climate and soil edaphic environment, may help to plan the farming practice for better crop growth and production.
Keywords : Mulch, Peanut, Plastic mulch, Soil temperature, Vegetative mulch
Seasonal status of density of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons in Gomti river of Lucknow (U.P.), India
Department of Zoology, BSNV PG College, Lucknow (U.P.), INDIA
Abstract : Biodiversity of river Gomti is heavily affected by pollution. Planktons are important biological parameters to access the pollution level. Zooplanktons are the source of food for higher organism and phytoplankton play important role in biosynthesis of organic material and influence the river ecosystem, aquatic food chain and water characteristic. The biological productivity as ecological indicator to identify the ecological quality of river Gomti. The phytoplankton density fluctuated maximum in between the range of (140-900 In/l) during monsoon season and minimum (40-140 In/l) during winter season. Zooplanktons were reported to be highest (168-220 In/l) during winter and lowest (114-155 In/l) during summer season. During study period the total of phytoplanktons (17 sp.) and zooplanktons (10 sp.) were noticed during different seasons. Present study concluded that seasonal differences of planktons density will help in further planning of water management and their use for beneficial purpose like agricultural, drinking for mankind.
Keywords : Phytoplanktons, Plankton density, River Gomti, Zooplanktons.
Prakash Nautiyal*, Asheesh Shivam Mishra, K.R. Singh1 and Upendra Singh
Aquatic Biodiversity Unit, Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar- 246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1K.L. Degree College, Allahabad- 211002( UP), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Fish fauna of the river Ganga from Gangotri to Kanpur consisted of 140 fish species from 9 orders and 25 families; 63 fish species from 6 orders and 12 families in the mountain section (MS), while 122 species from 9 orders and 25 families in the Plains section (PS) of Upper Ganga. Cypriniformes and Cyprinidae were most species rich order and family in both sections. Forty six fish species primarily Cypriniformes and Siluriformes are common to both sections, only 17 in MS and 76 in PS. Orders Tetradontiformes, Osteoglossiformes and Clupeiformes were present in PS only. The taxonomic richness in the MS was low compared to PS. Probably motility and physiological requirements in respect of tolerance for temperature restrict faunal elements.
Keywords : Cyprinidae, Fish distribution, Gangetic plains, Himalaya, River continuum.
Inversion dynamics in some population of an emerging vector of malaria Anopheles (Celia) subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)
S. Chaudhry, T. Kaura*, Savita and R. Kumar
Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present paper deals with the polytene chromosome inversion polymorphism based genomic characterization of Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Culicidae: Diptera) which has attained the status of an emerging vector of malaria in Srilanka, West Bengal and some coastal parts of India. The inversion data of the present population from Hoshairpur, Punjab (pop.A), India has also been compared with five other populations of this species worked out earlier in this laboratory so as to have a comprehensive assessment of inversion dynamics in this taxon. From the percentage frequency of inversions it was also evident that both rural and urban populations of An. subpictus had nearly similar inversion frequencies. In addition to these observations, it was interesting to note that irrespective of the number of individuals sacrificed, cells studied and the number of aberrations encountered from each population, inversions always constituted 50% of the total mutational index. On the basis of the present comparative data of inversion polymorphism, it is logical to suggest that, similar to “meiotic drive” and “molecular drive” there is also a type of “inversion drive” which constantly changes population genomics to augment competitive fitness of the species. Our recent studies on the r DNA ITS2 sequence variations also suggest this contension.
Keywords : Anopheles subpictus populations, Genomic, Inversions, Polytene chromosome.
Sangeeta Madan*, Shilpika Dutta and Chanchal
Department of Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukul Campus, Haridwar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Water quality of Tons river near Tapkeshwar temple in Dehradun was assessed in terms of their physico-chemical parameters. Samples were collected on the monthly basis since January to March, 2011 from three sites viz confluence zone of temple, upstream and downstream river water. Total number of nine samples were analysed and a correlation matrices among parameters was determined. River water was showing alkaline character throughout the study period. pH, alkalinity and chloride were found to be under the acceptable limit of BIS (2009), although turbidity and hardness were exceeding the limits at all three sites but total dissolved solid only on confluence zone and downstream river sites. Water samples from the confluence zone near the temple showed slightly higher concentration of all the parameters than other sites. The present study reveals the slight effects of various religious activities on confluence site of tons river water near the temple which were found to be under the prescribed permissible limits of BIS (2009).Keywords : Confluence zone, Downstream, Tapkeshwar temple, Tons River, Upstream.
