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Volume 9, Year 2017- Issue 2 

Contents

  1. 1 A study on analysis of yield gap in pulses of Nadia district of West Bengal, India
  2. 2 Trends in marine fish production in Tamil Nadu using regression and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model
  3. 3 A stochastic frontier and corrected Ordinary Least Square models of determining technical efficiency of canal irrigated paddy farms in Tamil Nadu
  4. 4 Grain quality assessment of direct seeded basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different irrigation regimes in Indian Punjab
  5. 5 Evaluation of micronutrient status of sandy clay loam as influenced by sulphur fertilization on blackgram
  6. 6 Management of the major pests of french bean through development and validation of certain IPM modules, Assam, India
  7. 7 Influence of rotation and sources of nutrients on soil properties and productivity of finger millet (Eleusinecoracana L. Gaertn.)
  8. 8 Study on mitigation of ammonia volatilization loss in urea through adsorbents
  9. 9 Yield and weed density of Blackgram (Vignamungo (L.) Hepper) as influenced by weed control methods
  10. 10 Effect of irrigation scheduling and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and water productivity of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under Vertisols
  11. 11 Analysis of seed protein diversity in Cicer arietinum L. genotypes with different seed coat colour using SDS-PAGE
  12. 12 Correlation coefficient analysis in twelve gladiolus (Gladiolus hybrids Hort.) genotypes
  13. 13 Effect of different growing media on the rooting of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. 'Phulearakta' cuttings
  14. 14 Modeling phosphorus distribution under different fertigation strategies in onion (Allium cepa L.) crop
  15. 15 Constraints in adoption of composite carp culture in central Brahmaputra valley zone of Assam - a perceptual framework
  16. 16 Eco-friendly management of Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzoper thadominica in stored wheat at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand
  17. 17 Phosphorus fertilizing potential of biomass ashes and their effect on bioavailability of micronutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum. L)
  18. 18 Genetic variation and characterization of different linseed genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) for agro-morphological traits
  19. 19 Effect of water dipping on separation techniques of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils
  20. 20 Proximate composition, bio-chemical and microbial quality of pet food prepared from chicken byproducts by incorporating cauliflower wastes
  21. 21 Mapping of coconut growing areas in Tamil Nadu, India using remote sensing and GIS
  22. 22 Heterosis study in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] genotypes for pod yield attributes
  23. 23 Assessment on performance and variability in different sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Obseck) cultivars under Punjab conditions
  24. 24 First report of tar spot of Toona (Toona ciliata) in India
  25. 25 Effect of foliar application of potassium and its spray schedule on yield and yield parameters of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cv. Jaffa
  26. 26 Standardization of mixed fruit cheese from Guava (Psidiumguajava cv. Hisar Safeda) and Mango (Mangiferaindica var. Safeda) and its quality evaluation during storage
  27. 27 Detection of Aflatoxin B1 through indirect ELISA from fresh grains obtained from three maize growing zones of India
  28. 28 Soil test crop response based Integrated plant nutrition system for desired yield target of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon on Inceptisols
  29. 29 Characterization and categorization of Indian mustard genotypes for agro-morphological traits
  30. 30 Impact of different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon in Inceptisols
  31. 31 Eco-friendly management of late blight of potato– A review
  32. 32 Exploring possibilities of enhancing water use efficiency in potato: A review
  33. 33 Canopy temperature, excised leaf water retention, productivity and quality of wheat as affected by various nutrient sources in Pearl millet-wheat cropping system
  34. 34 Design and technical characteristics of shark gillnet operating in Mumbai coast
  35. 35 Refinement of fertilizer recommendation based on Soil Test Crop Response technology for rice under System of Rice Intensification
  36. 36 Endophytic microorganisms of tropical tuber crops: Potential and perspectives
  37. 37 Evaluation of economical and rapid method of plant DNA extraction for PCR analysis of different crops
  38. 38 Seasonal variation in food and feeding habit of Indian major carp (Labeo rohita Ham.1822) in Vallabhsagar reservoir, Gujarat
  39. 39 Biochemical composition of promising leaves genotypes of buckwheat grown in Himachal Pradesh
  40. 40 Genetic analysis for various yield components and gluten content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
  41. 41 Effect of sowing dates and varieties for higher productivity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)
  42. 42 Effect of nitrogen and foliar spray of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate on growth and productivity of yellow sarson (Brassica campestris L. var yellow sarson) crop under irrigated condition
  43. 43 Virulence gene profile and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Kashmir, India
  44. 44 Integration of biocontrol agents with fungicide, weedicide and plant growth regulator for management of stem and root rot of jute
  45. 45 Monitoring on impact of insecticides on mortality of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in front of beehives
  46. 46 Morphological characterization of forage sorghum genotypes for its various DUS traits
  47. 47 Evaluation of thermotolerant rhizobacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits from pigeonpea rhizosphere
  48. 48 Mineralogy of soils of major geomorphic units of north-eastern Haryana, India
  49. 49 Pesticides induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney of female Bandicota bengalensis and Tateraindica
  50. 50 Evaluation of rapeseed-mustard cultivars under late sown condition in coastal ecosystem of West Bengal
  51. 51 Bioefficacy and dissipation of β-cyfluthrin against white fly Bemisia tabaci Genn.) in okra (Abelomoschus esculentus L.)
  52. 52 Characterization of volatile secondary metabolites from Trichoderma asperellum
  53. 53 Piperine content variation in different Piper longum germplasms of North East India determined through RP-HPLC method
  54. 54 Genetic diversity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes revealed by simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers
  55. 55 Mulching: A viable option to increase productivity of field and fruit crops
  56. 56 Dynamics of inter-district developmental disparities in Haryana
  57. 57 Component traits influencing seed yield in recombinant inbred lines of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)
  58. 58 Comparative analysis of life tables of Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected from different geographical regions of North India
  59. 59 Characterization of Sorghum germplasm for various qualitative traits 
  60. 60 Economic analysis of application of phosphorus, single and dual inoculation of Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus)
  61. 61 Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residues from bovine milk in Patna (Bihar), INDIA
  62. 62 Development of fragrant microcapsules for woven cotton fabric
  63. 63 Performance of wool type angora rabbits under temperate conditions of Kashmir (J&K), INDIA
  64. 64 Effect of EMS on morpho-physiological characters of wheat in reference to stay green trait
  65. 65 Genetic divergence in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)
  66. 66 Effect of cold stress on boro rice seedlings
  67. 67 Estimation of yield and grain qualities of marker assisted backcross derived lines of submergence rice against sheath blight disease
  68. 68 Biocontrol of toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from the root tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F) using its rhizospheric mycoflora
  69. 69 Effect of storage conditions, packing materials and seed treatments on viability and seedling vigour of onion (Allium cepa l.) seeds
  70. 70 Biochemical assessment of nutritional status in Indian mustard
  71. 71 Effect of agro-input management practices on yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under vertisols of Chhattisgarh, India
  72. 72 Validation of integrated pest management module against insect pests of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan in Tarai region of Uttarakhand
  73. 73 Effect of dates of sowing and varieties on yield and quality of cluster bean (Cyamopsistetra gonoloba L.)
  74. 74 Induced chlorophyll mutations in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum)
  75. 75 Potential of Inula racemosa root extract and its fractions to suppress root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita
  76. 76 Role of Information and communication technology (ICT) in agriculture and extension
  77. 77 Creating variability through interspecific hybridization and its utilization for genetic improvement in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]
  78. 78 Effect of weed management on yield and nutrient uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea)
  79. 79 Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) genetic resources for climate change intervention and its future breeding
  80. 80 A rapid and reproducible method for isolating genomic DNA from a few crop plants suitable for polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping
  81. 81 Nitrogen release kinetics of organic nutrient sources in two benchmark soils of Indo-Gangetic plains
  82. 82 People’s participation in joint forest management in higher hills of Himachal Pradesh
  83. 83 Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and IBA treatments on rooting in cuttings of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) clonal rootstock Merton 793
  84. 84 Determination of heavy metal pollution index of ground water of village Wallipur in Ludhiana district
  85. 85 Effect of planting geometry and training on growth and seed yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
  86. 86 Integrated nutrient management of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson) grown in a typic haplaquept soil
  87. 87 Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation on enzymatic activity and zinc uptake under direct seeded rice system
  88. 88 Influence of rice varieties and fertility levels on performance of rice and soil nutrient status under aerobic conditions
  89. 89 Response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to fertigation by irrigation scheduling in drip irrigation system
  90. 90 Association analysis for yield and related traits in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) under different environmental conditions
  91. 91 Effect of barley malt, chickpea and peanut on quality of Barley based beverage
  92. 92 Variation in physico-chemical properties of soil under different agri-horti system in Vindhyan region
  93. 93 A study on the causes for depletion of Kalayat wetland in Haryana province, India and its winter migratory birds’ diversity
  94. 94 Effect of different organic inputs and transplanting dates on seed quality parameters of radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
  95. 95 Foraging behavior of major insect pollinators on pumpkin, Cucurbita moschata (Duch.ex Lam)
  96. 96 A review on bacterial stalk rot disease of maize causing by Dickeya zeae
  97. 97 Effect of nano based seed treatment insecticides on seed quality in Pigeonpea
  98. 98 Combining ability analysis and gene action of grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using line × tester analysis
  99. 99 Participatory rural appraisal and farmers’ perception about common bean varieties in temperate Kashmir
  100. 100 Evaluation of some potential silkworm Bombyx mori L. genotypes during different seasons under temperate conditions
  101. 101 Assessment of change in cervical and shoulder posture due to carriage of different weight of backpack
  102. 102 Dyeing of cotton yarn with marigold (Tagetes erecta) petals: An emphasis on pre-treatments and mordants

