Volume 1, Year 2009-Issue 2

Contents

  1. 1 Antioxidant activity of fungi isolated from soil of different areas of Punjab, India
  2. 2 Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Proteus in raw milk of DoonValley
  3. 3 Optimization of cultural conditions for anaerobically treated distillery effluent bioremediation by an isolate Pseudomonasputida SAG45
  4. 4 Adhesive properties of food and faecal potential probiotic lactobacilli
  5. 5 Limnology of Surinsar lake, Jammu (J&KState): Part I- Protozoa
  6. 6 Water quality indices and abiotic characteristics of western Yamuna canal in Yamunanagar, Haryana, India
  7. 7 Adsorption efficiency of carbon from treated sugarcane bagasse in removing chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by optimization of adsorption parameters
  8. 8 Limnology of lake Surinsar, Jammu, J&K: Part II – Water chemistry
  9. 9 A study of fresh water protozoans with special reference to their abundance and ecology
  10. 10 Seasonal variation in phytoplankton of Tadoba lake, Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Distt. Chandrapur (MS), India
  11. 11 Eco-dyeing of silk with Dhavdi flowers and its fastness evaluation
  12. 12 Organic matter depositional microenvironment in deltaic channel deposits of Mahanadi river, Andhra Pradesh
  13. 13 Molecular basis of resistance in wheat varieties against spot blotch disease
  14. 14 Floristic survey of medicinal plants in Sur Sarovar wet land, Kheetham, Agra, India
  15. 15 Neuromuscular systems in the fifth instar larva of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae): I-Cephalothoracic musculature and its innervation
  16. 16 Neuromuscular systems in the fifth instar larva of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae): II- Abdominal musculature and its innervation
  17. 17 Community structure and diversity of a tropical dry deciduous forest of Hastinapur region, India
  18. 18 Effect of varied calcium concentrations on serum calcium, sodium, potassium and protein value during the different phases of reproductive cycle in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)
  19. 19 Prevalence of Eomenacanthus stramineus (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Menoponidae) on poultry birds (Gallus gallus F. Domesticus) of Jaunpur
  20. 20 Manurial value of byproducts of bio-diesel feed stocks on finger millet grain and dry fodder productivity
  21. 21 A study on the ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus Pallas) and its status as an unconventional pest of agriculture in and around Beer-Sonty reserve forest, Haryana, India
  22. 22 New record of earthworm Eukerria kuekenthali (Oligochaeta: Ocnerodrilidae) from Sikkim, India
  23. 23 Cadmium induced histopathological changes in the stomach and small intestine of Swiss albino mice Mus musculus
  24. 24 The enigma of speech and language acquisition in human - A genetic approach
  25. 25 Essential phospholipids protection against mercury uptake and histopathological changes in the intestine of fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Trewavas)
  26. 26 RAPD-PCR based genomic characterization of two populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera : Culicidae)
  27. 27 A study on ground water quality of industrial area at Gajraula (U.P.), India
  28. 28 Biochemical and spectroscopic changes in phycobiliproteins of the protein-rich Cyanobacterium, Spirulina fusiformis induced by UV-B radiation
  29. 29 Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis in a school of low socio-economy area in Rampur (U.P), India
  30. 30 Some lichens from Kashmar, NE Iran
  31. 31 Contamination of Asian herbal drugs: Need for its critical evaluation

Antioxidant activity of fungi isolated from soil of different areas of Punjab, India

Priyanka Chandra and Daljit Singh Arora*

Microbial Technology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, GuruNanakDev University, Amritsar-143005, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: daljit_02@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activity of fungi isolated from soil of different areas of Punjab, India and compare their efficiency with a known antioxidant, ascorbic acid.The antioxidant potential of fungal extracts was quantified by DPPH and reducing power assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folins-Ciocalteau (FC) reagent. Out of 113 fungal isolates selected, 51 were having antioxidant potential and these were further assayed quantitatively. All of these showed good activity against DPPH radical while 32 of these isolates demonstrated reducing potential also. In addition, some were equally good as ascorbic acid. The present study demonstrated potential of soil fungi to have antioxidant activity similar to plants and mushrooms. High phenolic content of fungi further highlight their significance as new sources of natural antioxidants. These fungi may provide easier set up for production and purification of natural antioxidants as compared to higher plants.

Keywords : Antioxidant activity, Dot-blot DPPH staining, DPPH assay, Reducing power, Soil fungi


Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Proteus in raw milk of DoonValley

Nishant Goyal * , Tejpal Dhewa1 , B.S.Bhandari and Satyajeet Khare 1

Department of Botany and Microbiology, H.N.B.Garhwal University, Srinagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

1 Department of Microbiology, Dolphin Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nishantgoel_82@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The present study deals with the determination of extended spectrum of β -lactamase (ESBL) producing Proteus in raw milk of DoonValley. ESBL producing isolates were screened by double disc approximation test using commercially available β -lactam (Piperacillin) and β -lactam/ β -lactamase inhibitor combination (Piperacillin/Tazobactam). All isolates of Proteus sp. were reported to resistant against Methicillin and were sensitive to Piperacillin, Cephotaxime, Ceftazidime, and Cefoperazone. This indicates that all the isolates were able to produce β -lactamase in low and higher amount. This amount of β -lactamase is inactivated by Tazobactam ( β -lactamase inhibitor) and the zone of inhibition with Piperacillin/Tazobactam combination was greater as compared to Piperacillin alone. There was a significant difference (>4 mm) in zone of inhibition was reported with Piperacillin and in combination of Piperacillin and Tazobactam. Hence, the overall emergence of β -lactamase producing Proteus sp. in raw milk of Dehradun City was 100%, which is an alarming situation for public health and needs serious concern.

