Volume 1, Year 2009-Issue 1
Phytochemistry, antibacterial and anticoagulase activities of Sida acuta against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
J. P. Essien1, B. S. Antia2 and G. A. Ebong1*
1Department of Microbiology, 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017 Uyo, Nigeria
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The phytochemical, antibacterial and anticoagulase activities of Sida acuta against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The phytochemistry of the plant leaves revealed that S. acuta is laden with antioxidative compounds with remarkable concentrations of saponins (0.772 mg/100g), flavonoids (0.112 mg/100g), alkaloids (0.076 mg/100g) and tannins (0.0541mg/100g). Their presence conferred a strong bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus SS-1VC, Staph. aureus SS-2VM, Staph. aureus SS-3SW, Staph aureus SS-4OM, Staph. aureus SS-5BC Staph. aureus SS-6AF and Staph. aureus SS-7DS isolated from vaginal candidiosis, vaginal mycosis, septic wound, otitis media, buccal cavity, athletes foot and diarrheic stool respectively. Majority of the bacterium strains screened were sensitive to aqueous and methanol extracts of S. acuta leaves. All the strains were inhibited by the aqueous extract, but more susceptible were strains SS-2VM isolated from vaginal mycoses and SS-3SW from septic wound, which recorded 25mm and 24mm diameter of inhibition zones respectively, after treatment with 8.0mg/ml of the extract. However, much lower concentration (0.5mg/ml) of the extract was required to halt coagulase activity in both strains. The methanol leaf extract exhibited similar but stronger antibacterial and anticoagulase activities against the clinical isolates of Staph. aureus. Marked antibacterial inhibitory effects were observed against most strains tested but SS-6AF and SS-7DS (which exhibited comparatively lower susceptibility), with majority of the strains losing their anticoagulase producing potential at concentrations as low as 0.5mg/ml of alcoholic extract. The strong anticoagulase activity of S.acuta, and it’s efficacy in inhibiting coagulase elaboration by Staph aureus especially Staph. aureus SS-3SW isolated from septic wound forms the basis of it’s use in folk medicine for wound treatment.
Keywords : Phytochemistry, Antibacterial and Anticoagulase, Sida acuta, Staphylococcus aureus
V. K. Tyagi1*, A. K. Chopra2, N. C. Durgapal3 and A. A. Kazmi1
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee – 247667, INDIA
2 Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, INDIA
3 Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi – 110 032, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : This paper investigates the utility and validity of bioassay toxicity testing using Daphnia magna straus as test organism for monitoring the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) receiving both industrial as well as domestic effluent. The average daphnia toxicity (Gd) at inlet, after primary settling tank (PST), secondary settling tank (SST) and tertiary treatment unit were reported as Gd-16, Gd-12, Gd-4 and Gd-1 respectively. However, a cumulative percentage removal in toxicity after PST, SST and tertiary treatment units was observed as 25%, 75% and 100%, respectively, during entire study period. It showed that a complete removal in daphnia toxicity (Gd) i.e.100% had been achieved only after tertiary treatment unit involving Dual Media Filters followed by activated carbon filters. Further attempts have been made to establish the relationship between key wastewater constituents i.e. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Suspended Solids (SS) with respects to daphnia toxicity (Gd). It was observed that COD and SS show a statistically significant correlation (r2) with daphnia toxicity (Gd) i.e. 0.89 and 0.81, respectively. Thus COD and SS can serve as a regulatory tool in lieu of an explicit toxicity standard (to check and improve the operational status of wastewater treatment plants in time).
Keywords : toxicity, CETP, Daphnia magna straus
Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma viride on growth performance of Salvia officinalis Linn.
Aditya Kumar*, Ashok Aggarwal and Sunita Kaushish
Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra - 136119 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Salvia officinalis (Sage) is a popular kitchen herb, member of mint (Lamiaceae) family has been cultivated for its wide range of medicinal values. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are beneficial symbionts for plant growth and development and offer a viable replacement of high input agricultural technology employed for production of environmentally hazardous fertilizers. Therefore, the present study was focused to analyze the effect of two AM fungi (Acalospora laevis and Glomus mosseae) along with Trichoderma viride, alone and in combination, on different growth parameters of S.officinalis in a green house pot experiment with sterilized soil. AM inoculum and T.viride showed significant increase of different growth parameters after 45 and 90 days of inoculation. Among all treatments, dual combination of A.laevis plus T.viride was most effective in increasing shoot length, leaf area, root length, root weight, AM spore number and percent root colonization. Moreover, maximum increase in shoot biomass was found in plant treated with T.viride.
