Volume 3, Year 2011-Issue 1
Ehi Robert Orhue* and Uzu Frank
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin P.M.B. 1154 Benin City, Edo state, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Pot and field trials were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin to determine the influence of Pb on some agronomic characters of Telfairia occidentalis and some chemical properties of soil. Completely randomized and randomized completely block designs were used in greenhouse and field trials respectively. In the greenhouse trial, lead nitrate (Pb(N03)2) was applied at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg per 5 kg sieved and air-dried soil obtained from a depth of 0-15 cm. The pot rates equivalent to 0, 20, 40 and 80 kgha-1 were used in the field trial. Results indicated that the soil used was texturally sandy loam and an ultisol as demonstrated by its low base saturation. The pH, organic carbon, Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC), Exchangeable acidity, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, free Fe and Al oxides, Amorphous Fe and Al oxides content of the soil decreased inconsistently. The organic carbon however increased in the field while the available P appreciated in the entire trials. The Pb content of the soil increased with the levels of Pb treatments when compared with the control throughout the trials. The N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn and Zn content of shoot and root as well as their uptake also decreased consistently with increasing Pb treatments. In addition, the Pb content as well as uptake by the shoot and root also increased consistently with increased rates of the Pb applied in the trials with the minimum levels of the Pb content and uptake recorded at the control treatments. The crude protein content decreased with increased heavy metal treatments in both root and shoot with the control having the highest crude protein content. The highest crude protein percentage was recorded in the shoot compared to the root. A decrease in the dry matter yield with increased Pb treatments in shoot and root was recorded in the trials. Results also showed that the Pb influenced the height, collar girth, leaf area and number of leaves with control treatments higher than other treatments at final harvest. The manifestation of anthocyanin pigmentation in 200 mg Pb and 80 kg Pb ha-1 treatments revealed the negative influence of the Pb on the phosphorus uptake by Telfaria occidentalis.
Keywords : Heavy metal, Uptake, Ultisol, Metal excluder, Pumpkin
Assessment of long-term production traits of three breeds of exotic commercial layers in the derived Savannah zone of Nigeria
S. O. Olawumi1* and I. Dudusola2
1Animal Breeding Unit, Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, P. M. B. 5363, Ado-Ekiti, NIGERIA
2 Department of Animal Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NIGERIA
Abstract : This study was carried out to compare production traits of three breeds of exotic commercial layers for a production period of 15 months. The breeds are Isa Brown (IB), Bovan Nera (BN) and Dominant Black (DB) and the traits considered are hen-day egg production, feed efficiency and mortality rate. The general means are 5.24 eggs/bird/week, 0.006/bird/week and 0.16/breed/week for egg production, feed efficiency and mortality rate, respectively. There was highly significant (P<0.01) effect of breed on egg production and feed efficiency but the reverse was the case for mortality rate. On egg production, IB genotype recorded 5.37+0.07 eggs/bird/week while BN breed had 5.41+0.08 eggs/bird/week and the values were similar but superior to DB genotype with 4.94 eggs/bird/week. For feed efficiency, IB and BN breeds recorded higher mean values and were similar but superior to DB genotype. The mean values are: IB=0.006+9.05x10-5 , BN=0.006+8.53x10-5 and DB=0.005/bird/week. Breed’s effect on mortality rate showed that the three genotypes had similar values, that is, breed has no significant (P>0.05) effect on this trait. There was highly significant (P<0.01) effect of age of birds on egg production. Age 2 (2nd month) recorded the highest mean values while age 14 (14th month) was the lowest. The values respectively, are 6.04+0.16 eggs/bird/week and 4.18+0.16 eggs/bird/week. In addition, there was highly significant (P<0.01) effect of age of birds on feed efficiency regardless of the breed of birds. Age 2 (2nd month) recorded the highest mean values and age 14 (14th month) the lowest. There was also highly significant (P<0.01) effect of age on mortality rate of commercial layers. The long-term production analyses showed that IB and BN genotypes are more productive, feed efficient and could be recommended to farmers as commercially viable breeds of layers.
