Volume 3, Year 2011-Issue 2
Influence of cadmium on early growth of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) and nutrient uptake in an ultisol
Ehi Robert Orhue1 * and Akhere Mathew Ekhomun2
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
2 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The greenhouse and field trials were conducted at the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to determine the influence of Cd on the growth, dry matter yield and nutrient uptake by fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Four levels of Cd(NO3)2 treatments namely 0, 50, 100, 200 mg per 5 kg soil equivalent to 0, 20, 40, 80 kgha-1 were used in the greenhouse and field trials respectively. The completely randomized and randomized complete block experimental designs were used in the greenhouse and field trials respectively. Results indicated that increased application of Cd decreased the height, number of leaves, leaf area, stem girth and dry matter yield of the plant. The nutrients content and uptake also decreased with the increase in the supply of the Cd. Higher Cd concentrations and uptake were recorded in the root of the treated plants when compared to the control treatments. The nutrients and oxides components of the soil decreased at various levels of the Cd application. These decrease in soil nutrient components were however not consistent. However, the Cd content of the soil increased with increased Cd treatments.
Keywords : Ultisol, Uptake, Yield, Metal excluder, Pumpkin
Growth response of black velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Willd) seedling to different potting media
A. U. Osaigbovo* and C. N. C. Nwaoguala
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The response in growth and development of seedlings of Dialium guineense to different potting media was studied in the screen house. Five potting media: River sand (Rs), Top soil (Ts), Poultry manure (Pm), Rice husk (Rh) and Oil palm refuse bunch (OPRB) were used. They were evaluated as sole treatments and in combination with river sand (Rs) in different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:5 and 5:2) respectively. Altogether, twenty one (21) potting media types were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) in three replications. Data were collected on monthly basis for plant growth parameters, while shoot and root dry weight were measured at the end of the experiment. On the average the seedlings of D. guineense responded best on the Rs + Ts 1:2 growth medium in number of leaves (16.67), stem girth (0.31 cm), number of nodes (11.67), shoot dry weight (1.24 g) and root dry weight (0.50 g). Rs + Ts 1:2 was followed by Rs + Pm 1:1 and Ts sole respectively with respect to the growth parameters evaluated and were not significantly (p 0.05) from one another, but were significantly (p < 0.05) different from other media and their combinations with river sand.
Keywords : Potting media, Dialium guineense, Seedling growth
Mamta Bansal 1* and Asha Chaudhry 2
1Centre of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014,India 2 Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014,India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Acetamiprid, a member of the neonicotinoid insecticide family, is a new class of insecticide which has recently entered the market place. It is very selective and provides outstanding control of sucking pests such as aphids and whiteflies of major crops. In the present investigation, dominant lethal test (DLT) is adopted for the evaluation of the genotoxic effects of acetamiprid using Culex quinquefasciatus as an experimental model. In this experiment, the males hatched from larvae treated with LD40 were cross mated with normal females and the results were based on the number of hatched and unhatched eggs laid by these females. The statistical analysis of the results for LD40 treated groups gave the values of 37.526±3.886 as against 5.23±0.77 from the nontreated groups which indicated significant dominant lethality of p<0.01.These results indicated that exposure of pesticides even at small dose level proved deleterious to the genome of mosquito and its subsequent generation.
Keywords : Dominant lethality, Acetamiprid, Culex quinquefasciatus
Photoperiod-modulated instar-specific clock-shifting in the circadian protein and amino acid rhythms in the larval segmental muscle of Bombyx mori
S. Sivaprasad* and B. Sailaja
Department of Zoology, Smt. N.P.S. Government College for Women, Chittoor–517 002 (A.P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The photoperiod-modulated clock-shifting in the circadian protein rhythm was studied in the segmental muscle of Bombyx mori. The analysis of phase response curves of the fourth instar rhythm revealed that the muscle tissue completes six protein synthetic cycles (PS cycles) under normal 12 hr light and 12 hr dark cycle (LD), 8 cycles each under continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD) conditions. The fifth instar protein rhythm showed seven PS cycles each under LD and DD conditions, but only six under LL. The protein rhythm gets clock-shifted in instar-specific and photoperiod-specific fashions. In the fourth instar, both LL and DD conditions advanced the 24 hr free running time of the rhythm by six hours and set it at 18 hr, but in the fifth instar it is delayed by 4 hr and set at ~28 hr under LL, but remained unchanged under DD. Comparative analysis of protein and amino acid profiles shows that the photoperiod modulates the protein rhythm by altering the rate of amino acid mobilization.