A study on analysis of yield gap in pulses of Nadia district of West Bengal, India

Ome Jopir and B. K. Bera

1Department of Agricultural Economics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ojopir@yahoo.in

Received: March 13, 2016; Revised received: February 6, 2017; Accepted: April 2, 2017

Abstract: The study on yield gap in pulses (Lentil) of West Bengal revealed that the technology gap is accounted to be 346.23 kg/ha and technology index and the index of realised potential yield are estimated to 22.56 and 77.44 %, respectively. The extension gap and the index of realized potential farm yield are 215.12 kg/ha and 81.9 %, respectively. Lentil cultivation generates a net return of ` 47083.07/ha from an investment of ` 29640.30/ha in experimental field whereas an expenditure accounting ` 23240.76 and ` 18559.71/ha are made in demonstration and actual farmer`s field to realize a net return of ` 36171.44 and ` 30096.79/ha. Although, the most viable alternative crop, rape and mustard has marginal advantage over lentil economically, considering the long term beneficial effects of pulses soil fertility, programmes need to be taken to motivate farmers to allocate more area to pulses. Low productivity and non-availability of quality occupy the first and second position with 82.73 and 71.25 % Garrett`s score constructed based on the perception of sample farmers. Development of improved seeds responsive to modern crop production technology is the most vital for long term solution of the present crisis in pulses, but for the time being, programmes for technology dissemination and adoption through various extension methods is necessary in bridging the extension gap to improve the pulses situation of West Bengal.