Keywords : Breed, Trait, Egg production, Age, Mortality
Indian marsh mugger and its tunnel residency behavioural patterns in a sanctuary premises in Haryana, India
Rohtash Chand Gupta
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Haryana), INDIA
Present Address: H.No-566/3, Urban Estate, Kurukshetra (Haryana), INDIA
Abstract : The present studies endeavour to focus attention on the Tunnel behavior of Indian Marsh Mugger in “Bhor Sainda Crocodile Sanctuary” in Kurukshetra district of Haryana state in India. The Sanctuary premises are spread over an area of about 25-30 Acres with a good marshy land and a central earth mound which is having 12-15 tunnels. Observations reveal that Indian Marsh Mugger is accustomed to spend time in Tunnels during the night without any exception in normal conditions. However, if the tunnels are damaged due to one or the other reason, then Muggers may compulsively stray in the open during night time. All the tunnels are seldom in use at any given time.Tunnels are necessarily used for eggs laying by the females. Tunnels are in very bad shape in this Sanctuary.Tunnels are scattered on the earth mound all across with no specific pattern or style. However, most of the tunnels are located in the centre of the earth mound. Tunnels were in very good position during 1985-1990. However, now these tunnels are in very bad shape. Most of these are now stuffed with debris and appear defunct. These have directly affected the hatching of eggs which are necessarily laid in tunnels by muggers at this Sanctuary site.
Keywords : Indian marsh mugger, Tunnels, Bhor Sainda crocodile sanctuary, Kurukshetra, Haryana
K. K. Singh* and Bhusan Gurung
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Sikkim Unit, Pangthang, Post Box 24 Gangtok, East Sikkim-737 101, INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : A method has been developed for plant regeneration from alginate-encapsulated nodal segments of Rhododendron dalhousiae. Shoot tips collected from in vitro proliferated shoots were used for synthetic seed production. For encapsulation, nodal segments were mixed with MS medium supplemented with 3% sodium alginate and incubated with calcium chloride (60 mM). The maximum frequency (69%) of conversion of encapsulated shoot tips into plantlets was achieved on MS medium containing 25 µM 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP) along with additive such as, 100 mg L-1 polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), 100 mg L-l ascorbic acid, 10 mg L-l citric acid. The presence of 2iP (25 µM) with IAA (0.6 µM) improved re-generation. Amongst the two gelling agents used higher shoot proliferation as well as better growth were observed in cultures grown on Agar in comparison to Phytagel medium. Encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4°C for 25 days also showed successful conversion, followed by development into complete plantlets when returned to regeneration medium. Liquid medium was superior over solid medium for root formation and growth. IBA (1.0 µM) was more effective than other auxins for root induction. Plantlets with developed shoot and roots were hardened off to survive ex vitro conditions and successfully established in greenhouse. Possibility of direct sowing of synthetic seeds in the soil was also examined.
Keywords : Rhododendron dalhousiae, Encapsulation, Multiple shoot, In vitro propagation, Sikkim Himalaya
Sakshi Sharma, Sabeta Kohli and Rajnikant*
Laboratory for X-ray Crystallography, Post- Graduate Department of Physics, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi - 180 006, INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21 /c, with unit cell parameters a= 7.7203(3), b=14.0481(4), c=8.9066(3) Å, β =112.858(5)º, V= 890.11(5) Å3 and Z = 4. The structure has been solved by direct methods and the final R-factor is 0.0433 for 2832 unique reflections. The molecule, as such, is planar and the planarity is confirmed by the magnitude of dihedral angles between the two rings. Extensive Hydrogen-bonding has been observed and chlorine atom is responsible for the formation of trifurcated hydrogen-bond. Trifurcated hydrogen-bond plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of molecules having drug implications.
