Volume 2, Year 2010-Issue 2
Development and validation of a High performance liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry method for 17 a -methyltestosterone in Aquatic water systems
Ashok Marwah*1, Xu Nianzu2, Padma Marwah1 and Terence P. Barry3
1Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Enzyme Research, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726, USA
3Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin, 660 N Park St., Madison, WI 53706, USA
1Current address: Chemilent Inc., 5240 Tennyson Parkway, #207 , Plano , TX 75024 , USA
2Current address: Key Lab of Marine Biotechnology, Ningbo University , Ningbo , 513211, P. R. CHINA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : 17 a -Methyltestosterone is used as feed additive to manipulate the gender of fish for aquaculture. Earlier a simple, yet specific and robust validated high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of 17 a-methyltestosterone in fish feed. The present work describes a highly sensitive and robust Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method for the quantitation of 17 a-methyltestosterone in aquatic water systems using 17 β-hydroxy-3 β-methoxyandrost-5-en-7-one as internal standard. The method was validated in the concentration range of 0.2 to 25 ng of 17 a -methyltestosterone on column leading to a limit of quantitation of 0.08 ppb or 0.08 mg/L in water, and has potential to increase the limit of detection and quantitation by an order of magnitude, if required.
Keywords : High-performance liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Electrospray ionization, 17 a -Methyltestosterone, Solid phase extraction, Method validation
M. F. Alam 1* , A.K. Chopra 2 , Mohammed M. Safhi 1 and V.K. Dua 3
1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
2 Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, INDIA
3 National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR) Field Station, BHEL, Haridwar, INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The Toxicological activity (larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent toxicity) of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds fraction was tested against different species of mosquito vectors viz, malaria (Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi), filaria (Culex quinquefasciatus) and dengue (Aedes aegypti). The larvicidal toxicity of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds fraction was evaluated against the early 4th instars larvae of different mosquitoes species. Mean LC50 value of the column fraction KAL-4 from seeds of V. anthelmintica against the larvae of An. culicifacies, An. stephensi, Culex quinquifaciatus and Aedes aegpyti were found to be 64 ppm, 70 ppm, 143 ppm and 166 ppm respectively. The larvicidal toxicity was more against An. culicifacies, An. stephensi than Culex quinquifaciatus and Aedes aegypti. The seed extracts did not show any adulticidal toxicity and repellent toxicity even at 10% concentrated impregnated paper and 5% on human hand, respectively.
Keywords : Toxicological activity, Vernonia anthelmintica, Mosquitoes
Seasonal variation in thyroid activity of turtle Lissemys punctata with respect to annual cycle of reproduction
Vidya R. Chandavar 2 and Prakash R. Naik 1
1 Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangorti, Mysore - 570006, INDIA
2 Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysore- 570005, INDIA
2 Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between thyroid activity and reproductive cycle in turtle Lissemys punctata. The animals were studied in the annual seasonal cycle of reproduction for two consecutive years, which is distinguished into three separate periods namely regenerative, reproductive and recrudescent. The thyroid in L. punctata was observed to be a single pyramid shaped gland, creamy white to reddish-brown in color with lenticular profile. The diameter of the follicle was lowest in regenerative period, which gradually increased in reproductive period attaining maximum size in recrudescent, whereas epithelial height was highest in regenerative period, which gradually decreased in reproductive period reaching minimum in recrudescent period. Thyroid activity varies annually in relation to different phases of reproductive periods
Keywords : Plasma glucose, Season, Thyroid, Turtle
Raj Kumar Rampal* , Sumit Kotwal and Ranbir Singh Jasrotia
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu (J&K), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study has been carried to assess Equivalent noise level (Leq ), Noise climate (NC), Traffic noise index (TNI) and Day Time Average Noise level from 7.00 A.M. to 9.00 P.M (Ld ) at eleven major crossings of Jammu City. The Leq and Ld values at all the sites were observed to be above permissible limits prescribed by CPCB. The calculated values of Ld at all the sites were observed to be statistically significant at 0.05 (5%) level of significance (p=0.000-0.004).