Keywords : Bombyx mori, Circadian amino acid rhythm, Circadian protein rhythm, Segmental muscle, Photoperiod
Ehi Robert Orhue* and Uzu Frank
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study was conducted to determine the influence of Cr on some agronomic characters of Telfairia occidentalis nutrient content and uptake and some chemical properties of soil. In the greenhouse trial, chromium nitrate [Cr(N03)2] was applied at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg per 5 kg sieved and air-dried soil obtained from a depth of 0-15cm. The rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 kgha-1 equivalent to pot rates were used in the field trial. Results showed that the soil used was texturally sandy loam and an ultisol as revealed by its low base saturation. In the greenhouse the soil pH, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, free Fe and Al oxides, organic carbon, effective cation exchange capacity, exchangeable acidity, amorphous Fe and Al oxides content of the soil decreased inconsistently at various levels of Cr treatments except available P, which appreciated inconsistently. With the exception of soil pH, organic carbon, available P and amorphous Fe oxide, which increased at various levels of Cr concentrations, all other soil chemical properties determined, declined inconsistently in the field trial. The amorphous Al oxide however remained stable in the field trial. The Cr content of the soil increased with the levels of Cr treatments when compared with the control in the trials. The N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn and Zn content of shoot and root as well as their uptake also decreased consistently with increasing Cr treatments. In addition, the Cr content as well as uptake by the shoot and root also increased consistently with increased rates of the Cr applied in the trials with the minimum levels of the Cr content and uptake recorded at the control treatments. As the Cr concentration increased, the crude protein content of both shoot and root consistently decreased with highest crude protein content recorded in the shoot compared to the root. A decrease in the dry matter yield with increased Cr treatments in shoot and root was recorded in the trials. Results also showed that the Cr influenced the height, collar girth, leaf area and number of leaves with control treatments higher than other treatments at final harvest.
Keywords : Chromium, Phyto-availabilty, Uptake, Protein, Mineral ions
Mamta Bansal*, Gurjeet Kaur and Asha Chaudhry1
1Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA Department of Community medicine, School of Public Health, PGIMER, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present studies deal with the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of acetamiprid at LD40 on a mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus by adopting polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). This technique was used for detecting DNA damage by amplifying ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) regions. The amplified products were sequenced and the results of treated and non-treated controls were compared using Clustal W software programme. The results were studied in the form of deletions, additions, transitions and transversions of the bases. The DNA band amplified from control stocks consisted of 444 bases while those from LD40 treated individuals were comprised of 448 bases. The total number of mutations caused in the treated stock was 230 out of which 84 were transitions, 117 transversions, 13 deletions and 16 additions. Thus, it was evident that acetamiprid has a potential to promote gene mutations in the individuals exposed to its semilethal doses.
Keywords : Acetamiprid, PCR, ITS 2, Culex quinquefasciatus
Effect of different fractions of Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf extract on islets of Langerhans and antioxidant activity in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse
Fahmi S. Moqbel and Prakash R. Naik*
Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570 006 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Correspondence author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf extract fractions on islets of Langerhans, total antioxidant activity in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First experiment was designed to test the hypoglycemic properties of different isolated fractions. Five fractions were screened for hypoglycemic property. Fractions F3 , F4 and F5 showed hypoglycemic in NOD mice. Second set of experiment was conducted to assess the effects of above fractions on the diameter of islets of Langerhans and on the β -cells number and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). All the fractions had a significant effect in the enhancement of diameter of islets of Langerhans and the β -cell number and antioxidant active (total antioxidant capacity) compared with control NOD mice.
Keywords : Blood glucose, Islets of langerhans, Total antioxidant capacity, Non-obese diabetic mice
Anil K. Raina* and Chand Bala
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Experimental potted plants of Duranta repens has been exposed to air pollution at major traffic crossings- Amphalla chowk, Dogra chowk, Bikram chowk, Satwari chowk of Jammu City and also inside University Campus in the department which has been taken as a reference site. Sets of 10 plants were kept at each site and analyzed for various micro morphological, anatomical and biochemical parameters to assess the changes due to air pollution. Analysis of data revealed that micro-morphological parameters viz. stomatal frequency, epidermal cell frequency increased significantly while others like size of the stomata, epidermal cells and length, breadth ratio of the epidermal cells decreased significantly in plants kept at polluted location. All the anatomical parameters such as thickness of midrib region, midrib adjoining region, spongy tissue, upper epidermis and vascular bundles decreased significantly in exposed plants. Among biochemical parameters chlorophyll b decreases significantly while ascorbic acid increases significantly. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) has also been calculated and found to increase significantly in plants kept at polluted location which indicate that the Duranta repens serve as sink to air pollutants and can be effectively employed for phyto-monitoring auto exhaust pollution along the road side of the busy traffic ways.
Keywords : Air pollution tolerance index, Anatomical parameters, Biochemical parameters, Duranta repens, Micro-morphological parameters, Vehicular pollution
Uday Bhan Prajapati and Anil K. Dwivedi*
Pollution & Environmental Assay Research laboratory (PEARL), Department of Botany, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur- 273009, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Industries discharge their effluents which are rich in solids, may it be in the form of TSS or TDS. These solids affect the other physicochemical parameters of the water body. Present study deals with the investigation of seasonal variation and statistical analyses of the selected parameters, in river Ami, in light of the industrial effluents. The study records that summer season, appears to be the most polluted, that is during the period when the river carries little amount of water. Statistical analysis showed that all the physicochemical parameters were positively correlated except TDS and temperature.