Keywords : Coumarin, Crystal structure, Direct methods, Hydrogen bonding, X-ray crystallography
Photoperiod-induced clock-shifting in the circadian protein and amino acid rhythms in the larval fat body of silkworm, Bombyx mori
B. Sailaja and S. Sivaprasad*
Department of Zoology, Smt.N.P.S.Government College for Women, Chittoor-517 002 (A.P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The photoperiod-induced clock-shifting in the free running time of the circadian protein and amino acid rhythms was studied in the larval fat body of Bombyx mori. The analysis of peaks and troughs of phase response curves of the rhythm revealed that the fourth and fifth instar larvae grown under normal 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle (LD) showed 7 protein synthetic cycles, while those reared under continuous light (LL) recorded 9.5 cycles in fourth instar and 8 in fifth instar. Under continuous dark (DD), the protein rhythm maintained 8 cycles in fourth instar and 7.5 cycles in fifth instar. Clearly, both LL and DD conditions advance the 24-h free running time of the protein rhythm by durations ranging from 1.6 to 6.5 h. Comparative analysis of protein and amino acid rhythms shows that the photoperiod modulates the free running time of the former by altering the rate of amino acid mobilization.
Keywords : Bombyx mori , Circadian amino acid rhythm, Circadian protein rhythm, Fat body, Photoperiod
Enhanced decolourization of congo red dye under submerged fermentation (SMF) process by newly isolated Bacillus subtilis SPR42
Baljeet Singh Saharan* and Poonam Ranga
Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Studies were carried out on the decolourization of textile azo dye using newly isolated aerobic bacterial culture. Among the 58 strains of aerobic bacteria isolated from soil contaminated with textile industry (Shivalik polymer Ltd. Faridabad) effluent, three showed remarkable ability in decolourizing the widely utilized azo dye (Congo Red). These strains also readily grew in and decolourized the high concentrations of dye (100 mgL-1 ). The aerobic bacterial isolate SPR42 , was able to decolourize the Congo Red dye at a concentration of 100 mgL-1 upto 94% within 24 hrs at static conditions. The temperature and pH for optimum growth and activity of the isolate were reported as 37oC and 8.5, respectively. The colorless bacterial biomass after decolourization suggested that decolourization was due to biodegradation, rather than inactive surface adsorption. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparisons indicate that the strain SPR 42 identified as Bacillus subtilis. This isolate can be a potential strain for biological treatment of effluents of TPI (Textile Processing Industry).
Keywords : Biodegradation, Decolourization, Textile dye, Textile effluent, Congo red dye
Larval form of the genus Thubunaea Seurat, 1914 from the body cavity of an insect, Supella sp., at Meerut (U.P.), India
H.S. Singh*, Malti and Anshu Chaudhary
Department of Zoology, C. C. S. University, Meerut (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present communication deals with a larval nematode belonging to the genus Thubunaea Seurat, 1914, from the body cavity of an insect, Supella sp., at Meerut, U.P. Both encysted and free larval stages were recovered. Morphology of the larvae is described in detail.
Keywords : Thubunaea, Supella, Larval nematode
Field evaluation of nursery bed inoculated arbuscular mycorrhiza and rootdip inoculated Azotobacter chroococcum and Aspergillus awamori on aerobic rice
N. Earanna* and K. Muruli
Department of Biotechnology, AICRP on Pigeon Pea, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Field evaluation of nursery bed inoculated with Glomus fasciculatum and root dip treatment with Azotobacter chroococcum and Aspergillus awamori was carried out on aerobic rice. All the inoculated treatments with G. fasciculatum either singly or in combination showed increased growth and yield of rice compared to control and dual and triple inoculation were performed better than single inoculation treatment. G. fasciculatum inoculated seedlings in nursery bed shown better root colonization in field after transplantation compared to un-inoculated plants. The root dip inoculation with A. chroococcum and A. awamori during transplantation also increased the population of N2 fixer and Phosphate solubilizers besides increasing the population of general microflora in the rhizosphere. The results revealed the possibility of nursery inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and root dip inoculation of other biofertilizers for aerobic rice.
Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Nursery inoculation, Root dipping, Azotobacter, Aerobic rice, Aspergillus awamori
On the fundamentals of natural history and present threats to Red-wattled Lapwing in Kurukshetra environs
Rohtash Chand Gupta* and Tirshem Kumar Kaushik
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus is a very common bird seen on the periphery of Kurukshetra-Thanesar, twin towns, in agriculture fields. Last 28 years of keen observations reveal the fast coming up threats to its populations. The current populations are a quarter only of the level that existed in 1980s. Most visible threat has been caused by HUDA (Haryana Urban Development Authority). It has virtually converted the peripheral agriculture fields in Kurukshetra into so called HUDA-Sectors -new Human dwelling places with ultra modern civic amenities with vast open space with no protection or peace for lapwing populations- diminishing its populations to the present deplorable position. It has been observed to segregate into very strong male-female pairs during breeding season which embarks upon with respect to the first or second week of April, culminating in nest building and laying of eggs in the 4 th week of April through May and 4 th week of June. Juveniles were seen first in May last week. A total of 25 nests of the bird were surveyed in the breeding season during April to July 2010. The clutch size ranged from 3-4. Out of 25 nests surveyed, 13 nests were having 4 eggs each and 11 nests 3 eggs as in 2010. Also, only one nest was found with two eggs. Further, in all 87 eggs were laid in 25 nests, out of which 53 eggs hatched successfully. The eggs were mosaic colored with pied patterns- a measure of “Camouflaging” to evade attack of predators including Common Pariah Kite Milvus migrans, House Crow Corvus splendens, Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis and Stray dogs. Eggs on ground always confronted a threat from pedestrians.
Keywords : Dwindling Red-wattled Lapwing populations, Threats, Kurukshetra, Natural history
Applications of submerged fermentation for biodegradation and decolourisation of melanoidins by an isolate Alcaligenes denitrificans SAG5
Baljeet Singh Saharan* and Anita Rani
Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Baljeet@daad-alumni.de
Abstract : In laboratory conditions a bacterium was isolated, which was identified as Alcaligenes denitrificans SAG5. . The optimum decolourisation (72.6%) of melanoidin was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C within 4-6 days fermentation. The toxicity evaluation of distillery effluent with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw effluent is highly toxic as compared to treated effluent. This indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is eco-friendly.
Keywords : Fermentation, Melanoidins, Biodegradation, Decolourisation, Distillery effluent
Partial purification and characterisation of some low molecular weight α - amylases from Dolichos biflorus
Maryada Garg and Anoop K. Dobriyal*
Department of Zoology, H.N.B. Garhwal Central University Campus, Pauri Garhwal-246001, Uttarakhand, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Dolichos biflorus, a commonly used legume in Uttarakhand, produces alpha amylase enzyme for conversion of starch present in its cotyledons to glucose, so that this glucose can be further utilized for the life controlling processes, glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle. Yield of this α - amylase isolated from the germinating legume comes out to be 27.7 IUml-1 . Maximal amylase production occurs at pH 6.1 at 45OC. The enzyme was purified two fold, first with ultra-filtration and then with Ion-exchange chromatography. Ultra-filtration revealed size of amylase to be between 10 kDa and 30 kDa, against larger sizes of other bacterial amylases. The pH and temperature optima for purified enzyme were 6.1 and 45OC respectively. The K m for starch came out to be 1.95 mgml-1 . This finding of generating one more new and low-price source of α - amylase is a great advancement in biotechnology.