Keywords : Noise pollution, Traffic noise, Major crossings, (Ld ) Day time average noise level, (TNI) Traffic noise index
Geo-electrical mapping and groundwater potential zoning in some selected pockets of Baromura hill of Tripura (India)
Sudip Dey*, Chandrani Debbarma, Prasamita Sarkar and Sushmita Paul
Department of Geography and Disaster Management, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799130, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Baromura hill of Tripura is characterised by complex geology and very rugged landform. Water scarcity is a very general problem for the remote hilly villages of this area. Thus groundwater is considered as one of the most valuable natural resources in hilly villages of Baromura hill. The present study aims to prepare small area survey based geo-electrical mapping for understanding groundwater condition in some selected pockets of the study area. For that purpose one hill slope and one trough shaped low land (locally known as lunga) was selected. Soil resistivity meter was used for electrical survey. A circle plot was prepared for geo-electrical survey on the basis of which geo-electrical maps were drawn. In the studied hill slope morphology four sectors of ground water conditions were observed according to their electrical resistivity character namely shallowest zone, medium zone, deep zone and very deep zone. The trough shaped low land (lunga) is characterised by comparatively shallower condition of ground water and it was divided into five classes namely near surface water, very shallow zone, shallow zone, medium shallow zone and medium zone. Though the depth of the water bearing strata cannot be detected by this method it is very suitable for understanding the groundwater potential zones in remote places like present study area.
Keywords : Groundwater, Geo-electrical mapping, Baromura hill, 2-pin survey, Hill slope, Low land
Response of Strawberry plant (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma viride
Sonika Chauhan, Aditya Kumar, Chhavi Mangla and Ashok Aggarwal*
Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present paper represents the positive role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi as biofertilizers in strawberry. Experiments were carried out to assess the effectiveness of Trichoderma viride and AM fungi (Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis) alone or in combination, on the growth and biomass production of strawberry. After 120 days, dual inoculation of A. laevis + T. viride showed maximum increase in plant height (30.5±0.3), fresh shoot weight (10.16±0.20), dry shoot weight (2.82±0.02), fresh root weight (6.70±0.10), total chlorophyll (0.841±0.05) and phosphorus content in root (1.13±0.02) as compared to control. However root colonization and AM spore number were maximum in G. mosseae + A. lavies (90.76±1.32) and in G. mosseae (211.16±2.56) respectively as compared to uninoculated plants. Triple inoculation of G. mosseae + A. laevis + T. viride (12.33± 057) was effective in increasing the leaf area.
Keywords : Strawberry, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora laevis, Trichodermaviride
H. S. Singh*, Malti, Neetu Singh and Anshu Chaudhary
Department of Zoology, Ch. C. S. University, Meerut- 2500 04 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abstract : Present communication deals with redescription of the insect parasitic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen and Smart, 1990, collected from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa africana at Khurja, district (U.P.). The original description suffers from some morphological variations in the testis, tail and vulvular region.
Keywords : Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci, Gryllotalpa africana, Taxonomy
Study of the impact of tourists and local visitors / feeders on free-ranging Hanuman langur population in and around Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India)
Goutam Sharma, Prateek Vijay, Devilal, Chena Ram and L. S. Rajpurohit*
Department of Zoology, J.N.V.University, Jodhpur (Rajsthan), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The Jodhpur City of Rajasthan has many tourist places where Hanuman langurs habitually feed on the food given by the visitors to them. The interactions were studied between Hanuman langurs and the visitors in and around Jodhpur by means of interviewing the visitors and direct observations of the behaviour of Hanuman langurs and visitors. Most (82.2%) of the observed interactions involved the presence of food; only in 17.8% of the interactions we observed langurs threatening or chasing the visitors. Some differences, however, emerged between what the visitors reported in the interviews and what we observed. Most respondents (76.1%) reported in the interviews that hostile interactions were started by monkeys, whereas analysis of the direct interactions showed that 47.3% of such interactions were initiated by visitors and only 39.6% by Hanuman langurs. Moreover, 83.9% of the visitors affirm them to feed Hanuman langurs, while 70.2% of them report having seen other visitors feeding them. On the basis of the above results, it would be beneficial to establish an educational program, providing information about the behaviour of Hanuman langurs and the consequences that feeding them could have on their behaviour and on their interactions with visitors.