Keywords : Enterobacteriaceae, Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL), Proteus, Raw milk


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Optimization of cultural conditions for anaerobically treated distillery effluent bioremediation by an isolate Pseudomonasputida SAG45

Anita Rani and Baljeet Singh Saharan*

Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra - 136 119 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Baljeet@DAAD-alumni.de

Abstract : The present study deals with the decolourisation and detoxification of distillery effluent by an isolate SAG45 . Soil samples were collected from the affected disposal sites of distillery effluent treatment plant. The isolate showed the highest bioremediation of 79.5% within 4 days of cultivation in the melanoidin pigment broth. The isolate showed higher decolourisation at pH 8.0 and temperature 37 o C. However, it gives 58.9% decolourisation with 5% (v/v) distillery effluent within 8 days. Toxicity test was also carried out to assess the toxicity of distillery effluent on seed germination.


Keywords :
Effluent, Decolourisation, Aerobic cultures, Recalcitrant, Toxicity test


Adhesive properties of food and faecal potential probiotic lactobacilli

Tejpal Dhewa *, Shailja Pant, Nishant Goyal1 and Vijendra Mishra2

Department of Microbiology, Dolphin (PG) Institute of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Dehradun -248007 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

1 Department of Botany and Microbiology, H.N.B.Garhwal University, Srinagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2 Department of Dairy Microbiology, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 001 (Gujarat), INDIA

* Corresponding author. E-mail: tejpal_dhewa07@rediffmail.com

Abstract : In the present investigation, total four isolates of Lactobacillus speciesi.e. L. casei, L. helveticus, L. brevis and L. fermentum were examined for the cell surface hydrophobicity by bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons assay in LAPTg broth and hydrophobicity was calculated as percentage decrease in Optical Density at 600 nm. The general range of hydrophobicity in Lactobacilli was found in between 6-73%. Remarkably, L. helveticus and L. fermentum showed 73% hydrophobicity in xylene. Higher value of hydrophobicity could point toward a better ability of lactobacilli to adhere to epithelial cells. The outcome of present study concludes that L. helveticus and L. fermentum have good adhesive properties which may help them to adhere to surface epithelium of host cell and further screening with other probiotic attributes could be designated as probiotics.


Keywords : Lactobacillus, Probiotic, Hydrophobicity, Optical density

Limnology of Surinsar lake, Jammu (J&KState): Part I- Protozoa

D. Slathia* and S. P. S. Dutta

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu -180006 (J&K), India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dsenviron1@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : Zooplanktonic analysis of Surinsar lake, Jammu, during the year 2002-2004, has shown the presence of fifty one species of protozoans belonging to three classes viz. Sarcodina (32 spp), Ciliata (16 spp.) and Mastigophora (3 spp.). Quantitatively, during the year 2002-03, there was dominance of Sarcodina followed by Ciliata and Mastigophra. In the subsequent year viz. 2003-04, the order of quantitative dominance has been observed as Ciliata> Sarcodina and> Mastigophora. Coefficient of correlation(r) of protozoans with various physico-chemical parameters has generally shown insignificant results. The calculated value of ANOVA of various protozoan classes was significant and the means of various classes differed significantly among themselves indicating their significant contribution to total protozoan population.

Keywords : Lake, Zooplankton, Protozoa, Correlation, Diversity Index


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Water quality indices and abiotic characteristics of western Yamuna canal in Yamunanagar, Haryana, India

Anita Bhatnagar*, Girish Chopra and Priyanka Malhotra

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra- 136119, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:anitabhatnagar@gmail.com

Abstract : The present paper deals with the monthly variations of physico-chemical characteristics of western Yamuna canal water, Yamunanagar which is polluted with industrial effluents and domestic sewage. Three sampling points i.e. station-1: Upstream of the river; station-2: Point of influx of industrial effluents and domestic sewage; Station-3: About 6 kms downstream from station 2 were selected for the investigation. Studies revealed high values of turbidity, conductivity, free CO2 , alkalinity, calcium, hardness, magnesium, chloride, orthophosphate, phosphate, sulphate and ammonia and low values of DO at station-2. The differences in various parameters were statistically significant (P<0.05) when compared from upstream and downstream stretches of the river particularly in summer. DO and BOD were found to be two important parameters which showed strong correlation with other parameters and hence can serve as good indices of river water quality. Water Quality index designated station-1 as highly polluted and station-2 and 3 as severely polluted. Thus the hydro biological conditions were not congenial/ optimum for the survival/ production of sensitive fish fauna, therefore, proper and efficient treatment of the effluents and sewage should be carried out before discharging these into the canal.