Impact of photoperiod on circadian trehalose and trehalase rhythms in the digestive system of silkworm, Bombyx mori
E. Bhuvaneswari and S. Sivaprasad*
Department of Zoology, Smt. N.P.S. Government College for Women, Chittoor – 517002 (AP), INDIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Circadian trehalose and trehalase rhythms were studied in the digestive system of Bombyx mori under 12 hr light-dark cycle (LD), continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD). The rhythmic changes were interpreted as synthetic cycles in gut wall and release cycles in gut lumen. The trehalose rhythm of gut wall comprised 8 trehalose synthetic cycles (TS cycles) under LD and LL and 7 under DD. The 24 hr trehalose rhythm of LD and LL was clock shifted to 27.2 hr under DD. The trehalose rhythm included 4 TR cycles under LD, 5 under LL and DD in the gut lumen and the 24 hr rhythm of LD was clock shifted to 19.2 hr under LL and DD. In the gut wall trehalase rhythm maintained 8 trehalase enzyme synthetic cycles (TES cycles) under LD, 10 LL and 7 under DD and the 24 hr rhythm of LD was clock shifted to 19.2 hr under LL and 27.2 hr under DD. In the gut lumen it included 4 TER cycles under LD and DD, 5 under LL and its 24-hr rhythm was advanced to 19.2 hr. Further analysis of data showed that LD favours trehalose synthesis, while LL and DD favour trehalase synthesis.
Keywords : Bombyx mori, Circadian trehalose rhythm, Circadian trehalase rhythm, Digestive system, Photoperiod.
Genome fingerprinting of two populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse (Asian Tiger) using random primers (Diptera: Culicidae)
Taruna Kaura1*, Ravinder Kumar2 and Sudarshan Chaudhry3
1Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
2Department of Dermatology, PostGraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, INDIA
3Department of Zoology, Retd. Prof. and Chairman, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present paper deals with RAPD-PCR based genomic characterization of two allopatric populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse which is a major vector of dengue fever and a source of many other pathogenic infections in man. For the present purpose one population was collected from village Dhunater, Distt. Hamirpur in Himachal Pradesh (pop.A) while the other was procured from Panjab University campus (pop.B). The genomic DNA from the legs of individual specimens was amplified by using three random primers viz: Primer I- 5’-TTTGCCCGGA-3’, Primer II- 5’-GTCCCGACGA-3’ and Primer III- 5’-CAGGCCCTTC-3’. The amplification of the DNA of pop.A with primer I, produced a total of 7 bands ranging from 230-880 bp while 3 bands ranging from 450-820 bp were produced from pop. B. Similarly, with primer II a total of 8 bands were produced from pop. A, which ranged from 220-800 bp while 9 were produced from the DNA of the individuals of pop. B, which ranged from 200-900 bp. With primer III, a total of 15 bands were produced from pop. A, with a base pair composition varying from 210-1031 bp while 5 were produced from pop. B with a range of 210-370 bp. From the hierarchical cluster sharing analysis of bands, primers I and II were found to ideal for the differentiation of the individuals at the population level studies of this species of considerable epidemiological significance.
Keywords : Ae. Albopictus, Allopatric populations, Genome fingerprinting, RAPD-PCR.
Immune response and status of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) affected fishes Channa punctatus and Clarias magur
Department of Zoology, Brijlal Biyani Science College, Amravati. (M.S.), INDIA
Abstract : In Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) affected Channa punctatus and Clarias magur, the serum total proteins were decreased by 24.63% and 38.75% respectively along with A:G ratio. During immune response, the antibodies produced were found to be positively exponential with the amount of antigens (bacteria, fungus and viruses). The present changes may be because of the changing environmental conditions especially temperature fluctuations producing stress conditions in the fishes.
Keywords : Channa punctatus, Clarias magur, EUS, Immune response, Serum proteins.
Isolation and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum, a wilt causing fungus, for its pathogenic and non-pathogenic nature in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
Mamta Joshi2*, Rashmi Srivastava2, A. K. Sharma2 and Anil Prakash1
1Department of Biotechnology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal- 412026 ( MP), INDIA
2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Collection of soil and plant samples from nine different geographical locations in Uttar Pradesh state of India was made. Composite soil was analyzed for its nutrient status. A total of sixty isolates of Fusarium species were recovered from the soil and plant samples. Among these, thirty nine isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum on the basis of their morphological and molecular identification. The pathogenicity test was conducted on tomato variety Pant T-3, disease incidence ranged from zero to 78.74%. Among F. oxysporum isolates, five were non pathogenic and three were found strongly pathogenic. Non-pathogenic isolates were tested for their antagonistic effect against most pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. The results showed that the Isolate no. 40 showed the highest antagonistic activity in inhibiting radial growth of pathogenic isolates.
Keywords : Antagonistic Fusarium, Biocontrol, Diversity, Tomato, Vascular wilt.
