Volume 4, Year 2012-Issue 1
K Kavitha1 M. Mohana Radhika1, E. Madhuri2, W. Rajendra1 and M. Bhaskar*
1Department of Zoology, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502 (A.P.), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Yogivemana University, Kadapa (A.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The effect of adrenalectomy was studied on the antioxidant metabolism in different tissues (Liver, heart, kidney and muscle) of rat. G-6-PDH was increased significantly in liver and heart and the same was decreased in kidney with a non significant change in muscle. SOD was significantly increased in heart and muscle. Catalase was significantly decreased in liver and muscle and was increased significantly in kidney. XOD showed significant decrease in liver and increase in heart, kidney and muscle. The present finding, in general, exhibit tissue specific alterations in free radical metabolism in conjunction with antioxidant defence mechanisms during adrenal hormone deficiency. It is also clear from the results that the mechanisms involved in selective activation / inhibition of different pathways seems to reflect multifaceted physiological adaptations as a compensatory measure during induced adrenalectomy.
Keywords : Adrenalectomy, Antioxidant metabolism, Sham operated, Tissue
B. N. Pandey* and N. B. Singh
Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad - 211002, INDIA
*Department of Botany, Government PG College, Lansdowne, Pauri Garhwal - 246139, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An effort has been made to propagate Dendrocalamus strictus Nees using nodal explants from mature plants. The explants, after surface sterilization, were inoculated on solidified MS basal medium with 2 mg/l BAP. The buds, which started growing, were transferred to solidified MS basal medium with 4 mg/l BAP and 15 mg/l AdS to achieve about three fold multiplication. Single shoots or 2-shoot clusters did not survive and therefore all the experiments were conducted with a cluster of minimum 3-shoots. The rooting was found difficult. Three hormones viz. IAA, IBA and NAA with a concentration of 1, 3 and 5 mg/l were used in various combinations for rooting. Out of the total 9 treatments, only 20% rooting was found only in one treatment, namely in the medium with 5 mg/l indole butyric acid (IBA).
Keywords : Bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus, Micropropagation, Nodal explants
H. L. Ramesh1, V. N. Yogananda Murthy2* and Munirajappa3
1Department of Sericulture, V. V. Pura College of Science, Bangalore - 560004 (Karnataka), INDIA
2Department of Life Sciences, Ganga Kaveri Institute of Science and Management, Bangalore-560021(Karnataka), INDIA
3Department of Sericulture/Life Sciences, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiations(1kR-10kR from co60)on different growth parameters of mulberry variety Kosen. Overall results revealed that a declined trend in all the growth parameters i.e. sprouting (83.66%-18.66%), rooting (77.96%-19.59%), height of the plant (105.00 cm-58.03 cm), number of the branches (7.73-4.23), intermodal distance (3.76 cm-3.94 cm), petiole length (2.89 cm-2.59 cm) and pollen fertility (77.93%-40.66%) were recorded and showed a deleterious effect. But the response of growth parameters against different doses showed variant behaviour in case of rooting as constant declined trend was not observed. Similarly fluctuating state has been found in other growth parameters also.
Keywords : Gamma, Irradiation, Kosen, Mulberry, Rooting, Sprouting, Survivability
Diel dynamics of heleoplankton in relation to some physico-chemical attributes of water in an aquaculture tank in Guwahati, Assam
Janardan Pathak1 and M. M. Goswami2*
1G.U. Model H.E. School, G.U. Campus, Jalukbari, Guwahati-781014, INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Jalukbari, Guwahati-781014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Diurnal fluctuation of the phytoplankton and zooplankton population (numerical densities) and the physico-chemical attributes of water are studied in an aquaculture pond at Guwahati, Assam. In the 24 hour diel cycle, the phytoplankton and zooplankton show significant (t-test, p < 0.01) variation in their numerical density at an interval of 4 hours. The studied physico-chemical parameters of water included Temperature, Total Alkalinity (TA), Total hardness (TH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Free Carbon dioxide (FCO2) and pH are analyzed concurrently, which reveals a significant fluctuation (t-test, p< .01) in the day and night hours. Multivariate correlation analysis portrays significant and positive correlations among the total population density of phytoplankton with respect to water temperature (r = 0.845, p<0.05) and pH (r = 0.881, p< 0.01) while it maintains significant negative correlations with TA (r = -0.837, p< 0.05), TH (r = -0.768, p< 0.05) and FCO2 (r = -0.830, p<0.05). However, total numerical density of zooplankton reveals positive and significant correlations with TA (r = 0.842, p< 0.05) and FCO2 (r= 0.758, p< 0.05) while it shows significant negative correlations with water temperature (r = -0.906, p< 0.01) and pH (r =- 0.912, p< 0.01).