Keywords : Water quality index, Western Yamuna canal, Physico-chemical characteristics, Industrial effluent, Sewage


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Adsorption efficiency of carbon from treated sugarcane bagasse in removing chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by optimization of adsorption parameters

Sucharita Tandon* and N. Nandini

Department of Environmental Science, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore-560056, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sucharita.tandon@gmail.com

Abstract : Adsorption is one of the effective techniques for removal of chromium (VI) from wastewater. In the present study, efforts have been made to develop adsorption technology for removing Chromium (Cr) VI from aqueous solutions by using sugarcane bagasse a waste which is left after taking out the juice.Activated carbon was prepared from waste sugarcane bagasse by chemical activation with orthophosphoric acid and burning for 3 hrs. Batch adsorption studies carried out showed that the adsorbent prepared from sugarcane bagasse has a significant capacity in removing Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. Optimization of certain adsorption process factors i.e. pH, agitation time; adsorbent dose and adsorbate concentration were also made.


Limnology of lake Surinsar, Jammu, J&K: Part II – Water chemistry

D. Slathia* and S. P. S. Dutta

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu-180004 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:dsenviron1@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : Water quality parameters viz. air temperature (15.21 0 C -36 0 C/16.71 0 C - 39.42 0 C), water temperature (13 0 C-32.42 0 C/15 0 C-32.8 0 C), depth (42cm-69.08cm/ 25cm-121.92cm), turbidity (3.88-46.27NTU/3.67-69.39 NTU), salinity (0.10-0.31ppt/ 0.10-0.37ppt), electrical conductivity (0.101-0.172mS/cm/0.114-0.279mS/cm), TDS (49.63-111.78 mg/l/57.64-177.01mg/l), pH (7.92-9.82/7.80-9.09), free CO 2 (0-19.22mg/l/0-15.32mg/l), DO (6.82-9.90mg/l/4.65-9.40mg/l), carbonate (0-18.38mg/l/0-20.63mg/l), bicarbonate (60.99-170.70mg/l/77.62-168.70mg/l, chloride (7.41-12.35mg/l/9.59-19.60mg/l), calcium (6.85-38.50mg/l/11.81-140.49mg/l), magnesium (4.62-7.22mg/l/3.86-39.05mg/l), total hardness (40.29-125.50 mg/l/56.61-511.05mg/l), BOD (3.12-5.79mg/l/1.31-16.21 mg/l), COD (17.74-75.42 mg/l/ 26.57-73.03mg/l), sodium (14.2-22.5mg/l/12.2-30.9mg/l), potassium (1.83-4.17mg/l/2.25-6.21mg/l), phosphate (0.048-0.233mg/l/0.008-0.603mg/l), nitrate (0.13-1.3mg/l/0.11-4.08mg/l), sulphate (1.60-19.19mg/l/1.36-15.70mg/l), silicate (0.14-4.23mg/l/0.27-7.05mg/l), iron (0-0.65/0-0.40mg/l), copper (below detectable limit) and zinc (below detectable limit), of lake Surinsar-the only source of drinking water to the inhabitants of the Surinsar village, have been reported monthly, during the year 2002-03/2003-04. WQI range falls from poor (70.45, December; 73.55, October; 74.4, November and 74.56, September/ 74.52, January and 75.36, September), very poor(82.54, February; 89.25, May; 80.76, August and 78.86, January/ 80.89, February; 98.25, April; 80.03, June; 82.26, July; 86.55, October and 83.03, November) to unfit (100.44, June; 101.9, July; 103.86, April and 119.5, March/ 103.73, May; 108.28, March; 122.56, August and 103.72, December). Comparison of range of various water quality parameters of Surinsar lake water, with national and international standards has also revealed that most of these parameters are beyond permissible limits. This clearly indicates the unsuitability of raw water, generally consumed by local inhabitants, for human consumption.

Keywords : Lake Surinsar, Physico-chemical parameters, National and international standards, Water quality index


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A study of fresh water protozoans with special reference to their abundance and ecology

Tabrez Ahmad* and A. K. Sharma

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007(U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tabrez.ahmad17@gmail.com

Abstract : Ecologically protozoa represent a model of interacting communities that exhibit various characters of structure and function of a micro-ecosystem and also an important component of food-chain. The present paper presents the first record of taxonomic composition and abundance of fresh water protozoans from ponds and Gomti River of Lucknow, U.P. India. A total forty seven protozoans were observed, studied thoroughly and identified. Total ten strains of flagellates, sixteen of amoebae, two testaceans; two heliozoans and seventeen different strains of ciliates were observed.

