Volume 2, Year 2010-Issue 1
K. Narasimha Varma, E. Madhuri and M. Bhaskar*
Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517502 (A.P.), India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Bilateral cryptorchidism was induced surgically in adult wistar strain male albino rats and lipid fractions such as total lipids, total cholesterol, Free cholesterol, Esterified cholesterol, phospholipids, Triglycerides and free fatty acids were analysed in the plasma, heart and dorsal aorta. The lipid fractions such as triglycerides (56.63%), free (20.82%) and esterified (61.25%) cholesterol as well as fatty acids in glycerol (64.42%) had significant elevation in the plasma of cryptorchid animals. Similarly LDL lipid fractions (64.99%) were also elevated markedly under cryptorchid conditions which are the markers of the obesity and atherosclerosis. The lipid fractions such as triglycerides (50.47%, 48.17%), cholesterol (74.64%, 67.7%) and phospholipids (42.04%, 68.88%) showed significant elevations in the heart and dorsal aorta of the cryptorchid animals over the control. The heart, dorsal aorta and plasma had significant accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol fractions, suggesting the possible deposition of lipid fractions in the tissues, which can be attributed to the possible suppression in the mobilization of lipid fractions into energy metabolism. Such an accumulation of lipid fractions under cryptorchid condition can be considered as the development of risk factor for the cardio-vascular disorders.
Keywords : Cryptorchidism, Albino rat, Lipid fractions, Cardiovascular, Tissues-Plasma
Efficacy of natural plant products, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Pongamia pinnata in the management of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. under laboratory conditions
N. S. Surendra , M. Bhushanam and M. S. Reddy*
Centre for Apiculture Studies, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi, Bangalore-560056, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Use of Natural plant products in the management of the greater wax moth, G. mellonella L. under laboratory conditions was carried out. The results revealed that the larval mortality of wax moth varied significantly with three different plant products concentrations. The mortality was high with seed extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and is ranging from 84.81 ± 2.7 to 93.65 ±3.25 per cent at different concentrations. Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract of different concentrations showed moderate larval mortality for different instars ranging from 65.36 ± 4.36 to 73.41± 4.46 percent. The corresponding mortality for Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) seed extract was low 31.10 ± 3.38 to 52.1 ± 19.85. The effects of tulasi were moderate while pongamia caused the lowest mortality. Of the three plant products tested Neem performed better under all the experimental conditions.
Keywords : Galleria mellonella, Wax moth, Natural plant products, Larval mortality, Neem, Tulasi
The influence of zinc on early growth and nutrient uptake by pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F) in an ultisol
Ehi Robert Orhue1*, Mathew Akhere, Ekhomun2 , Chukumedum Dafikpaku1 and Livinus Eze1
1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, NIGERIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The study investigated the influence of zinc on some growth parameters of Telfairia occidentalis as well as its effect on some soil chemical properties in field experiment carried out at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Four levels of treatment namely 0, 20, 40 and 80 kg ZnSO4 ha-1 were used in an experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Results showed that the soil Zn, N, P, K, Mg, exchangeable acidity, increased inconsistently from 0.002 mgkg-1 , 0.60 gkg-1 , 2.70 mgkg-1 , 0.09 cmolkg-1 , 0.30 cmolkg-1 , 2.40 cmolkg-1 to 154.18 mgkg-1 , in 80 kgZnha-1 , 0.63 gkg-1 in 0 kgZnha-1 , 3.86 mgkg-1 in 0 kgZnha-1 , 0.12 cmolkg-1 in 80 kgZnha-1 , 0.41 cmolkg-1 in 0 kgZnha-1 , 2.50 cmolkg-1 in 80 kgZnha-1 respectively. The free Fe oxide, free Al oxide, amorphous Fe oxide and amorphous Al oxide also increased from 5.92%, 0.74%, 0.07%, 0.03% to 6.18% in 0 kgZnha-1, 1.98% in 80 kgZnha-1, 0.74% in 80 kgZnha-1, 0.35% in 80 kgZnha-1 respectively. While the soil pH, organic carbon, Ca and Na also inconsistently decreased from 5.70, 10.70 gkg-1, 1.60 cmolkg-1, and 0.06 cmolkg-1 to 5.09 in 20 kgZnha-1, 10.30 gkg-1 in 20 kgZnha-1, 0.36 cmolkg-1 in 80 kgZnha-1 and 0.041 cmolkg-1 in 20 kgZnha-1 respectively. The K, Mg and Zn content of the root increased with increase in Zn treatment whereas the Na decreased with increase in Zn application. The root Ca and P were however not consistent. In the shoot, the Mg, N, K, Ca, Na and Zn minerals also increased with increase in Zn application. The P content of the shoot was however not consistent. With the exception of Na uptake by the root, which decreased with Zn treatment, the entire nutrients uptake, plant height, number of leaves and the dry matter yield increased with increased Zn treatments. The leaf area and stem girth were however not consistent with increase in Zn application.
