Volume 4, Year 2012-Issue 2
N. E. Okoronkwo and J. O. Echeme
1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University Uturu, NIGERIA 2Department of Chemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: February 4, 2012; Revised received: June 3, 2012; Accepted: July 1, 2012
Abstract : The cholinesterase and microbial inhibitory activities of different parts of Tetrapleura tetraptera plant were evaluated due to their local applications. The cholinesterase results revealed that the extracts showed some levels of inhibitory effects depending on the solvents used. Tetrapleura tetraptera leaves had better inhibitory effects with maximum inhibitory activity of 70.0% at a concentration of 1.00mg/l for the water extract. Tetrapleura tetraptera bark showed highest inhibitory effect of 71.05% and (84.34%) for the ethanol and chloroform extracts at concentrations of 0.5mg/l and 1.0 mg/l respectively. While for petroleum ether, T. tetraptera bark recorded 74.34% inhibitory effect at concentration of 2.0 mg/l and also showed continuous increase in inhibitory activity as the concentration increases for aqueous methanol. The results of the antimicrobial activities showed that among all the test organisms, the ethanol and water extracts of the leaves, stem, bark and root of the plants had promising activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia bacteria and Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus species fungi. There was no activity shown by the ethanol and water extracts of the parts of the plants with Fugarium oxysporum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Mucor species fungi. The bacteria strains were more sensitive to the tested extracts than the fungi strains.
Keywords : Anticholinesterase, Antimicrobial, Inhibition, Tetrapleura tetraptera
Role of availability of critical aquaculture inputs and community-managed markets on community-based floodplain wetland management
R. C. Barman, Devashish Kar, S. S. Dana and D. Majumdar
1,2Department of Life Science, Assam (Central) University, Silchar-11 (Assam), INDIA 3Department of Fishery Extension, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Science, Kolkata, INDIA 4Department of Agricultural Statistics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA
Received: March 19, 2011; Revised received: January 12, 2012; Accepted: July 8, 2012
Abstract : India has extensive wetlands of 2.02 lakh ha. These are basically low-lying floodplain areas. Assam has endowed huge floodplain wetlands and are locally called as Beel. These are one of the most important fishery resources of India providing livelihood to thousands of poor people. The average existing fish production of Assam Beel is only 173 kg/ha/year against its production potential of 1000-1500 kg/ ha/year. A study was conducted in three Beels of the Assam state to see the role of two situational independent variables namely availability of critical aquaculture inputs (X1) and community-managed markets (X2) on dependent variable i.e. knowledge levels of Beel users for community-based Beel fisheries management (Y). The study revealed that community-managed markets was significantly and positively associated (P<0.01) with knowledge levels of Beel users on community-based Beel fisheries management. Also, between these two variables, community managed market (X2) was found to be most significantly contributing variable (‘t’-value – 2.91**) on knowledge levels of Beel users for community-based Beel fisheries management (Y).
Keywords : Beel, Community based-fisheries management, Wetlands
N. P. Naithani and Mala Bhatt
Department of Geology, H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Badshahi Thaul, Tehri-Garhwal -249 199 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: December 8, 2011; Revised received: April 18, 2012; Accepted: July 27, 2012
Abstract : The area of investigation lies between Maneri and Gangnani along the Bhagirathi river in the lesser and central Himalayan block of Garhwal Himalayas. The rocks of Garhwal group are represented by quartzites, sericite quartzite’s and talc chlorite schist intruded by metabasics, whereas the Central crystallines are constituted by gneisses, schists, migmatites and amphibolites. For the purpose of drainage basin morphometric analysis 100 third order drainage basins were marked. Drainage basin morphometric parameters of 100 basins were calculated. On the basis of lithology and tectonic setup, the area was divided into three morphogenetic units viz Central crystallines, Thrust zone and Garhwal group. The basins which were situated below 2500 mts are categorized under low altitudes and above 2500 as basins of higher altitudes. The relationship between drainage basin morphometric parameters and altitude suggest that basins situated at higher altitude have higher value of stream frequency, number of first and second order streams, fine texture and low drainage density.
Keywords : Altitudes, Central crystallines, Drainage basin, Garhwal group, Morphometric parameter
Agronomic efficacy of compost manure and NPK fertilizer on some soil chemical properties and maize production in an ultisol environment
K. E. Law-Ogbomo, A. U. Osaigbovo and I. Ekwueme
Department of Crop Science, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City - 300001, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E- mail: email@example.com
Received: May 21, 2012; Revised received: July 8, 2012; Accepted: August 2, 2012
Abstract : Studies were conducted as an on-farm trial at Evboneka in 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons to estimate the effect of soil amendments in enhancing soil fertility status and relative agronomic efficacy of maize yield in humid ultisol environment. Effects of compost was investigated at application rates of 20 and 40 t ha-1 while NPK and organo-mineral fertilizer effects were investigated at 200 kg/ha and a combination of 100 kg/ha NPK and 20 t/ha compost manure (organo-mineral fertilizer) with maize TZEE-W cultivar resulting in five treatments and replicated three times. The results obtained revealed that the tested soil was low in organic matter, total N, available P, moderately acidic and low cations (Ca, Mg and K). The compost manure was rich in N, P, Mg, K, organic carbon and Ca concentration. The application of compost manure and NPK to the soil improved the soil fertility status. The highest maize height (132.70 cm), greatest total dry weight (0.63 t ha-1) and relative agronomic efficacy (%) were obtained from plots treated with 40 t/ha-1 compost manure while the plots treated with organo-mineral had the greatest LAI (2.75).