Keywords : Aquaculture pond, Diurnal variation, Heleoplankton, Physico-chemical parameters
Preety Bhinder*, Asha Chaudhry and Aditi Soni
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The genotoxic effects of nimbecidine, a commercial botanical pesticide derived from the neem tree were assessed by PCR assay on a mosquito Anopheles stephensi taken as an experimental model. After treatment with LC20 of the nimbecidine, the sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of control and treated individuals were studied from their sequence alignment data and the mutations in the form of insertions, deletions, and substitutions were analyzed. Nimbecidine treatment induced 16 deletions, 13 insertions, 93 transitions and 140 transversions in the ITS1 sequence. Similarly, in the ITS2 sequence of treated individual there were 2 deletions, 4 insertions, 15 transitions and 39 transversions. Present study suggests that plant based pesticides also affect the integrity of normal DNA sequences.
Keywords : Anopheles stephensi, Nimbecidine genotoxicity, ITS1 and 2
Efficacy of Stamina 50 (Thiocyclam hydrogenoxalate) on Coelaenomenodera elaeidis (Coleoptera – Chrysomelidae – Hispinae) in Okomu oil palm plantation, Nigeria
T. I. Aneni*, C. I. Aisagbonhi1, B. N. Iloba2, V. C. Adaigbe1 and M. Irorere3
1Entomology Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIGERIA
2Deptartment of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Benin, NIGERIA
3Phytosanitary Unit, Okomu Oil Palm, Udo, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Efficacy of Stamina 50, Thiocyclam hydrogenoxalate was evaluated for its bio-insecticidal control on Coelaenomenodera elaeidis larvae, pupae and adult forms, at Okomu oil palm plantation, Nigeria. The experimental plot was 10.2Ha compared with similar untreated plot. Observations were made for 4 weeks after treatment, for dead leaf miner populations. Data were subjected to one way analysis of variance, independent sample T-test and testing for significant difference on the effect of insecticidal treatment on leaf miner populations. Results indicated that exposure to the insecticide at 500g per Kg induced high mortality against the leaf miner. The highest population of dead leaf miner external adult was observed one day after treatment. Total percentage mortality of leaf miner was 89.13% (treatment) and 28.40% (control) indicating effective control. Spot application of stamina 50 was selective on leaf miner and is therefore recommended as a control measure for the leaf miner in Nigeria.
Keywords : Coelaenomenodera elaeidis, Hydrogenoxalate, Oil palm, Stamina 50, Thiocyclam
Abhijit Bhuyan and Munindra Borah*
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tezpur University Naapam, Tezpur-784028, INDIA
*Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The annual maximum discharge data of six gauging sites have been considered for L-moment based regional flood frequency analysis of Tripura, India. Homogeneity of the region has been tested based on heterogeneity measure (H) using method of L-moment. Based on heterogeneity measure it has been observed that the region consist of six gauging sites is homogeneous. Different probability distributions viz. Generalized extreme value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO), Generalized Pareto (GPA), Generalized Normal (GNO), Pearson Type III (PE3) and Wakebay (WAK) have been considered for this investigation. PE3, GNO and GEV have been identified as the candidate distributions based on the L-moment ratio diagram and ZDIST -statistics criteria. Regional growth curves for three candidate distributions have been developed for gauged and ungauged catchments. Monte Carlo simulations technique has also been used to estimate accuracy of the estimated regional growth curves and quantiles. From simulation study it has been observed that PE3 distribution is the robust one.