Keywords : Semnopithecus entellus, Jodhpur , Man-monkey relations
Relationship of susceptibility and growth stages of plant for development of epidemic of sheath blight in rice
Ramji Singh 1*, Laxmi Shankar Singh, Durga Prasad, R.S.Kureel 2, Rakesh Sengar 3 and Alka Singh
Department of Plant Pathology, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, INDIA
1Department of Plant Pathology, S. V. P. University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, INDIA
2 NOVOD Board, Gurgaon, INDIA
3Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, S. V. P. University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present paper deals with most susceptible growth stage of rice with different farms and quantity of inoculum for development of sheath blight of rice by Rhizoctonia solani. Among seven different growth stages of rice crop i.e. seedling, initial tillering, maximum tillering, boot leaf, panicle emergence, flowering and dough stage, the flowering stage was found to be most susceptible and highly prone for sheath blight development, while seedling stage was found to be least susceptible and with low proneness for disease development. Disease severity, number and length of lesions get increased with the increasing crop growth stages up to flowering stage and thereafter disease severity decreases with the increases in further growth stages of rice plant. Among four different growth stages of the pathogen (inoculum capacity) i.e. five days old mycelium, seven days old mycelium, milky sclerotial stage and mature sclerotial stage which were inoculated at maximum tillering stage of rice plants, five days old mycelial inoculum was found to be most virulent. Disease severity decreased and incubation period increased with further ageing of inoculum. Among five different amount of inoculum (inoculum density) i.e. 0.20 mg, 5.50 mg, 6.00 mg, 7.00 mg and 8.00 mg of sclerotial inoculum, which were inoculated at maximum tillering stage of rice plants, highest disease severity and minimum incubation period was observed with 8.00 mg amount of sclerotial inoculum. Whereas, least disease severity and longest incubation period was observed when inoculation was done with 0.2 mg of sclerotial inoculum.
Keywords : Crop growth stages, Inoculum capacity, Inoculum density, Epidemics
Chromium, nickel and zinc induced histopathological alterations in the gill of Indian common carp Labeo rohita (Ham.)
N. V. Bhatkar
Department of Zoology, Shri Shivaji College, Akot- 444101(MS), INDIA
Abstract : Degenerative histopathological alterations were seen in gills due to chronic exposure of the fish, Labeo rohita to chlorides of chromium, nickel and zinc for 30 days. However, more severe degenerative changes were observed in case of zinc chloride exposed fish than nickel chloride and chromium chloride treated fishes, indicating more toxic nature of zinc chloride. Mucus secretion over the gill lamellae was seen prominently in all the experimental fishes. However, in zinc chloride treated fish there was excessive mucus secretion after ten days of exposure and after thirty days, epithelial lifting was seen. In chromium chloride and nickel chloride treated fishes there was basal hyperplasia, which indicated compensatory mechanism in ion regulation to adjust with the toxic stress.
Keywords : Chromium, Nickel, Zinc, Labeo rohita, Gill
Shikha Shrivastava1 * , Kanti Chouby1 , Jaya Sahu2 and Meeta Verma3
1 Department of Zoology, Government VTY PG Autonomous College, Durg (C.G.), INDIA
2 National Institute of Technology , Raipur (C.G.), INDIA
3 Government College of Engineering and Technology, C.G. , INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Surface tension of different liquids which have an impact on living systems and the changes occurred due to mixing of fly ash was studied, keeping the temperature and amount of fly ash powder, constant. This change is very vital because surface tension is a very vital element for survival in biological world as many animals, and microorganisms survive due to specific surface tension which supports their life on water as larva or adult and even human, because many vital processes like respiration is dependent on surface tension.When yeast cells in aqueous solution, surface tension of 6.65 x10 -2 Newton/Meter at 280 C respiration is best but at 5.1x10-2 Newton/meter respiration is inhibited (1953 Carl).