Keywords : Industrial effluent, Physico-chemical parameters, River Ami and Seasonal variation
Genotoxicity evaluation of pesticide profenofos by applying dominant lethal test on Culex quinquefasciatus
Preety Bhinder* and Asha Chaudhry
Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present paper deals with the genotoxicity evaluation of profenofos by applying dominant lethal test (DLT) on Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. For this, the males hatched from the larvae treated with LC 20 of pesticide were crossmated with normal females and the results were based on the number of hatched and unhatched eggs laid by these females. Mean percentage frequency of unhatched eggs was as low as 3.97 in the normal stocks as compared to treated stocks in which the frequency of unhatched eggs had increased to 9.50. The statistical analysis of the data from treated groups gave values of 9.50±1.35 as against 3.97± 0.38 in the control groups. Profenofos induced significant (p<0.05) dominant lethality.
Keywords : Profenofos, Dominant lethal test, Cx. quinquefasciatus
K. N. Geetha*, K. Jeyaprakash and Y. P. Nagaraja
Department of Biotechnology, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Mudugurki Village, Venkatagirikote–Post, Devanahalli Taluk, Bangalore-562110 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation was conducted to establish pharmacognostical profile for the leaves and flowers of Michelia champaca L. (Magnoliaceae) in order to establish its complete profile to aid in its identification and avoid confusion in taxonomic level for different species of the same genus. The study included macroscopical, organoleptical, microscopical and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the leaves and flowers. The study of the organoleptical evaluation revealed the presence of colour, odour and texture. The microscopic analysis showed the differences in cell structures, arrangement and shape of leaves and flowers. The physical characters of various solvent extracts showed the presence of colour, odour and consistency of the powdered leaves and flowers. Finally, the preliminary phytochemical analysis confirmed for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, amino acid, flavonoids and sterols in both leaves and flowers. The present findings may be used to establish the authenticity of leaves and flowers of Michelia champaca L. for their proper identification and standardization in order to collect raw plants for the preparation of herbal drugs.
Keywords : Michelia champaca L., Leaves, Flowers, Pharmacognocy
Ankur Rajpal1* , Renu Bhargava1 and A. K. Chopra2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (U.K.), INDIA
2Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249401 (U.K.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In this study, efficiency of vermitechnology in stabilizing sludge without pre-treatment was studied. The sludge was directly introduced in the vermicomposting reactors after their withdrawal from the bio-methanation reactor installed for experimentation on domestic waste. One Liter (5% TS) sludge was loaded after every fourth day and it was discontinued after sixteen days. However, the chemical analysis of the compost was done till twenty-fourth day. The present study also evaluated the potential of one indigenous Perionyx excavates (P.e.) and one exotic epigeic earthworm species Eisenia fetida (E.f). The results clearly elucidate that vermireactor with indigenous earthworms (P.e) gives over all comparable similar results with world wide known exotic species (E.f). The results of the study show a significant reduction in initial C/N ratio from an initial value of 19 to 9 for all reactors with earthworms, total organic matter (TOC) reduced by 50% and pH also reduced nearer to neutral, but increase in, total nitrogen (TN) 95%, NH 4 + -N reduced from 0.52% to 0.31% and NO 3 - N increased from 0 to 0.13%, total phosphorus (TP) increased from the initial concentration of 0.76% to 1.31%., However, removal efficiency of Fecal coliforms (indicator organism) in the prepared vermicompost through P.e and E.f was in the 6 log and 7 log (MPN/gm) respectively.
Keywords : Earthworm, Eiseniafetida, Perionyx excavatus and Sludge vermitechnology
G . V. Zodape
Department of Zoology, S. S. & L.S. Patkar College of Arts & Science and V.P. Varde College of Commerce and Economics S.V. Road, Goregaon (West), Mumbai- 400 062 (Maharashtra), INDIA
Abstract : Aloe vera leaves were gently pressed and the juice obtained was collected in a sterile container. The yield was calculated based on weight of the extract compared to the weight of the leaves. Twenty (20) Wistar strain rats (average weight 120-150 g) were divided into four (4) groups containing five (5) rats in each group. Each group was fed on a different diet like the control rats were fed on commercial rat pellet; experimental rats fed orally with Aloe vera juice 1.0 ml/kg body weight and isoniazid drug (LD) 50ml/kg body weight. Blood samples from each group were taken after 30th day through cardiac puncture for estimation of liver function test. The extent of liver damage was assessed by quantitative estimation of serum alanine aminotransferase (serum ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (serum AST), serum alkaline phosphatase (serum ALP), serum acid phosphatase (serum ACP), total serum protein (albumin and globulin) and serum bilirubin. Our investigations showed that the level of bilirubin was found to be higher in aloe vera juice and isoniazid drug administered groups. The level of serum ALT was found to be highest in rat fed with isoniazid drug, whereas the level of serum AST was found lowest in rats administered with isoniazid drug. The levels of serum ALP and serum ACP were found higher in concentration in rats administered with isoniazid drug. While the level of total proteins (albumin and globulin) was found to be low in group administered with isoniazid drug. Histopathological assessment of liver revealed that the animal exposed to isoniazid drug alone showed multifocal mild degree periportal mononuclear cell infiltration. Histological lesions ranged from hepatocellar disintegration and vacuolation in the peri-central vein area to marked proliferation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The remaining groups, however showed normal lobular pattern of liver.