Keywords: Extension gap, Garrett score, Multiple regression and Technology gap


Trends in marine fish production in Tamil Nadu using regression and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model

A. Anuja, V. K. Yadav*, V. S. Bharti and N. R. Kumar

ICAR, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400061, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vinodkumar@cife.edu.in

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: January 9, 2017; Accepted: April 2, 2017

Abstract: Tamil Nadu is situated in the south eastern coast of the Indian peninsula with a coastal line of 1076 km (13% of the country’s coast line), 0.19 million sq.km of EEZ (9.4 % of total national EEZ) and a continental shelf of about 41,412 sq. km. This is one of the country’s leading state in marine fish production and ranks third in marine fish production. In Tamil Nadu, Ramanathapuram district is a leading maritime district followed by Nagapattinam and Thoothukudi. The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in marine fish production in Tamil Nadu. Yearly fish production data for the period of 1988-1989 to 2012-2013 were analyzed using time-series method called Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model and Regression analysis (curve estimation). In our study, the developed best ARIMA model for Tamil Nadu marine fish production was found to be ARIMA (1, 1, 1) which have the minimum BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion). ARIMA model had got a slightly higher forecasting accuracy rate for forecasting marine fish production of Tamil Nadu than Regression trend analysis. The independent sample test showed there was no significant difference between the two models. The limitations of ARIMA model include its requirement of a long time series data for better forecast. It is basically linear model assuming that data are stationary and have a limited ability to capture non-stationarities and nonlinearities in series data. Both the models indicated that Tamil Nadu marine fish production has plateaued and fishermen should be encouraged to adopt sustainable fishing practices.

Keywords: ARIMA, BIC, Marine Production, Sustainable fishing, Trend line regression, Tamil Nadu


A stochastic frontier and corrected Ordinary Least Square models of determining technical efficiency of canal irrigated paddy farms in Tamil Nadu

R.Vasanthi1*, B.Sivasankari2 and J.Gitanjali3
1Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam -628252 (Tamil Nadu ), INDIA
2Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai -625104 (Tamil Nadu ), INDIA
3Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641001 (Tamil Nadu ), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: vasanthi@tnau.ac.in
Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: January 19, 2017; Accepted: April 4, 2017
Abstract: A comparative study between Stochastic frontier production function and corrected Ordinary Least Square (OLS) were estimated to determine technical efficiency in paddy production. Further, the study has assessed the effect of farm specific socio economic factors affecting the technical efficiency. This study was conducted in Cauvery delta zone of seven taluks about canal irrigation. The number of farmers in canal irrigated region about 109 from seven taluks is considered. The data were obtained from the cost of cultivation scheme of Tamil Nadu centre. The results of Cobb Douglas stochastic production function indicated that fertilizer, seed, pesticide and machine hours significantly influenced yield of paddy. The results also indicated that it will be highly profitable to increase the use of seed, and need to rationalize the labour use and pesticide usage. The effect of qualitative variable namely age and education of the farmer would indicate that the older farmers technical efficiency become less compared to the younger farmer, and also implying that investments on human capital take away their participation from agriculture. As a comparative study in general, COLS produced the lowest mean technical efficiency with 85 percent while the Stochastic frontier analysis produced the highest mean technical efficiency with 90 per cent.
Keywords: Canal Irrigation, COLS, Rice, Stochastic Frontier, Technical Efficiency

Grain quality assessment of direct seeded basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different irrigation regimes in Indian Punjab

Jagmohan Kaur1*, S. S. Mahal1 and  Amarjeet Kaur2

1Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004  (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004  (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jagmohanpau3@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: January 30, 2017; Accepted: April 4, 2017

Abstract: Irrigation water, being a scarce resource, requires proper management for good quality aerobic basmati rice production. Field experiments were conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana to evaluate the effect of different irrigation schedules on grain quality of direct seeded basmati rice ‘Pusa Basmati 1121’. Ten treatments comprising of conventional puddled transplanting and nine in direct seeding were tested in randomized block design with four replications. Direct seeding treatments comprised of combination of withholding first irrigation for 6, 9 or 12 days after sowing and follow up irrigations at 30, 50 or 70 mm cummulative pan evaporation (CPE). The milling quality characters of rice like brown, milled and head rice recoveries were highest in conventional transplanting (81.4, 70.9 and 52.4 %, respectively) statistically at par with irrigation schedule of withholding first irrigation for 6 days and subsequent irrigations at 30 mm CPE (80.3, 69.9 and 51.1 %,respectively) significantly better than rest of the treatments.The other quality characters like protein content, minimum cooking time, elongation ratio etc. were also significantly affected by different irrigation schedules at 5 % level of significance. The maximum values of protein content (7.26 %) and minimum cooking time (23.5 minutes) were obtained in irrigation schedule of withholding first irrigation for 6 days and subsequent irrigations at 30 mm CPE whereas elongation ratio was maximum in conventional transplanting (1.87). In Indian Punjab, good quality direct seeded basmati rice can be obtained by holding the first irrigation for 6 days and then irrigating at 30 mm CPE with yields comparable to transplanted  rice.