Keywords : Ultra filtration, α - amylase, Yield, K m , V m
Gayatri Nahak and R.K. Sahu*
Department of Botany, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar (Orissa), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study on evaluation of antioxidant activity of the flowers and seed oil of Neem plant Azardirachta indica A. Juss revealed that the ethanolic extract of flowers and seed oil at 200 µg/ml producing the highest free radical scavenging activity i.e. 64.17±0.02% and 66.34±0.06% respectively. The Neem oil has the highest amount of total phenol content (132 µg/ml) which is responsible for highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical. In conclusion Neem flower and seed oil have potential for use in human health which is used as food by common people and in diabetes and Neem seed oil is widely used for variety of diseases and also antioxidant potential for use in different pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords : Neem oil, Flower, Antioxidant activity, DPPH scavenging assay
Influence of silica intoxication on female reproductive organs with therapeutic agents Vitamin E and Vitamin C
Shruti Saxena* and S. P. Singh
PG Department of Zoology, D. B. S. (PG) College, Dehradun, 24800 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Shruti_dsp@yahoo.com
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to observe the alteration of blood biochemical and histopathological variables after silica exposure, and also to show whether therapeutic agents (Vitamin E + Vitamin C) used in study may provide recovery against exposure to silica. In this study, silica was administered as silicon dioxide at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 28 days to produce toxic effect. Recovery pattern was evaluated by Vitamin E + vitamin C (50 mg/kg, ip + 100 mg/kg, po), The present study showed alterations in the activities of oestrogen and LH were significantly decreased in experimental rats after 28 days of silica intoxication. The level of progesterone and FSH, were also decreased. Therapeutic agents i.e. vitamin E and vitamin C recouped the values to normal and near to control.
Keywords : Histopathological variables, Recovery pattern, Blood biochemical, Silica
Rajnikant † # , Sarita Parihar † , Sabeta Kohli † , Sakshi Sharma† , B. Narayana* and S. Samshuddin*
† Laboratory for X-ray Crystallography, Post- Graduate Department of Physics, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi - 180 006, INDIA
*Department of Studies in Chemistry, University of Mangalore, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore- 574 199, INDIA
#Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/c having unit cell parameters: a=7.6329(4), b=7.8137(4), c=28.0651(14) Å, β =95.995o. The structure converges to a final R-value of 0.0563. The two C-N bonds in Ring B are puckered as the torsion around these bonds is 29.67(2)o and -18.49(2)o , respectively. The two methyl carbons as well as the oxygen atom of the central N-containing five-membered ring (B) are significantly deviated from their mean positions. The magnitude of dihedral angle between the phenyl ring A and B is 133.09(1)o while it is 170.43(1)o between ring B and the phenyl ring C. This indicates that the molecule adopts a non-planar configuration. The crystal structure is stabilized by few C-H…O and C-H…N inter and intramolecular hydrogen interactions.
Keywords : Crystal structure, Pyrazolone, Dihedral angle, Hydrogen bonding
Renu Saxena, H. B. Sharma, Aftab Ahmad 1 , Gaurav Arya 1 , Nayanci Bansal 1 , Archna Rashmi 1 and A.K. Saxena 1*
Department of Zoology, B.S.A. College, Mathura, INDIA
1 Department of Zoology, Government Raza Postgraduate College, Rampur–244901 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Five kinds of finches were examined during 2004-06. Two kinds of finches were found infested with ischnoceran lice, Brueelia sp. (Prevalence-20.5%, mean intensity of infestation-4.7 and range of infestation, 1-23). The frequency distribution pattern of Brueelia sp. on Indian finches conformed to the negative binomial model. Sex ratio was skewed in favour of females and adults outnumbered the nymphs in natural population.
Keywords : Phthiraptera, Lice, Prevalence, Ischnocera, Amblycera, Mallophaga
Toxic effects of endosulfan on cholesterol levels of liver, brain and gills of stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis
P.G. Department of Zoology, B.S.N.V. College, Lucknow- 226001, INDIA
Abstract : Stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to different concentrations of an organochlorine pesticide endosulfan under static conditions, revealed statistically significant increase in cholesterol contents of liver, brain and gill tissues even at the lowest concentration (0.0010 mg/l). Fish also elicited behavioral changes due to pesticide toxicity. Hypercholesterolemia appeared to be due to stress induced metabolic alterations caused by intoxication.