Keywords : Frequency analysis, L-moments, Monte carlo simulation, PE3 distribution, Quantile estimates
Incidence and detection of parasitic infections by cyst and ova on fruits and vegetables from different major markets in Kogi, Nigeria
O. S. Omowaye* and P. A. Audu1
*Department of Biological Science, Kogi State University, Anyigba, NIGERIA
1Department of Biological Science,University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Jesuniyi4wealth@yahoo.com
Abstract : In the course of a study of parasitic infections by cyst and ova on fruits and vegetable sold in middle-belt Nigeria, three different major public markets was selected. Six different fruits and vegetables total to 2406 samples were examined.Data obtained were statistically analyzed using anova for the level of significance difference where appropriate. Of the 1755 fruits examined, 4.3% were positive for parasites ova and 2.5% for cysts. Of the 761 vegetables examined, 4.6% were positive for parasites ova and 2.8% for cysts.The contamination rate of protozoan cyst and ova found are Giardia lamblia (2.61%) Entamoebs histolytica (0.66%). The difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).Cases of contamination rate of protozoan cyst and ova were small compared to helminthic contamination. However, helminths such as Strongylodies stercoralis, Trichiuris trachura and Ascaris lumbricoides were predominant in that order. The public health implication on the subjects is discussed. Through washing of all fruits and vegetables with clean water prior to consumption is recommended.
Keywords : Cysts, Fruits, Helminths, Ova, Vegetables
Antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of some selected traditional medicinal plants of Uttarakhand, North East India
Suneel Kumar Singh*, Ritu Vishnoi, Gulshan Kumar Dhingra1 and Kunal Kishor2
Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh-249201 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Microbiology, S.G.R.R. (ITS), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Screenings of methanolic leaf extracts of nine medicinal plants (Cotinus coggygria, Adhatoda vesica, Argemone mexicana, Zanthoxylum armatum, Berberis asiatica, Corissa opaca, Euphorbia hirta, Cassio fistula and Ricinus communis), belonging to selected areas of Uttarakhand, were tested against seven bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobactor aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. Leaf extracts of R. communis, B. asiatica and C. opaca showed high (13 – 23) effect on all the bacterial strains while E. hirta, Z. armatum and A. vesica exhibits minimum (6 – 15) effects. Remaining leaf extracts of plants were found moderately (10 - 19) effective.
Keywords : Antibacterial activity, Medicinal plants, Methanol extracts
Department of Zoology, BSNV PG College, Lucknow, (U.P.), INDIA
Abstract : The City Jhansi is famous for the fort, gardens and surrounding hilly areas. These gardens and hilly areas have supported for butterflies and other insects. The butterflies are essential part of any natural ecosystem as their adults performs pollination. They are highly mobile organism and are able to maintain connectivity between the fragmental habitats. The larval stages are herbivorous and cause economic damage but adult are beneficial as pollinators of several trees and herbaceous flora. They are vulnerable to changes in flower supply resulting from deforestation and environmental pollution hence they are the biological indicators of pollution. The present study was conducted regarding the different selected sites visited by butterflies, their foraging activity and abundance at different sites of Jhansi. During the visit some species of butterflies were collected as flower visitors on different species of flowering plants (garden, cultivated, semi wild and wild) in selected areas. The species of collected butterflies were showed the most common and highly active species throughout the day. Some species namely Pieris canidia indica, lxias mrianne (Cramer), Catopsilia crocale (Cramer), Catopsilia pyranthe (Linn.), Eurema hecabe fimbriata (Wallace) Colias electo fieldi and Colias erate (Esper) were observed mostly on the flowering plants of each site during the study. The nymphalids were found to be very common in the plane areas of Jhansi as flower visitors and only one species Papilio demoleus could be collected from only two sites.