Biochemical indices to monitor health status with respect to reproductive cycle of Melanochelys trijuga
Vidya R. Chandavar1*, N. Raghu1, R. Lalitha1 and Prakash R. Naik2
1Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysore- 570005, INDIA
2Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangorti, Mysore-570006, INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Blood analysis can provide information regarding the physiological condition of an individual animal or population health as a whole. The present investigation analyzed clinical laboratory data of soluble organic substances of plasma namely triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT/ aspartate amionotransferase) and albumin of Asian pond turtle Melanochelys trijuga. Using multiple samples measures of analysis and variance was determined. M. trijuga exhibited variation in biochemical parameters with respect to reproductive cycle. Biochemical profiles of cholesterol, HDL, LDL, SGPT and albumin values found to be high in preparative period and minimum in recrudescent period of the reproductive cycle. This indicates that the preparative period is the stage where the animals prepare for the forthcoming reproductive period. The level of triglycerides and cholesterol varied independently. All the parameters fluctuated within normal range. The data may be useful to evaluate the health status of the turtle for veterinary care and conservation.
Keywords : Albumin, Biochemical parameters, Reproductive cycle, Triglyceride, Turtle.
Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Chemistry,The University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104 (WB), INDIA
Abstract: Ninhydrin is the most well known spray reagent for identification of amino acids due to its high sensitivity. But, it produces same purple/violet color with all amino acids, except proline and hydroxy proline. A new spray reagent, para bromobenzoic acid has been introduced here which produces distinguishable colors with the amino acids with moderately high sensitivity (0.01-1.0) μg. A probable mechanism for such color formation has also been proposed.
Keywords: Amino acids, Ninhydrin, p-Bromobenzoic acid, Thin-layer chromatography
Description of a new species Cephaline Gregarine Stenophora bristili (Apicomplexa, Sporozoea) from Millipede (Chondromorpha severini) in Aurangabad district (M.S), INDIA
J. C. Bhandari* and S. V. Nikam
Department of Zoology Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad. (M.S.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study of the endoparasitic cephaline gregarine in the gut content of millipede (Chondromorpha severini) was found to be infested with a new species (Stenophora bristili) of genus Stenophora (Labee, 1899). It differs from all the earlier reported species. The shape of the body of cephalont small elongated, slightly curved and rounded posterior end. Potomerite consists of fine bundle of bristles. The Sporont is elongated curved, slightly tapering and rounded posterior end, having brush like broader in between protomerite and deutomerite, Nucleus is spherical with ecentric karyosome. The different developmental stages including cephalont, sporont, gametocyst and sporocyst have been observed.
Keywords : Cephaline gregarine, Chondromorpha severini, Stenophora.
Impact of industrial effluents on ground water and soil quality in the vicinity of industrial area of Panipat city, India
Pawan K. Bharti1, 2*, Pawan Kumar2 and Vijender Singh3
1Center for Agro-Rural Technologies (CART-India), 20, Jamaalpur Man, Raja Ka Tajpur, Bijnore - 246735 (UP), INDIA
2Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Hardwar – 249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Haryana Test House, Panipat (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:email@example.com
Abstract : The present paper is aimed towards the assessment of heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater affected by textile industrial effluents at Panipat city in India. Samples of groundwater and irrigated soils from textile industrial area were analyzed for various heavy metals, viz. Mn, Ni, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Metal transfer factors from groundwater to irrigated agricultural soil and from soil to groundwater were calculated for heavy metals. The findings deal with the distribution of heavy metals in groundwater of industrial area and irrigated agricultural soil. Transfer factors for heavy metals from effluent to groundwater were observed to be 0.436, 1.180, 6.461, 2.401, 2.790, 3.178 and 0.634 for Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. These were found to be very high from ground water to agriculture soil due to the natural shale value of heavy metals in soil system. Thus, untreated industrial effluents can cause an environmental threat to groundwater resources and affects soil quality and agricultural plant productivity.
Keywords : Agriculture soil, Groundwater, Heavy metals, Industrial effluent, Transfer factor.
Efficacy of Capparis decidua in control of Lymnea acuminata and their cercaria larvae at Balsamand lake, Jodhpur
Jyotsna Shekhawat1* and Naresh Vyas2
1Department of Zoology & Environmental Science, Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The snail Lymnea acuminata is considered to be intermediate hosts because humans harbour the sexual stages of the parasites and the snails harbour the asexual stages. Herbs are believed to be safer than the synthetic drugs for the control of snails. Alcoholic extracts of Capparis decidua flowers have been evaluated for their lethal effect against L. acuminata and their cercarial larvae. 1%, 2%, 5% concentration of alcoholic flower extract of Capparis were not effective for cercaria after 9 hrs of treatment. 100% mortality was not observed in echinostome and furcocerous even in 24 hrs. But surprisingly after 17 hrs 100% mortality was observed in 5% concentration for xiphdio.