Keywords:  Aerobic rice, Cooking quality, Hectolitre weight, Milling and transplanted rice

Evaluation of micronutrient status of sandy clay loam as influenced by sulphur fertilization on blackgram

B. Gokila*, P. Saravanapandian and S. Sivagnanam

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: singh_gokila@rediffmail.com
Received: June 30, 2016; Revised received: January 30, 2017; Accepted: April 5, 2017
Abstract: Secondary nutrient deficiency especially sulphur (S) in blackgram has imparted poor grain setting percentage and yield as well. Interest on S availability in soils has increased due to acute shortage production of quality blackgram. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the three SO4-2- S sources (Gypsum, Ammonium sulphate and Potassium sulphate) and two S levels (10 and 20 kg S ha-1) under irrigated condition. This experimental trial was replicated three times along with randomized block design at farmer field of Thenamallur village, T. Kallikudi block, Madurai district. S treatments were also evaluated by two methods of fertilizer amendment such as, soil application (as basal dose) and foliar spray (0.5 % K2SO4) on 30th and 45th days after sowing and its combinations. Soil analysis is good method to assess the S nutritional status of soil under tropical areas. The results revealed that the S and micronutrient content was low in single soil application or foliar spray and irrespective of source and level. Foliar spray treatment plants recovered limited S concentration. We could found that the better higher S concentration among the combination treatments. Soil application of K2SO4 @ 20 kg ha-1 + foliar spray was increased the soil available S and DTPA - extractable Micronutrient (Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) status. Our study explains that the treatment combinations had synergistic effect and it may be concluded that the combinations (soil + foliar spray) are increased soil available S and micronutrient status. Further, future studies are required to confirm the results of S fertilizers in alkaline soil.
Keywords: Application methods, levels, Soil micronutrients, Sulphur sources

Management of the major pests of french bean through development and validation of certain IPM modules, Assam, India

D. Sharmah1* and S. Rahman2
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, ICAR, South Tripura-799 144 (Tripura), INDIA
2Department of Entomology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785013 (Assam), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: dasharmah@gmail.com
Received: July 14, 2016; Revised received: January 9, 2017; Accepted: April 7, 2017
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out in the ICR farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2013-14 and 2014-15 for management of the major pests through development and validation of certain IPM modules. Lesser per cent incidence of aphid (0.60 %) was seen in Module-I than Module-III (2.58 %) and Module-II (6.0 %) and has significant at 5 % probability level. But highest percentage of aphid incidence (13.40 %) was registered in Module-IV. The mean population of thrips varied from 1.0 to 10.0 per cent among the modules. Module-I was found to be superior by recording significantly less incidence of thrips (1.04 %) than Module-III (2.6 %) and Module-II (4.0 %). Considerably higher per cent incidence of thrips was observed in Module-IV (10.0 %). The per cent population of mite was least (1.0 %) in Module-I compared to Module-III (3.0 %) and Module-II (7.6 %). Maximum incidence of mites was recorded in Module -IV (9.0 %). Whitefly incidence was recorded to be minimum (1.2% in Module -I compared to Module-III (2.80 %) and Module-II (4.0 %). The highest percent incidence of whitefly was registered in Module -IV (10.8 %). Module-I was found to be superior by recording significantly less incidence of pod borer (0.40 %) and was significantly differed from Module-III (3.2 %) and Module-II (5.8 %). The highest healthy green bean yield ha-1 was achieved in Module-I (13.99 tha-1) followed by Module-III (13.91 tha-1), Module-II (13.56 tha-1) and Module-IV (9.88 tha-1). The effectiveness of IPM Modules in respect to B:C ratio were obtained to be 2.06, 1.95 and 1.97 from Module–I, II and III respectively. The present experimental findings can be used as alternative for chemical pesticides at farmer’s field and will certainly be reduce the detrimental effect of insecticides application.
Keywords: B:C ratio, Effectiveness, French bean, Insect pests, IPM modules, Management


Influence of rotation and sources of nutrients on soil properties and productivity of finger millet (Eleusinecoracana L. Gaertn.)