Keywords : Biological indicator, Butterfly, Flower visitors, Natural ecosystem, Pollination
Mamta Pandey*, R. M. Saxena and Preeti Handa
Department of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study was conducted to collect and identify helminth parasites of Mastacembalus armatus and also to determine the prevalence intensity and abundance of parasitic infection. 118 M. armatus, obtained from different sampling stations of Yamuna river between March 2008 to February 2009 were examined for endoparasitic helminth infections. Of these only 31 fishes were found infected. Four helminth species including one nematode (Ascaridia ganpatii), two cestodes (Polyonchobothrium armatii, Senga nayari) and one trematode (Eucreadium pandeyi) were found in host fish. The overall monthly infestation of prevalence (0.29), intensity (3.28) and abundance (1.13) were recorded. The maximum infection was recorded in middle size range while very small and larger fishes showed lesser susceptibility to helminth parasites.
Keywords : Abundance, Biometic of fish, Helminth parasites, Intensity, Mastacembalus armatus, Prevalence
Rajnish Kumar Sharma* and Nirupma Agrawal
Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Diversity of aquatic insect fauna of Surha Tal, district Ballia (U.P.) was studied during 2006-08. Twenty nine species of aquatic insect were collected. In class insect four orders namely Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata and Diptera belonging to fourteen families Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophlidae Notonectidae, Palaeidae, Nepidae, Belostomatidae, Hydrometridae, Gerridae. Gomphidae, Libellulidae, Coegrionidae. Chironomidae, Culicidae having twenty genera and twenty nine species were identified.
Keywords : Aquatic insects, Faunal diversity, Surha Tal - Ballia
Antifungal activity of essential oils and their volatile constituents against respiratory tract pathogens causing Aspergilloma and Aspergillosis by gaseous contact
Veena Uniyal1*, R. P. Bhatt1, Seema Saxena2 and Amitabh Talwar2
1Department of Botany, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Botany, S.G.R.R. P.G. College, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Aspergillosis is an acute chronic and rapidly fatal disease which is not contagious. Invasive Aspergillosis is often found in severely immuno-suppressed patients, and is characterized by invasion of blood vessels which can result into dissemination to other organs. Aspergilloma is a fungal ball that develops in previous cavitary lung lesions. Essential oils and their volatile constituents have been used as antifungal, anti-infectious and antimicrobial agents. Inhalation of vapours of the essential oils kill invaders attached to the inner respiratory lining and work synergistically with the body defences. In this study, 16 essential oils were used against Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus of which about 14 oils proved to be effective. Results showed that the most effective oils against both Aspergillus species were found to be of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove), Carum carvi (Caraway), Cymbopogon citrates (Lemongrass), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) and Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg). Moderately effective oils were of Gaultheria procumbens (Wintergreen), Pinus palustris (Turpentine), Sesamum indicum (Sesame), Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowain) and Origanum vulgare (Oregano). The oils of Lavandula augustifolia (Lavender), Elletaria cardamomum (Cardamon) and Cymbopogon nardus (Citronella) showed minimum activity. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) showed no activity giving no inhibition zones.
Keywords : Antifungal activity, Aspergillosis, Aspergilloma, Essential oils
First record of avian cestode Variolepis podicepsi n.sp. from Podiceps rufficolis (Pallas) from Jhansi, U.P., India
A. K. Srivastav1, V. K. Sahu2 and Pragya Srivastava3
1Parasitological Laboratory, Department of Zoology, B.B. (P.G.) College, Jhansi (U.P.), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, J.N.R.M., Port Blair, A & N Island, INDIA
3Department of Zoology, Chitransh Degree College, Bhopal (M.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Twenty eight cestodes were obtained from three little grebs, Podiceps rufficolis (Pallas) from Jhansi. Morphological studies of the cestodes revealed that they belonged to the genus, Variolepis Spasskii and Spasskaja, 1954 of the sub family Hymenolepidinae Perrier, 1897 family Hymenolepidae Ralliet and Henery, 1909 and regarded as n.sp Variolepis podicepsi.