Keywords : Protozoa, Ecology, Food-Chain, Ponds, River Gomti

Seasonal variation in phytoplankton of Tadoba lake, Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Distt. Chandrapur (MS), India

P. M. Telkhade# , N. R. Dahegaonkar, P. J. Khinchi*, L. H. Rohankar** and S. B. Zade***

Department of Zoology, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Tukum, Chandrapur (MS), India

* P.G. Department of Zoology, Janata Mahavidyalaya, Chandrapur (MS), India

** P.G. Department of Zoology, M.B.Patel Science College, Sakoli, Distt. Bhandara (MS), India

*** Department of Zoology, R.D.Science College, Aheri, Distt. Gadchiroli (MS), India

# Corresponding author. E-mail: ptelkhade@yahoo.in

Abstract : Tadoba lake is the major lake in Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reservoir (TATR) in the Chandrapur district, in eastern Maharashtra which represent a unique habitat for wildlife in central India and oldest National Park of the state. The lake is free from human activities. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the population of planktonic algae of the lake from June-2006 to May-2007. The study of phytoplanktonic diversity revealed the presence of 35 species belonging to four major groups, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Myxophyceae and Euglenophyceae among which Bacillariophyceae was dominant. The rich floral diversity indicates high productive nature of pond.

Keywords : Tadoba Lake, Phytoplankton, Seasonal variation


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Eco-dyeing of silk with Dhavdi flowers and its fastness evaluation

Meenu Srivastava* and Preeti Udawat

Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing, College of Home Science, MPUAT, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: meenuclt@yahoo.com

Abstract : The present study is based on the process development for colouring of silk yarns with Dhavdi flowers using selected mordants to study its effects on colour fastness properties and optimization of different extraction conditions, duration and concentration for better dye and its shades. The results revealed that aqueous medium was suitable for extraction of dye from pink petals of Dhavdi flowers for one hour. The shades of midbuff, sand stone ,coffee and olive green brown were obtained by taking 4 g dried powder of dhavdi dye for dyeing 1 gram of silk material for 45 minutes. All the four mordants were found suitable for application on silk, 10 % of alum, 3 % of chrome, 2 % of copper sulphate and 3% ferrous sulphate were found to produce best shades on silk material. Post mordanting had resulted in darker shades in all the mordant. Simultaneous mordanting method was found best in case of chrome mordant. Excellent to outstanding fastness to sunlight was found in all mordanted samples. There was absolutely no staining in washed samples. Colour change was not found in the samples subjected to crocking in both dry and wet conditions except in case of ferrous mordanted samples,. The colour was stable as shown by their higher resistance towards acidic and alkaline perspiration. Hence, the dye obtained from Dhavdi flowers proved to be extremely good and can be recommended for dyeing silk fabric.

Keywords : Eco dyeing, Silk, Dhavdi flowers, Fastness

Organic matter depositional microenvironment in deltaic channel deposits of Mahanadi river, Andhra Pradesh

Anjum Farooqui *, T. Karuna Karudu1 , D. Rajasekhara Reddy 1 and Ravi Mishra 2

Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53, University Road, Lucknow, INDIA

1 Delta Studies Institute, AndhraUniversity, Sivajipalem, Visakhapatnam-17, INDIA

2 ONGC, 9, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: afarooqui_2000@yahoo.com

Abstract : Quantitative and qualitative variations in microscopic plant organic matter assemblages and its preservation state in deltaic channel deposits of Mahanadi River was correlated with the depositional environment in the ecosystem in order to prepare a modern analogue for use in palaeo environment studies. For this, palynological and palynofacies study was carried out in 57 surface sediment samples from Birupa river System, Kathjodi-Debi River system and Kuakhai River System constituting Upper, Middle and Lower Deltaic part of Mahanadi river. The apex of the delta shows dominance of Spirogyra algae indicating high nutrient, low energy shallow ecosystem during most of the year and recharged only during monsoons. The depositional environment is anoxic to dysoxic in the central and south-eastern part of the Middle Deltaic Plain (MDP) and Lower Deltaic Plain (LDP) indicated by high percentage of nearby palynomorphs, Particulate Organic Matter (POM) and algal or fungal spores. The northern part of the delta show high POM preservation only in the estuarine area in LDP but high Amorphous Organic Matter (MOA) in MDP. The sediment here is deposited under dysoxic to oxic fluvial conditions. Thus, the monsoon intensity, direction of fluvial discharge, and the landward extent of sea water incursion through river mouths inducing bottom water salinity play an important role in defining the magnitude of POM and its preservation in the shallow Mahanadi deltaic ecosystem.

Keywords : Palynology, Palynofacies, Mahanadi delta, Surface sediment


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Molecular basis of resistance in wheat varieties against spot blotch disease

Udai Prakash Singh and Ramji Singh *

Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.), INDIA

*Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, SVPUniversity of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: singh.ramji@gmail.com

Abstract : During present investigation, among the six wheat genotypes tested against six isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana, the genotype BOW‘S’ showed resistance response against three isolates, namely, BS-D-1, BS-DWR-K-2 and BS-K-4, whereas moderately resistance response against remaining 3 isolates i.e. BS-F-3, BS-P-5 and BS-V-6.The genotype A-9-30-1 showed almost highly susceptible response against each isolate except BS-D-1 which exhibited susceptible reaction on this genotype. Thus, it is clear that genotype BOW ‘S’ has broad genetic base for resistance, whereas genotype A-9-30-1 has no gene for resistance against these six isolates tested. Remaining five genotypes showed varying response, ranging from highly susceptible, susceptible, moderately susceptible, moderately resistant and resistant against various isolates of B. Sorokiniana tested.