Keywords : Compost, Maize, NPK, Organo-mineral, Soil fertility
Sunita Kapila, T. Aggarwal and Anju Rao
Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: July 31, 2010; Revised received: June 10, 2012; Accepted: August 6, 2012
Abstract : Lead pollution resulting from vehicular traffic in Chandigarh, India was assessed by using two pleurocarpic, ectohydric mosses (Entodon concinnus and Herpetineuron toccoae) collected from pollution free area in Kasauli. Of the two mosses tested for lead accumulation, E. concinnus was found to be more efficient than H. toccoae (50.3ppm vs 34.4ppm).
Keywords : Assessment, Lead accumulation, Lead content, Moss bags, Traffic pollution
Aphidicidal potential of Azadirachta indica, Adhatoda vasica, Vitex negundo, Parthenium hysterophorus and Lantana camara against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
B. S. Chandel, Vimlesh Singh and S. S. Trevedi
P.G. Department of Zoology, D.B.S. College, Kanpur-208006, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: December 17, 2010; Revised received: March 16, 2012; Accepted: August 10, 2012
Abstract : Use of eco-friendly naturally occurring plant products in the management of the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions was carried out. The results revealed that the nymphs and adults mortality of mustard aphid varied significantly with three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) of five plant products. The mortality was high with seed kernel extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica killed nymphs and adults of L. erysimi (70.82 %) followed by leaves extracts of lagundi, Vitex negundo Linn. (69.40 %), leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. (65.38 %), leaves extract of arusa, Adhatoda vasica Nees. (55.81%), aerial parts of aripple, Lantana camara Linn. (51.70%) and untreated control (1.5 %), respectively. The seed kernel extracts of A. indica differed significantly from the remaining ones except V. negundo from which it does not differ significantly to one another. The effects of carrot grass, P. hysterophorus was recorded moderate aphidicidal action while L. camara caused the lowest mortality of nymphs and adults of L. erysimi among all treated natural products. Of the five plant products tested A. indica performed better under all the experimental conditions whereas untreated control gave only 01.5% aphid mortality. The concentrations 2.0% are superior to concentration 1.0% and 0.5% concentrations. Similarly maximum aphid mortality was observed after 24 hours of exposure and minimum after 6 hours. The exposure periods of 24 hours was significantly superior to 12 hours and 6 hours in both control and plant products.
Keywords : Adhatoda vasica, Aphid mortality, Azadirachta indica, Lipaphis erysimi, Parthenium hysterophorus, Vitex negundo
Growth pattern of Prinsepia. utilis (Bhenkal) at different girth classes growing naturally at inner Himalayan region
Bhagat Singh and Arun K. Agarwal
Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Uttarkashi - 249193 (Uttarakhand), INDIA *Corresponding author. E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: January 20, 2012; Revised received: June 5, 2012; Accepted: August 12, 2012
Abstract : Present study was undertaken to evaluate the growth pattern of Prinsepia.utilis growing at Western Himalayan region at four study sites i.e. S1 (Jhala), S2 (Dharali), S3 (Jaspur) and S4 (Sukki) at Uttarkashi district at Garhwal Himalaya in the year 2008-09 The data recorded for different parameters related to growth of Prinsepia.utilis at different sites showed variation. Growth parameters viz. lengths of plants, branch number, length of seed, seed output etc. were examined during the present study. Maximum shoot length at 25.1-30 cm girth class (220.5±23.13 cm), maximum leaf area at girth class 5.1 – 10 cm (1.98) and the maximum fruit productivity at girth class 25.1 – 30 cm (1800.63g) were observed where as minimum production was recorded at girth class 10.1 – 15 cm (756.9g).
Keywords : Girth class, Leaf area index, Prinsepia utilis, Seed output, Shoot length
Effect of prostaglandin on reproduction in relation to pituitary gonadalaxis in the fish, Cyprinus carpio (L.)
Veena Dongre, R.C. Dabhade and A. M. Khurad
1Department of Zoology, S.K. Porwal College, Kamptee - 441002 (Maharashtra), INDIA 2Post-graduate Department of Zoology, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440033 (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: July 20, 2011; Revised received: March 12, 2012; Accepted: August 14, 2012
Abstract : Prostaglandins are a class of fatty acids which are “traditionally” associated with a variety of autocrine and paracrine functions in the vertebrate body. In many fishes, however, F prostaglandins also function as a hormone that stimulates sexual behaviour. In the present study, F prostaglandin was used to assess the efficacy on reproductive behavior and spawning in relation to pituitary gonadal axis in the fish, Cyprinus carpio by administering different doses. Early maturity was observed in fish leading to courtship and spawning. The histological study of olfactory lobe, pituitary gland and gonads showed that the prostaglandin is also functioning as potent olfactory stimulants with sex pheromonal activity of the fish. F prostaglandin was metabolized and released into the water where it functions as a sex pheromone, stimulating male and female sexual behaviour resulting into spawning. It was concluded that F prostaglandin acts as an inducer for successful breeding in the fish, C. carpio.