Keywords : Greb, Jhansi, Podiceps rufficolis, Variolepis podiceps n.sp, Tapeworm
Spectrum of threats to nests of Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus in Kurukshetra outskirts-a case study
Rohtash Chand Gupta# and Tirshem Kumar Kaushik*
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Haryana), INDIA #Senior Visiting Faculty, Institute of Environment Studies, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : It is one thing that Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus is, rather a common bird on the outskirts of wheat harvested fields in outskirts of Kurukshetra, yet, Yellow-wattled Lapwing V. malabaricus (Boddaert, 1783) is an uncommon bird and seen rarely and that too with efforts and serious search. On the top of this, the bird is confronting most difficult conditions for its even rare existence. It is characterized by the presence of bright Yellow fleshy lappets above and in front of eyes. Black wings show off a white bar in flight. It has a little shorter stature compared with that of Red-wattled Lapwing. Yellow-wattled Lapwing is available in only very specific spots like Sushant City, Harman City and Sector-8 in isolated conditions as single, double or 6-8 in Kurukshetra environs. Only one nest of Yellow-wattled Lapwing was observed on 28 April, 2011 in Sushant City in Kurukshetra. The nest was stuffed with straws and not by Pebbles. The clutch size was 4. It is pertinent to mention that all the four eggs hatched successfully on 24-25 May, 2011. Present observations suggest its alarming destruction in the last 5-8 years (2003-11). Now it has been pushed in a very delicate position wherefrom its extinction in a silent manner is sure, sooner than latter.
Keywords : Egg destruction, Habitat encroachment, Kurukshetra, Threats, Yellow-wattled Lapwing
Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of propoxur and methyl parathion using polytene chromosomes of Anopheles stephensi
Asha Chaudhry, Preety Bhinder*, Ram Kumar and Ravneet Kaur
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The mutagenicity of two pesticides, propoxur and methyl parathion was evaluated by using polytene chromosomes of Anopheles stephensi. The results were based on the frequency of various structural aberrations encountered in the polytene chromosomes of the larvae treated with LC20 of propoxur and methyl parathion separately. Propoxur induced a total of 67 aberrations as against 15 in the controls while methyl parathion induced 53 aberrations as against 13 in the controls. These aberrations were dominated by inversions, translocations, deletions, ectopic pairing, asynapses, breaks, fusions and induced puffing. The frequency of propoxur induced aberrations was highest in chromosome 3R followed by 2R, 3L, 2L and X-chromosome. Methyl parathion induced highest number of aberrations in 2R followed by 2L, 3R, 3L and X-chromosomes. This study suggests that larval polytene chromosomes are sensitive indicators of pesticide genotoxicity in which both propoxur and methyl parathion are significantly chromo toxic for the genome of a mosquito taken as an experimental insect.
Keywords : Anopheles stephensi, Methyl parathion, Mutagenicity, Polytene chromosomes, Propoxur
Study on eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during incubation in the controlled laboratory conditions
R. A. Patil Bhagat1, S. B. Zade1* and P. N. Charde2
1Post Graduate Teaching Department of Zoology, RTM Nagpur University, Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur–440033, INDIA
2Sevadal Mahila Mahavidyalaya and Research Academy, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur–440033, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Study on newly laid eggs of Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica was undertaken for a period of 18 days on incubation in controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in egg weight, shell weight, yolk weight and embryo weight throughout the period of incubation. It had been found that as the embryo grows, the egg weight slowly goes down while embryo weight goes on increasing day by day. The study inferred that the shift or reduction in weight of egg is attributable to the progressive growth of embryo which utilizes its yolk contents for its growth. Apart from this, the shell weight also reduced from first day to last day in order to facilitate hatching of the embryo.