Pavankumar Goudar1*, B. K. Ramachandrappa2, M. N. Thimmegowda2 and S. Sahoo1

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences,  GKVK, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

2AICRP on Dry Land Agriculture,University of Agricultural Sciences,  GKVK, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pavankg77@gmail.com

Received: July 15, 2016; Revised received: January 26, 2017; Accepted: April 7, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the All India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryland Agriculture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru during kharif 2013-14. The experiment was laid out with 20 treatment combinations with three factors using factorial RBD with two replications comprised of on a permanent manurial trial with 35th crop cycle. Application of FYM at 10 t ha-1 has recorded significantly higher grain yield (1.76 t ha-1), maximum water holding capacity (MWHC) of 43.85 % and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of 357.60μg TPF g-1 24 h-1 obtained after harvest of the crop as compared to application of maize residues at 5 t ha-1 (1.37 t ha-1, 42.27 % and 193.0μg TPF g-1 24 h-1 respectively) due to improved growth and yield parameters of finger millet. However, finger millet-groundnut rotation has given significantly higher grain yield (1.78 t ha-1), MWHC (43.66 %) and DHA (298.48μg TPF g-1 24 h-1) after harvest of the crop over mono cropping of finger millet (1.34 t ha-1, 42.46% and 252.12μg TPFg-1 24 h-1respectively ). Among different nutrient sources, application of organic matter with 100 % RDF have given significantly higher grain yield (2.74 t ha-1), MWHC (45.86 %) and DHA (431.13μg TPF g-1 24 h-1) after harvest of the crop compared to absolute control (0.28 t ha-1, 41.76 % and 133.67μg TPFg-1 24 h-1 respectively). The 100 % recommended dose of fertilizer + organic matter significantly increased yield attributes because of  improved soil physical and chemical properties and increased microbial activity of the soil with continued application of organic matter.

Keywords: Enzyme activity, Finger millet, Soil environment, Soil properties

Study on mitigation of ammonia volatilization loss in urea through adsorbents

Angamuthu Manikandan1* and Kizhaeral S. Subramanian2

1ICAR-Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur - 440010 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: poonamani223@gmail.com

Received: August 8, 2016; Revised received: February 3, 2017; Accepted: April 7, 2017

Abstract: Volatilized ammonia loss (VAL) and toxicity are major disadvantages on urea amendment. In order to mitigate, slow (or) controlled release urea based fertilizers are prepared with low cost materials. Therefore, micro and nano-sized adsorbents such as zeolite, biochar were impregnated with urea @1:1 ratio for fertilizer formulations. The objective of the study was to evaluate the VAL rate. To study the effect of soil texture, incubation experiment on two different soils of Tamil Nadu (TypicHaplustalf and VerticUstropepts) with 4 physically mixed, 4 fabricated, conventional urea and control without urea determined. Fertilizer formulations were surface applied @ 250 kg N ha-1 and assessed the VAL rate for 16 days. The trapped ammonia was observed with colour change from pink to greenish and titrated with diluted sulfuric acid. Initial 3 days VAL rate was high on urea, physically mixed adsorbent fertilizers than urea impregnated fertilizers and colour change was observed on every 4-6 h of both soils. In contrast, the urea impregnated fertilizers had colour change after 9-10 h regardless of adsorbent and soils. The fabricated fertilizer observed VAL rate on gradual with low quantity on T5- Zeourea (13.5 days, 15.1 days) T6- Nano-zeourea (15.5 days, 16 days), T9- Biourea (7.5 days, 7.1 days) and T10- Nano-biourea (9 days, 9.7 days) than T2- Urea (5.5 days, 4.6 days) of Alfisols and Inceptisols respectively. Cumulative VAL rate percentage was low on T5- Zeourea (30 %, 34 %), T6- Nano-zeourea (28 %, 29.3 %) T9- Biourea (39 %, 41.5 %) and T10- Nano-biourea (36 %, 37.5 %) of Alfisols and Inceptisols, respectively on comparison with other fertilizer type.It is concluded that the surface amendment of physically mixed fertilizers not influenced any change on both soils. Urea impregnation influenced on days and cumulative VAL percentage. Our study elucidates that micro and nano porous adsorbents are potential substrate to reduce VAL rate of urea in both soils.

Keywords: Biochar, Incubation, Micro and Nano formulations, Volatilized Ammonia Loss, Zeolite


Yield and weed density of Blackgram (Vignamungo (L.) Hepper) as influenced by weed control methods

S. Sahoo1*, G.N. Dhanapal1, Pavankumar Goudar1, M.T. Sanjay1 and M.K. Lal2

1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Division of plant physiology, IARI, New Delhi– 110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mailsatyabrata.sahoo@gmail.com

Received: August 8, 2016; Revised received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: April 8, 2017

Abstract: The study conducted with pre-emergent herbicides alone and with sequential application of post-emergent herbicides at All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Weed management, Gandhi KrishiVignyan Kendra (GKVK), Bangalore in late rabi season of 2013 revealed the predominance of grasses over broad leaved weeds in blackgram. Interculture @ 20 days after sowing (DAS) and hand weeding @ 40 DAS resulted in higher yield (1182 and 5873 kg ha-1 seed and haulm yield, respectively) and least weed density of 41.33 m-2 during harvest. Uncontrolled weed growth recorded maximum population (70.00 m-2). During initial days pendimethalin 30 EC @ 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1 and alachlor 50 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 recorded significantly least weed population of 29.33 m-2at p< 0.05  level of significance. Uncontrolled weed growth resulted in maximum reduction in yield of 65.64 per cent.