Keywords : Surface tension, Capillary rise, Fly ash
H. Puinyabati 1 , M. Shomorendra 2 and Devashish Kar 1*
1 Division of Wetlands, Fishery Science and Aquaculture, Department of Life Sciences, Assam (Central) University, Silchar-11, INDIA
2Fish Disease Research Lab., Department of Zoology, Thambal Marik College , Oinam-795134 (Manipur), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present investigation deals with a systematic survey of trematode parasites of air breathing fishes from Awangsoi Lake collected during 2008-2009. The air breathing fishes found in Awangsoi Lake are Channa punctatus, Clarias batrachus, Channa striatus, Channa orientalis, Anabas testudineus and Heteropneustes fossilis. During the study period the following 5 species of trematodes were collected : Clinostomum complanatum, Allocreadium handia, Allocreadium fasciatusi, Astiotrema reniferum and Genarcopsis goppo. The percentage of abundance was found to be maximum in Astiotrema reniferum and Anabas testudineus harbours the maximum number of parasites.
Keywords : Trematode, Air breathing fishes, Awangsoi Lake , Manipur
Parental combining ability as a good predictor of productive crosses in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]
R. G. Sandeep, M. R. Gururaja Rao, S. Ramesh*, Chikkalingaiah and H. Shivanna
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The exploitation of heterosis through the development and deployment of hybrids for commercial cultivation is one of the effective approaches for genetic enhancement of crop plants for traits of economic importance. Developing an objective criterion of choosing the parents for developing and testing hybrids is essential for maximizing the success of heterosis breeding. A set of 18 crosses produced from parents differing in their gca effects for bio-energy traits such as millable cane yield, juice volume and juice sugar content (as indicated by Brix %) were evaluated in replicated trial in the experimental plots of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during 2006-07. The utility of parental general combining ability for producing high frequency of superior crosses for a set of bio-energy traits in sweet sorghum was investigated. The study suggested that parents with contrasting gca effects produce crosses with higher sca and heterotic potential for the bio-energy traits. The use of female parents with higher gca effects is important for realizing greater probability of crosses with sca effects and heterosis in desirable direction for bio-energy traits.
Keywords : Sweet sorghum, Bio-energy traits, Gca effects, Sca effects, Heterosis
Origin and peripheral distribution of the thoracic and abdominal median nerves in the fifth instar larva of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
Department of Zoology, Smt. N.P.S. Government College for Women, Chittoor-517002 (A.P.), INDIA
Abstract : The origin and peripheral distribution of the median nerves of the prothoracic and sixth abdominal ganglia have been traced using methylene blue staining technique. Each median nerve (MN), after originating from the posterior part of the ganglion, bifurcates into two transverse nerves (TN) that extend laterally into the right and left halves of the hemi- segment. The TN of thoracic median nerve bears two motor branches that innervate spiracular muscles and dorsolateral muscles, while the TN of sixth abdominal ganglion bears five motor branches and two sensory branches. Its motor branches innervate three groups of muscles, namely, musculi laterales interni, musculi dorsales interni laterales and musculi dorsales interni mediales, while its sensory branches extend over the body wall in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral areas of the hemi-segment. The median nerves are connected to ganglionic nerves by median nerve connectives that facilitate intersegmental coordination. The functional role of median nerves in respiration, blood circulation and intersegmental coordination is discussed keeping in view their projections and innervations.