Keywords : Aloe vera, Hepatotoxicity, Isoniazid drug, Liver
Sunil Kumar*, Priyanka Kumari and Shoma Devi
Environmental Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The purpose of this study was to know the hepatotoxicity of ethanol in laboratory rats Rattus rattus and to observe the individual and combined phytotherapeutic role of five herbs viz. Arctium lappa, Curcuma longa, Piper longum, Plumbago zeylanica and Terminalia chebula through biochemical and histopathological parameters. Ethanol is commonly used as solvent, pharmaceutical, drugs and alcohol abuse. Lipidperoxidation, glutathione content, urinary hydroxyproline, collagen and histopathological studies showed hepatotoxicity of 1ml/kg body weight dose of ethanol and protective role of 100 mg/kg body weight dose of herbs. Histopathological changes observed in the liver of rats after ethanol treatment showed hepatitis, collagenesis, fatty infiltration, sclerosis, perilobular necrosis, cytoplasmic degeneration, enlarged bile canaliculi, hydropic degeneration, focal necrosis, binucleated hepatocytes and nuclear degeneration. Mild cytoplasmic degeneration, necrosis, collagenesis and hepatocytes regenerations were observed in rats treated with same dose of ethanol and herbal combination. Ethanol treatment decreased the glutathione content, increased tissue malondialdehyde and collagen content, thus causing tissue injury and liver collagenesis. Urinary hydroxyproline level and biochemical parameters also showed the protective role of herbs against ethanol induced toxicity. Herbal combination i. e. 100ml/kg body weight from the mixture of five herbs given orally was found more effective than their individual role. Herbs and plants contain aromatic substances, secondary metabolites, alkaloids and polyphenols which act as antioxidant thus showing protective role.
Keywords : Hepatotoxicity, Histopathology, Ethanol, Herbal Combination, Antioxidant
Impact of combined action of Neem and Eucalyptus oil volatiles on different stages of Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
P. H. Pathak* and Sangita Pandey
Entomology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, D.D.U., Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009 (Uttar Pradesh),India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Combined action of neem (Azadiracta indica) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) oil volatiles causes a sharp reduction in percent egg hatchability in rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) when freshly laid eggs were exposed to these volatiles for 24 hours. A marked decline in egg output and egg hatchability in reproductive pairs, was observed whose larvae were allowed to develop in a programmed manner in an environment, laden with combined action of selected volumes of neem and eucalyptus oil or when both the sexes of these pyralids, were confined for the prescribed limited period, in such odorous environment. A significant reduction in glycogen, lipid and protein level and an increase in free amino acids was noticed in testes and ovaries of these pyralids, when breeding pairs were exposed to the selected volatiles for a period of six hours only.
Keywords : C. cephalonica, Egg hatchability, Reproductive potential, Combined action of Neem and Eucalyptus oils
First report of amphizoic amoebae isolated from edible Oyster mushroom- Pleurotus sajor-caju (Singer, 1949)
Kavyanjali Shukla* and A. K. Sharma
Protozoology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226 007 (U.P.), INDIA *Address: D-1/258, Sector-F, Jankipuram, Lucknow- 226 021 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present document serves as the first evidence that describes the presence of amphizoic amoebae in cap, stalk and internal tissues such as gills of the edible Oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus sajor-caju, packaged, and sold for public consumption. Samples tested over a 9 month period from different vegetable markets of Lucknow City revealed that out of 180 mushrooms, 176 (97.77%) yielded amphizoic amoebae, namely, Schizopyrenus, Naegleria, Hartmannella, Acanthamoeba and Vanella sp. Four samples of internal tissues yielded 6 strains of amoebae. A total of 17 Naegleria strains were isolated, out of which 5 were identified as Naegleria fowleri and were tested for their pathogenicity. The strains 2BNf01 and 5BNf04 were mildly pathogenic and strains, 4ANf02 i , 4ANf03 and 8ANf05 i were highly pathogenic. It was also observed that the most frequently observed species of amoebae belonged to the genus Acanthamoeba and a total 103 Acanthamoeba strains recorded.
Keywords : Amphizoic amoebae, Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju
N. V. Bhatkar
Department of Zoology, Shri Shivaji College, Akot- 444101 (MS), INDIA
Mailing address: N. V. Bhatkar, 27, Appaswami Colony, Akot-444101 (MS), INDIA
Abstract : The principle source of chromium in water bodies is discharged from industries which use large amount of chromates or dichromates. The freshwater fish, Labeo rohita was used as a model in the present studies to investigate the responses to chromium metal salt contamination in water bodies as it is the most common fish consumed widely in India. Haematological tests were carried out as these are the important diagnostic tools and are equally valuable as indicators of disease or stress due to pollutants and environmental fluctuations. The fish Labeo rohita were exposed to sublethal concentration of chromium chloride for 10, 20 and 30 days to study alterations in certain haematological parameters. The parameters under study were total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb gm%), total leucocyte count (TLC), differential leucocyte count (DLC) and pack cell volume (PCV). The studies revealed that chromium chloride-treated Labeo rohita exhibited decreased levels of total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb gm%) and PCV whereas, total leucocyte count (TLC) was increased under the stress of chromium metal The decreased WBC count found after 30 days along with depleted Hb content and RBC count indicate dysfunctioning of haemopoietic systems along with dysleucopoiesis. Leucocytosis observed after 10 and 20 days exposure has been considered to be an adaptation to meet stressful conditions by animals. Increase in macrophages and basophils appears to be protective response during chromium exposure. An increasing trend in the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were evident in fish exposed to sublethal doses of chromium chloride when compared with the control.