Keywords : Salvia officinalis, Acaulospora laevis, Glomus mosseae, Trichoderma viride, Growth response
Study on digestive tract contents of fish : Preliminary step for identification of indigenous species in mosquito larval control
N. Pemola Devi1 and R. K. Jauhari*
Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun, INDIA
1Department of Zoology, D.B.S. (P.G.) College, Dehradun, INDIA*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study is based on screening of food preference by the indigenous fish under its natural condition. The gastrointestinal contents as an indicative of effective bioregulatory activity envisage the selection of a larvivorous fish. As many as 32 species of fishes were collected from their natural habitats at Imphal and Bishenpur districts in Manipur State between August 2007 to February 2008. Faecal drops of active fishes revealed remains of larvae / pupae of mosquitoes. However, the food types in 26 species of fish comprised larvae / pupae of mosquito, algae, weeds, tadepole fishes, crustaceans, insects, gastropods, worms and detritus / debris. On the basis of food preference Aplocheilus panchax, Polyacanthus fasciatus and Puntius manipurensis have been considered as most potent larvivorous fish of the study area.
Keywords : Larvivorous fish, Mosquito control, Digestive tract, Manipur
Ecological impact of coal mines on lichens: A case study at Moghla coal mines Kalakote (Rajouri), J&K
Sangeeta Charak1, Mukhtar A. Sheikh1, Anil K. Raina1* and D. K. Upreti2
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, INDIA
2 Lichenology Lab., National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The data on the frequency, density and abundance of the lichens growing around the Moghla Coal mines, Kalakote has been recorded and compared with lichens growing in a forest area away from the coal mines to work out effect of coal mines on the diversity and distribution of lichens. The data revealed that pollutants released by the open coal mining activities not only effected qualitative distribution but also have effect on the quantitative parameters. Over all 10 species of lichens belonging to 9 genera and 6 families have been recorded from the vicinity of coal mines as compared to 15 species, belonging to 9 genera and 7 families, recorded from the forest area.Keywords : Lichens, Ecological impact, Kalakote coal mines, J&K
The genus Asterina and its anamorph on Elaeocarpus species in Southern Western ghats of peninsular India
V. B. Hosagoudar
Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode - 695562, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala), INDIA
Abstract : The present study observed that the family Elaeocarpaceae comprises three genera: Elaeocarpus, Sloanea and Muntingia in India. Of these, Elaeocarpus munronii, E. serratus, E. tectorius and E. tuberculatus were found infected with Asterina gamsii, A. elaeocarpi var. ovalis, A. elaeocarpicola and Asterostomella elaeocarpi-serrati in the Southern Western Ghats of peninsular India. All these species are described and illustrated in detail.
Keywords : Fungi, Black mildews, Asterina, Elaeocarpus, Southern western ghats
Imaging and visualising nanometre scale surface geometry of a crystalline mineral (SiO2) in monochromatic spectra
Sudip Dey*, Prasamita Sarkar and Chandrani Debbarma
Department of Geography and Disaster Management, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799130, Tripura (West), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Digital microphotography and image analysis is considered as an important tool in sedimentology and mineralogy for the assessment of physical characteristics at micro and nano level. In this paper the present authors attempted to apply digital imaging technique to visualise the surface geometry of Quartz at nanometre scale. For that purpose a quartz specimen was picked up from microphotography of a thick section of sediment layer and 1µm X 1 µm base image was prepared for digital operation with sophisticated software. Reflectance capacity of the particle has been considered to measure the surface condition. An automated contour plotting was done from the base image. Surface condition was also analysed by reflective radiance measurement. Four images based on greyscale, black body law, pseudo colour composition and landscape were prepared for detailed assessment of quartz nanomorphology. A 3D image was also consulted for understanding the geometry of the surface of quartz.