Keywords : Bombyx mori , Innervation, Median nerve, Silkworm, Transverse nerve
Behavioural shift of estuarine mudcrab as biomarker of arsenic exposure in Sundarbans estuary of West Bengal
Sanjib Saha, Mitali Ray and Sajal Ray*
Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory,Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata - 700019 (West Bengal), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Mudcrab Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Decapoda) in an ecologically and economically important species of Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve was studied for its behaviour under the exposure of toxic arsenic - a common xenobiotic of this area. The behavioural profile of aquatic animals exposed to diverse toxicants are considered as an index to estimate the degree and nature of stress experienced by the animals both in nature and in experimental conditions. Present investigation involved study of selected behavioural shift of S. serrata under the sublethal concentrations of 1, 2 and 3 ppm of sodium arsenite for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days in controlled laboratory condition. Exposure to arsenic resulted an appearance of selected abnormal behavioural manifestation including tendency of avoidance, hypersecretion of mucoid element and release of excess excretory products. Toxin induced alteration of studied behaviour is indicative to possible shift in the overall physiological functions and biological activities of this important species in its natural habitat. Chronic exposure to 3 ppm of sodium arsenite for 30 days may lead to decline this economically important species in Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve.
Keywords : Scylla serrata, Sodium arsenite, Behaviour, Biomarker
Gaurav Arya, Nayanci Bansal, Vikram Khan, Aftab Ahmad and A.K. Saxena*
Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P. G. College , Rampur (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Two phthirapteran species, Menacanthus eurysternus (Amblycera) and Brueelia sp. (Ischnocera) were recovered from 100 Red Whiskered Bulbuls (Pycnonotus jocosus) during March to December 2006. The occurrence of both the phthirapteran species on the aforesaid host are new host records. The prevalence, intensity of infestation, range of infestation, variance to mean ratio, sex ratio, adult nymph ratio, index of discrepancy (D) and exponent of negative binomial (k) were computed. The frequency distribution pattern of M. eurysternus conforms to negative binomial model. The frequency distribution pattern of Brueelia sp. was skewed but not described by the negative binomial.
Keywords : Phthiraptera, Lice, Prevalence, Ischnocera, Amblycera, Mallophaga
G. V. Zodape
Department of Zoology, S. S. and L.S. Patkar College of Arts and Science and V. P. Varde College of Commerce and Economics S.V. Road, Goregaon (West), Mumbai- 400 062 (Maharashtra), INDIA
Abstract : The bioactivity study of the crude extract as well as the pure compounds isolated by preparative TLC, of the snail were carried on bacteria, Escherichia coli PBR 322, Vibrio cholerae and cockroaches Periplanata americana. The growth of the bacteria was found to be inhibited and the cockroaches in moribund condition were found to be dead after a period of 24 hrs of incubation. The results concluded that the extract of the snail contained the bioactive compounds.
Keywords : Snail, Bioactive compound, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Periplanata americana, Achantina fulica
Influence of sugar mill effluent on physico-chemical characteristics of soil at Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India
Vinod Kumar* and A. K. Chopra
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The influence of seven rates of Sugar mill effluent (viz. 0, 5, 10 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/kg soil) along with control (Bore-well water, BWW) on the physical and chemical properties of soils revealed that among various concentrations of the effluents, the irrigation with 100% effluent concentration decreased moisture content (20.44%),WHC (13.80%), BD (4.14%) and increased pH (9.56%), EC (64.28%), ECEC (149.25%), Cl- (194.71%), OC (3228.89%), HCO3- (22.34%), CO3-2 (29.38%), Na + (185.48%), K+(53.40%), Ca2+ (1262.24%), Mg2+ (1818.24%), TKN (1206.36%), NO32- (80.87%), PO43- (236.04%), SO42- (72.08%), Fe2+ (234.34%), Zn (317.72%), Cd (404.35%), Cu (374.90%), Pb (645.71%) and Cr (1024.80%) in the soil when compared to control. There was a significant (P<0.001) effect on EC, pH, Cl-, OC, HCO3- , CO32- , Na + , K + , Ca2+, Mg 2+, Fe 2+, TKN, NO3 2- , PO4 3- and SO42- , Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Pb and insignificant (P>0.05) effect on moisture content, WHC and bulk density after sugar mill effluent irrigation when compared to control. There was no momentous change in the soil texture of the soil. The enrichment factor (Ef) of various micronutrients in the soil was recorded in order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Zn after irrigation with sugar mill effluent.