Keywords : Zinc, Uptake, Growth, Metals indicator
Abhai Pratap Singh1*, Rashmi Singh2, Usha Mina3, M.P. Singh2 and C.K. Varshney1
1*School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, INDIA
2Department of Botany, U.P. College, V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur (U.P.), INDIA
3Department of Environmental Sciences, IARI, Pusa, New Delhi, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In the present investigation on the effect of nitrogen treatments on emission of isoprene from Ficus glomerata has been evaluated. Four sets of plants were treated with following four doses of nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate solution (i) 10 mM (ii) 50 mM (iii) 100 mM (iv) 200 (mM) and control set was designed without any treatment. Nitrogen treated as well as control plants were sampled for isoprene emission using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique and samples were analysed with the help of GC-FID. Isoprene emissions from control, 10 mM, 50 mM, 100 mM, and 200 mM nitrogen treated plants were found to be 27.5 ± 4 mgg-1 h-1 , 56 ± 6 mgg-1 h-1 , 91 ± 11 mgg-1 h-1 , 101 ± 10 mgg-1 h-1 , and 15 ± 4 mgg-1 h-1 respectively. Lowest isoprene emission (15 ± 4 mgg-1 h-1 ) was noticed in plants treated with 200 mM nitrogen. Isoprene emissions were found to increase exponentially in plants treated with nitrogen up to 100 mM. Nevertheless, plants treated with 200 mM nitrogen exhibited decrease in emission by 46 per cent, probably on account of nitrite toxicity and reduction in soil pH at high nitrogen dose.
Keywords : Isoprene, Nitrogen, Emission, Plants, Enclosure chamber
Conservation of an endemic medicinal plant, Anaphalis eliptica DC. by employing plant tissue culture technique
P. Senthilkumar and S. Paulsamy*
Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore- 641029, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The plant species, Anaphalis elliptica DC. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal herb endemic to high hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the Western Ghats. The in vitro propagation study of this species by using leaf, node and shoot tip explants, revealed the following results: Among the three explants used, leaf and node responded well for callus and shoot initiations respectively. The leaf explant produced callus effectively (91%) in the MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA at 2.5 and 0.3 mg/l respectively, whereas the nodal explant produced higher amount of shoots (92%) in the basal medium containing the growth regulator, BAP alone at 3.0 mg/l. The leaf derived callus produced higher (80%) shoot initials and shoot multiplication in the MS medium augmented with BAP and NAA at 3.0 and 0.5mg/l respectively. Similarly, the in vitro nodal derived shoots produced higher shoot multiplication (87%) in MS medium supplemented with BAP at 3.0mg/l. The regenerated shoots of both the explants were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with IBA and NAA at 1.0mg/l each. After sequential hardening the leaf callus derived plantlets registered higher survivability rate (80%) in the hardening medium containing decomposed coir waste, perlite and compost in the ratio of 1:1:1 by volume. Similarly, the survivability rate of nodal derived plantlets was higher (84%) in the hardening medium composed by vermicompost and soil in the ratio of 1:1 by volume.
Keywords : Anaphalis elliptica, Endemic, Western ghats
K.C. Pandey, Nirupma Agrawal* and Rajnish Kumar Sharma
Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study on survey of Surha Tal of district Ballia, U. P. for fish fauna showed the presence of 59 species belonging to 40 genera of 22 families and 8 orders.
Keywords : Fauna, Surha Tal, Ballia, U. P
Raj Kumar Rampal* and Neha Sharma
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu Jammu (J&K), INDIA
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study was conducted to assess status of bacteria (Gram +ve and Gram –ve) in the indoor air of Households located in Jammu City. The study area was divided into eight Sites. At each site two Households were selected randomly and in each Household sampling of SPM (µg/m3) and bacteria (CFU/m3) was done twice at three sub sites. Total bacterial count and SPM was found to be maximum (9308.24 CFU/m3and1006.12 µg/m3 respectively) in Households near Water Body and total bacterial count and SPM was minimum (5251.00 CFU/m3and 659.09µg/m3 respectively) in Households near Hospital. A significant positive correlation (r) was found between SPM and no. of Gram +ve (+0.18 to +0.78) as well as between SPM and no. of Gram –ve (+0.21 to +0.76) bacteria in the study area.