Keywords : Resistance, Spot blotch, Primer, Dendrogram, Protein Profiling

Floristic survey of medicinal plants in Sur Sarovar wet land, Kheetham, Agra, India

Rekha Rani*, Reetu Gautam and R.K. Gautam

Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Khandari Campus, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra – 282002 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: reet14@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : Wildlife has a very important value in human life in various ways. Wild plants really help to cure various dangerous diseases. Sur Sarovar lake, a National Bird Sanctuary and National Wet land at Agra District also has several valuable medicinal plants which is observed by the survey. Wild plants like herbs, shrubs, weeds, plants and trees used to cure in many kind of diseases like piles, Jaundice, liver diseases, cough, cold, skin diseases, fever, purgative, diuretic, antiworms, antituberculosis, foementation, antitoxin, rheumatism, but most of these plants are ruined by farmers and people due to lack of awareness. Here 49 different plant and species are mentioned accordingly with their botanical names, family, nature and parts of plant which are of medicinal use. Present study has highly focused additional quality of Sur Sarovar lake Agra district, U.P. (India).

Keywords : Wild plants, Medicinal use, Keetham lake, Agra


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Neuromuscular systems in the fifth instar larva of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae): I-Cephalothoracic musculature and its innervation

S. Sivaprasad * and P. Muralimohan1

Department of Zoology, Smt.N.P.S.Government College for Women, Chittoor – 517002 (A.P.), INDIA

1 Department of Sericulture, S.P. Women’s University, Tirupati – 517502, (A.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E -mail: sivaprasadzoology@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The cephalo-thoracic musculature of the fifth instar larva of Bombyx mori comprises distinct groups of segmental muscle bands arranged in a stereotyped pattern. It includes dorsal, ventral, tergopleural, tergocoxal, lateral intersegmental, pleurosternal, sternocoxal, pleurocoxal and spiracular muscles. The cephalothoracic segments are innervated by the nerves of brain, suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and three thoracic ganglia (TG1, TG2, TG3).The brain gives nerves for compound eyes, antennae, labrum, frontal ganglion and the integument in the head. The SG, TG1,TG2,and TG3 give out a pair of lateral segmental nerves each, called the dorsal (DN) and ventral (VN) nerves. The DN of SG innervates muscles in the cephalic region, while its VN innervates muscles in the prothorax. The DN of thoracic ganglia innervates muscles in the dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of the hemi-segment while the VN innervates muscles in the ventral region. The innervation pattern indicates the presence of mixed nerves and multiple innervations that facilitate coordinated body movements and locomotion.

Keywords : Bombyx mori, Cephalothorax, Ganglionic nerves, Innervation, Musculature

Neuromuscular systems in the fifth instar larva of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae): II- Abdominal musculature and its innervation

S. Sivaprasad * and P. Muralimohan1

Department of Zoology, Smt.N.P.S.Government College for Women, Chittoor – 517002 (A.P.), INDIA

1 Department of Sericulture, S.P. Women’s University, Tirupati – 517502, (A.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E -mail: sivaprasadzoology@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The gross organisation of abdominal musculature and its innervation by segmental ganglionic nerves were studied in the fifth instar larva of Bombyx mori. The musculature comprises dorsal, ventral and lateral groups of muscles, represented as external and internal layers. The dorsal group includes musculi dorsales interni mediales (DIM), musculi dorsales externi mediales (DEM), musculi dorsales interni laterals (DIL) and musculi dorsales externi laterales (DEL). The ventral group includes musculi ventrales interni mediales (VIM), musculi ventrales externi mediales (VEM), musculi ventrales interni laterales (VIL) and musculi ventrales externi laterales (VEL). The lateral group is represented by musculi laterales interni (LI) and musculi laterales externi (LE). The abdominal muscles are innervated by the dorsal (DN) and ventral (VN) nerves of abdominal ganglia. The DN innervates ventral internal, lateral internal and both dorsal external and internal muscles, while the VN innervates ventral external and lateral muscles. The sensory branches of DN and VN innervate the body wall in the dorsal and ventral regions respectively with a sort of overlapping in the lateral region. The neuromuscular integration and intersegmental coordination in the abdominal region is discussed with reference to locomotion in the silkworm larva.

Keywords : Abdominal musculature, Bombyx mori, Ganglionic nerves, Innervation


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Community structure and diversity of a tropical dry deciduous forest of Hastinapur region, India

Poonam Khurana

Department of Botany, Meerut College, Meerut (U.P.), India

E-mail: miss_khurana80@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The present study deals with quantitative analysis of vegetation of forest area in Hastinapur, India. A total 3 sites were selected for the study. The values of density and total basal area for different species ranged from 0.5 Ind100m-2 to 2.2 and 16.50 cm2tree-1 to 1055.0cm2tree-1. Most of the species on different sites were randomly and regularly distributed, none of the species were found with contagious distribution. The values of Cd and H’ were ranged from 0.003 to 0.035 and 0.000 to 0.014.