Keywords : Sugar mill effluent, Irrigation, Soil characteristics, Micronutrients, Enrichment factor (Ef)
M. N. Shiva Kameshwari 1*, K. J. Thara Saraswathi2 and M. Muniyamma3
1 Department of Botany, Biosystematics Laboratory, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore-560 056 (Karnataka), INDIA
2 Department of Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Bangalore (Karnataka), INDIA
3 Ex-Vice Chancellor, Gulbarga University, Bangalore (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : An attempt has been made to enquire into the morphological variations which leads to evolutionary divergence of populations of Urginea indica Kunth. In particular, there were considerable morphological variations within the species. The thirty two cytotypes showed distinct morphological differences in shape, size and colour of bulb and leaf, the length of inflorescence and flower colour. The morphological complexity is accompanied by high degree of cytological variations. Preliminary measurements of reproductive, characters have shown that no noteworthy results may be obtained in this characters except pedicel length but the vegetative character deviated significantly. Flowering and blooming time varied that also played a role in isolation of these populations. These morphological differences have a genetic basis and would be worthy in recognizing them as a separate sub specific taxon.
Keywords : Urginea indica, Liliaceae, Cytotype
Histopathological analysis of liver in Puntius ticto exposed to water soluble fraction (WSF) of petrol
Preeti Handa Kakkar* , R. M. Saxena and Mamta Joshi
Department of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun-248001 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The freshwater fish Puntius ticto were exposed to lethal concentration of water soluble fraction (WSF) of petrol (5%-PF1, 10%-PF2, 15%-PF3, 20%-PF4 and 25%-PF5) for 96 hours. The exposure of WSF produced some conspicuous histopathological changes in liver. The swelling of hepatocytes, degeneration, necrosis, hemolysis, dilation, congestion and fibrosis in blood sinusoids were the prominent changes observed. The histological analysis showed increasing damages dose-dependents and time-dependents.
Keywords : Water soluble fraction, Petrol, Fish, Liver, Histopathology
Assessment of noise pollution in Haridwar City of Uttarakhand State, India during Kumbh Mela 2010 and its impact on human health
S. Madan* and Pallavi
Department of Environmental Sciences, Kanya Gurukula Mahavidhyalaya, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar-249404, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was carried to investigate the noise level at four different locations of Haridwar viz. Singh Dwar, Rishikul, Chandi ghat and Har Ki Pauri during Kumbh Mela 2010. During normal days maximum noise levels were recorded at Chandi ghat i.e. 87.11±0.45 dB (A) in the evening hours and minimum noise levels were recorded at Har Ki Pauri i.e. 60.8±0.89 dB (A) in the morning hours. While during festival days maximum noise levels were at Har Ki Pauri i.e. 88.4 ± 1.65 dB (A) in the evening respectively and Rishikul the least being 54.93±0.53 dB (A) in the morning hours. Noise levels in all the areas were found to be above the ambient noise standard. These high noise levels may have induced headache, annoyance, lack of concentration and other varied effects on human health.
Keywords : Kumbh Mela, Noise levels, Ambient noise, Haridwar
Promilla Ahlawat 1* and Vineeta Shukla2
1Department of Applied Science, Apeejay College of Engineering, Sohna-122103 (Haryana), INDIA
2 Department of Zoology, M.D. University , Rohtak-124001(Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The ambient air quality was monitored at five selected sites in proper Rohtak City. The parameters i.e. sulphur dioxide (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were monitored for eight hours from 9 am to 5 pm once in a week at each of the five sites. Two sites out of five were found to have low pollution, while the other three sites had high level of pollutants, which exceeded the safety limits as per National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The levels of SO2 , NO2 and SPM were lowest at polluted site 2 (University Gate NO. 2) in the City, which ranged between 4.12 µg/m 3 and 40.37 µg/m 3 , 25.37 µg/m 3 and 73.80 µg/m 3 , 138.0 µg/m 3 and 530.7 µg/m 3 of the air respectively. Highest levels of SO2, NO2 and SPM were observed at site 5 ( Hisar Road ) which ranged between 5.30 µg/m 3 and 120.0 µg/m 3 , 68.01 µg/m 3 and 197.84 µg/m3, 730.5 µg/m 3 and 3319.0 µg/m 3 respectively. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were very much below the safety limits at all the sampling sites Health surveillance studies of the traffic policemen revealed that there is a significant excess risk of respiratory problems for traffic policemen as they are exposed to heavy loads of vehicular pollution.