Keywords : Capparis deciduas, Echinostome, Furcocerous, Lymnaea acuminate, Xiphidio.
Biochemical changes in haemolymph of Apis mellifera L. drone under the influence of cell phone radiations
Neelima R. Kumar, Neha Rana and Preeti Kalia*
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The effects of Electromagnetic radiations (EMR) are being felt by wildlife and the environment as a whole, birds, bees, worms, trees are being affected. So the main focus of present study was carried out to analyse the influence of cell phone radiations on the biochemical aspects of drone of Apis mellifera L. The drone was exposed for 30 mins to radiations using live cell phones kept in working mode with tape recorder at the speaker end and positive response at the receiver’s end. The results of the treatment were analyzed and compared with the control. The concentration of various biomolecules increased from 1.65 mg/ml to 2.75 mg/ml for carbohydrates, 3.74 mg/ml to 4.85 mg/ml for proteins and from 0.325 mg/ml to 1.33 mg/ml for lipids under the influence of EMR.
Keywords : Apis mellifera, Biomolecules, Cell phone radiations, Drone, Haemolymph.
Evaluation of relationship between microbial load and drug efficacy of Andrographis paniculata during storage
G. Khandelwal1*, Aparajita Gupta1, Deepak Dwivedi2, G. Prasad1 and D.K. Maheshwari1
1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar - 249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Microbiology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Three different extracts of Andrographis paniculata obtained by using three different solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and water, were used to find out correlation of antimicrobial potency of the drug among them and with storage period of six months. Antibacterial activities were assessed by well diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi and antifungal activity by food poisoning technique against Candida albicans. No definite pattern of antimicrobial nature in acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract could be observed. Acetone extract showed maximum inhibitory (18.3mm) effect among all extract in general. Ethanol extract could attain second position and aqueous extract failed to inhibit growth of any organism even at 100% concentration. A declined trend of inhibitory effect of extract with increased number of storage days has been found showing a negative relation between inhibitory effect of the drug and storage duration. But positive correlation between inhibitory effect and concentration has been recorded. No inhibition was recorded against E. coli by any of the extract Bacterial load in term of CFU/g was found tremendously enhanced with increase of storage period. Negative correlation between microbial load and drug efficacy had been established while positive correlation between microbial load and storage period had been recorded.
Keywords : Andrographis paniculata, Antimicrobial activity, Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, Microbial contamination, Storage.
Sara Ghanbari Parsa1, Mahroo Haji Moniri1* and Ahmad Asoodeh2
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IRAN
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IRAN
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study shows the morphology, anatomy and chemistry of Tornabea scutellifera occurring in north eastern Iran. Most thalli are corticolouse, even though its thalus also shows some degree of vegetation on rocky substrates.
Keywords : Lichen, Tornabea scutelifera, Northern Khorasan, Iran.
S.P. Singh and Shiv Pratap Singh*
Reproductive Biology Cell, Department of Zoology, D.B.S. (P.G.) College, Dehradun - 248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effect of Solanum xanthocarpum seed powder as aqueous suspension on genital organs and fertility of female albino rats was studied at doses of 50, 100 & 150 mg/kg/day for 30 days. The genital organ weight of albino rats was reduced significantly (P<0.05) after the treatment at 100 and 150 mg/kg doses of seed powder of S. xanthocarpum.for 30 days. The higher doses caused histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus leading to 100% control of fertility as no implants were recorded in treated female rats on the day 10th of pregnancy.
Keywords : Contraception, Fertility control, Genital organs, Herbal drugs, Solanum xanthocarpum.
Comparative assessment of floristic structure, diversity and regeneration status of tropical rain forests of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India
B. N. Sathish1*, Syam Viswanath2, C.G. Kushalappa1,3, M. R. Jagadish, and K. N. Ganeshaiah4
1College of forestry (UAS, Bengaluru), Ponnampet – 571216, INDIA
2Tree Improvement Division, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bengaluru, INDIA
3Department of Forest Biology and Tree Improvement, College of Forestry (UAS, Bengaluru), Ponnampet – 571216, INDIA
4Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Gandi Krishi Vignana Kendra, UAS, Bengaluru, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Tropical forests are one of the richest landscapes in terms of its richness, diversity and endemicity. The present study was carried out in the Central Western Ghats: one of the hottest hotspot of biodiversity. The aim of the study was to compare floristic diversity in tropical wet evergreen forest between northern and southern parts of Western Ghats of Karnataka. Kodagu district in southern part and Uttara Kannada district in northern part was chosen to assess the same, as these two districts cover highest forest cover in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. In each district all the evergreen forests were sampled with 1000 m X 5 belt transacts. Totally 22 such samplings were done both southern and northern part of Western Ghats. In each of these transacts all the trees measuring e” 30 gbh were enumerated and botanically identified to the species level and the same was used for computation of diversity indices. The richness and diversity was comparatively higher in southern part compared to northern part of Western Ghats, where as the richness of threatened tree species was comparatively higher in northern part of Western Ghats. In addition to the species richness and diversity, the paper also deals with the dominant tree species and families in both the region.Keywords : Diversity, Evergreen forests, Northern region, Southern region, Species richness.