Keywords : Community structure, Distribution pattern, Concentration of dominance, Species diversity


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Effect of varied calcium concentrations on serum calcium, sodium, potassium and protein value during the different phases of reproductive cycle in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

K. Singh and O.P. Gupta*

Department of Zoology, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar-470003 (M.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: opg45@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract : The serum, calcium, sodium, potassium and protein value were measured during different phases of reproductive cycle in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) due to effect of varied calcium concentrations. The calcium value was higher than the Potassium value Protein during spawning period pointing a more demand of calcium which is necessary for the functioning of a enzyme thereby also helps in hardening of eggs while protein meets an extra energy demand during this period. An increase in serum, sodium level was also observed during spawning period than pre and post-spawning.

Keywords : Heteropneustes, Reproductive cycle, Serum, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Protein


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Prevalence of Eomenacanthus stramineus (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Menoponidae) on poultry birds (Gallus gallus F. Domesticus) of Jaunpur

Suneel Kumar Singh1 *, Surman2 , A.K. Saxena3 , Nisha Maurya4 and Suresh Chandra4

1 Department of Biotechnology, Modern Institute of Technology, Dhalwala, Rishikesh (Dehradun) –249 201, Uttarakhand, India

2 Department of Zoology, Govt.Raza P.G.College, Rampur (U.P.) 244 901,India

3 Department of Zoology, Govt.P.G.College, Gopeshwar (Chamoli), Uttarakhand, India

4 Ecology and Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kutir (P.G.) College, Chakke, Jaunpur (U.P.) 222 146,India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drsuneelkumarsingh@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : A total of 1,020 poultry birds belonging to twelve different localities of Jaunpur district were surveyed during May 2006 to April 2007 to record the prevalence rate of Eomenacanthus stramineus. Prevalence of E. stramineus was noted more or less similar in both the sexes (Male – 38% and Female – 39%). Maximum birds bore very low infestation (32%) while only 7% birds exhibited very heavily infestation. Host sex, feather colour and locality had negligible effect on prevalence rate. However, prevalence rate remained slightly higher on birds with poor plumage/health. Significant positive correlation existed between mean monthly prevalence rate and mean monthly temperature as well as photoperiod. Mean monthly incidence rate were recorded higher during summer (May and June) as compared to winter months.

Keywords : Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Menoponidae, Poultry louse, Eomenacanthus, Gallus gallus, F. domesticus


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Manurial value of byproducts of bio-diesel feed stocks on finger millet grain and dry fodder productivity

S. Ramesh*, Balakrishna Gowda**, H.B. Raghu** and B.C. Shivakumar**

*Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Gandhi Krishi Vigana Kendra (GKVK), Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), India

**Bio-fuelPark, Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Madenur, Hassan, Karnataka,India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ramesh_uasb@rediffmail.com

Abstract : A replicated field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Madenur located in Hassan District, Karnataka in rainy season during 2007 to assess the manurial value of by-products of bio-diesel feed stocks-pongamia and neem oil seed cakes vis-à-vis conventional plant nutrients sources (combination of farm yard manure and inorganic fertilizers) on the grain and fodder productivity of finger millet, the staple food cereal of southern Karnataka. Grain and dry fodder productivity of finger millet crop grown using pongamia and neem seed oil cakes is comparable to that grown using conventional plant nutrient sources. Application of plant nutrients only through pongamia and neem seed oil cakes resulted in higher available soil Nitrogen, Potassium and Organic Carbon contents.

Keywords : Bio-diesel, Finger millet, Manure pongamia seed cake, Neem seed cake


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A study on the ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus Pallas) and its status as an unconventional pest of agriculture in and around Beer-Sonty reserve forest, Haryana, India

Girish Chopra and Deepak Rai*

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra -136119 (Haryana), INDIA

* Department of Zoology, Dayanand College, Hisar - 125001(Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drbkuk@gmail.com

Abstract : Periodic fortnightly visits from June, 2007 to May, 2008 in Beer-Sonty reserve forest and surrounding agricultural fields indicated incidences of damage to various crops and many herbs, shrubs and trees by Nilgai. The opinion survey of the 208 inhabitants including 166 farmers/farm labourers and 42 forest officials/forest labourers in and around Beer-Sonty reserve forest also revealed that 74.52% of the contacted persons reported significant damage by Nilgai to agricultural crops and herbs. As far as the distribution of Nilgai is concerned, 94.72% interviewees reported random distribution while 5.28% interviewees reported non-random distribution. One year fortnightly survey revealed minimum of one to a maximum of four Nilgai sightings/visit with a minimum of one individual to a maximum of 11 individuals per sighting. Most of the times, males were sighted singly or in mixed herds, whereas, herds comprising 2-11 individuals in different sightings included female(s) with calves or mixed herds. Opinion survey has also indicated herds comprising 1-10, 10-20 and more than 20 individuals by 60.10%, 30.77% and 9.13% interviewees. During regular periodic visits of the study area and surrounding fields, farmers were found using various means such as fencing, fire, night-light, sound efforts and effigy models to check the activity of Nilgai in their agricultural fields.

Keywords : Agricultural crops, Antelope, Herbs, Unconventional pest

New record of earthworm Eukerria kuekenthali (Oligochaeta: Ocnerodrilidae) from Sikkim, India

Hem Prasad Subedi * and R. M. Saxena

Department of Zoology, D.A.V (PG) College, Dehradun- 248001, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hem_subedi2003@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The earthworm genus Eukerria kuekenthali (Michaelsen 1908) is recorded for the first time from the Sikkimese soil. Inter/ intra specific variations have not been observed. Altitude plays a vital role in the distribution pattern of this species. The photographic descriptions with illustrations are provided.