Keywords : SO2, NO2, SPM, Traffic policemen
G. V. Zodape
Department of Zoology, S. S. and L.S. Patkar College of Arts and Science and V.P. Varde College of Commerce and Economics, S.V. Road, Goregaon (WEST), Mumbai- 400062 (Maharashtra), INDIA
Abstract : An attempt has been made to study the effect of Aloe vera juice on the toxicity induced by arsenic on Labeo rohita fingerlings, exposed to sub–lethal concentration of a combination of arsenic and Aloe vera juice for 21 days. The study of bioaccumulation pattern of arsenic supplemented with Aloe vera juice was carried out on selected parts like liver and muscle tissues. In both the liver and muscle tissues a pronounced effect of arsenic and Aloe vera juice was noted on the activities of Glutamate - oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Glutamate - pyruvate transaminase (GPT), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP) enzymes. Also the levels of total proteins, total lipids, protease, free amino acids and glycogen were assessed. A significant decrease in enzymatic activity of GPT, GOT, ACP and ALP was noted in liver and muscle tissues. The level of protein, lipids and glycogen also decreased, whereas the amount of protease and free amino acids profoundly increased. The results of present study suggest that Aloe vera juice has an effective hepatoprotective and tissue protective property against arsenic toxicity. The results further suggest that the L. rohita fingerlings could be suitable for monitoring the bioavailability of water bound metals in freshwater habitats.
Keywords : Freshwater, Heavy metal, Bioaccumulation, Pollution
Biocomposting of extracted peppermint plant residue (Mentha piperita) using red worm, Eisenia fetida and its effect on the growth of Vigna mungo (Urad)
Satyendra M. Singh*, Geeta R. Gangwar, Om Prakash and Rachna
Vermiculture and Environmental Research Laboratory, Vermiculture and Vermicomposting Centre, Department of Animal Science, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (U.P.), INDIA
* Corresponding author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The study on biocomposting of extracted peppermint plant residue, Mentha piperita using red worms, Eisenia fetida on the growth of Vigna mungo (Urad) showed that the worms transformed 1:3 waste: dung medium into bio-compost one week earlier from 1:1 and two weeks earlier from 3:1 media. Rate of reproduction of worms was recorded 2.5 times faster in 1:3 medium than that of 3:1 and the number of earthworms was counted 2.09 times more in 1:3 waste: dung medium than that of 3:1. It was noticed that the bio-compost transformed from 1:3 waste: dung medium when mixed with soil in 1:3 ratio and used as growing medium, showed the maximum shoot length of V. mungo (28.2 cm) and the minimum (24.3 cm) when it was transformed from 3:1 (waste:dung) medium and used in 1:1 ratio of vermicompost and soil. Results were discussed in the light of known data.