Keywords : Endosulfan, Toxicity, Hypercholesterolemia, Behavioral alterations
Population dynamics and conservation management of Himalayan mahseer (Tor species) in riverine aquatic ecosystem in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand (India)
Davendra Singh Malik
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
Abstract : The mahseer, an Indian carp (Tor species) known as ‘Sport fish’ continues to be decimated by the large scale natural and anthropogenic factors and categorized as threatened fishes in India. The present research data revealed that total species richness of 33 and 24 number of fish species were identified in river Ganga and Yamuna respectively. The size group of mahseer (400-460mm) recorded as a dominant size of catch composition and contributed about 36.8% and 42.6% based on different sampling sites in river Yamuna and Ganga respectively. The populations of Tor tor, T. putitora have shown a decreasing trend at very alarming rate and influenced the sex ratio, maturity size and natural breeding condition. Only 12.5 to 14.8% mahseer female brooders have shown maturity phase or amenable to release ova during particular breeding seasons. The fecundity of mature female fish brooders ranged from 2500-4500 no. of eggs during July-August. The current status of mahseer fishery may be attributed to the over exploitative nature in riverine system. ‘In situ and Ex-situ” breeding techniques should be practiced for enhancement of viable population size of mahseer species to restore the genetic loss under mahseer conservation programme in aquatic ecosystem of Himalayan region.
Keywords : Mahseer fish, Tor species, Population dynamics, Fish conservation, Riverine ecosystem
Sanjay Mohan Gupta* , Mohommad Arif and Zakwan Ahmed
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Haldwani-263139, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study on antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of leaf and seed extract and seed oil of Jatropha curcas reveals that the inhibition zones ranged from 7 to 22 mm for antibacterial and from 10 to 20 mm for antifungal activity. Among all extracts tested, seed extract showed significant activity while leaf extract showed intermediate activity against gram-positive bacteria. In case of gram-negative bacteria, seed extract and seed oil has shown some moderate activity whereas, no activity was observed in leaf extract. In case of fungal cultures, among all test extracts only seed extract showed significant activity against Mucor and Tilletia fungus, while in case of Rhizopus no activity was observed against all test extracts. These results indicated the possibility of using Jatropha extract and seed oil for medicinal uses and natural food preservation.
Keywords : Antimicrobial activity, Jatropha curcas L., Crude leaf and seed extract, Seed oil, Agar disc diffusion assay
Studies on changes in hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless tobacco (Gutka) chewing auto drivers in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India
P. Jaganmohan* and A. Phaninanatha Sarma
Harrison Institute of Biotechnology, Shrimp Care Unit, Ramamurthy Nagar, Nellore-524001 (A.P.), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Smokeless tobacco on some biochemical and haematological parameters. It was observed that hematological parameters of Autodrivers including hemoglobin content, white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in Gutka consumers than in controls, whereas monocytes and basophils counts were lower. Higher biochemical parameters like serum cholesterol, glucose and protein were observed in blood samples of Gutka consumers. Decrease in serum protein levels and remarkable increase in Serum cholesterol and glucose levels were observed in Gutka consumers when compared to controls. There existed considerable difference among different hematological and biochemical parameters of gutka chewers when compared to controls.