Keywords : Household, Indoor SPM, Bacteria, Correlation
Composition variation in essential oils of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia capillaris, growing in India
Ruchi Badoni, Deepak Kumar Semwal* and Usha Rawat
Department of Chemistry, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar-246174 (Uttarakhand), India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study was aimed to find out the chemical constituents of essential oils of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp. and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. of Asteraceae family, growing in Garhwal region of India. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and subjected to detailed GC-MS analysis in order to determine the variation in their volatile constituents. While comparing the common constituents in both of the species, the remarkable variation was observed and it was 6.03, 3.251, 2.093, 33.73, 7.573, 15.041 and 8.00% for trans-caryophyllene, DL-limonene, α-pinene, α-thujone, β-myrcene, β-ocimene and β-thujone, respectively.
Keywords : Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia capillaris, Asteraceae, Essential oils, β-Ocimene, DL-Limonene
Copper sulphate induced changes in scaphognathite oscillations and oxygen consumption of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium lamarrei (Crustacea-Decapoda)
Dharm Raj Verma, Harnam Singh Lodhi, Kunwer Ji Tiwari, Sanjive Shukla* and U.D. Sharma**
P.G. Department of Zoology, B S N V P G College, Lucknow - 226 001 (U.P.), INDIA
**Prawn Research Centre, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium lamarrei were subjected to acute concentration, 0.304 mg/l (96h LC50) of Copper sulphate to evaluate its effects on scaphognathite oscillations and oxygen consumption rate. Scaphognathite oscillations showed initial increase after 24h, thereafter significantly (t = 9.24; P<0.001) decreased up to 72h and finally tend to increase after 96h but remained below the controls whereas oxygen consumption showed continuous decreasing trend throughout the experiment up to 96h (t = 16.53; P<0.001) than control ones. Possible interaction of copper in relation to respiration of these economically important crustaceans has been discussed.
Keywords : Macrobrachium lamarrei, Scaphognathite oscillations, Oxygen consumption, Copper sulphate
Charan Jeet Singh
Department of Mathematics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (Punjab), INDIA
Abstract : This investigation deals with two levels, single server preemptive priority queueing model with discouragement behaviour (balking and reneging) of customers. Arrivals to each level are assumed to follow a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. The decision to balk / renege is made on the basis of queue length only. Two specific forms of balking behaviour are considered. The system under consideration is solved by using a finite difference equation approach for solving the governing balance equations of the queueing model, with infinite population of level 1 customer. The steady state probability distribution of the number of customers in the system is obtained.
Keywords : Priority queue, Balking, Reneging, Finite difference, Queue size distribution
S. Deka1*, M. Borah1 and S.C. Kakaty2
1Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tezpur University, Napaam,Tezpur- 784028 ( Assam), INDIA
2Department of Statistics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786004 ( Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In this paper an attempt has been made to develop a discrete precipitation model for the daily series of precipitation occurrences over North East India. The point of approach is to model the duration of consecutive dry and wet days i.e. spell, instead of individual wet and dry days. Various distributions viz. uniform, geometric, logarithmic, negative binomial, Poisson and Markov chain of order one and two, Eggenberger-Polya distribution have been fitted to describe the wet and dry spell frequencies of occurrences. The models are fitted to the observed data of seven stations namely Imphal, Mohanbari, Guwahati, Cherrapunji, Silcoorie, North Bank and Tocklai (Jorhat) of North-East India with pronounced attention to summer monsoon season. The goodness of fit of the proposed model has been tested using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. It is observed that Eggenberger-Polya distribution fairly fits wet and dry spell frequencies and can be used in the future for an estimation of the wet and dry spells in the area under study.Keywords : Geometric Distribution, Logarithmic Series, Negative binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, Markov Chain, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
Photoperiodic modulation of circadian rhythms in the silk gland protein profiles of Bombyx mori and its influence on the silk productivity and quality
B. Sailaja and S. Sivaprasad*
Department of Zoology, Smt. N.P.S. Government College for women, Chittoor- 517002 (A.P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Circadian rhythms in the silk gland protein profiles of Bombyx mori were analyzed under 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle (LD), continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD) conditions. The phase response curves of protein rhythms indicate the prevalence of a series of silk cycles, each comprising three phases; transcription, translation and consolidation of silk proteins. In the 24h- protein rhythm, the silk cycle repeats every 3h, 42 m under LD, 2h, 36m under LL and 3h under DD. The light and dark conditions advanced the rhythm of each silk cycle by 48m and 24m respectively. As a result the silk gland completes 7 rounds of protein synthesis under LD, 9 rounds under LL and 8 rounds under DD during the 24h-free running time of the rhythm. The light-induced clock-shift in the protein rhythm caused significant gains in economic parameters of sericulture with positive signals for enhancing silk productivity and quality.