Keywords : Peppermint, Mentha piperita, Bio-composting, Red worm, Eisenia fetida, Vigna mungo
Isolation, purification, characterization and applications of serine protease from Bacillus megaterium
T. S. Rajesh*, Deepa, Divya, M. Mahesh and Somshekar
Azyme Biosciences Pvt. Ltd. 1188, 26th Main, 9th Block Jayanagar, Bangalore-560 069 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Bacillus megaterium isolated from poultry farm soil was identified by standard biochemical tests and screened for the production of serine protease. Production of serine protease was done using 5 different medias by varying the type of amino acid added. The purification was done by salt precipitation, dialysis and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The proline containing media obtained the highest fold purification out of the five different medias (leucine, lysine, proline, tryptophan and methionine containing media). The enzyme showed an optimal activity at the temperature 37°C and the pH 6 which are known as its optimum temperature and pH respectively. The enzyme was proved as a Mn2+ dependent serine protease as it was activated by Mn2+ ions and inhibited by PMSF. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE technique as around 30kDa. It showed an excellent detergent activity on the blood stains and a very good stability in presence of locally available detergents. The enzyme acted on the keratin protein of the chicken feather and showed a degrading capacity on the protein. So it was proved that the recently studied serine protease has a keratinase activity also. From these data, I conclude that the protease isolated from Bacillus megaterium is a Mn2+ dependent serine protease which has both keratinase and detergent activity.
Keywords : Bacillus megaterium , Keratinase, serine protease, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride(PMSF)
A.K. Chopra and Chakresh Pathak*
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University , Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The main sources of metallic pollutants to the environment are the diffuse sources such as forests and agricultural soils as well as industrial and municipal wastes, which are either discharged directly or transported into the environment. Various conventional technologies such as chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, membrane separation, electrochemical treatment etc. have been employed to remove metal pollutants from aqueous solution. The exploration of new technologies involves the removal of toxic metals from wastewater with the use of biological adsorption technology. The biosorption is the selective appropriate process for removal of metal ions uptake that may involve the contribution of diffusion, adsorption, chelation, complexation, coordination, or micro-precipitation mechanisms, depending on the specific substrate (biomass). In this overview, the use of the various low cost, easily available and eco-friendly biosorbents used for removal of metallic pollutants from contaminated water and their mechanism are discussed.
Keywords : Biosorption, Metallic pollutants, Algae, Fungi, Bacteria and Agricultural by-product.
S.P. Gautam1 , P.S. Bundela2 , A.K. Pandey3 , Jamaluddin4 , M.K. Awasthi2 and S. Sarsaiya2*
1 Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, INDIA
2 Regional office, M.P. Pollution Control Board, Vijay Nagar, Jabalpur (M.P.), INDIA
3 Mycological Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur-(M.P.), INDIA
4 Yeast and Mycorrhiza Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur (M.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This review attempts to bring together basic and systematic information which has been gathered on cellulose structure, types, principally that of native cellulose, over the last few decades. Even though advances have been made in the field of crystallography, powder crystallography cannot yield a definitive cellulose structure and single crystal diffraction is not possible due to the lack of suitable crystals. Knowledge obtained on the biosynthesis of native cellulose and on the polymorphy of cellulose and its derivatives help our understanding of ultrastructure. Many inconsistencies between early crystallographic studies of native cellulose have been clarified by the discovery that two polymorphs (α and β) of cellulose I exist. Models of the possible ultrastructural arrangements within native cellulose have been put forward over the decades; with advancement in technology, computer simulations of small and large systems are being created to test the viability of these ultrastructural models. It is hoped that this review will aid in the understanding of the complexity and uncertainties that still exist in this subject.
Keywords : Structure, Polymorphy, Cellulose, Biosynthesis, Ultra-structure
Puja Ohri* and Satinder Kaur Pannu
Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The term, phenolics has been used to describe a group of structurally diverse plant secondary metabolites. This group includes metabolites derived from the condensation of acetate units (terpenoids), those produced by the modification of aromatic amino acids (phenylpropanoids, cinnamic acid, lignin precursor, catechols and coumarins), flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and tannins. The occurrence and metabolism of phenolic substances in plants, in response to injury or invasion by pathogens, such as fungi, bacteria and viruses have already been studied. Oxidized compounds produced in plants after invasion by pathogens often show considerable biological activity and are a common mechanism of resistance to plant pathogens. The present review gives information regarding the effects of different phenolic compounds on nematode system. It is found that these compounds are involved in plant defense and hence provide resistance against nematode attack.
Keywords : Flavonoids, Phenols, Phenylpropanoids, Salicylic acid, Tannins, Nematodes
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