Keywords : Courtship, F Prostaglandin, Inducer, Sex pheromone, Spawning behaviour
Antennal sensilla of head of poultry shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (Phthiraptera, Insecta, Menoponidae, Amblycera)
Surman Arya and Suneel Kumar Singh
Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College, Gopeswar (Chamoli)-Garhwal (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh–249201(Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: June 7, 2012; Revised received: July 5, 2012; Accepted: August 20, 2012
Abstract : Phthirapteran ectoparasites (lice) are very small arthropodan creature which spend their life on different mammalian and avian host body. Many morphological features of these tiny creatures are not visible under simple microscopic study and hence scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study is required for specific details. Antennal sensillum is also one of the special features located on anterior part of the head of the louse. The present study on the sample specimen of poultry louse, Menopon gallinae (Phthiraptera : Amblycera) showed presence of a small, ovoid scape and pedicel (broad cup-like structure having narrower base) seen in antennal sensilla under SEM. In addition to sensory setae, sense organ was present on terminal segment. Tuft organ contain 6/7 small peg like structure. Pit organ was also visible at the sub-terminal area of fourth segment. Presence of any structure resembling coeloconic chaemo-receptor was not observed on any flagellar sub-segment of M. gallinae.
Keywords : Antennal sensilla, Menopon gallinae, Poultry louse, Scanning electron microscopy
Ashok V. Gomashe, Pranita A. Gulhane, Preeti G. Dharmik and Aparna K. Barhanpure
Department of Microbiology, S.S.E.S.A’s Science College, Congress Nagar, Nagpur-440012 (MS), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: June 12, 2012; Revised received: June 29, 2012; Accepted: August 25, 2012
Abstract : Water quality in the dental unit water lines (DUWLs) is important to the patients and dental healthcare personnel as they are at risk of being infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of P. aeruginosa contamination in DUWLs and to study the antibiotic resistant profile. A total of 101 dental water samples including air/water spray (26), Ultrasonic scalar (24), Air rotor compressor (26) and Distilled water (25) were screened for P. aeruginosa and 67 samples were found to be contaminated by P. aeruginosa. All these isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing. Among these, 63 (94.02%) showed resistance to ampicillin followed by 39 (58.20%) to amoxicillin, 11 (16.41%) to cefepime, 5 (7.46%) to aztreonam and 1 (1.49%) to gentamicin.
Keywords : Antibiotic resistance, Dental unit water lines, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Water quality
Infectivity of nematode parasites of the common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) Frost et al., 2006 (Anura: Bufonidae) from different localities of Aurangabad
Sujeet Jamdar, Kishor Shinde and C. J. Hiware
Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Sujeetjamdar@gmail.com
Received: May 27, 2012; Revised received: June 26 , 2012; Accepted: August 30 , 2012
Abstract : The common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Schneider, 1799) Frost et al., 2006 from Aurangabad was found to harbor three species of nematodes; Oswaldocruzia goezei (Skrjabin and Schulz, 1952), Trichuris globusa (V. Linstow, 1901, Ransom, 1911), Oxysomatium macintoshii (Karve, 1927). Among all the parasites, Trichuris globulosa represents the accidental new host record for D. melanostictus in Maharashtra.
Keywords : Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Infectivity, Nematode, Toad
Girish Chopra, Anil K. Tyor, Seema Kumari and Deepak Rai
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra- 136119 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: July 17, 2012; Revised received: July 27, 2012; Accepted: September 1, 2012
Abstract : The present study was conducted in Sultanpur National Park Gurgaon, Haryana (India) from February, 2011 to January, 2012 to analyze the avian diversity along with its status and abundance. During the study period, a total of 113 species of birds belonging to 14 orders, 35 families and 80 genera were identified. Maximum 41 species belonging to 12 families of order Passeriformes represented 36.28% of the total identified avian fauna while Podicipediformes and Strigiformes were the least represented avian orders (0.88%) with one species each, namely, Little Grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis and Spotted Owlet, Athene brama respectively. Out of total reported 113 species, 64 were ‘resident’ species and 49 were ‘migrant’ species. Most of the migratory species were winter visitors except Red throated flycatcher, Ficedula parva; Orange Headed Thrush, Zoothera citrine and Eurasian Golden Oriole, Oriolus oriolus which were summer visitors. In all, 42 species were ‘common’, 33 species were ‘uncommon’ and 38 species were ‘occasional’ bird species. Based on sighting, White Breasted Kingfisher, Halcyon smyrnensis; White Breasted Water Hen, Amaurornis phoenicurus; Common Moorhen, Gallinule chloropus; Black Wing Stilt, Himantopus himantopus; Red Wattled lapwing, Vanellus indicus; Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis and Indian Pond Heron, Ardeola grayii were common wetland bird species of Sultanpur National Park while Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis and Coppersmith Barbet, Megalaima haemacephala were ‘rarely sighted’ bird species. During the study period, 7 ‘globally threatened’ species, namely, Painted Stork, Mycteria leucocephala; Black neck Stork, Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus; Black headed Ibis, Threskiornis melanocephalus; Darter, Anhinga melanogaster; Pacific Reef Egret, Egretta sacra; Sarus Crane, Grus antigone alongwith Hogson bushchat, Saxicola insignis were also recorded from the study area.