Keywords : Quartz, Nanoscale, Imaging, Reflectance, Monochromatic, Surface geometry
C. N. C. Nwaoguala and A. U. Osaigbovo*
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigation was conducted to enhance seedling production of Black Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense). Three different types (sets) of experiments were designed. The results showed no sprouting of the stem cuttings in the first type of experiment ( stem cuttings treated with Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and coconut milk). The second type of experiment (seeds subjected to some pre-sowing treatments using NAA, coconut milk, manual scarification and seeds soaked in water for 24 hrs) showed highly significant treatment effects for seed treatments and days after planting, DAP (p < 0.001), while time or duration of treatment was not significant. There were highly significant interaction effects for Treatment duration x Seed treatments and Treatment duration x Days after planting (DAP). Mean percentage germination was best at 2000ppm NAA (43.85%), but was not significantly different from 1000ppm, (40.28%), water soaked (40.28%) and manual scarification (38.88%). Lower germination rates were observed for 500ppm (34.72%), normal or untreated seeds (30.75%), and coconut milk (28.38%). There were highly significant treatment effects (p < 0.001) between the control (normal seeds) with 11.2% mean germination, cold treatment (stratification), 21.1% and manual scarification 33.7%. DAP was also highly significant with the highest mean germination of 34.1% at 56DAP. Treatments x DAP was highly significant (p < 0.01) in the third experiment (stratification, a cold temperature pre-sowing treatment). Soaking seeds for 24 hrs before planting was adjudged the best treatment for enhancing seedling production in Dialium guineense in this study. It was the easiest and cheapest of all other treatments considered.
Keywords : Seedling, Black velvet tamarind, Dialium guineense
Preliminary phytochemical studies for the quantification of secondary metabolites of medicinal importance in the plant, Acalypha fruticosa Forssk
A. M. Anandakumar, S. Paulsamy*, P. Sathish kumar and P. Senthilkumar
PG and Research Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore-641029, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The medicinal plant, Acalypha fruticosa Forssk for the treatment of dyspepsia, stomachache, fever, jaundice, skin diseases and even as an antidote is generally distributed in different environments of tropical region in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. However, its occurrence is more common in lower hills of Western Ghats and other habitats in this region where the soil is stony with low moisture. So far, there was no study on the influence of habitat conditions on the change in the content of secondary metabolites of medicinal importance in this plant. Hence to know the changes in the content of such secondary metabolites in the leaves of A. fruticosa, the present study was undertaken in three different habitats. Thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of phytochemical compounds viz., alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins in the leaves of all the three populations. Further the content of all these compounds are found to be higher in the population of dry habitats.
Keywords : Medicinal plant, Dyspepsia, Secondary metabolites
Metabolic changes during hibernating period in Indian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)
Suman Pratihar* and Jayanta Kumar Kundu
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore -721102 (West Bengal), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present investigation reports the effect of hibernation on different blood-plasma biochemical parameters viz. plasma protein, plasma glucose and blood urea, thyroid hormone and cholesterol in the Indian Common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). The study indicated that the total plasma protein is decreased significantly in hibernating toads. The decline in thyroid hormone concentration had its behavioral and physiological response that leads to increase and sustain cholesterol level in serum. But plasma glucose was significantly decreased in hibernating toads. During the hibernating phase increased urea concentration in blood acts as cryoprotectant agent, which helps the hibernating animals to sustain in winter. Thus during hibernation these altered metabolic changes appear to be essential for survival.
Keywords : Hibernation, Thyroid hormone, Plasma protein, Urea
P.G.. Department of Zoology, B.S.N.V. College, Lucknow-226001, INDIA
E-mail : email@example.com
Abstract : Definite cyclic variations were observed in blood urea levels of freshwater catfish Wallago attu. The maximal mean blood urea level (8.44±1.96 mg/100 ml) was noted in the month of June while minimal level in December, revealing a difference of 65.87% between the two levels. Seasonal alterations observed here in W. attu were correlated with ecophysiological factors like temperature, food availability, body metabolism, breeding cycle and hormonal changes which have been essentially found to be involved in fish life.