Keywords : Labeo rohita, Pollution, Chromium, Fish, Haematology
O. Sangeeta ¹, M. Shomorendra² and Devashish Kar¹*
¹Division of Wetlands, Fishery Science and Aquaculture Biotechnology, Department of Life Science, Assam (Central) University, Silchar – 788011, INDIA
²Fish Disease Research Lab.,Department of Zoology, Thambal Marik College, Oinam -795134 (Manipur), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E mail: devashishKar@yahoo.com
Abstract : An extensive survey was done for fish nematode parasites of few economically important fishes of Oinam Lake, Bishnupur district, Manipur. 9 species of nematodes were encountered. They are Camallanus anabantis, Procamallanus (Procamallanus) saccobranchi, Paraquimperia manipurensis, Paragendria sp., juvenile stages of genus Syphacia, Haplonema, Spinitectus, Philometra and Parascarophis etc. Of these nematode species, Procamallanus (Procamallanus) saccobranchi, Paragendria sp. and Haplonema sp. showed maximum abundance (14.28%) and Paraquimperia manipurensis, Parascarophis sp. showed minimum abundance (4.76%) of parasites. Among the fish species Anabas testudineus had highest percentage (50%) of parasites and Puntius sophore and Colisa labiosus had lowest percentage (1.25%) of parasites.
Keywords : Nematode parasites, Fishes, Oinam lake, Manipur
Isolation, screening of Aspergillus flavus and its production parameters for α- amylase under solid state fermentation
K. N. Geetha*, K. Jeyaprakash and Y. P. Nagaraja
Department of Biotechnology, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Mudugurki Village, Venkatagirikote –post, Devanahalli Taluk, Bangalore-562110 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The amylase producing fungi were isolated from spoiled fruits, vegetables and soil, in and around Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The isolates were identified and five fungal species were screened. The best amylase producer among them, Aspergillus sp. was selected for enzyme production by both submerged fermentation using mineral salt medium (MSM) and solid state fermentations using wheat bran as a solid substrate. The various parameters influencing solid state fermentation were optimized. The most important factors are such as pH, incubation temperature, incubation period, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and moisture content. The maximum amount of enzyme production was obtained when solid state fermentation was carried out with soluble starch as carbon source and beef extract (1% each) as nitrogen source, optimum conditions of pH 7.0, and incubation temperature of 25 (±2) °C, incubation time 96 h and 62% moisture content.
Keywords : Isolation, Screening, Production, α -amylase, Aspergillus flavus, Solid state fermentation
B. C. Shivakumar, A. C. Girish*, Balakrishna Gowda*, G. C. Vijaya Kumar, A. P. Mallikarjuna Gowda1 and M. N. Thimmegowda1
Biofuel Park, Madenur, Hassan, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore -573225 (Karnataka),India
1Agricultural College, Hassan, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 573225 (Karnataka),India
*Corresponding author. E-mail:email@example.com
Abstract : A field experiment conducted at Bio-fuel park, Agricultural Research Station, Madenur, Hassan in Kharif season of 2009 to assess the performance of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) under different organic manure treatment consisting of four treatments viz., recommended FYM and NPK through inorganic fertilizers as control, Pongamia, Mahua and Neem cake with 5 replications laid in randomized complete block design. The results revealed that application of recommended FYM along with neem cake equivalent to 100% recommended N performed better in respect of finger millet productivity and maintenance of soil fertility followed by recommended FYM with 100% NPK through fertilizers. Nutrient supplementation with different oilcakes proved superior in respect of soil sustainability.
Keywords : Finger millet, Oilcakes, Pongamia, Mahua, Neem
Differential effects of pesticides on soil microflora in cultivated soil of Indian rice field agro-ecosystems
Kalyanee Sharma Bhagabati*1 and Hemen Sarma2
1Department of Botany, Bajali College, Pathsala, 781 325 (Assam), INDIA
2Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Guwahati - 781035, INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of indiscriminate use of common pesticides especially insecticide on the population of soil micro flora in cultivated soil of Indian rice field agro-ecosystems. Endosulfan and Dichlorvos @ 1ml/l (normal dose) did not show any adverse effect on soil microflora; but a high dose 2ml/l showed a negative effect. On the other hand Carbofuran @ 9 kg/acre (normal dose) and 12kg/ acre (high dose) showed an adverse effect on the growth of actinomycetes, bacteria and fungi. The important findings of the present study is that the effect on microbes by applying insecticides reflects the ecological imbalance of microbes in cultivated soil and hamper the microbial equilibrium to some extent. The study focused that the uses of the pesticides as a plant protection agent occasionally hamper the growth of soil micro flora in cultivated rice field.