Keywords : Eukerria kuekenthali, New record, North Sikkim, Altitude specific


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Cadmium induced histopathological changes in the stomach and small intestine of Swiss albino mice Mus musculus

Animesh K. Mohapatra*, Poonam Kumari and Shivika Datta

Department of Zoology, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer-305004 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: akmrie01@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The results on the effect of oral administration of cadmium chloride on the histomorphology of the stomach and small intestine of Swiss albino mice revealed severe histopathological effects in the tissues of both stomach and small intestine. There is marked atrophy of musculature, and disintegration of sub-mucosal and mucosal tissues, distortion of villi with disintegration of mucosal epithelial cells characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization, nuclear pycnosis and nuclear fragmentation. A significant damage in the Brunner’s gland and crypts of Liberkuhn has been observed.

Keywords : Cadmium chloride, Serosa, Musculature, Brunner’s glands and Crypts of liberkuhn


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The enigma of speech and language acquisition in human - A genetic approach

Jayanta kumar Kundu, Suman Pratihar* and Rudra Prasad Nath

Department of Zoology, Genetics and Molecular biology Lab., Vidyasagar University, Midnapore - 721102 (West Bengal), India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pratihar_vu@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The use of language is one of the most vital traits that distinguish human from other species. The gene FOXP2 (fork head box P2) is relevant to the human ability to develop language. FOXP2 is situated on human chromosome 7q31, and its major splice form encodes a protein of 715 amino acids. It contains a glutamine rich region consisting of two adjacent polyglutamine tracts, encoded by mixtures of CAG and CAA repeats. Two functional copy of FOXP2 seem to be required for acquisition of normal language in human. The chimpanzee, gorilla and the rhesus macaque FOXP2 proteins are all identical to each other and carry only one difference from the mouse and two differences from the human protein, whereas the orangutan two differences from the mouse and three from humans. This gene is also important on particular aspects of cognition awareness or grammatical processing.

Keywords : Language evolution, Human language, Primate language, FOXP2 gene, Language disorder

Essential phospholipids protection against mercury uptake and histopathological changes in the intestine of fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Trewavas)

Suresh Kothari* and Neha Choughule

School of Studies in Zoology and Biotechnology, Vikram University, Ujjain - 456010, India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Sckothari 2004@yahoo.com

Abstract : Histochemical examination of fingerlings and adults of freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (Trewavas) exposed to sublethal concentration of HgCl2 (0.15 mg/l) for 30 days revealed considerable uptake of mercury by their respective intestines. Simultaneous co-administration of essential phospholipids (EPL) along with food to the fishes, significantly suppressed mercury uptake by the intestinal tissues, except the goblet cells which were still loaded with Hg in both stages. Due to accumulated mercury visible histopathological damage was seen in muscle layers, lamina propria and basement membrane of columnar cells. No noticeable damage in intestine was seen, when EPL was simultaneously fed to fishes along with HgCl2 exposure. Results suggest that EPL plays prophylactic role against metal uptake and structural damage in fish intestine exposed to inorganic mercury.

Keywords : Mercuric chloride, Intestine, Essential phospholipids


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RAPD-PCR based genomic characterization of two populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera : Culicidae)

T. Kaura, P. Kaushal, M. Bansal and S. Chaudhry*

Mosquito Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA,

* Corresponding author. E-mail: schaudhry2003@yahoo.com

Abstract : The present paper deals with the RAPD-PCR based genomic characterization of Culex quinquefasciatus Say which is a major vector of filariasis in several parts of the Indian subcontinent. One population of the test organism used in the study was procured from Goa (pop.A) while the other (pop.B) was collected from a village Nadasahib (20 kms from Chandigarh). The RAPD-PCR amplification of whole body homogenate of freshly hatched individual specimens was carried out by using three random primers: primer I- 5’- GTCCCGACGA – 3’; primer II- 5’ – TGATCCCTGG – 3’ and primer III- 5’- GTGACGTAGG – 3’. Primer I produced 5 distinct bands from the DNA of pop. A, whose base composition ranged from 200-1000 bp. Likewise, 7 bands ranging from 130-750 bp and 4 bands ranging from 270-950 bp were generated with primers II and III respectively. In case of pop.B, a total of 8 bands ranging from 200-1000 bp were generated with primer I. Similarly, a total of 6 bands ranging from 250-900 bp with primer II and 4 bands ranging from 180-950 bp with primer III were produced. Based on the band sharing coefficient and the application of Nearest Neighbour Joining (NJ) analysis it was found that primer I was more suitable for detecting genomic differences at the species and generic levels while primer II was ideal for detecting variations in the number of bp in RAPD generated bands among different populations of Cx. Quinquefasciatus.