Keywords : Coturnix coturnix japonica, Eggs, Incubation, Japanese quail, Shell weight
Citric acid: A potential permeabilizer against multiple drug resistance enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
Preeti G. Dharmik1*, Ashok V. Gomashe1 and Bharat J. Wadher2
1Department of Microbiology, Shri Shivaji Science College, Congress Nagar, Nagpur-440012 (Maharashtra), INDIA
2P.G. Department of Microbiology, Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University, L.I.T Campus Premises, Nagpur-440033 (Maharashtra), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Enteric diseases enter through the mouth and are usually spread by contaminated food, water or contact with contaminated vomit or feces. Enteric infection encompasses all the infections of the intestinal tract. These intestinal infections include organisms like Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus etc. Out of these, E. coli are one of the common causes of enteric infection. In spite the introduction of a wide variety of antimicrobial agents against enteric diseases, life threatening infections caused by E. coli contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients. The present study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli obtained from stool samples and potentiation of antibiotic activity by citric acid against multiple drug resistant E. coli. Out of the 200 isolates of E. coli, 150 were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics tested. 0.05% and 0.1% citric acid was found to be effective in increasing the potency of the all the antibiotics used in the study.
Keywords : Antimicrobial, Enteric, Escherichia, Potentiation, Potency, Resistance
Chaetotaxy of three nymphal instars of an ischnoceran louse, Aegypoecus perspicuus (Phthiraptera: Insecta)
G. P. Agarwal1, Aftab Ahmad2, Gaurav Arya2, Renu Saxena3, Arjumand Nisar2 and A. K. Saxena2*
1Ex- Head, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Banaras, (U.P.), INDIA Present Address:168, Deshbandhu Apartments, Kalka ji, New Delhi, INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P. G. College, Rampur (U.P.), INDIA
3Department of Zoology, B.S.A. College, Mathura (U.P.), INDIA
*Correspondence author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study on three nymphal instars of Aegypoecus perspicuus indicated that these differ from each other not only an size, abdominal segmentation, chitinization but also in the number of setae occurring on head, thorax and abdomen. The study also supplements informations regarding the morphological features and chaetotaxy of three nymphal instars of A. perspicuus, occurring on Neophron percnopterus. The diagnostic features of three nymphal instars have also been discussed.
Keywords : Aegypoecus, Chaetotaxy, Chewing lice, Ischnocera, Phthiraptera
Status of plankton diversity and biological productivity of Sahastradhara stream at Uttarakhand, India
D. S. Malik* and Umesh Bharti
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (U.K.) INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present contribution encompasses on plankton and biological productivity as ecological indicator for identifying the ecological quality of Sahastradhara stream (between 27 km stream stretches), located in the Doon Valley of Garhwal region in India. Monthly sampling from all the sampling sites was made for a period of 12 months (May 2009 – April 2010) at 9:00-11: 00 AM. A total of 40 taxa from different classes of plankton and zooplankton were reported. The phytoplankton (32 sp.) was found being the most abundant taxa than zooplankton (9 sp.) in Sahastradhara stream. Fluctuation in the phytoplankton density was recorded highest (1536 unit/l) during winter and lowest (20 unit/l) during monsoon. Zooplanktons were reported to be maximum (147 unit/l) during summer and minimum (3 unit/l) during monsoon. The total diatoms were reported highest (1022 unit/l) during starting the winter and lowest (4 unit/l) during monsoon. Green algae and blue green algae were reported to be maximum during winter and minimum during summer. The Shannon-wiener diversity index calculated for the density of Bacillariophyceae (0.2180-0.366), Chlorophyceae (0.208-0.367) and Cyanophyceae (0.391-0.366) and correlation was made between Plankton biomass and physico-chemical parameters to analyses the relative features of the both variables. The density of plankton and biological productivity were influenced by disturbances in the photic zone and indiscriminate anthropogenic activities for tourist development resulted aquatic habitat degradation in stream ecosystem.
Keywords : Biological productivity, Ecological indicator, Habitat degradation, Plankton.