Keywords : Bombyx mori, Circadian rhythms, Photoperiod, Proteins, Silk gland
R. K. Joshi
Regional Medical Research Center, Indian Council of Medical Research, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum-590 010 (Karnataka), INDIA
Abstract : The aim of present study was, to investigate the essential oil of Craniotome furcata for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil was obtained by steam distillation of the flowering aerial parts of C. furcata. The oil was tested for its antimicrobial activity in vitro against four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi, by using disk diffusion and tube dilution methods. The antioxidant potential of the essential oil was investigated by two different models DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical cation scavenging. The essential oil was effective against all the tested microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 4.11±1.44 to 0.30±0.10 mg/ml. The oil showed antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical cation scavenging model. The results of this study revealed that the essential oil of C. furcata possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.
Keywords : Craniotome furcata, Antimicrobial activity, MIC, Antioxidant activity, DPPH, ABTS
Priyanka Mehta* and Kunwar Bahadur Singh
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, M. J. P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243006 (U. P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : An attempt has been made to find out effectiveness of scorbutogenic diet in albino rats, Rattus norvegicus. These animals received 50 and 80 gm cakes of scorbutogenic diet for 15 and 30 days respectively. No scurvy like symptoms were observed rather boils got appeared on their hind limbs, below ear and neck region. Steroid producing glands indicated enhanced steroidogenesis as evidenced by decreased concentrations of adrenal ascorbate and cholesterol. The results suggested that scorbutogenic diet was ineffective to cause scurvy in this species.
Keywords : Scurvy, Ascorbate, Steroidogenesis, Mammal
Effect of combinations of four trace elements on cadmium bioaccumulation in a few tissues of male albino rats
A. Usha Rani*, D. Kumar Babu and J. Obaiah
Division of Environmental Biology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study is designed to investigate the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in selected tissues such as liver, kidney, testis and small intestine of male albino rats treated for Cd and after combined supplementation with Zinc (Zn) + Iron (Fe) and Selenium (Se) + Copper (Cu). The wistar albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride(CdCl2)at a dose of 1/10th LD50 i.e. 22.5 mg / kg body weight for 7, 15 and 30 days(d) time intervals. After 15 d to Cd treatment, the rats were then supplemented with the above combination of two trace elements and then observed for accumulation of Cd at specific time intervals. These trace elements at a dosage of 1 mg/ kg body weight of Se, 16 mg/kg body weight of Cu, 12 mg / kg body weight of Zn and 40 mg / kg body weight of Fe were given as supplements. There was significant Cd accumulation in liver and kidney among the selected tissues before to supplementation and there was significant decrease in the Cd accumulation levels in all the tissues after trace element supplementation. Moreover the 30d Zn + Fe supplemented rat kidney showed maximum decrease in Cd accumulation (8.327µg/g wet wt. of the tissue).
Keywords : Trace element supplements, Cadmium bioaccumulation, Rats
Kamal Kumar Saxena* and Renu Chaudhari
Pest and Parasite Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly-243005(U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The chromosomal aberration test in kidney cells of Channa punctatus was conducted to study the genotoxic effect of synthetic pyrethroid fenvalerate, Different chromosomal abnormalities were seen and their frequency was recorded in metaphase spreads obtained from fishes exposed to three sublethal concentrations (0.0625, 0.0314 and 0.0157 ppm) of this compound. The exposure to fenvalerate caused various structural abnormalities in chromosomes such as chromatid break, fragment, gap, chromatid separation, deletion and ring type chromosomes. Results obtained in present investigations clearly indicate that fenvalerate acts as a genotoxic agent in Channa punctatus.Keywords : Fenvalerate, Chromosomal aberration, Genotoxic effect, Channa punctatus
Diagnostic features of three nymphal instars of Sturnidoecus bannoo (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) infesting Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus
Sweta Rajput*, V.D. Joshi*, Nayanci Bansal, Aftab Ahmad and A.K.Saxena**
Department of Zoology, Government Raza Postgraduate College, Rampur-244901 (U.P.), India
Department of Zoology, Government P. G. College, Kotdwara (Uttrananchal), India
**Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Three nymphal instars of bank Myna louse, Sturnidoecus bannoo differ from each other not only any size, abdominal segmentation, chitinization but also in the number of setae occurring on head, thorax and abdomen. Present report provides information on the diagnostic characters of three nymphal instars of the aforesaid louse.