Keywords : Actinomycetes, Bacteria, Fungi, Pesticides, Rice field
Infection status of Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) metacercaria from Channa punctatus of Meerut District
Bindu Sharma*, Vidushi Rani and Ayushi Chaudhary
Department of Zoology, D.N.P.G. College, Meerut (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Metacercaria Clinostomum complanatum is a digenetic trematode, which is mainly found in freshwater fishes. Present communication deals with the infection status of C. complanatum in C. punctatus of Meerut district, which is supported by the data spreading over one year. About 250 specimens of C. punctatus from different ponds of Meerut were studied through regular periodical collection in the year Jan 2010 to Dec 2010. Overall prevalence 35.6%, mean intensity 3.06 and abundance 1.09 were reported. The infection was maximum in winter and minimum in rainy season. Prevalence, intensity and abundance of the infestation were also found to be related to different length group and sex of the hosts, the medium sized fishes were more infected and the larger size fishes were less infected while the smaller size fishes showed moderate infection. Susceptibility of infection was not significantly different between male and female fish.
Keywords : Clinostomum complanatum, Freshwater fish, Channa punctatus
Histopathological changes in the gill architecture of Labeo rohita from the pond adjacent to thermal power station, Koradi, Nagpur, India
A. S. Deshpande1 , S. B. Zade*1 and S. R. Sitre2
1Department of Zoology, RTM Nagpur University Campus, Nagpur- 440033 (M.S.), INDIA
2N.S. Science & Arts College Bhadrawati, Dist. Chandrapur- 442902 (M.S.), INDIA
*Corresponding author.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The hazardous effect of water pollution on the histopathology of selected organs of the freshwater fish Labeo rohita was studied with respect to thermal power plant effluent. The purpose of this research paper is to study whether the thermal plume can affect fish assemblages in the waters around the outlet area of the thermal power plant located at Koradi near Nagpur city. Both experimental and control fishes were monitored for a year from March 2010 to Feb. 2011. Histopathology serve as a tool to assess the extent of damage caused to the organism. Gill tissue showed fusion of primary lamellae, congestion of blood vessels and hyperplasia of bronchial plates. The histopathological changes in the gill tissue include epithelial hyperplasia, curling of secondary lamellae and changes in chloride cells. Besides these changes pyknotic nuclei, vacuolization, degradation of epithelial and pillar cells, were noticed, which point out towards deleterious effect of thermal power plant effluent on the freshwater fish L. rohita.
Keywords : Histopathological changes, Labeo rohita, Gill, Thermal power plant effluent
Role of phosphate solubilizing fungi during phosphocompost production and their effect on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L) plants
G . Sibi
Department of Microbiology, Padmashree Institute of Management and Sciences, Bangalore - 560 060, INDIA
Abstract : Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphate solubilizing fungi (Aspergillus awamori and Trichoderma viride) in phosphocompost preparation along with low grade rock phosphate. Co-inoculation of phosphate-solubilizing fungi significantly increased the nutrient value of the compost that explores high P-solubilizing potential of A.awamori and T.viride which can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphates thereby enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. Rock phosphate application along with phosphate solubilizing fungi increased 69.2% acid phosphatase and 65% alkaline phosphatase activity over ordinary compost. With co-inoculation, maximum P content (64.3%) was observed followed by single inoculation with A.awamori (62.2%). The present findings revealed that phosphate solubilizing fungi can interact positively in promoting nutrient content of compost and plant growth leading to improved yield.
Keywords : Aspergillus awamori, Trichoderma viride, Phosphocompost
Ageing effect on grooming activity in langur male bands (Semnopithecus entellus) in and around Jodhpur (India)
Chena Ram, Goutam Sharma* and L. S. Rajpurohit
Animal Behaviour Unit, Department of Zoology, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study is based on grooming activity in different age class members of Semnopithecus entellus entellus all-male bands (AMB). All males seem to reach a peak in grooming frequency during and immediately following puberty and it is suggested that this peak corresponds to a period of establishing coalition bonds. High grooming rates may also be found in young adults who are actively and assertively challenging higher-ranking individuals. Finally, some old males exhibit paternalistic behavior toward young (generally pre-pubertal) males, which includes grooming, co-feeding and active defense by the older male. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis than grooming is an instrumental behaviour analogous to human gift exchange, which can be “used” by an individual for his ultimate benefit.
Keywords : Semnopithecus entellus, Grooming, Ageing, Jodhpur
Rajnish Kumar Sharma* and Nirupama Agrawal
Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Diversity of molluscan fauna of Surha Tal, district Ballia (U.P.) was studied during 2006-08.Twenty species of molluscs were collected. Of these, fourteen species of six genera belong to class Gastropoda, families Viviparidae, Pilidae, Thiaridae, Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae; six species belonging to three genera are of families of the class Bivalvia; Unionidae, Amblemidae and Corbiculidae.