Composition, productivity and impact of grazing on the biodiversity of a grazing land in Almora District
Prem Prakash1* and A. K. Paliwal 2
1Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Dwarahat, Almora (Uttarakhand), INDIA 2Department of Botany, Govt. P.G. College, Bageshwar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Biodiversity of Almora district is heavily affected in the areas with heavy grazing pressure, although moderate grazing enhanced the biodiversity of the area. In the present study site a total of 45 herbaceous species were present and therophytes were dominant among them. Live shoot biomass of plants varied from 175.0±3.5 to 1862.0±5.75 kg/ha and 87.0±3.25 to 1303.0±7.50 kg/ha in ungrazed and grazed plots respectively. Aboveground primary productivity was significantly higher on control plot (3082.2 kg/ha) over grazed plot (2644.0 kg/ha). The average bite frequency per hour was recorded maximum for goats (1106.5 bite/hr) and least for buffalos (920 bites/ hr). The monthly dry matter consumption per animal was amounted to 157.15, 154.51, 68.66 and 61.34 kg for cow, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively under nomadic open grazing. The percent herbage exploitation was observed maximum by sheep (9.82%) and minimum by buffalo (8.75%).
Keywords : Bite frequency, Consumption, Phenology, Phenophases, System transfer function
Impact of endomycorrhizal fungi and other bioinoculants on growth enhancement of Glycine max (L.) Merrill
Alpa, Neetu, Anju Tanwar, Ashok Aggarwal* and K.K. Gupta1
Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Eemail@example.com
Abstract : In the present investigation, the contributions of two indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis), along with Trichoderma viride and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth parameters of Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill were investigated. The results obtained indicated the dependence of soybean on mycorrhizal symbiosis. The different growth parameters increased significantly after 120 days of inoculation in comparison to control. Among all the growth parameters studied, plant height (162±3.34), fresh shoot weight (31.26±1.45), dry shoot weight (3.52±0.05), fresh root weight (4.07±0.56), dry root weight (1.03±0.03), root length (49.0±4.47) and leaf area (32.58±1.70) were highest in the combination of G. mosseae + A. laevis + T. viride + B. japonicum but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) spore number (95.2±3.19) and percent mycorrhizal root colonization (93.26±3.96) were maximum in single inoculation of G. mosseae. Second most effective results were observed in the plants treated with G. mosseae alone. Thus the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other bioinoculants in rhizosphere of soybean had positive effect on the different growth parameters.
Keywords : Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Glycine max, P-uptake, Symbiosis, Trichoderma viride
Identification of geospatial variability of fluoride contamination in ground water of Mathura District, Uttar Pradesh, India
K. S. Rawat*1, A. K. Mishra1 and V. K. Sehgal2
1Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi -110012, INDIA
2Division of Agricultural Physics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi–110012, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Groundwater is one of the major sources of water in arid and semi-arid regions. Groundwater quality data and its spatial distribution are important for the purpose of planning and management. Geo-statistical methods are one of the most advanced techniques for interpolation of groundwater quality. In this study, kriging methods were used for predicting the spatial distribution of fluoride content in groundwater. Data were collected from 13 wells in Mathura district (Uttar Pradesh, India). After normalization of data, semivariogram was drawn, for selecting suitable model for fitness on experimental semivariogram, less residual sum of squares (RSS) value was used. Then fluoride endemic areas of the Mathura District (study area) were identified from developed semivariogram model and Geospatial variability (high and low fluoride containing areas) map was generated with the help of Geographic Information System. In the analysis, spatial distribution characteristics and variation of fluoride concentration in shallow groundwater found to be 3.4 and 4.6 mg/l at Sahar, Shahpur were higher than the standard limits (1.5 mg/l) of drinking water and shows remarkable spatial variability.
Keywords : Geo-statistical methods, Ground water quality, Interpolation, Spatial distribution
Present and past status of fish fauna of river Basantar, an important tributary of the river Ravi, in Samba district, Jammu (J&K)
Arti Sharma* and S. P. S. Dutta
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Icthyofaunal study of river Basantar, an important tributary of river Ravi in Samba district, Jammu (J&K) has revealed the existence of 35 fish species belonging to 5 orders, 10 families and 25 genera. There is dominance of Cypriniformes (18 spp.) followed by Siluriformes (10 spp.), Perciformes (4 spp.), Synbrachiformes (2 spp.) and Osteoglossiformes (1 sps.). Present record of 35 fish species when compared with the earlier report of 59 fish species reveals a decline in fish diversity and is caused by environmental factors and anthropogenic pressure.