Phytotoxic effect of chrome liquor on growth and chlorophyll content of Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleid
Asha Singh and Piyush Malaviya*
Department of Environmental Science, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study assessed the tolerance of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid (giant duckweed) exposed to different concentrations (5% -100%) of chrome liquor for 7 days. Physiological conditions of S.polyrrhiza plants were monitored daily by measuring fresh weight and chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b. Fresh biomass of Spirodela plant showed concentration and duration dependent reduction with minimum value (5.71 g) reported on 7 d at 100% tannery effluent concentration. Likewise, significant reduction in chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b content was observed in concentration-duration dependent manner with maximum reduction reported to be 99.8% and 99.6% respectively on 7 d at 100% effluent concentration in comparison to control.
Keywords : Chlorophyll, Chrome liquor, Spirodela, Tannery, Toxicity.
Morphological and cultural characterization of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler blight of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex J.D. Hook)
Dipak T. Nagrale1*, Anil P. Gaikwad2 and Lalan Sharma1
Department of Plant Pathology and Agricultural Microbiology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722, INDIA
1National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, Mau Nath Bhanjan-275101, INDIA
2Regional Agricultural Research Station, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Lonavala- 410401, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Fungal blights are among the major concern for limiting the cultivation and production of many ornamental and flowering plants. Gerbera is an important cut flower with great export potential. However, it is infected by many pathogens in the protected cultivation. The severe infection of fungal blight caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was observed in the polyhouse condition. Hence, in this study, critical morphological and cultural studies were done to understand the pathogen behaviour. The fungus A. alternata produced profuse mycelium on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) with an average width of 4.42 µm in diameter, conidiophores, conidia and intercalary chlamydospores measured as 42.26 x 4.29 µm, 47.16 x 13.49 µm and 7.22 µm in diameter, respectively. The synthetic media viz., Leonions’s agar, Glucose-peptone agar and Sabourand’s agar and non-synthetic media, Oat meal agar and PDA were excellent for the mycelial growth and conidial production of A. alternata.
Keywords : Alternaria alternata, Blight, Cultural characters, Gerbera jamesonii, Morphology.
P. Prathima Rao , M. N. Shiva Kameshwari* and K. J. Tharasaraswathi
Department of Botany and Biotechnology, Biosystematics Laboratory, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore 560056 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The current study presents investigations on the scape anatomical characteristics of Urginea indica population, a geophyte growing in India, Africa and Mediterranean regions. For scape anatomical studies transverse sections of inflorescence axis were taken and studied for the first time. The twelve different population studied revealed that outermost epidermis of inflorescence is covered by thick cuticle. Cortex is differentiated into 3 regions outer chlorenchyma, middle collenchyma and inner parenchyma. But the shape and number of rows of cells vary in different populations collected from various localities of Karnataka. Vascular bundles are arranged in 3 rows, 2 rows in few populations and number of vascular bundles vary. Larger bundles varies from 5-8, medium 8-12 and smaller bundles 5 to 21 in number. Xylem elements are uniseriate and biseriate in few. Some populations show Myelin structures and cell inclusions, based on their ecological habitat. The distinctions among cross sections of scapes are evident and our findings offer a comprehensive study using anatomical traits for delimitation and diagnosing populations of U. indica providing a platform for further taxonomic investigations.
Keywords : Urginea indica, Geophyte, Myelin, Scape.