Keywords : Mollusc fauna, Surha Tal, Ballia (U.P.)
Seasonal variation in bacterial contamination of water sources with antibiotic resistant faecal coliforms in relation to pollution
Kshama Tripathi and A. K. Sharma*
Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Water sample were collected from piped supplies, surface water and groundwater sources in different locations of Lucknow City during summer, monsoon and winter season. Bacteriological quality of samples was determined by enumerating coliform isolated were subject to antibiotic susceptibility test with disc diffusion method. Maximum coliform and faecal coliform contamination were recorded during summer (67% and 75%) and monsoon (67% and 58.3%) while minimum during winter (50% and 50%). All the test isolates exhibited resistance (for nine antibiotics) was shown by river isolates. Antibiotic resistance index (ARI) ranged from 0.050 to 0.150 exhibiting the broad spectrum resistance for 3 to 9 out of 10 antibiotics tested. Occurrence of faecal pollution indicator organisms and multiple antibiotics resistance bacterial population in drinking water is alarming and a sign of potential health with therapeutic problems.
Keywords : Coliform, Antibiotic resistance, Water, Season and pollution
Quantitative vegetation analysis of tree species in the forest adjacent to villages on the periphery of Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary
K. S. Puspwan and B. N. Pandey*
Government PG College, Lansdowne, Pauri Garhwal – 246139 (Uttarakhand), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study was carried out in the forest adjacent to three villages located on the periphery of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary with the objective to evaluate the quantitative characters of tree species of the forest vegetation near these villages in relation to the species diversity, equitability and concentration of dominance of the selected villages. A total of eleven tree species were recorded. While the IVI values ranged from 9.78 to 84.33, the density values ranged between 0.3 and 1.9 and TBC values between 13.55 cm2/100m2 and 4080.80 cm2/100m2 . Distribution pattern varied for different species. The recorded values viz. density, Shannon-Weiner Index (H), Concentration of Dominance (cd) and Equitability (Eq) were within the reported range for these types of forests.
Keywords : Forest, Vegetation analysis, Quadrat, Dominant species
Anjali Goel*, M.K. Bhardwaj1 and Neetu Rani
Department of Chemistry, KGM, IInd campus of Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Patanjali Ayurved Limited, Haridwar (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The aim of present work was to extract a yellow colour dye from turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa) and to use it in the coating of triphala guggle ayurvedic (abbreviated as TGA) tablets. For coating of the TGA tablets the work was completed into two parts- in the first part extraction of dye from turmeric rhizome was carried out and in the second part extracted dye was used to coat the TGA-tablets. The dye extract was used in two forms for dyeing the tablets - firstly as liquid turmeric dye extract (LTDE) and secondly as powdered turmeric dye extract (PTDE). The optimum extraction conditions were settled after studying the effect of solvent, stirring time and temperature on the extraction of dye. The solvents used are water, ethanol and water- ethanol mixture. It was observed that the optimum extraction conditions for turmeric dye extraction were 60 0c and 75 min stirring time with ethanol as solvent but from industrial point of view it is more economical to use ethanol–water (1:1) mixture for extraction. The extracted LTDE and PTDE were used to coat the TGA tablets. The results showed that the tablet coated with LTDE faded just in 30 days while PTDE coated tablets remained stable up to 40 days. Thus, present coating was suitable for coating the TGA tablets but the environmental factors like temperature and humidity influenced the stability of the coating a lot. The suitability of coating was studied by determining some physico- chemical parameters like average weight, diameter, thickness, friability, disintegration time and loss on drying of LTDE and PTDE coated tablets. The results were within the permissible limit of Indian Pharmacopea and other pharmacopeia. Therefore, coating of tablets with LTDE and PTDE both were found to be suitable for coating the TGA tablet.
Keywords : Triphala guggle, Natural dye, Turmeric rhizome, Extraction
Rakesh Raturi*1 , Harpreet Singh1 , P. Bahuguna1 , S. C. Sati2 and P. P. Badoni1
1Department of Chemistry, HNB Garhwal University Campus, Pauri Garhwal (U.K.),India 2Department of Chemistry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal (U.K.),India *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the present study in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Prunus persica family rosaceae were carried out from the bark extract of the plant. The methanolic extract was tested for their antimicrobial study against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and for their antioxidant activity using scavenging activity of DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrozyl) radical method. The plant extract showed remarkable antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
Keywords : Antibacterial activity, Antioxidant activity, Prunus persica, Bacteria
Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of the ground water across the City Bareilly (U.P.), India
D. R. Khanna, Shivom Singh, Neetu Saxena, R. Bhutiani*, Gagan Matta and Dipali Bhasker Kulkarni
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar -249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The drinking water quality (underground water) of Bareilly City has been assessed by estimating physico-chemical parameters and calculating Water Quality Index (WQI). Water Quality Index plays an important role in interpreting the information on water quality. The WQI of different sites shows that drinking water is of good quality. The correlation between different parameters was also estimated. During course of study the average value of physico-chemical parameters studied were observed as temperature 20.17 o C, turbidity 2.17 NTU, pH 8.13, electrical conductivity 1360 mmhos/cm, total dissolved solids 1218.9 mg/l, total hardness 515.0 mg/l chlorides 106.34 mg/l, alkalinity 342.15, fluorides 0.44 mg/l, sulphates 84.68 mg/l, nitrates 22.83 mg/l, DO 2.44 mg/l, BOD 1.26 mg/l. While average MPN were observed as 5.66 and average WQI as 21.48.