Keywords: Broad spectrum herbicide, Herbicide sequence, Yield reduction


Effect of irrigation scheduling and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and water productivity of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under Vertisols

R.K. Patel1*, G.S. Tomar2 and S.K. Dwivedi2

1RAEO, Department of Agriculture, Government of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh, INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi KrishiVishwavidyalaya, Raipur 492012 (Chhattisgarh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: micropatelraj@gmail.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: January 24, 2017; Accepted: April 11, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2015-16 at the Instructional cum Research Farm, IGKV, Raipur to study the effect of different irrigation scheduling and nitrogen levels on growth, yield attributes, yield, water and nitrogen productivity of linseed (Linum usitatissimumL.). The experiment was laid out in split plot design keeping four irrigation schedules viz., come-up (I1), one (I2), two (I3) and three irrigation (I4) in main plots and four levels of nitrogen viz., control (N0), 30 kg (N1), 60 kg (N2) and 90 kg N ha-1 (N3) in sub plots with three replications. Results revealed that highest seed yield was obtained with linseed provided two irrigations (1683 kg ha-1) and application of 90 kg N ha-1 (1604 kg ha-1). Moreover, crop supplied with two irrigations in combination with 90 kg N ha-1 (I3×N3) gave significantly (P=0.05) highest seed yield (2097 kg ha-1) compared to rest of the treatment combinations. The excessive use of irrigation and fertilizers also affects farmer’s economy, as the crop is relatively low yielder. Two irrigations are better than three irrigations in terms of seed yield and water productivity; and application of 60 kg N is better than 90 kg N ha-1 in view of nitrogen productivity. The WP and IWP were decreasing as increasing the number of irrigation, but increasing with increasing the levels of nitrogen, while NP was highest with two irrigations (11.09 kg, kg-1 N) and application of 60 kg N ha-1 (8.90 kg, kg-1 N).

Keywords: Irrigation scheduling, Linseed, N levels, Nitrogen productivity, Water productivity


Analysis of seed protein diversity in Cicer arietinum L. genotypes with different seed coat colour using SDS-PAGE

M. Chittora1*, A. Sukhwal2, Chandraveer1 and G. Verma3

1Department of Dairy and Food Microbiology, College of Dairy and Food Science Technology, MaharanaPratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur- 313001(Rajasthan), INDIA

2Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MaharanaPratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001(Rajasthan), INDIA

3Department of Zoology, Government Meera Girls College, Udaipur- 313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mnshchittora@yahoo.co.in

Received: February 10, 2016; Revised received: February 5, 2017; Accepted: April 11, 2017

Abstract: SDS-PAGE technique was used for the study of seed protein polymorphism among three genotypes of Cicer arietinum with different seed coat colour. A total of 24 polypeptide bands were recorded. Out of these 20 were common among all three genotypes and 4 (16.66%) were polymorphic. The data analysis using UPGMA clustering revealed that genotypes with C2 (dark brown) and C3 (black) were closer as compared to genotype with C1 (light brown) coat colour. Jaccard similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.87 to 0.92. The similarity matrix was subjected to UPGMA clustering to generate dendrogram. The most closely revealed genotypes were C2 (dark brown) and C3 (black) with the highest similarity index 0.92 whereas, C1 (light brown) showed minimum similarity index with C3 (black) genotype 0.87. Each of three genotypes of C.arietinum had some polypeptide bands which were peculiar to them only. This enabled distinguishing all three genotypes on the basis of specific polypeptide fragments using SDS-PAGE analysis.

Keywords: Cicer arietinum, Genotype, Genetic Markers, SDS-PAGE

Correlation coefficient analysis in twelve gladiolus (Gladiolus hybrids Hort.) genotypes

Dhara Singh1*, Ashutosh Mishra1, Jitendra Singh2, Vikas Kumar Khattik1 and Balram Meena1

1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:dharasingh444@rediffmail.com

Received: May 22, 2016; Revised received: December 23, 2016; Accepted: April 11, 2017

Abstract: Study was undertaken to analyses the correlation co-efficient for twenty seven characters in twelve genotypes of gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridusHort.) grown atthe Instructional Farm, Department of Floriculture & Landscaping, College of Horticulture & Forestry, Jhalarapatan, Jhalawar. Spike length had highly positive association with rachis length (rg:0.92, rp:0.88), floret diameter (rg:0.94, rp:0.0.74), spike diameter (rg:0.66, rp:0.50), duration of flowering (rg:0.71, rp:0.42), number of florets per spike (rg:0.89, rp:0.84), number of cormels per plant (rg:0.69, rp:0.65), diameter of corm (rg:0.48, rp:0.41), weight of corm (rg:0.44, rp:0.40), weight of cormels per plant (rg:0.20, rp:0.19), size index of corms (rg:0.41, rp:0.38), florets remaining open at a time in vase (rg:0.56, rp:0.33). At both genotypic and phenotypic levels it had negative correlation with number of spikes per plot (rg:-0.56, rp:-0.48), number of corms per plant (rg:-0.72, rp:-0.50), number of corms per plot (rg:-0.60, rp:-0.54) and florets remaining unopened (rg:-0.39, rp:-0.37). It was observed that for most of the characters genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than
phenotypic correlation coefficients.