Correlation of water’s physico-chemical characteristics and trematode parasites of Channa punctata (Bloch) in Awangsoi Lake, Manipur, India
Huidrom Puinyabati1*, Maibam Shomorendra2 and Devashish Kar1
1Division of Wetlands, Fishery Science and Aquaculture, Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam (Central) University, Silchar-11 (Assam), INDIA
2Fish disease Research Lab, Department of Zoology, Thambal Marik College, Oinam- 795134 (Manipur), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Infection with trematode parasites can lead to severe change in nutrient content and may result in host mortalities and character of a water body may influence the parasitic fauna. Hence a study was carried out from 2010 to 2011 to find out a correlation of water’s physic-chemical characteristics and trematode parasites of Channa punctata (Bloch) in Awangsoi Lake, Manipur, India. During the present investigation three species of trematodes were recorded. In the present study there were concurrent infections by two or more parasite species. The percentage of infection was positively correlated with temperature, pH, DO and conductivity in Awangsoi Lake. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.652; p<0.05) with FCO2 and a negative correlation with alkalinity. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of these parasites may be attributed to ecological conditions, particularly distribution of intermediate hosts and also the age of the host and the life cycle of the parasite species.
Keywords : Awangsoi Lake, Channa punctata, Physico-chemical parameters, Trematodes.
Effects of geometric particle sizes of wood flour on strength and dimensional properties of wood plastic composites
D. N. Izekor*, S. O. Amiandamhen and O. S. Agbarhoaga
Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, NIGERIA.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effect of different wood flour sizes on strength and dimensional properties of wood-plastic composites were examined. Wood flour of different particle sizes viz; 1.00mm, 2.00mm and >2.00mm were compounded with recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) at different wood/plastic ratio of 1: 1, 2: 3 and 3: 2. The results obtained showed that wood flour size > 2.00mm has the highest MOR and MOE values of 1.206N mm-2 and 2484.72Nmm-2 while wood flour size of 1.00mm had the lowest MOR and MOE values of 0.505Nmm-2 and 2195.89Nmm-2 respectively. Also the results of the physical properties showed that wood flour size of 1.00mm had the lowest thickness swelling percentage with mean values of 0.28% and 2.08% while water absorption percentage has mean values of 0.91% and 10.58% after 2 hours and 24 hours of water immersion respectively. It was observed that wood flour size of 2.00mm and particle size >2.00mm had the highest thickness swelling and water absorption percentages. This showed that strength properties of wood plastic composites increased with increased particle sizes whereas its dimensional properties increased with decreased particle sizes. The results of analysis of variance carried out on mechanical and physical properties showed that particle sizes and wood/plastic ratio had a significant effect on the mechanical and physical properties of wood plastic composites (p 0.05).
Keywords : Dimensional stability, Geometric particle sizes, Low-density polyethylene, Wood flour, Wood plastic composite.
Impact of water quality attributes and comparative study of icthyofaunal diversity of Asan lake and River Asan
D. R. Khanna and Fouzia Ishaq*
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study reported a total of 28 taxa with six families from Asan Lake whereas only 18 taxa were reported from river Asan in Doon valley. The families identified were Cyprinidae, Chandadae, Belonidae, Cobitididae, Mastacembellidae, and Sisoridae. The impact of water quality parameters was quite evident on the fish diversity and density of Asan Lake and River Asan. Correlation between hydrological attributes showed good relationship in Asan Lake and these parameters were found to be the most important variables in shaping fish assemblage. However, in River Asan the effect of physico-chemical factors were significant on fish diversity. The study showed that Asan lake supported considerable diversity of the fishes and is important for conservation. Its fish fauna is threatened being either vulnerable or endangered. The low fish diversity in river Asan indicated the disturbed habitat and ecological conditions of the river and the data generated from it would be useful for conservation planning and management and also for future assessment of this river.
Keywords : Asan lake, Conservation, Correlation, Hydrological, Icthyofaunal.
Occurrence of phthirapteran ectoparasite parasitizing on domestic dogs, Canis familiaris (Linne) in Jaunpur district (U.P.)
Raj Mani Rao, Suresh Chandra and Suneel Kumar Singh1*
Department of Zoology, Kutir Post Graduate College, Chakke, Jaunpur-222 146 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
1Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh-249 201 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Only two species of biting louse, Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein) (43.27%) and Trichodectes canis (De Geer) (13.47%) have been recorded from 245 dogs examined in twelve different localities in Jaunpur district during 2009 to 2011. Female dogs were found most prevalent in comparison to the male in both the cases. Different parameters like host sex, hair colour, hygienic condition, health and age group have been taken into the consideration during the survey. Older age groups, unhealthy and unhygienic condition of dogs were found more prone for the lice. In case of relative intensity of lice 38% were found moderately infested with H. spiniger while 23% and 16% were very light and light infested. Only 12% could be recorded heavy infested dog while 8% remained very heavy infested. Similar trends were recorded for T. canis where moderate infestation followed by very light, light, heavy and very heavy infestation respectively. Besides these two lice, some other ectoparasites (ticks, mites and fleas) (5.31%) were also recorded casually but not used the data for prevalence.
Keywords : Phthiraptera, Dog lice, Occurrence, Heterodoxus spiniger; Trichodectes canis.