Keywords : PCR, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Genomics


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A study on ground water quality of industrial area at Gajraula (U.P.), India

D. S. Malik, Pawan Kumar* and Umesh Bharti

Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pwntyagi0@gmail.com

Abstract : The present study aims to identify the groundwater contamination problem in villages located in the close vicinity of Gajraula industrial area at Gajraula (U.P.), India. Ground water samples were collected from different villages at the depth of 40 and 120 feet from earth’s surface layer. Analytical techniques as described in the standard methods for examination of water and waste water were adopted for physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples and the results compared with the standards given by WHO and BIS guidelines for drinking water. Water quality index was calculated for quality standard of groundwater for drinking purposes. The present investigation revealed that the water quality is moderately degraded due to high range of seven water quality parameters such as Temperature (18.33-32.360C), conductivity (925.45-1399.59 µmho/cm), TDS (610.80-923.73 mgL-1), Alkalinity (260.17-339.83 mgL-1), Ca-Hardness (129.68-181.17 mgL-1), Mg-Hardness (94.07-113.50 mgL-1) and COD (13.99-25.62 mgL-1). The water quality index (WQI) also indicated the all the water quality rating comes under the standard marginal values (45-64) i.e. water quality is frequently threatened or impaired and conditions usually depart from natural or desirable levels.

Keywords : Groundwater quality, Industrial pollution, Water quality index


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Biochemical and spectroscopic changes in phycobiliproteins of the protein-rich Cyanobacterium, Spirulina fusiformis induced by UV-B radiation

Vishwanath Prasad

Department f Botany, Thakur Ram Multiple Campus, Birgunj, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

E-mail: mpal_vp@yahoo.com

Abstract : The present study indicated that the Increase in UV-B exposure (312.67 nm, 2.5 Wm-2) to Spirulina fusiformis, a highly protein-rich (60-71%) helically coiled, unicellular, polymorphous cyanobacterium not only bleached phycocyanin (PC) but also decreased its content Absorption spectra of UV-B treated culture showed significant decline in the absorbance at the peak 620 nm indicating the presence of PC. The absorbance decreased by increasing UV-B exposure. One hour simultaneous UV-B+PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation) exposure protected 33 percent damage of phycocyanin.


Keywords : UV-B, PAR., Phycobiliprotein, Spirulina

Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis in a school of low socio-economy area in Rampur (U.P), India

Archna Rashmi*, Nayanci Bansal, Gaurav Arya and Aftab Ahmad

Department of Zoology, Government Raza Post graduate College, Rampur- 244901(U.P), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: akscsir@rediff mail.com

Abstract : The prevalence of head louse Pediculus humanus capitis on the school children of a low socio-economy area of Rampur, India was found to be 56% (n=300). Female children appeared lousier. However, the hygienic condition and their density appeared to have negligible effect on head louse.

Keywords : Ectoparasite, Phthiraptera, Head louse


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Some lichens from Kashmar, NE Iran

Mahroo H. Moniri 1 *, Aazam Soltani 1 and Saleh Kamyabi 1

1 Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran

* Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Rahnamaie str., Mashhad, Iran

* Corresponding author. E-mail: m.h.moniri@mshdiau.ac.ir

Abstract : The present paper is based on recent collection of lichens made between 2007-2008 on Kashmar in the central part of the Razavi Khorasan province. A total of 31 taxa of lichens are reported from three localities in the investigated area. Two species are new to Iran, eight species are new to the province.

Keywords : Lichenized fungi, Iran, New record


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Contamination of Asian herbal drugs: Need for its critical evaluation

K.K. Gupta, G. Prasad * , A.K. Chopra1 and D.R. Khanna 1

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gpgupta49@yahoo.com

Abstract : Herbal drugs have been used as remedies for the treatment of large number of humans, ailments since ancient times as the traditional medicine system; India has a glorious past, having first documented record of fully developed medical science known as Ayurveda written by several ancient Rishi’s. Major groups of indigenous system of medicine are based on herbal drugs. A survey made by WHO indicated that about 80% of the world population relies on herbal drugs. Herbal drugs are becoming more popularized and important even in the developed nations with hope of their non-toxicity and may play a role of substitute to overcome the problems of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Cultivation of drug plants has been started in large scale without considering the land quality and in certain cases irrigation with waste water. Application of different fungicides, pesticides in that specific field or in neighboring fields may be directly deposited superficially or may be absorbed by the plant system. Therefore in the present situation possibilities of the Asian herbal drugs, contaminated with large number of toxic components cannot be ignored which may severely hurt human life in place of healing or curing.These contaminants may be either alone or in combination and may be originated intrinsically, extrinsically and deliberately. Certain contaminants may be highly toxic and may cause severe adverse effect in the human system. Some of the important contaminants are the heavy metals like lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper and pesticides. Adulteration of modern drugs to enhance drug potency and heterogenous microbial population including human pathogens may contaminate both raw and powdered herbal drugs. Among these contaminants, microbial contamination seems more severe and may be due to their dual action on the drug i.e. utilization of medicinally important chemical components as nutrients and in certain cases by producing certain mycotoxins, which may be even carcinogenic under certain conditions. Critical evaluation of both raw and powdered herbal drugs for contaminants is the urgent need of the time in order to provide safety measures in herbal healthcare medicine.

Keywords : Contamination, Herbal drugs, Evaluation


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