Keywords : Abundance, Avian fauna, Muscicapidae, Podicipedidae, Sultanpur National Park
Vegetation condition index pattern (2002-2007) over Indian agro-climate regions, using of GIS and SPOT sensor NDVI data
Kishan Singh Rawat, Anil Kumar Mishra, Rakesh Kumar and Jitendra Singh
1Water Technology Centre, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
2Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author.E-mail: email@example.com
Received: April 24, 2012; Revised received: June 28, 2012; Accepted: September 14, 2012
Abstract : This study describes the Vegetation Condition Index in the near-real-time with help of SPOT based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for Agro climatic-region of India and gave the development pattern in last six year (2002-2007) over the study area of India using decadal time data set from SPOT satellite sensor for 2002-2007 time periods. The each Agro-climatic region of study, 1°x1° degree in area, part of India agro-climate regions, has been taken for analysis using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (RS and GIS) methods, SPOT satellite sensor NDVI data, and from processed data set (geo-referenced data set), cut out 1°x1° degree of area by preparing a layers representing Agro-climatic region of India as base mapping units (BMU),The results indicated that NDVI index is only water stress over vegetation while VCI is an appropriate index for vegetation pattern monitoring over study area. As satellite observations provide better spatial and temporal coverage, the VCI based system will provide efficient tools for management of the improvement of agricultural planning. This system will serve as a prototype in the other parts of the world where ground observations are limited or not available.
Keywords : Droughts, Drought indices, Drought severity, Remote sensing, Vegetation condition index
Fungicidal management of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler causing blight of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex J.D. Hook)
Dipak T. Nagrale, Anil P. Gaikwad, Sanjay Goswami and Lalan Sharma
Department of Plant Pathology and Agricultural Microbiology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722, INDIA
1National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Micro-organisms, Kushmaur, Mau Nath Bhanjan-275101, INDIA
2Regional Agricultural Research Station, (MPKV), Lonavala-410401, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: April 28, 2012; Revised received: June 9, 2012; Accepted: September 16, 2012
Abstract : Alternaria, the fungal pathogen has wide host range generally attacks the aerial parts of plants causing leaf spots and blights. Gerbera is a genus of ornamental flower plants. Gerbera plants are infected by many diseases. Different disease management practices are adopted in gerbera cultivation. The fungicidal management of Alternaria blight is one of the important strategies for the disease management in gerbera in polyhouse condition. In this study, preventive and curative fungicidal sprays were adopted for the management of blight disease in polyhouse. This study revealed that preventive fungicidal sprays were significant over curative fungicidal sprays for the management of Alternaria alternata blight of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex J.D. Hook) in polyhouse. The preventive sprays made of Bordeaux mixture (0.6 %), tricyclazole (0.1%) and iprodione + carbendazim (0.1%) fungicides were found effective with 95.85 %, 96.59 % and 95.88 % disease control respectively, under polyhouse condition.
Keywords : Alternaria alternata, Blight, Fungicides, Gerbera jamesonii
Archana Tiwari and Anjana Pandey
Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad - 211002, INDIA
1Department of Biotechnology, Guru Nanak Girls College, Ludhiana (Pb), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: July 20, 2012; Revised received: July 27, 2012; Accepted: September 20, 2012
Abstract : The antioxidative enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in toxic bloom forming cyanobacteria play a pioneer role in scavenging free radicals, which are generated as an outcome of photosynthesis and respiration. Ten Bloom forming toxic cyanobacterial strains Synechococcus elongates, Synechocystis aquatalis, Merismopedia glauca, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. aeruginosa (O), Arthrospira (=Spirulina) platensis, Nostoc paludosum, Anabaena iyengarii, A. variabilis and Cylindrospermum muscicola were isolated from natural blooms and purified. The results depict the significant activity of antioxidative enzymes. In A. platensis the activity of catalase (28.7 ± 2.3 mM/min/μg protein), and Ascorbate peroxidase (1.91±0.12 mM/min/μg protein) enzyme was maximum. It was also observed that the activity of ascorbate peroxidase was very less compared to activity of catalase. The growth analysis and pigment profile were also studied. Growth measurements revealed that cells attain maximum growth nearly after 15-20 days of inoculation except S. aquatalis, A. platensis and N. paludosum maximum, where optimum growth was achieved after 25th day. Chlorophyll-a content of A.platensis showed maximum concentration (14.47 ± 1.17 mg/L) and minimum concentration in S. elongates (2.30 ± 0.138 mg/L). The concentration of phycobiliproteins was found maximum in A. platensis (2.09 mg/ml). The detection of antioxidative potential of cyanobacterial strains will help to broaden the knowledge about their survival and can pave path for their utilization in biotechnology.
Keywords : Antioxidative enzymes, Ascorbate peroxidase, Catalase, Cyanobacteria, Toxic Blooms
Padam Singh, Gaurav Arya, Aftab Ahmad and A.K. Saxena
Department of Zoology, Government Raza Postgraduate College, Rampur – 244901 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: June 18, 2012; Revised received: July 28, 2012; Accepted: September 26,2012
Abstract : An ischnoceran louse, Columbicola bacillus infesting Ring dove, Streptopelia decaocto was subjected to in vitro experimentation. The data obtained through in vitro experimentation was utilized to construct the life table and to determine its intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm). The value of rm appeared to be 0.054. At this rate, the population of C. bacillus is supposed to be double after 12.95 days, indicating that it is moderate breeder.Keywords : Intrinsic rate, Ischnocera, Life table, Phthiraptera, Population expansion
Rajnish Kumar Sharma, Devendra Kumar Soni and Nirupma Agrawal
Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, INDIA 1Central Pollution Control Board, Zonal Office, Lucknow-226010, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: June 8, 2012; Revised received: July 25, 2012; Accepted: September 28, 2012
Abstract : The back water of river Saryu is a prime source of water for Dah Lake, located in Ballia district, have been studied to project the pristinety of water with respect to different pollution sensitive parameters i.e. organic pollutants–BOD, DO, COD, Inorganic pollutants - Electrical Conductivity, Turbidity, pH, total alkalinity, Chloride, Total hardness etc. The pH (7.68), total alkalinity (180.5 mg/l), Chloride (133.12 mg/l), Total hardness(139.83 mg/l), Calcium (60.26 mg/l) and Magnesium hardness (19.38 mg/l) were found well within the prescribed standard for drinking water (BIS 10500:1991) during the study period i.e. April 2006- March 2008. The study inferred that the water quality of Dah Lake is still free from the any kind of pollutants, must be due to its higher assimilative capacity. It also indicates the higher potential for pisiculture and drinking water sources (after disinfection) for the nearby villages which may ultimately improve the economic condition of the surrounding habitation.