Keywords: Characters, Coefficient Analysis, Correlation, Genotypes, Gladiolus


Effect of different growing media on the rooting of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. 'Phulearakta' cuttings

Rajkumar1*, Jagan Singh Gora2, Ramesh Kumar2, Anshuman Singh1, Ashwani Kumar1 and Gajender1

1ICAR- Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132001(Haryana), INDIA

2ICAR- Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner-334006 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author.  E-mail: rajhorticulture@gmail.com

Received: June 4, 2016; Revised received: January 9, 2017; Accepted: April 11, 2017

Abstract: To identify the most efficient growing medium for root and shoot development in stem cuttings of pomegranate cv. ‘Phulearakta’ under arid conditions, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications during 2014-15 at ICAR-CIAH, Bikaner. About 15-20 cm long hard wood cuttings, 0.5-1.0 cm diameter and having three to four buds were separated from the healthy trees and planted in mid-January. Detached cuttings were treated with 2500 ppm of IBA (3- Indole butyric acid) using quick dip technique (for 5 seconds) and planted in five rooting substrates i.e.sand, vermiculite, perlite, cocopeat and garden soil (control) alone and in combination at 1:1 (v/v). The response of perlite + vermiculite medium was best in terms of rooting (82.33 per cent), number of roots (32.67 per cutting), fresh and dry weight of roots (0.61 mg and 2.08 mg), shoots per cutting (80.33) and survival (76.0 per cent) than the other medium used. Vermiculite + Coco peat 1:1 (v/v) combination also resulted in rooting in more than 80 per cent of cuttings whereas cuttings raised in garden soil and sand showed very low rooting. Based on the findings, it appears that Perlite + vermiculite 1:1 (v/v) and vermiculite + cocopeat may be appropriate alternatives to the conventially used substrate, i.e., garden soil for the better rooting and establishment of pomegranate cultivar 'PhuleArakta' cuttings.

Keywords: Cocopeat, Cuttings, Perlite, Punicagranatum L., Sand, Vermiculite


Modeling phosphorus distribution under different fertigation strategies in onion (Allium cepa L.) crop

Sanjay T. Satpute1* and Man Singh2

1Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 ( Punjab), INDIA

2Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sanjay4471@gmail.com

Received: July 21, 2016; Revised received: December 16, 2016; Accepted: April 13, 2017

Abstract: The understanding of soil and nutrient dynamics under drip fertigation is relevant for crop production as well as water and nutrient management. The aim of this study was to generate information about the distribution of phosphorus (P) under different fertigation strategies for onion production on sandy clay loam soil during 2007-2008 to 2008-2009. The study involved field experiment, laboratory analysis and modeling of P distribution. The phosphorus distribution data in the field were collected, analyzed and used to calibrate and validate the solute transport model HYDRUS-2D for sandy clay loam soil. The performance of HYDRUS-2D was evaluated by comparing its simulated values with the observed values of soil moisture and nutrient concentration. The coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used as model performance indicators. The range of R2 between 0.72-0.99 for water as well as nutrient distribution indicates good correlation between the observed and simulated values. The MAE and RMSE values for water and nutrient distribution were in between 0.0009 to 0.0039 which indicated the accuracy of the model. From these results, it can be concluded that the model is performing well for predicting the P concentration in the soil as well as the soil moisture distribution for onion crop grown under sandy clay loam. The model was also validated for water and phosphorus distribution with the observed values at the end of the crop season and found to be performing well. The HYDRUS-2D model may be used to carry out simulations for different soil types and with different fertigation and irrigation strategies for developing guidelines.

Keywords: HYDRUS-2D, Fertigation strategy, Phosphorus distribution, Onion


Constraints in adoption of composite carp culture in central Brahmaputra valley zone of Assam - a perceptual framework

Pradip C. Bhuyan1*, Chandan Goswami2, Bipul Kr. Kakati1 and Kaustubh Bhagawati1

1College of Fisheries, Assam Agricultural University, Raha, Nagaon -782 103 (Assam), INDIA

2Department of Business Administration, Tezpur University, Tezpur -784 028 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pcbhuyan19@gmail.com

Received: July 27, 2016; Revised received: January 13, 2017; Accepted: April 13, 2017

Abstract: The study was conducted in Nagaon district under central Brahmaputra valley zone of Assam to find out the perceptual constraints of the fish farmers in adoption of composite carp culture practice. A representative sample of 60 fish farmers of the district was selected using random sampling. The levels of agreement of respondents in relation to 32 identified constraints in adoption of composite fish culture were determined using 5 point Likert scale. The mean value of degree of responsiveness to constraints was analyzed to find out the perception of the farmers and found lack of fish feed at cheaper rate (3.45) as major constraint followed by high initial cost of digging of ponds (3.28). Seven factors of constraints have been identified through factor analysis such as extension support system constraints, knowledge constraints, financial constraints,distribution constraints, infrastructural constraints, agro-climatic constraints and situational constraints. With the constraints as perceived by the farmers, some relevant strategies have been suggested such as integrated effort to provide better quality fish seed at proper time at pond site of farmers through judicious carp breeding and hatchery management and proper distribution system; strengthening research extension linkage; organizing need based short and long-term training programme and on farm demonstration programme on various aspects of fish culture practices both for farmers and extension workers; establishment of ‘One stop Aqua Shop’(OAS) as single outlet in strategic locations to make available all inputs required for fish culture; formation of fish producer’s consortium  to provide a dependable market support and a suitable delivery system for providing inputs to the fish farmers in time and better provision of institutional credit.