Keywords : Gutka powder, Jardha, Cholesterol, Smokeless tobacco
Effect of sewage-water irrigation on physico-chemical parameters with special reference to heavy metals in agricultural soil of Haridwar City
Chakresh Pathak*, A. K. Chopra, Vinod Kumar and Sunil Sharma
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science,Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar -249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study revealed that use of sewage for irrigation of agricultural soil of Haridwar City improved the water holding capacity (+27.98%), electrical conductivity (+196.15%), sulphate (+2.34%), organic carbon (+30.48%), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (+87.5%), available potassium (+25.77%) and available phosphorous (+59.97%) and fertility status of the soil in comparison to natural water irrigated soil. Further sewage irrigation also resulted in a significant build-up of total Pb (+98.95%), Ni (+128.29%), Cu (+253.17%), Fe (+39.74%), Cd (+30.92%), Zn (+696.03%) and Cr (+13.15%) than the natural water irrigated soil. The mean concentrations of these metals were below the permissible limits of Indian standards. The enrichment factor (Ef) for Cu (9.62) was maximum and minimum for Cr (1.13).The Ef for different metals was in the order of Cu> Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > Cr > Fe. Pollution index (Pi) value of the sewage water irrigated soil ranged from 0.505 to 0.901 which indicated that the soil was not yet polluted.
Keywords : Soil, Heavy metal, Enrichment factor, Pollution index
V. N. Yogananda Murthy 1* , H. L. Ramesh 2 and Munirajappa 3
1 Department of Biotechnology, Ganga Kaveri Institute of Science and Management, Dr. Rajkumar Road, Rajajinagar, Bangalore – 560 021, INDIA
2 Department of Sericulture, V. V. Pura College of Science, K. R. Road, Bangalore –560 004, INDIA
3Department of Sericulture/Life Sciences, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore – 560 056, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Present investigation deal with the study of mutagenic effect of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) on mulberry variety M5. The results revealed that at 0.4% EMS treatment, height of the plant and leaf area were considerably increased. Stem dichotomy, fusion of leaves, increase in thickness, change in texture of leaves and occurrence of albino and xantha were common in 0.3% EMS treated plants in M1 generation.
Keywords : M 5 , EMS, Sprouting, Petiole, Internodal distance, Inflorescence
Mayashree B Syiem* and Natasha A Nongrum
Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793 022, Meghalaya, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study deals with the effects of stress due to varying concentrations of sodium chloride, cadmium, pH and exposure to pesticides on intracellular proline accumulation in Anabaena variabilis in laboratory conditions. The stresses induced due to these changes in their growth media were expressed as decrease in growth (by 40% at pH 5; 30% at 50 mM NaCl; 80% at 50 µM endosulphan and 55% at 10 µM CdSO4 ) as measured in terms of chlorophyll a concentrations in the test organism. Low pH (5, 6) had stronger negative effect on growth than increasing alkaline pH. The cyanobacterium showed varying degree of susceptibility to increasing salt, cadmium and endosulphan concentrations. Under all these altered conditions, their intracellular proline concentration was found to increase linearly in the test organism with increase in its amount of stress inducing substances in its vicinity. Proline appears to be a stress provoked substance in A. variabilis. However, there seemed to be a breakdown in the proline synthesis mechanism when concentrations of such compounds reached toxic proportions.
Keywords : Cyanobacteria, NaCl, Cadmium, pH, Endosulphan, Intracellular proline
Antimicrobial effect of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley, against certain bacteria and fungal strains
Y. P. Nagaraja * , K. N. Geetha and M. S. Vinay
Department of Biotechnology, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Mudugurki, Venkatagirikote post, Devanahalli Taluk, Bangalore - 562 110 (Karnataka), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: Drnagaraja_yp@rediffmail.com
Abstract : This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potency of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley, commonly known as bottle gourd belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Petroleum Ether, Chloroform, Methanol, Absolute alcohol and Water showed a majority of the compound including Steroids, Alkaloids, Tannins, Flavonoids, Lactones and Carbohydrates. All the five extracts were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus and the extracts showed moderate to potent antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonellatyphi, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal strains: such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichodermaharzianum.