Keywords : Assimilative capacity, Dah lake, Dissolved oxygen, Physico-chemical characters, Water quality
Vinaya Kumar Sethi, Dinesh Bhatt and Amit Kumar
Avian Diversity and Bioacoustics Lab., Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar 29 404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA *Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: May 7, 2012; Revised received: July 15, 2012; Accepted: September 30, 2012
Abstract : This paper aims to study the structure and pattern of dawn song in a tropical avian species, the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata) in Haridwar (290 55’ N, 780 08’ E; Uttarakhand, India) in 2009. Males delivered complex dawn chorus on daily basis during only breeding season (February to July). The dawn song bout was made up of a number of distinct sections called song types. Each song type consisted of a series of similar or dissimilar units referred to as elements. Song type length averaged 1.43±0.23 sec and did not differ significantly among males. The average number and types of elements in a song type were observed 8.15±1.64 and 8.01±1.56, respectively.In more than 80% of observations, song types were delivered with immediate variety and males did not follow any definite sequential pattern of song delivery. Males sang continuously for about 30 min at high rates during dawn. Males performed continuous dawn singing throughout the breeding season and seemed to interact vocally through counter-singing for extended period. Observations suggest that dawn song delivery in Pied Bush Chat plays an important role in maintenance and adjustment of social relationship among neighbouring males.
Keywords : Dawn song, Pied Bush Chat, Saxicola caprata, Song characteristics, Song rate
Reema Pachnanda and Shiv Pal Singh
PG Department of Zoology, D.B.S. (P.G.) College, Dehradun, 248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: April 3, 2012; Revised received: July 15, 2012; Accepted: October 3, 2012
Abstract : The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effect of arsenic on testicular tissue of Swiss albino male rats. Sodium arsenite was administered to adult male rats by gavage at the doses 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. After the treatment, the testis were processed for histopathological observations. Sodium arsenite caused remarkable reduction in testicular weight (P<0.05), while the body weight of experimental animals were reduced but not significantly (P<0.05). Histological evaluation revealed dose-dependent, gradual destruction in histoarchitecture of testicular tissue. Sodium arsenite exposure caused complete arrest of spermatogenesis with disfigured seminiferous tubules in the testes .The lumens of the tubules were devoid of spermatids and were in places filled with cellular debris. The germinal epithelium was distorted. At places interstitial odema was also evident. Sertoli and Leydig cells were damaged. Along with structural alterations, fertility rate in experimental animals was significantly decreased at higher doses i.e. 2 and 3 mg/kg, as 100% infertility was observed. After withdrawal of the treatment over a period of 30 days, recovery was observed in low dose groups as few female rats became pregnant. The study concluded that exposure of arsenic causes testicular toxicity in male albino rat.
Keywords : Arsenic, Fertility test, Histopathology, Reversibility test, Swiss albino rats, Testicular tissue
Rohtash Chand Gupta, Tirshem Kumar Kaushik and Prem Kumari Gupta
1Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Haryana), INDIA
2Govt. Senior Secondary School, Umri, Kurukshetra (Haryana), INDIA
3Department of Chemistry, Indira Gandhi National College, Ladwa, Kurukshetra (Haryana), INDIA
#Present Address: H.No-566/3, Urban Estate, Kurukshetra-136118(Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: August 8, 2012; Revised received: September 9, 2012; Accepted: October 6, 2012
Abstract : The present study has observed 67 species of wetland birds, belonging to, 10 orders and 18 families from rural wetland Environs in Panipat district located at a distance of 90 KMs north of Delhi on National Highway No.1 (29.39°N 76.97°E) in Haryana, India. Out of 67 species, 35 species were winter migrants, 18 residents, 10 local migrants and four species were summer migrants. Peculiar species of birds recorded in Panipat rural ponds are Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, White-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, Asian openbill- Stork Anastomus oscitans, Lesser Adjutant Stork Leptoptilos javanicus, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa, Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Brahminy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea, Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos, Tufted Pochard Aythya fuligula and Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus. On the other hand, familiar species include amongst others, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Common Coot Fulica atra, Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal Anas crecca, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Gadwall Anas strepera and Lesser-whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica etc. Longest stay during winter season was demonstrated by birds like Northern Shoveller, Northern Pintail, Bar-headed Goose, Greylag Goose and Rudy Shelduck, whereas shortest winter sojourn was observed in case of Mallard, Eurasian Wigeon and Common Pochard. It is interesting to note that migratory birds like Northern Shoveller, Northern Pintail, Common Teal, Bar-headed Goose, Tufted Pochard, and Common Pochard come to Panipat rural ponds from very far off places like Central Russia, Caspian USSR, Siberia, Ladhakh and Central Asia, West and Central Asia and Siberia respectively.