Keywords : Bank Myna louse, Ischnocera, Phthiraptera
Rohtash Chand Gupta*, Tirshem Kumar Kaushik and Surjit Kumar
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Kaithal District is comprised of 2317 Km² Sq. Km area having six blocks Viz.:Kaithal, Kalayat, Pundri, Rajound, Ghula and Siwan located at a distance of 150 Kms from New Delhi toward North West. Its geographical position lies between 29° 48' 0 N latitude and between 76° 22' 60 E longitude.The present studies were carried between 2005-2008 with the help of Zenith Camera and telelens. In all, 63 species of Wetland birds belonging to 10 Orders, 38 genera and 16 families were observed in various village ponds in Kaithal District. Out of 63 species of wetland birds, 31 are winter migratory, 9 local migratory, 3 summers migratory and 20 species are resident birds. Considering IUCN categories, Black Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa) which belongs to Biome Restricted Species (BRS) was observed in three blocks viz. Kaithal, Pundri and Rajound of Kaithal district. In addition, Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) which has been placed in endangered category of IUCN was observed as single individual. But Black Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa) was observed in a group of three to seven. Northern Shoveller (Anas clypeata), which is reportedly coming from Central Russia and Caspian Siberia has been observed in very large groups of 200-250 and virtually spotted in each and every pond in Northern Haryana. Similarly, Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas crecca), Common Pochard (Aythya ferina), Spot-billed Duck (Anas poecilorhyncha), Lesser-whistling Teal (Dendrocygna javanica) were also seen in relatively large groups. Common Pochard (Aythya ferina) is always observed in pure groups floating in the centre of relatively big ponds. In contrast, Gadwall (Anas strepera), Northern Shoveller (Anas clypeata), Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) and Common Teal (Anas crecca), share close proximity with each other in water and are found in mixed groups. Northern Shoveller (Anas clypeata), Bar- headed Goose (Anser indicus) and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) stay between Octobers to April. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) stays in winter for shortest period between December and January. Maximum wetland birds observed in Kaithal District belong to Order Charadriiformes and to family Anatidae of Order Anseriformes. Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) is the peculiar to Pundri block only, in Kaithal District.
Keywords : Migratory Birds, Wetland Birds, Kaithal District, Rural Ponds, Haryana
A preliminary study on amphizoic amoebae with special reference to their preference for bacterial food
Newton Paul*, Tabrez Ahmad and A. K. Sharma
Protozoology laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, (U.P.), India
*Corresponding author E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract :The present study was planned to screen the growth pattern of six different species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic amphizoic amoebae viz. Naegleria fowleri, N. gruberi, Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, A. rhysodes, A. polyphaga and A. glebae using six different bacterial species like Escherichia coli (Strain E1 and E2 and E. coli lactose +ve), Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas as food in their in vitro growth on non-nutrient agar medium. It was observed that out of six amoebae used; the pathogenic N. fowleri and A. culbertsoni were feeding on E. coli (all the strains). Feeding these two species of bacteria, the growth of these two amoebae was luxuriant, but not so good while feeding other strains of bacteria though they fed, survived and formed cysts. The remaining four amoebae were found to feed and survive only on E. coli (all the strain) and formed cysts but showed very poor growth while feeding on other four bacterial strains. It was inferred that E. coli is the most suitable bacterial species for in vitro growth of amphizoic amoebae for various purposes. This also reiterates that there exists a complex interrelationship between amoebae and bacteria in different habitats.
Keywords : Amphizoic amoebae, Bacteria, Micro-ecosystem
Characterization and evaluation of heavy metal tolerance of bacterial species from soil of waste area near Riyan steel rolling mills, Muzaffarnagar, India
Satyajeet Khare*1 Niaz Ahmed1, Shailja Pant1 and RamDas2
1Department of Microbiology, Dolphin PG Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Manduwala, Dehradun-247008 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Disease, Tajganj, Agra (U.P.), INDIA
*1Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study observed a variety of microorganisms from the soil of the waste area near Riyan Steel Rolling Mills , Muzaffarnagar. Among the microorganisms, 10 isolates of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus showed great potential against detrimental heavy metals like Hg, Pb, Zn. Out of these 10 isolates, only 2 isolates of Bacillus subtilis (N1A2, N1P2), one isolates of P. aeruginosa N1A4 and one isolates of S. aureus A1N3 showed tremendous tolerance against various heavy metals. Bacillus subtilis N1A2 showed 15x109 cfu/ml in 100µg/ml of HgCl2 whereas B. subtilis N1P2 showed 15x109 cfu/ml in 400µg/ml of zinc acetate. Similarly Pseudomonas aeruginosa N1A4 showed 11x109 cfu/ml in 150µg/ml of lead acetate. Staphylococcus aureus A1N3 showed great resistance towards 450µg/ml of zinc sulphate and maintain their growth up to 7x109 cfu/ml. strains were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of their morphological, physiological and biochemical and compared with their standard MTCC strains.