Keywords : Lagenaria siceraria, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Phytochemicals, Leaf extracts
Isolation and characterization of flavone di-glucoside and acetoxyxanthone from the flowers of Bombex ceiba
S.C. Sati* , Maneesha D. Sati and Amita Sharma
Department of Chemistry, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal- 246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Sati_2009@rediffmail.com
Abstract : In present study two chemical constituents viz. Flavon 5,4’ dimethoxy 8 methyl 7-O- β -D glucopyranoside-5’- β -D-glucopyranoside and xanthone 3-acetoxy-1-hydroxy-6-methoxy8-O– β –D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)- α –L- rhamnopyranoside from the ethanolic extract of flowers of Bombex ceiba have been isolated and characterized.
Keywords : Flavone di-glucosid, Acetoxyxanthone, Bombex ceiba
Ehi Robert Orhue* and Uzu Ogbonnaya Frank
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : This review revealed that heavy metals are naturally components of the soil orchestrated by weathering processes and that the abundance of these metals in our soil environment nowadays is due to numerous anthropogenic activities. These heavy metals are in two major categories namely the essential and non- essential ones. The essential heavy metals are needed in trace amount by living things for their physiological processes. But at higher concentration, it is hazardous in plants and animals. On the other hand, the non essential ones are dangerous to plants and animals even at low concentrations. This write-up further showed that soil pH, organic carbon, available P, oxides, effective cation exchange capacity, moisture content, oxidation-reduction state of the metals, ion exchange and sorption capacity of the metals are some of the soil factors influencing the fate and availability of the heavy metals. At lower levels of these soil factors, heavy metal ions are rendered free in the solution thereby making them available to plant and underground water. However, the most prominent soil factor influencing availability of these metals is the Soil pH. Raising some of these soil factors to appropriate levels have been discovered to reduce the availability of the heavy metals to mankind.
Keywords : Heavy metal, Soil, Contamination, Ion exchange
Anshu Gupta 1* and Meena Bhandari 2
1 Department of Applied Sciences, World Institute of Technology, Sohna, Gurgaon (Haryana), INDIA
2 Department of Applied Sciences, PDM College of Engineering for Women, Bahadurgarh(Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The review discusses the sources and concentrations of particulate matter in different microenvironments, their effect on human health, monitoring and their possible control measures particularly in office and residential buildings. Effect of various ventilation strategies on particulate concentration in air has been discussed. The calculations suggest that if the outdoor particle concentration is not more than 5-10 times the indoor particle generation rate, ventilation could be a very effective tool to control the indoor particle concentration. For coarse particles the choice of ventilation strategy is not very crucial, but for fine particulate slow rate of ventilation is more effective.
Keywords : Particulate matter, Indoor air, Air speed, Ventilation, Fine particle
A review on the role of soil microbial biomass in eco-restoration of degraded ecosystem with special reference to mining areas
Vivek Dwivedi and Prafulla Soni*
Forest Ecology and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest, Dehradun, 248006, INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Soil microbial biomass constitutes a transformation matrix for all the natural organic material in the soil and acts as labile reservoir of plant available nutrients. In general plants serve as carbon source for the microbial community and in turn microbes provide nutrients for growth through mineralization of plant and animal residues, and organic matter, thus soil microbial biomass is a significant parameter to draw an inference about the soil health. Biodiversity of visible plants and animals has received a greater attention than the meso or micro level organisms. Information about soil microbial biomass can help to quantify the extent of degradation and may help to provide the effective methodology for the restoration in the degraded terrestrial ecosystems. As the changing global climate has been one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today, there is an increasing need to restore the degraded ecosystem, increase their productivity, to increase the carbon sequestration potential of such areas and to make them suitable for the sustainable forestry purposes. This review provides the importance of soil microbial biomass in the derelict mined ecosystems and suggests that an increase in microbial biomass in the soil may enhance the soil fertility, and provide an effective substrate for the nutrient mineralization.
Keywords : Microbial biomass, Restoration, Degradation, Soil health
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