Keywords : Avian biodiversity, Rural wetland environs, Winter migratory, Panipat, Haryana
D. N. Izekor and J. A. Fuwape
1Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, NIGERIA
2Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.704, Akure, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: August 3, 2012; Revised received: September 1, 2012; Accepted: October 10, 2012
Abstract : This study considered the relationship between fibre length characteristics and mechanical properties of Tectona grandis wood aged 15, 20 and 25-year. Six trees of even aged and similar class diameter were used for the study. Wood samples used for the study were systematically collected from three portions at 10, 50 and 90% of the tree height. The test samples were prepared along the radial positions from the pith to the bark. The relationship between fibre length and mechanical properties were examined using linear regression models and correlation coefficient. The results obtained from the correlation analysis carried out to examine the linear relationship between fibre length and mechanical properties of T. grandis wood were 0.924, 0.929 and 0.940 for MOR, MOE and CS parallel to grain. The relationship was highly significant (p < 0.05). Also the correlation coefficient (r) between fibre length and mechanical properties of T. grandis wood were highly significant (p < 0.001). Therefore, fibre length characteristics can be used as an index in predicting the mechanical properties of T. grandis wood.
Keywords : Correlation coefficient, Fibre length, Linear models, Mechanical properties, Tectona grandis wood
Sanjay Goswami, R. Kaur and Dipak T. Nagrale
1National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms (NBAIM), Kusmaur, Mau Nath Bhanjan, 275101 (UP), INDIA
2Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: July 15, 2012; Revised received: August 14, 2012; Accepted: October 25, 2012
Abstract : Baseline sensitivity values of important phytopathogenic fungi were studied against fungicides. ED50, ED90 and MIC value of propiconazole for, Colletotrichum capsici, and Gloeosporium ampelophagum was in the range of 0.020-0.04 µg/ml. ED50 values of tebuconazole for Alternaria alternata was 30.0 µg/ml. Azoxystrobin was also tested for its ED50, ED90 and MIC values against Alternaria alternata, C. capsici, G. ampelophagum and Botrytis cinerea where the values were in the range of 0.019-50.0, 0.03-60.0 and 0.2-100.0 µg/ml respectively. Baseline sensitivity values are important for the management of plant diseases and resistance development.
Keywords : Baseline sensitivity, Fungicide, Fungi, In vitro
Study of Caryophyllidean (Capingentidae: Pseudobatrachus) tapeworms of fresh water fishes of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh, India: Part-III
V. K. Sahu
Department of Zoology, JawaharLal Nehru Rajkeeya Mahavidyalaya., Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands-744104 INDIA
Received: July 25, 2012; Revised received: August 5, 2012; Accepted: October 30, 2012
Abstract : Presently eight species are reported from the World in the genus, Pseudobatrachus, Pathak and Srivastav, 2005 i.e. P. chandrai Pathak and Srivastav, 2005; P. moolchandrai Srivastav et al, 2006; P. chandlaensis Sahu, 2007; P. madhyapradeshensis, Khare, 2008; P. chhatrasali Sahu et al, 2009; P. Sengarii Singh, 2009; P. kenensis Srivastav et al, 2010 and P. ramchandrai, Srivastav and Aditya, 2010. The present form is the ninth one from the Indian sub-continent as well as from the whole world and differs on the basis of various morphometric character viz. size of worm, size and shape of scolex, presence of bothridea and grooved rostellum, size of neck, size and number of testes, size of cirrus pouch, presence of internal seminal vesicle, size of ovary and shape of ovarian lobes, size of vitellaria and their distribution, presence of receptaculum seminis, size of uterus, size and type of eggs and their hosts. The caryophyllidean is unique among cestoidea in having monopleuroide body plane, i.e. without internal or external proglottidization and with a single set of reproductive organ. Thus it is provisionally accommodated as P. ramsagarensis n. sp.
Keywords : Channa punctatus, Datiya, Hunter, Monopleuroide, Rostellum
Urban ecosystems of Kurukshetra, India, an amalgamations of eco-friendly, historical as well as archaeological adverse facades: A case study
Prem Kumari Gupta
Department of Chemistry, Indira Gandhi National College, Ladwa -136132 (Kurukshetra), INDIA
Received: August 28, 2012; Revised received: September 11, 2012, Accepted: November 10, 2012
Abstract : Kurukshetra, a state of India is a historical place having global significance linked with its multifaceted aspects concerning education, science education, engineering colleges, museums and above all some sites and spots which are witnesses to the events of world famous war namely, “Mahabharata”. The studies reveal that urbanization processes have turned rural Kurukshetra into a modern semi-urban area with distinct urban features by creating “Urban Estates”. This is an activity which has two faces: Eco-friendly face and adverse ecological face. The generation of an attraction, ultra modern City equipped with vast green belts; impressive avenues having intense plantations of trees, bushes and profusely dotted with Civil Parks is a phenomenal change. One of the most impressive eco-friendly façade of the new environs is the ambience presence of orchards and plant nurseries and there is practice of “Kitchens-Waste” disposal which is disposed off at a safe place to convert it into organic manure. The best of sanitary conditions are in place which is one more environment friendly aspects. A very well laid out “Mini-Secretariat” encompassing virtually each and every office of the District Administration is intensely covered by very thick cover of trees and a new experiment, pioneered first by Haryana Govt.However, the negative features are many to negate the over all positive features. Foremost is related with discarding the traditional and endemic trees like Shisham Dalbergia sissoo, Neem Azadirachta indica, Beri Morus alba, Peepal Ficus religiosa, Banyan Ficus benghalensis and Mango Mangifera indica trees for tree plantations in favour exotic varieties.