Keywords : Wallago attu, Blood urea, Spawning, Seasonal, Temperature
Abhijit Bhuyan and Munindra Borah*
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur-784 028, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : In this study our main objective is to determine the best fitting probability distribution for annual maximum flood discharge data of river Kopili, Assam. Various probability distributions i.e. Gumbel (G), generalized extreme value (GEV), normal (N), log-normal (LN3), generalized logistic (GLO), generalized pareto (GPA) and Pearson type-III (PE3) have been used for our study. The L-moments methods have been used for estimating the parameters of all the distributions. The root mean square error (RMSE), model efficiency and D-index (fit in the top six values) together with L-moment ratio diagram is used for goodness of fit measure. It has been observed that Generalized Pareto is the best fitting probability distribution for annual maximum discharge data of river Kopili.
Keywords : L-moments, Probability distributions, Quantiles, L-moment ratio diagram
Aboud S. Jumbe and N. Nandini*
Department of Environmental Science, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore - 560056, INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The unscientific disposal of wastes and pollution in urban water bodies has caused immense problems not only to human beings but also to the aquatic biodiversity. Assessment of heavy metals in Vartur Lake, Bangalore, revealed that Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb) all exceeded drinking water standards. Nevertheless, Chromium (Cr) exceeded the CPCB’s tolerance limits for water bodies subjected to effluent discharge. In Eichornia crassipes, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni were critical. In the sediments, Cadmium (Cd) and Nickel (Ni) exceeded the Probable Effect Level (PEL). Sediment Geo-accumulation Index of the lake showed moderate contamination with Mn, Cu, and Pb. Cr had the highest plant/sediments metal concentration factor even though its bioavailability in plants (71.5 ppm) was lower compared to Manganese (192.3 ppm). This calls for immediate action to be implemented to carry out necessary environmental mitigation measures for the lake.
Keywords : Microwave digestion, Probable effect level, Sediment geo-accumulation index, Pollution load index
K. Narasimha Varma, E. Madhuri, S. Sadak Basha, YR. Radha Madhavi, M Guru Sekhar and M. Bhaskar*
Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502 (A.P.), India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Bilateral cryptorchidism was induced surgically in adult wistar strain albino rats and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway has been studied in testis, and sex accessory organs of both control and cryptorchid animals by estimating the marker enzymes and the substrates of the metabolism. In cryptorchid animal tissues, accumulation of lactic acid and glycogen was observed with inhibited phosphorylase activity in comparison to the controls. The reproductive tissues like testis, epididymis, prostate gland and seminal vesicles had shown remarkable elevation in the glycogen content, which can be attributed to decreased phosphorylase activity. In view of androgen dependent nature of phosphorylase its inhibition can be correlated to decreased testosterone circulation in the body. Consequently the free glucose content of the tissues was markedly decreased suggesting a decrease in the mobilization of the carbohydrates into energy metabolism. All the reproductive tissues had shown significant accumulation of lactic acid with inhibited oxidative enzyme activities. Thus the reproductive tissue oxidative metabolism had been suppressed during cryptorchidism leading to a shift towards glycolysis and creating a situation of functional suppression.
Keywords : Cryptorchidism, Carbohydrates, Reproduction, Enzyme, Rat testis
Premature harvesting of wild Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum, Baker) and its impact on raw material quality: A case of Katni forest division, Madhya Pradesh
Manish Mishra* and P. C. Kotwal
Faculty of Ecosystem Management and Tech. Forestry
Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM), Nehru Nagar, Bhopal- 462003 (M.P), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Katni is a major raw medicinal plant market of Central India. An attempt has been made to find out prevalent harvesting method of Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) and visual inspection of raw (dry) market samples collected from Katni market. Musli tubers were found adulterated both intentionally and unintentionally by various stakeholders in the market. The stakeholders adopted malpractices like selling similar looking C. tuberosum, C. arundinaceum species of musli along with genuine (C. borivilianum) material and occasionally dried roots of different species. Major reasons for poor quality in the study area are premature root harvesting, mis-identification of species, mixing of similar looking species etc. The study recommends that harvesting should be done after maturation (November) and awareness about species identification, processing among various stakeholders is required.