Keywords : Drinking underground water, WQI, Correlation coefficient, Groundwater quality
Isolation, characterization and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples in Nagpur district, India
Preeti G . Dharmik* and Ashok V. Gomashe
Shri Shivaji Science College, Congress nagar, Nagpur- 440012 (M.S.),India *Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study was carried out from July 2010 to June 2011. The aim of the present investigation was to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk obtained from cow from different parts of Nagpur district, India and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility profile. General biochemical tests along with the MASTASTAPHTM rapid agglutination tests were employed for bacterial identification. All the well characterized isolates were further confirmed by amplifying coa gene by PCR. A total 95 S. aureus isolates were obtained during this study from 50 raw milk samples. When all the well characterized isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics. A large proportion of isolates were found to be resistant to Co-trimoxazole (89%) followed by Linomycin (81%) and Penicillin (35%) It was concluded from the current study that the hygiene of the milk was poor and resistant strains contaminated the milk probably during the process of transportation.
Keywords : Antibiotic susceptibility, Staphylococcus aureus, Raw milk
Screening of Rhizobacteria for their plant growth promotion abilities and their interaction with Rhizobium of Mung bean
Shailesh Joshi* and A. Bohra
Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint for crop production. The beneficial microorganisms in the soil convert insoluble phosphorus into soluble form for plant growth and also prevents their leaching into water bodies. In present investigation seventy two (72) rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from Mungbean rhizospheric soil on King’s B medium, from various locations near Jodhpur. All the isolates were screened for their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate in Pikovskaya’s medium, nitrogen fixation and auxin like substance production. Four isolates were able to solubilize phosphate ranging from 42.69 µg TCP/ml to 90.10 µg TCP/ml. Total fifty eight (80.55%) isolates out of seventy two rhizobacteria were able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in vitro. Rhizobacterial isolates that were able to fix environmental nitrogen and solubilize phosphate were screened for auxin like substance production. Two isolates were able to produce auxin like substances at lower amount. Among all the rhizobacterial isolates screened for their influence on rhizobial growth in vitro, twenty three (31.94%) isolates stimulated the growth of Mung bean Rhizobium. The diameter of zone of stimulation varied from 6.0 mm (MrbIV 14) to 16.5 mm (MrbII 05 and MrbIII 16) and maximum stimulation was shown by MrbIII 10 (17.5 mm). However, thirty two (44.44%) isolates were neutral to the growth of Mung bean Rhizobium.
Keywords : Mungbean, Rhizospherie, Rhizobium, Auxin, Phosphate
Animesh K. Mohapatra*, Deepika Rai and Anika Tyagi
Eco-toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer-305004 (Rajasthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide on the DNA and histomorphology of testis, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus. Oral administration of arsenic trioxide induced DNA damage in the testis, liver and kidney marked by light pink staining of nuclei after Feulgen’s reaction with reduced fine chromatin. Simultaneously severe histological changes were noted like distortion of seminiferous tubules, disorganization of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with cytoplasmic vacuolization and nuclear pycnosis in testis. There was almost disappearance of sinusoids due to disruption of hepatic plates, inflammatory cellular infiltration around central veins and cytoplasmic vacuolization in hepatocytes with large irregular nuclei in liver of treated mice. Disorganized glomeruli with distorted Bowman’s capsules and mild to severe multifocal cloudy and hydropic degeneration with necrosis of tubules were observed in the kidney of treated mice. Inference drawn from the study indicated that arsenic induced both genotoxic histotoxic lesions.
Keywords : Arsenic, Genotoxic, Histopathological, Albino mice
Ashok Aggarwal*, Nisha Kadian, Anju Tanwar, Alpa Yadav and K. K. Gupta1
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Mycorrhizal symbiosis is a highly evolved mutually beneficial relationship that exists between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and most of the vascular plants. The majority of the terrestrial plants form association with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) or Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). This symbiosis confers benefits directly to the host plant’s growth and development through the acquisition of Phosphorus (P) and other mineral nutrients from the soil by the AMF. In addition, their function ranges from stress alleviation to bioremediation in soils polluted with heavy metals. They may also enhance the protection of plants against pathogens and increases the plant diversity. This is achieved by the growth of AMF mycelium within the host root (intra radical) and out into the soil (extra radical) beyond. Proper management of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi has the potential to improve the profitability and sustainability of agricultural systems. In this review article, the discussion is restricted to the mycorrhizal benefits and their role in sustainable development.
Keywords : Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi, Sustainable development, Growth improvement, Nutrient uptake
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