Keywords : Archaeological, Facades, Historical, Kurukshetra, Urban ecosystem
Ferti-irrigational impact of distillery effluent and Di-ammonium phosphate on the soil and growth characteristics of Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.)
Sachin Srivastava, A. K. Chopra and Chakresh Pathak
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: September 7, 2012; Revised received: October 9, 2012; Accepted: November 12, 2012
Abstract : A comparative study was conducted to assess the ferti-irrigational effect of Distillery effluent (DE) concentrations such as 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% along with control (Bore well water-BWW) and Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) separately for the pot culture cultivation of Solanum melongena. The results revealed that DE concentrations had significant (P<0.001) effect on EC, Cl¯, Mg2+, OC, HCO3–, exchangeable Na+, available K+, Ca2+, TKN, available P and SO42-, whereas non-significant (P>0.05) effects were observed for water holding capa City (WHC) and bulk density (BD) of the soil. Irrigation with 100% concentration of DE, increased EC (+63.46%), Cl¯ (+292.37%), Mg2+ (+1162.72%), OC (+3763.63%), exchangeable Na+(+264.29%), available K+ (+48.39%), Ca2+ (+815.74%), TKN (+1449.18%), available P (+338.83%), SO42- (+80.07%), while decreased pH (-17.85%) total bacteria (-47.02 %), fungi (-52.17%) and actinomycetes (-82.89 %) in effluent irrigated soil. Application of diluted doses of DE significantly increased plant height, root length, chlorophyll content, leaf area, number of leaves, number of branches, number of flowers, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, number of fruit and crop yield of S. melongena, with the better results being obtained at a dilution of 50% of DE concentration in comparison to DAP and BWW.
Keywords : Agronomic characteristics, Distillery effluent, Di-ammonium phosphate, Solanum melongena, Soil characteristics
Prem Kumari Gupta
Department of Chemistry, Indira Gandhi National College, Ladwa -136132 (Kurukshetra), India
Received: August 28, 2012; Revised received: September 15, 2012; Accepted: November 15, 2012
Abstract : Chlorine is used in several ways in industry. In such situations, where residual chlorine persists as pollutant, Activated carbons like animal charcoal, carbon black and coconut charcoal can serve as agents to remove residual pollutant “chlorine” by the process of adsorption. Five samples of Carbon black, six samples of active Carbons and two samples of charcoals were treated with a stream of chlorine @0.4 litre/hour at temperature varying from 300 to 1200 C. Chlorine is adsorbed partially physically and partially chemically. Percentage of the chemisorbed increases with rise in the temperature. Maximum percentages of chemisorptions occur at 1200 C while the maximum uptake, physical as well as chemical, takes place at 300 C, which was the lowest temperature. It is seen that activated carbon, carbon blacks and charcoal differ markedly by in their total chlorine uptake at 300 C. Activated carbons associated with high surface were seen to take up maximum chlorine. Fall in surface area is more in active carbons as compared to carbon black due to greater adsorption of chlorine. This probably shows that microporous carbons are better adsorbent for chlorine adsorption. The unsaturated sites also play far dominant role and provide centres where the adsorption takes place predominantly. Uptake of chlorine is enhanced on evacuating the carbon samples at 6000 C and 10000 C. This is due to the creation of more unsaturated sites. Process of adsorption cum chemisorption takes place through different kinetic stages with different energetics. The activation energies keep on increasing with increasing amounts of chemisorption.
Keywords : Activated carbons, Adsorption, Carbon blacks, Charcoal
Immature stages of Plain Tiger, Danaus chrysippus chrysippus a rare butterfly of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera: Danaidae)
T. C. Khatri and Tripta Khatri
J.N. Government College, Port Blair – 744104, Andamans, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: May 5, 2012; Revised received: October 10, 2012; Accepted: November 25, 2012
Abstract : The plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera: Danaidae) is a widely distributed butterfly is rare in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The scarcity of food plant Calotropis in the islands is the reason for rarity. The immature stages of the butterfly are discussed in the paper with some unusual observations such as laying of eggs in cluster and on the upper side of food plant, showing stress on survival of the fly
Keywords : Andaman, Butterfly, Immature stages, Lepidoptera
Enrichment of various metals in Abelmoschus esculentus grown in wastewater irrigated soil area of Dehradun City, India
Chakresh Pathak, A. K. Chopra and Sachin Srivastava
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India
*Corresponding author's E-mail: email@example.com
Received: August 6, 2012; Revised received: September 29, 2012; Accepted: November 8, 2012
Abstract : The accumulation of metal contents in soil from wastewater (WW) irrigation is a cause of serious concern due to their potential accumulation in vegetables and food products growing in such areas. The results revealed the concentration of Pb (0.17±0.03 mg/l), Cu (0.10±0.04 mg/l), Zn (1.06±0.08 mg/l), Ni (0.08±0.02 mg/l), Cd (0.07±0.02 mg/l) and Cr (0.07±0.02 mg/l) in the WW of Bindal river used for irrigation of Abelmoschus esculentus. The maximum metal contents were observed for Pb (43.89±6.13 mg/kg), Cu (20.92±3.19 mg/kg), Zn (46.77±6.51 mg/kg), Ni (39.95±8.02 mg/kg), Cd (15.57±2.17 mg/kg) and Cr (125.70±23.01 mg/kg). The enrichment factors (EF) in WW irrigated soil were found to be in the order of Cd (2.46) > Cr (2.42) > Zn (1.67) > Cu (1.36) = Ni (1.36) > Pb (1.31). The concentration of Pb was maximum (57.99±1.54 mg/kg) in roots, Cu (33.91±2.13 mg/kg) in the leaves; Zn (81.70±2.99 mg/kg) in roots, Ni (86.10±3.19 mg/kg) in stem; Cd (20.39±1.99 mg/kg) and Cr (76.78±3.04 mg/kg) in leaves of A. esculentus. The EF values of 2-5 for Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and Cr except Zn for fruits, leaves and roots of A. esculentus showed moderate enrichment of these metals. The values for Cd and Cr showed moderate enrichment of the stem of this plant. The study concluded that the WW irrigation increased the metallic contents of soil, which in turn were accumulated in different parts of A. esculentus that may cause potential health risk in human beings.