Vinay Kumar, R. Kumar*, R. Kumar, B. K.Vimal and M. Kumar
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural College, BAU, Sabour-813210, Bhagalpur (Bihar), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abstract : The Diara land is found in between the natural levees of the river and formed due to its meandering and course changing behavior. The topography of Diara land is mostly undulating and intersected with numerous dead and disconnected channels, Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) is a reliable technique to prepare a comprehensive inventory of land use pattern of an area. The present study was carried out to prepare a complete digital map of diara land of Bhagalpur district using spatial software (TNT Mips). On the basis of visual interpretation of the satellite image and physiographic pattern of the land escape, polygons were digitized for area delineation and mapping for diara land. Out of sixteen blocks of Bhagalpur district, only six blocks were identified as an old Diara land (203.26 km2) and thirteen blocks were identified as a new diara land (869.78 km2). Occupied areas viz. Narayanpur, Bihpur, Kharik, Naugachhiya, Ismailpur, Rangra Chowk and Gopalpur blocks were identified under complete diara land. No any one Diara land characteristics ware marked in Shahkund, Goradih and Sanhaula blocks.
Keywords : Bhagalpur, Diara land, Digital map, Satelite image
Ajay Kumar1* and Alok Kumar2
1Department of Zoology, Chinmaya Degree College, Haridwar-249403 (UK), INDIA
2Department of Chemistry, Chinmaya Degree College, Haridwar-249403 (UK), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effects of dietary glutathione against chromium induced hematological indices were studied in rats, Rattus rattus albino. Supplementation of glutahione to the diet of chromium fed rats, elevated significantly percent hemoglobin (40.4%), number of red blood corpuscles (48.7%), plasma corpuscular volume (43.4%) and mean corpuscular volume (37.1%) which were inhibited in chromium poisoned rats. However, no marked elevation was noticed in number of white blood corpuscles and total proteins. Intake of glutathione checked the accumulation of glucose, cholesterol, tryglcerides, phospholipids and bilirubin in chromium treated rats. Chromium intoxication significantly increased the activities of transaminases (p<0.001) and dehydrogenases (p<0.01/p<0.001) which declined by supplementation of gltathione which also restored the chromium inhibited activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase. Specific reasons for these pharmacoticological aspects of glutathione have also been discussed.
Keywords : Glutathione, Chromium, Blood, Enzymes, Rat.
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial effect of root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Family Nyctaginaceae)
Deepti Malhotra1, Amir Khan2 and Fouzia Ishaq3*
1Department of Biotechnology, Shri Guru Ram Rai (P.G.) College, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Research Balawala-248161, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
3Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
Abstract : Boerhaavia diffusa belonging to the family of the Nyctaginaceae is mainly a diffused perennial herbaceous creeping weed of India. The present study deals with the investigation of phytochemical analysis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa. The result revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, saponins, flavonoids, polysaccharides, steroid and tannin in both the root extracts. B. diffusa root extract possesses antimicrobial activity as the zone of inhibition was observed for both gram positive as well as gram negative bacterial strains.
Keywords : Alkaloid, Antimicrobial activity, Boerhaavia diffusa, Flavonoids, Phytochemical.
Somenath Kundu and Amalendu Sinhababu*
Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Leaf cuticle was covered by epicuticular wax consisting mainly of straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons with a variety of substituted groups. The studies of cuticular characters of leaves had played an important role in chemotaxonomy. An n-hexane extract of fresh and mature leaves of Ficus glomerata, containing a thin layer of epicuticular waxes was analyzed for the first time by Thin Layer Chromatography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and Scanning Electron Microscopy using standard hydrocarbons. The leaves contained 18 identified long chain (C15–C33) n-alkanes except C23 accounting for 68.82% of the hydrocarbons, and an unknown number of unidentified branched chain alkanes. The predominant n-alkanes were C16 (5.92%), C17 (6.18%), C27 (5.11%), C29 (5.29%), C31 (5.47%), whilst C15 (4.21%), C18 (4.57%), C26 (3.88%), C28 (3.53%), C30 (3.43%) n-alkanes were moderately abundant. The C19 (2.53%), C20 (2.52%) and C22 (2.16%) homologues were present only in minor amounts. SEM views were also taken for epicuticular layers and hydrocarbons of the leaves. Qualitative and Quantitative characterization of n-alkanes present in the epicuticular wax can be used as an effective tool in chemotaxonomical work.
Keywords : Epicuticular leaf waxes, Ficus glomerata Roxb., GC, n-Alkanes, SEM.
Impact of photoperiod on circadian sucrose and sucrase rhythms in the digestive system of silkworm, Bombyx mori.