Keywords : Harvesting, Musli, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Adulteration, Raw material
The eggshell morphology of Heterodoxus spiniger, infesting dog, Canis familiaris (Boopidae, Mallophaga)
Sanjita Tyagi2, Nidhi Gupta1, V. D. Joshi2, Archna Rashmi1, Gaurav Arya1 and A. K. Saxena1*
1Department of Zoology, Government Raza Postgraduate College, Rampur - 244901 (U.P.), India
2Department of Zoology, Government P. G. College, Kotdwara (Uttarakhand), India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The egg chorion of the dog louse Heterodoxus spiniger bears pentagonal / rectangular scutes (scale like sculpturing) arranged obliquely. The opercular disc of the egg bears tall cup shaped micropyles which unite to give ridge like appearance. The centre of the disc bears short thick rod like polar thread.
Keywords : Dog louse, Egg morphology, Phthirapteran egg
Effect of some selected insecticides on the activity of invertase at different stages of pentatomid bug, Cyclopelta siccifolia W.
A. Naveed*, G.Y. Dayananda and B.B. Hosetti
Department of Applied Zoology, Biosciences complex, Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta - 577451 (Karnataka), INDIA
*Anjuman Arts,Science and Commerce College, Bhatkal, Uttarkannada Dist. (Karnataka), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The invertase enzyme which has been reported to occur in the digestive tract of several insects is believed to be an important enzyme for digestion and utilization of sucrose by insects. In the present investigation the effect of different insecticides such as Endosulfan, Monocrotophos, Methomyl, Phosphomidon and Carbaryl on invertase activity has been carried out at different stages of Pentatomid bug Cyclopelta siccifolia W. with lethal concentrations of respective insecticides. The data revealed that maximum decrease in Invertase activity was detected with (45%) at 24 hours. In case of II instar nymphs the least activity was observed with Carbaryl and it was -75.20% at 24 hours. In IV instar nymphs endosulfan showed its supremacy by reducing the activity by -8.5% in comparison with control. The overall results revealed that the activity of invertase varies with different insecticide treatments and it has been concluded that least activity was recorded with Carbaryl at II instar stage compared to other insecticides.
Keywords : Petatomid bug, Cyclopelta siccifolia, Invertase, Insecticides
V. B. Hosagoudar
Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode - 695562, Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala), INDIA
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : The present study indicated that Goniothalamus rhynchantherus and G. wightii were infected by three black mildew fungi, namely, Amazonia goniothalami, Irenopsis goniothalami and Trichasterina goniothalami. These fungi have been described and illustrated in detail.
Keywords : Fungi, Black mildew, Goniothalamus, Endemic, National Park
Mukhtar A. Sheikh1, Anil K. Raina1* and D. K. Upreti2
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu-180001, India
2 Lichenology Lab., National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : The present study conducted to enumerate the lichens from the so far unexplored Surinsar-Mansar wildlife sanctuary, J&K, revealed the presence of 30 species belonging to 18 genera from 14 families. The species belonged to different growth forms (21 crustose, 8 foliose and 1 fruticose) and are also growing on various substrata (corticolous-17 and saxicolous-13). Mangifera indica hosted the maximum number (12) while Pinus roxburghii did not host any lichen species in this area.
Keywords : Lichen flora, Surinsar-Mansar wildlife sanctuary, J&K.
Ramji Singh*, Durga Prasad and Alka Singh
Department of Plant Pathology, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) INDIA.
*Department of Plant Pathology,College of Agriculture,SVP University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding Author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Application of potassium either as recommended, deficient or excess dose, enhanced the level of phenolic contents, increased incubation period and thereby decreased the sheath blight severity. Application of nitrogen and phosphorous, either as recommended, deficient or excess dose resulted in reduction of phenolic content, shorter incubation period and thereby increasing the sheath blight severity. Recommended sulphur application, enhanced the phenolic contents, increased incubation period and thereby decreased the sheath blight severity. Recommended zinc application resulted in enhancement of phenolic contents, longer incubation period and thereby decreasing the sheath blight severity. Excess application of zinc, reduced the phenolic contents and incubation period but the severity of sheath blight was also lowered down. Recommended iron application (1.5 kg/ha) enhanced the phenolic contents and incubation period with a decreased level of sheath blight severity. Deficient and excess doses of iron also showed the similar trend of effect on phenolics, incubation period and sheath blight severity.