Keywords : Heavy metals, CFU, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus
V.B. Hosagoudar*, P.J. Robin and G.R. Archana
Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode 695 562, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This paper gives an account of two new black mildews, namely, Asterina prataparajii and Meliola mahamulkarii, infected the leaves of Tylophora dalzelli and Osyris arborea, respectively, were found new and are described and illustrated here in detail.
Keywords : Black mildews, Asterina, Meliola, New species, Mahabaleshwar
Mamta Bansal* and Asha Chaudhry
Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India
*Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Glyphosate, an active ingredient in Roundup is a broad spectrum, systemic and non -selective herbicide which is commonly used for eliminating weeds in agriculture and forest landscapes. The present studies deal with the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Glyphosate with two different dose concentration of LD20 and LD40 on a mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. For this, polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) was used for detecting DNA damage by amplifying ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) region. The amplified products were sequenced and the results of treated and non-treated controls were compared by using Clustal W software programme. The results were studied in the form of transitions, transversions, deletions and additions of bases. The DNA band amplified from control stocks consisted of 440 bases while those from LD20 and LD40 treated individuals were comprised of 423 and 468 bases respectively. The total number of mutations caused in LD20 treated stock was 205 out of which 68 were transitions, 90 transversions, 32 deletions and 15 additions. In case of LD40 treated individuals, as many as 221 bases had suffered mutations, out of which 66 were transitions, 90 transversions , 12 deletions and 41 additions. In both the cases the rate of transversions was higher than transitions. From these results it was evident that glyphosate has a potential to promote gene mutations in the individuals exposed to its semilethal doses.
Keywords : Glyphosate, PCR, ITS 2, Culex quinquefasciatus
V.B. Hosagoudar* and Jacob Thomas
Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode 695 562, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : An account of five foliicolous fungal taxa are dealt herein. Of these, Asterina glycosmidigena, A. gymnemae, Irenopsis pavoniae, Phyllachora gymnemae infected the leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla, Gymnema sysvestre and Pavonia sp., respectively, are described as new species while, Meliola pseudarthriae var. indica is described as a new variety on Pseudarthria viscida. The detailed description of these taxa is supplemented with line drawings and photo plate.
Keywords : Foliicolous fungi, Asterina, Irenopsis, Phyllachora, Kerala, India
Rajnikant† , Sabeta Kohli, Garima Chhajer, Malathi, M* and P.S. Mohan*
†Chemical Crystallography Laboratory, Post-Graduate Department of Physics, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi - 180 006, INDIA
*Department of Chemistry, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, (Tamil Nadu) INDIA
†Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The structure of 3-bromomethyl-2-chloro-quinoline crystallizes in the triclinic crystal space group P‘1 with unit cell parameters a=6.587(2), b=7.278(3), c=10.442(3) Å, a= 83.59(3)°, b= 75.42(2)°, g= 77.39(3)°, Z= 2, V= 471.9(3)Å3. The structure has converged to a final R-value of 0.0734. The phenyl Ring-B has normal geometry while the pyridine Ring-A has slightly distorted conformation. The asymmetry parameter calculations, i.e., DC2 and DCs for the pyridine ring indicates that the structure is planar. There exists one intramolecular hydrogen bonded interaction of the type C-H…Cl and one C-H…N intermolecular interaction. The structure is stabilized by Van der Waals forces.
Keywords : Crystal structure, Activity, Quinoline, Heterocyclic compounds, X-ray structure
Shweta Rajput1, Nidhi Gupta2,Vikram Khan2 , Arun Kumar Saxena2* and V. D. Joshi1
1Department of Zoology, Government P. G. College, Kotdwara (Uttaranchal), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, Government Raza Postgraduate College, Rampur-244901 (U.P.), INDIA
2*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The egg laying sites, pattern and the egg morphology (SEM) of an amblycera louse parasitizing Bank Myna (Acridotheres ginginianus) have been recorded. Unlike most of the species of the genus, Menacanthus studied so far, the eggshell of M. eurysternus lacks the apophyses (bristle like outgrowths arising from anterior portion of the eggshell). However, the opercular disc of M. eurysternus bears a polar thread and the micropyles are set along the opercular rim.
Keywords : Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Egg morphology
Various aspects of soil and tree layer vegetation analysis in tropical dry deciduous forest of Hastinapur
Poonam Khurana*, R.C Arya and Poonam Rani
Department of Botany, Meerut College, Meerut (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Different parameters of Soil and vegetation analysis were carried out in Tropical dry deciduous forest of Hastinapur region of Uttar Pradesh. Vegetation of present study sites showed effects of various anthropogenic disturbances. The highly disturbed stand I showed low tree density while less disturbed stand III showed high tree density and good regeneration pattern. D-D curve were also drawn on the basis of the IVI of different species. Population structure of different tree species was drawn to understand the regeneration pattern. The most characteristic feature of the forest is dominance of xerophytic species and open forest canopy due to disturbances. Overgrazing and other biotic factors are making the area poor both in nutrient and top soil, which will eventually result in desertification of the Hastinapur in long run.