Keywords : Fish fauna, River Basantar, Samba
Efficacy of Vitamin E and Vitamin C against silica induced toxicity on male reproductive organs of albino rats
Shruti Saxena* and S. P. Singh
Department of Zoology , D.B. S. (PG) College, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Silica is one of the most documented workplace contaminants. Long-term occupational exposure to silica is associated with an increased risk in respiratory diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The present study was carried out to observe the alteration in testosterone level & histopathological changes in the testis and epididymis after silica exposure, and to show whether therapeutic agents (Vitamin E + Vitamin C) used in study may provide recovery against exposure to silica. For investigations, silica was administered in albino rats as silicon dioxide at a dose of 40 mg/Kg for 28 days (IP) to produce toxic effects. Recovery pattern was evaluated by Vitamin E + vitamin C (50 mg/kg, ip + 100 mg/kg, po, for 5 days after silica administration. The study showed alterations in the various blood parameters after intraperitoneal intoxication of silicon dioxide. Testosterone was significantly decreased in experimental rats after 28 days of silica intoxication. Therapeutic agents i.e. vitamin E and vitamin C recouped the values to normal control and recoupment was also observed in histology of testis and epididymis
Keywords : Blood parameters, Intraperitoneal, Silicon dioxide, Testosterone, Therapeutic agents
Department of Applied Science and Humanities, J. P. Institute of Engineering & Technology, P.O. Rajpura, Mawana Road, Meerut-250 001 (U. P.), INDIA
Abstract : Among the global common concerns, climate change has been identified as the most important environmental challenge faced by human beings. Emission of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons and hydrocarbons are identified as greenhouse gases causing warming of earth globally. Of these gases, CO2 alone accounts for 60 percent share. The most practical way of removing excess carbon from atmosphere and storing it into a biological system is by absorption of atmospheric CO2 into the physiological system, plant biomass and finally into the soil. Carbon is thus sequestered into the plants and then the animals. Studies have established that Carbon sequestration by trees and forest could provide relatively low cost net emission reduction. Carbon management in forest is therefore one of the most important agenda in India in 21st century in context of greenhouse gases effect and mitigation of global climate changes. Studies indicated that Indian forests share 1,083.81 MtC in the year 1994 to 3,907.67 MtC in the year 1993. Estimated rate of Carbon flux in selected Indian planted forest reveals that planted forests of short rotation tree species with regular leaf shedding patterns have more capacity for carbon sequestering in litter which decomposes more rapidly than those with annual or bimodal leaf shedding patterns. Mixed planted forest of exotic and native species could be more efficient in sequestering Carbon than the monocultures. This contribution reviews Carbon sequestration in Indian forests at national level and site-specific situations;and elaborates some possible opportunities for sustainable Carbon forestry.
Keywords : Carbon sequestration, Climate change, Forests, Green house gases
Veena B. Kushwaha* and Shivani Maurya
Department of Zoology, D. D. U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur ( U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) is a serious weed of pastures, wasteland and agricultural fields in world. Various problems are posed by the weed to human health, agriculture, livestock production and biodiversity. It is used as folk remedy against various afflictions. The review discusses several prominent biological utilities of P. hysterophorus as it contains several important chemical constituents mainly histamine, saponin, glucosides and triterpene (sesquiterpene) and can be of use for the purpose of biocontrol of various pathogens , for its medicinal utility and even for the purpose of food .
Keywords : Biocontrol, Biological utility, Folk remedy, Parthenium hysterophorus
Ashok Aggarwal, Nisha Kadian*, Karishma, Neetu, Anju Tanwar and K.K.Gupta1
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119 (Haryana), INDIA
1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies) and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past two decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, various methods are adapted to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins) or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria) or enhanced a process used naturally by plants (mycorrhiza) to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot. Proper management of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) has the potential to improve the profitability and sustainability of salt tolerance. In this review article, the discussion is restricted to the mycorrhizal symbiosis and alleviation of salinity stress.
Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Growth improvement, Nutrient uptake, Salinity stress
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