E. Bhuvaneswari, B. Sailaja and S. Sivaprasad*
Department of Zoology, Smt. N.P.S. Government College for Women, Chittoor – 517 002 (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding Author.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The impact of photoperiod on circadian sucrose and sucrase rhythms were analyzed in the digestive system of Bombyx mori under 12 hr light-dark cycle (LD), continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD). The rhythmic changes were interpreted as synthetic cycles in gut wall and release or uptake cycles in gut lumen. The gut wall comprised 6 sucrose synthetic cycles (SS cycles) under LD, LL and 5 under DD. The 24 hr rhythm of LD and LL was clock shifted to 28.8 hr under DD. In gut content, the sucrose rhythm showed 7 sucrose uptake cycles (SU cycles) under LD, 6 under LL and 5 under DD and the 24 hr rhythm of LD was clock shifted to 28.0 hr under LL and 34 hr under DD. In the gut wall sucrase rhythm maintained 7 SES cycles under LD and DD and 9 cycles under LL and its 24-hr rhythm is advanced to 18.2 hr. In the gut lumen 5 SER cycles under LD, 8 under LL and 6 under DD and its rhythm is advanced to 15 hr under LL and 20 hr under DD. Further analysis of data showed that LD favoured both synthesis and uptake of sucrose while LL, favoured the sucrase synthesis and its release.
Keywords : Bombyx mori, Circadian sucrose rhythm, Circadian sucrase rhythm, Gut, Photoperiod.
Ion funnel quadrupole time of Flight mass spectrometry: optimization for achieving all ion MS/MS and pseudo MSn
Padma Marwah and Ashok Marwah*
AptianceInc. 4220 Beltwood Parkway, Farmers Branch TX, 75244 USA.
*Corresponding author: E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An attempt has been made to study and understand Ion funnel technology for improved detection and measurement capabilities of ions originating from small molecules. Different ways to create and study collision induced fragments have been explored and strategies to achieve various kinds of all ions MS/MS have been discussed. We observed that stability of ions in the system is largely controlled by the funnel exit DC voltage and Rf voltages of the low pressure funnel also contributes to the collision induced dissociation of the ions. An appropriate mix of in source collision energy coupled with Funnel exit DC voltage and low pressure funnel Rf voltage can induce extensive fragmentation of the ions mimicking several stages of MS/MS simultaneously.
Keywords : Ion funnel; QTOF, optimization, All ion MS/MS, Pseudo MSn.
Rakesh Kumar1*, Kisan Singh Rawat1, Jitendra Singh1, Ashutosh Singh2 and Ashish Rai3
1Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA
2Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bihar- 813210, INDIA
3Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The quantity and quality of residues determine the formation and stabilization of aggregate structure for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. Plant roots and residues are the primary organic skeleton to enmesh the inorganic particles together and build macro- and microaggregates while sequestering SOC. There are three major organic binding agents of aggregation: temporary (plant roots, fungal hyphae, and bacterial cells), transient (polysaccharides), and persistent (humic compounds and polymers). Conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural lands for intensive cultivation severely depletes SOC pools. Magnitude of SOC sequestration in the soil system depends on the residence time of SOC in aggregates. Microaggregates are bound to old organic C, whereas macroaggregates contain younger organic material. Many techniques have been used to assess the SOC distribution in aggregates. Classical methods include SOC determination in aggregate fractions by wet and dry sieving of bulk soil. Isotopic methods including the determination of 13C and 14C with mass spectrometry are techniques to quantify the turnover and storage of organic materials in soil aggregates. Other techniques involve the use of computed tomography, X-ray scattering, and X-ray microscopy to examine the internal porosity and inter-aggregate attributes of macro- and microaggregates. Current state-of-knowledge has not unravelled completely the underlying complex processes involved in the sequestration, stability, dynamics, and residence times of SOC in macro- and microaggregates. There is a need to develop a unique conceptual model of aggregate hierarchy.
Keywords : Aggregation, Carbon sequestration, Soil organic carbon.
A. A. Senbanjo and J.O. Coker*
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics Unit), Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This work traces the causes of electricity problem in Nigeria to inadequate power generation. Though other militating factors such as faulty transmission and distribution systems were highlighted, the study insists that the major contributing factor to the epileptic electric power supply in the country is due to the inadequate power generation system currently in place. The study further proposes an integrated powers supply system whereby several sources of primary energy are harnessed and combined to give a robust generation system, as the solution to the epileptic power supply in the country. The study further recommends that the reactivation and repairs of the country’s power transmission and distribution networks, is germane to the attainment of this goal.
Keywords : Distribution system, Energy resources, Integrated Power supply system, Power generation, Transmission system.
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