Keywords : Diversity, D-D curves, Importance value Index, Population Structure, Regeneration, Species composition
Management of sheath blight in rice through application of Validamycin, Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescence
Ramji Singh1, B.P.Singh, Alka Singh, Udai Prakash Singh1 and R.S.Kureel2
Department of Plant Pathology N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) INDIA
1Department of Plant Pathology College of Agriculture SVP University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.) INDIA
2National Oilseed and Vegetable Oil Development Board Gurgaon
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Eleven different combinations of Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Validamycin 3L, were applied at different crop stages viz. seed, seedling, tillering and symptoms initiation along with one application of Carbendazim as standard control to test their efficacy against sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani under field condition. One application of Carbendazim @ 0.1% at the time of symptoms initiation (with 81.36 percent reduction of disease incidence, 83.17 percent reduction in disease severity and 62.92 percent enhancement in yield) and seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum and seedling root dipping with Pseudomonas fluorescens and two spraying of Validamycin i.e. at tillering and symptoms initiation stages (with 69.10 percent reduction of disease incidence, 83.17 percent reduction in disease severity and 62.49 percent enhancement in yield) were found to be equally and highly effective in reducing the sheath blight severity and in increasing rice grain yield also. One spraying of Validamycin at symptoms initiation stage was comparatively less effective (29.54 per cent reduction in disease incidence, 53.46 per cent reduction in disease severity and 47.76 per cent enhancement in yield ) than one spraying of Carbendazim at symptoms initiation stage.
Keywords : Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Validamycin, Sheath blight incidence , Severity , Disease management, Yield enhancement.
Feeding and reproductive behavior of pigeon slender louse, Columbicola columbae (Phthiraptera, Insecta, Ischnocera)
Suneel Kumar Singh, Surman Arya1, Sanjay Kumar Singh2 and Vikram Khan3
Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh-249201(Uttarakhand), INDIA
1Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College, Gopeshwar, (Uttarakhand), INDIA
2Department of Zoology, T.D. (P.G.) College, Chakke, Jaunpur (U.P.), INDIA
3 Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College, Rampur (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Columbicola columbae, the pigeon slender louse mostly feeds upon the barbules of feathers but in addition to this it also feeds upon skin scurf, epidermal scales, sheaths of growing feathers, pellicle of skin etc. C. columbae is exclusively keratin feeder and does not take host blood. Any sex or stage related difference in feeding habit has not been recorded. It neither harbours any triturating agent in the crop nor is involved in cannibalism or predation. C. columbae exhibits sub-feminal mating behaviour (i.e., the male is under the female). Complete copulation lasts about 10 hours. The louse prefers the wing and tail feathers for oviposition. The eggs are generally laid on the ventral surface of the first row of undercovers of wing feathers. Every event that takes place prior to eclosion of nymph, the time required for detachment of operculum and the freeing of nymph has been noted during hatching.
Keywords : Phthiraptera, Pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae, Feeding, Reproductive behavior
Mayashree B Syiem*, B Bashisha Nongbri, A Pinokiyo, Amrita Bhattacharjee, Natasha A Nongrum and Luxemburgh Hynniewta
Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022 (Meghalaya), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study deals with preliminary investigation of cyanobacterial diversity in Meghalaya. A total of 75 samples were collected from 10 different ecosystems and analyzed. 65 strains of cyanobacteria isolated under 11 genera include Nostoc, Anabaena, Calothrix, Cylindrospermum, Gleocapsa, Fischerella, Plectonema, Tolypothrix, Stigonema, Loriella and Westiellopsis. Nostoc was most abundant. Diversity analysis indicated maximum Shannon’s diversity index (H) in Mawlai. Highest Simpson’s diversity index was seen in Sung Valley (0.75). Both Shannon’s and Simpson’s diversity indices were lowest in Mairang. Richness was highest in Sung valley and Syntuksiar with both the sites supporting 17 strains each. Although, highest diversity was recorded from Mawlai, richness recorded at this site was only 11 strains thereby indicating richness need not be a function of diversity in this region. This study revealed the cyanobacterial strains, which can withstand acidic pH and prevail in the region. A study on colonization also identified some potential biofertilizer strains from the region such as Nostoc punctiforme, Nostoc muscurum and Anabaena azollae that could be effective in acidic crop fields.