Keywords : Abelmoschus esculentus, Enrichment factor, Heavy metals, Soil, Wastewater
Ashish R. Arekar, Janhavi A. Arekar, S. S. Barve and G. T. Paratkar
1Gokhale Education Society’s N. B. Mehta (Valwada) Science College, Department of Biotechnology, Bordi, Thane 401701 (MH), INDIA
2Kelkar Education Trust’s V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Department of Botany, Mithagar Road, Mulund (E), Mumbai 400081(MH), INDIA *Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: July 19, 2012; Revised received: October 1, 2012; Accepted: November 20, 2012
Abstract : Momordica dioica, Roxb. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) commonly called as Kartoli, is an important medicinal plant, which has remained unexplored from the commercial point of view. Considering its scarce availability and the medicinal importance, in vitro cultures were established. Traditionally, M. dioica has been propagated mainly through its tuberous roots and less commonly by seeds. Germination through seeds is very difficult or impossible because of hard seed coat. As an alternative to traditional methods tissue culture offers an efficient method for propagation of M. dioica. Mature seeds were used for the regeneration of M. dioica. The decoated seeds of M. dioica were cultured on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS medium) supplemented with various combinations of Auxins (á – naphthaleneacetic acid) and Cytokinins (N6 - benzyl adenine). MS basal medium supplemented with 4.44 µM and 8.88 µM N6 - benzyl adenine (BA) gave rise to maximum number of shoots in 7-8 weeks. In vitro grown shoots were sub cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for root initiation. MS medium with 0.049mM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed rooting in 45 days. The regenerated plantlets were successfully hardened in vermiculite.
Keywords : Hardening, Momordica dioica, Multiplication, Rooting, Seed Explants, Shoot Initiation
Efficiency of turbidity and BOD removal from secondarily treated sewage by electrochemical treatment
A. K. Chopra and Arun Kumar Sharma
Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Received: September 12, 2012; Revised received: October 15, 2012; Accepted: November 20, 2012
Abstract : The present investigation observed the effect of operating time, current density, pH and supporting electrolyte on the removal efficiency of Turbidity (TD) and Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of secondarily treated sewage (STS) using electrochemical process. A glass chamber of 2 litre volume was used for the experiment with two electrode plates of aluminum, each having an area of 125 cm2 and 2 cm distance apart from each other. The treatment showed that the removal efficiency of TD and BOD increased to 87.41 and 81.38 % respectively with the increase of current density (1.82 -7.52 mA/cm2), time (5 - 40 mins.) and different pH (4-8) of the STS. The most effective removal efficiency was observed around the pH 7. Further, 0.5 g/l NaCl as a supporting electrolyte for electrochemical treatment of STS was found to be more efficient for an increase to 95.56 % and 86.99 % for the removal of TD and BOD at 7.52 mA/cm2 current density in 40 mins. respectively. The electrode and energy consumption was found to vary from 2.52 x10-2 to 10.51 x10-2 kg Al/m3 and 2.76 kwh/m3 to 45.12 kWh/m3 depending on the operating conditions. The kinetic study results revealed that reaction rate (k) increased from 0.0174 to 0.03 min-1 for TD and 0.0169 to 0.024 min-1 for BOD with increase in current density from 1.82 to 7.52 mA/cm2.
Keywords : Aluminium electrode, BOD, Current density, Electrochemical treatment, Supporting electrolyte
Rakesh Kumar, Kishan Singh Rawat and Anil Kumar Mishra
1Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi–110012, INDIA
2Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi–110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: March 29, 2012; Revised received: June 5, 2012; Accepted: July 7, 2012
Abstract : The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industries, soil and water remediation technologies, potential agricultural uses (e.g. fertilizers) and unintentional releases via air, water and sewage sludge application to the land likely leads to the release of such materials into the environment. The unique properties of NPs, such as high specific surface area, abundant reactive sites on the surface as a consequence of a large fraction of atoms located on the exterior rather than in the interior of NPs, as well as their mobility, could cause environmental hazards or potentially harm soil health. It could be assumed that NPs may not have a direct influence on plant growth but may be responsible for the influence through indirect mechanisms. Light microscopy of root sections showed that the ZnO particles adsorbed into root tissues and cells and damaged the root tissues. Results from ecotoxicological studies show that certain NPs have effects on organisms under environmental conditions, though mostly at elevated concentrations. Nanominerals and mineral NPs in the environment have been present throughout the evolutionary development of hominids, and our exposure to these through inhalation, ingestion are important foci of nanotoxicology and environmental sciences. The more research on occurrence, characteristics of NPs and their behaviour in environment is needed towards a logical conclusion of the effects of NPs on environment.
Keywords : Nanoparticle, Nanoparticle behaviour, Occurrence, Soil environment
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