Keywords : Rice, Sheath blight, Biochemical resistance, NPK, Micro nutrients, Integrated nutrient management, Phenolic contents
H. S. Singh*, Richa Agrawal and Anshu Chaudhary
Department of Zoology, Ch. C. S. University, Meerut- 250004 (U.P.), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:email@example.com
Abstract : The present review deals with freshwater oligochaetes of India which records the presence of 102 species of freshwater oligochaetes belonging to 17 genera and 4 families. Besides this, a brief description of their global and Indian distribution has also been made along with their ecology, morphology of typical oligochaetes methods of their collection and preparation for taxonomic study has also been given. A thorough survey of various states is needed for the distribution of oligochaetes systematically.
Keywords : Oligochaetes, Aeolosomatidae, Naididae, Tubificidae, Pristinidae
A. K. Chopra, Chakresh Pathak* and G. Prasad1
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science
1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-2494404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : Soil is a complex structure and contains mainly five major components i.e. mineral matter, water, air, organic matter and living organisms. The quantity of these components in the soil does not remain the same but varies with the locality. Soil possesses not only a nucleus position for existence of living being but also ensures their future existence. Therefore, it is essential to make an adequate land management to maintain the quality of soil in both rural and urban soil. The presence of different kinds of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Mn, Bi and Zn etc. in trace or in minimum level is a natural phenomenon but their enhanced level is an indicator of the degree of pollution load in that specific area. The precise knowledge of these kinds of heavy metals, their forms and their dependence on soil provides a genuine base for soil management. The heavy metals have potent cumulative properties and toxicity due to which they have a potential hazardous effect not only on crop plants but also on human health. The metal contaminants can be reduced by immobilization of contaminants using macrophytes and also by using genetically engineered microorganisms.
Keywords : Heavy metal, Contamination, Agricultural soil
S. Ramesh* and Balakrishna Gowda
Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences
*Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore -560065 (Karnataka), India
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract : Soaring prices of fossil-fuels and environmental pollution associated with their use, has resulted in increased interest in the production and use of bio-energy in India. Government of India has made policies to promote the production and use of bio-fuels which have triggered public and private investments in bio-fuel feed stock crop research and development and bio-fuel production. In this paper, efforts have been made to review and discuss various feed stock crop options and crop research and development interventions required to generate feed-stocks to produce required volume of bio-energy to meet projected demand without compromising food/fodder security and potential benefits of bio-fuels in reducing environment pollution and contributing to the energy security in India.
Keywords : Agriculture research, Energy security, Bio-diesel, Bio-fuel, Bio-ethanol
Impact of climate change on biodiversity of India with special reference to Himalayan region-An overview
Vinod Kumar* and A.K.Chopra
Department of Zoology and Environmental Science
Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), INDIA
*Corresponding author.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract : India possesses a distinct identity, not only because of its geography, history and culture, but also because of the great diversity of its natural ecosystems. The panorama of Indian biological diversity is much wider, as it comes under the twelve mega biodiverse (Hot-spot) centers of the world. It contains a great wealth of biological diversity in its forests, its wetlands and in its marine areas which are distributed all over the country. This richness is shown in absolute numbers of species and the proportion they represent of the world total. The great Himalayan region has peculiar identity in the perspective of its unique biogeography. It supports a large number of glaciers, lakes, rivers, flora and fauna due to its variable climate. It has a profound effect on the climate of the subcontinent. But due to anthropogenic activities the global climate has changed since last few decades. The climate of the subcontinent has also adversely affected the biological resources of the country along with that of the Himalayan region. The present paper discusses the various causes responsible for melting and shrinkage of glaciers, decreasing water flow in the major rivers, increasing pressure of extinction of the ecological wealth of the country. It also talks about the control measures and various management steps which can be taken, with special reference to the Himalayan region.
Keywords : Biological diversity, Climate change, Himalayan region
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