Keywords : Northeast India, Biodiversity hot spots, Cyanobacterial diversity, Shannon’s index and Simpson’s diversity index
Evaluation of total phenols and antibacterial activity of certain drug plants against some bacterial species
Manisha G. Ranpariya1 and Rita S. Chudasama2*
1Microbiology Department, Shree M. and N. Virani Science College,Rajkot-360 005 (Gujarat), INDIA
2Biology Department, Gyanyagna College of Science and Management, Rajkot-360 005(Gujarat), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present paper deals with antimicrobial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Tinospora cordifolia, Tribulus terrestris, Thevetia peruviana, Adhatoda vasica, Vitex negungo, Apium graveolens and, Annona squamosa. It was studied against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhy B (STB), Shigella dysenteriae using solvent (methanol and petroleum ether) extraction method. Methanol extract of all eight plants showed prominent inhibitory activity against S. dysenteriae and STB while G. glabra, V. negundo, and T. peruviana showed maximum zone of inhibition against four studied bacterial species. These results suggest that methanol extract is more effective than petroleum ether for the antimicrobial activity. Further total phenols were estimated and antibacterial activity of these plants in relation to total phenolic content is discussed.
Keywords : Antibacterial activity, Methanol extract, Petroleum ether extract, Total phenols
S.P. Gautam1, P.S. Bundela2, A.K. Pandey3, R.K. Jain4, P.R. Deo2, S.K. Khare2, M.K. Awasthi2* and Surendra Sarsaiya2
1Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, INDIA
2Regional office M.P. Pollution Control Board, Vijay Nagar Jabalpur (M.P.), INDIA
3Mycological Research Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, R.D. University, Jabalpur-482001 (M.P.), INDIA
4 Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Bhopal, (M.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding Author: Eemail@example.com
Abstract : Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost is increasingly used in agriculture as a soil conditioner but also as a fertilizer. Proponents of this practice consider it an important recycling tool since MSW would otherwise be land ûlled and critics are concerned with its often elevated metal concentrations. Large amounts of MSW compost are frequently used in agriculture to meet crop N requirements and for the addition of organic matter. The main concern is loading the soil with metals that can result in increased metal content of crops. Furthermore, in some cases, metals and excess nutrients can move through the soil proûle into groundwater. Municipal solid waste compost has also been reported to have high salt concentrations, which can inhibit plant growth and negatively affect soil structure. A review of relevant agricultural studies is presented as well as recommendations for improving MSW compost quality. Its safe use in agriculture can be ensured with source separation (or triage of MSW to be composted) as well as the development and implementation of comprehensive industry standards.
Keywords : Compost, Metal contamination, Municipal solid waste, Organic waste recycling
Suman Pratihar*, Shomik Nag and Jayanta Kumar Kundu
Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore (W.B), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder named after German physician Alois Alzheimer, who first described it in 1906. The Alzheimer’s disease is now becoming curable by identifying the actual cause of the disease with the proper diagnosis of the disease of the patient. The disease can now be cured by drug treatment, by hormonal treatment and by using herbal products such as medicines. The drugs are based on antagonizing action of the components against the causative agents (β Amyloid plaque, Apolipoprotein E, Tau protein) of the disease. The common drugs based on their action are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, Cholinesterase inhibitor, agents for increasing blood supply and neurotransmitter in the brain, lipofuscin and β Amyloid plaque inhibitor, free radical scavenger, agent for metal chelator and agent for increasing macrophage activity in the brain.
Keywords : Alzheimer’s disease, Memantine, Hydergine, Rivastigmine tartrate, Turmeric
A review on scientific technologies in practice to innovate plant based molecules and to improve herbal drug quality to overcome health problems
K.K. Gupta1, G. Khandelwal1, G. Prasad1, A.K. Chopra2 and A. Mishra1
1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India
2Department of Zoology and Environment Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India
Corresponding author.E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Medicines obtained from drug plants and other sources are commonly called traditional medicines. They have played an important role in the treatment of several human diseases since ancient times. India possessed a great wealth of traditional health care system known as Ayurveda related to the use of plant species. The global market of herbal drugs has a great potential around the world. Demand of plant based medicines is also increasing among western countries because of a general consideration that most allopathic drugs are associated with more or less side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now manufacturing Ayurvedic phytopharmaceutical products. However, enough efforts have not been made to get suitable substitute of modern allopathic medicines from these traditionally used drug plants and herbal drugs. This traditional system of healthcare in India still needs extensive evidence-based scientific researches in promoting its therapies. This review paper deals with modern scientific approaches to find out new plant based molecules and to develop new technologies in a continuous process and should be applied in the practice to improve the quality of herbal drugs in Indian pharmaceutical industries. Critical assessment of quality assurance including researches on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology, antimicrobial activity and clinical studies carried out on various Ayurvedic medicinal plants are also being presented.
Keywords : Scientific technologies, Plant based molecules, Herbal drug, Health
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