Keywords: Central Brahmaputra valley zone, Composite fish culture, Perceived constraints, Strategies


Eco-friendly management of Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzoper thadominica in stored wheat at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand

UshaYadav and RuchiraTiwari*

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ruchis03@rediffmail.com

Received: July 31, 2016; Revised received: December 14, 2016; Accepted: April 13, 2017

Abstract: The laboratory experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of some indigenous  products such as plant products (chopped neem leaves ajwain seed powder, garlic capsules, saw dust), animal derivedproducts ( cow dung cake powder, cow urine) and inert materials ( ash powder, sand, talcum powder, salt) @ 2g/100g of wheat grains against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.) and lesser grain borer, Rhyzoper thadominica (Fab.) on stored wheat by undertaking various parameters viz., percent adult emergence, percent seed damage, per cent weight loss and  per cent germination after six months of storage during April to October 2015. After 180 days of treatments, the minimum number of adults weevils of S. oryzae( 4.00, 6.00,7.67, 9.00, 9.67 and 10.33)  were  emerged in wheat grains treated with ash powder, sand, cow dung powder, talcum powder, ajwain seed powder and neem leaf powder, respectively with minimum grain damage (7.33 %, 8.67 %,11.67 % and 12.00 %) was observed on ash powder, sand, ajwain seed powder and talcum powder, respectively, whereas minimum weight loss (2.67 %, 3.67 %, 5.67 % and 6.67 %) was recorded on ash powder, sand, cow dung powder, talcum powder and ajwain seed powder, respectively. Similarly, the minimum number of adult beetles of R. dominica were emerged (2.00,2.33, 6.67,7.00 and 8.33) in ash power, sand, talcum powder, cow dung cake powder and ajwain seed powder, respectively with minimum grain damage (4.00 %,8.00 %. 8.67 % and 12.67 % and weight loss (1.33 %, 4.00 %, 7.33 % and 11.67 %) in sand, ash powder, talcum powder and cow dung cake treated wheat grains, respectively. It has been clearly observed that seed germination was not affected adversely in any treatment during six months of storage. The present study clearly revealed that these naturally occurring indigenous products could be used to manage the storage insect pests in wheat.

Keywords: Eco-friendly, Indigenous products, Lesser grain borer, Rice weevil, Stored wheat


Phosphorus fertilizing potential of biomass ashes and their effect on bioavailability of micronutrients in wheat (Triticum aestivum. L)

Inderpal Singh*1, H. S. Thind2, Sandeep Sharma2, Yadvinder Singh2, Mohammad Amin Bhat1

1Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125001 (Haryana),  INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: inderpal.ipsingh@gmail.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: January 6, 2017; Accepted: April 13, 2017

Abstract: Ashes from agricultural biomass in agro-based industries have been found to have most of the plant nutrients except nitrogen and sulphur but are treated as waste material. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of biomass ashes as source of P and their effect on bioavailability of micronutrients in wheat crop. We
conducted the pot experiment at glass house of the Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. The experiment consisted of combinations of four P sources [bagasse ash (BA), rice husk ash (RHA), rice straw ash (RSA), fertilizer P (Fert-P)] supplying P at three levels (10, 20 and 30 µg g-1) along with one zero-P control. This experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications. Application of P through RSA produced significantly higher grain yield (14.3 g pot-1) than BA (12.8 g pot-1) and RHA (12.9 g pot-1) but statistically at par with Fert-P (13.5 g pot-1). Grain Zn content decreased maximum than other micronutrients with application of P from all sources, hence maximum increased P/Zn ratio. Phosphorus applied from all the biomass ashes significantly increased biomass and yield over control. With increase in P application, micronutrients content in grain was significantly decreased, hence decreased bioavailability of micronutrients in wheat grain.

Keywords: Bagasse ash, Micronutrients, Phosphorus fractions, Rice husk ash, Rice straw ash


Genetic variation and characterization of different linseed genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) for agro-morphological traits

Satish Paul, Nimit Kumar* and Pankaj Chopra

Department of Crop Improvement, CSK Himachal Pradesh KrishiVishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nk.kakran@gmail.com

Received: August 27, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 14, 2017

Abstract: Forty five linseed genotypes (local collection) were subjected to study the genetic variability at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Crop Improvement, CSK Himachal Pradesh KrishiVishvavidyalaya, Palampur, during rabi 2015-2016. Analysis of variance revealed that the differences among all the genotypes were significant for all the traits. Mean performance of genotype KLSA-15 for seed yield recorded highest contribution of 3.69 grams. The PCV values were greater than the GCV values for all the traits studied indicating that the apparent variation is not only due to genotypes but, also due to the influence of environment. The highest PCV (64.17) and GCV (64.09) were found for biological yield per plant. Higher estimates of PCV and GCV were obtained for primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, capsules per plant, biological yield per plant, harvest index (45.94 and 44.60) and seed yield per plant (52.39 and 50.94). All the characters studied in the present investigation expressed high heritability estimates ranging from 62.95 to 99.77 percent for technical height and biological yield per plant respectively. It was revealed that most of the traits under study showed low genetic advance, high heritability (94.23) and high genetic advance (31.06) was recorded for harvest index indicating predominance of additive gene action for this character. Simple selection based on phenotypic performance of this character would be more effective. The cluster analysis showed that the genotypes were placed into four clusters, showing inter-cluster divergence, which is important for future hybridization programme.

Keywords: Characterization,Geneticadvance,Genetic variability, Heritability, Linum usitatissimum L.


Effect of water dipping on separation techniques of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils

Monalisa Hota* and D. S. Dahiya

Department of Horticulture, ChoudharyCharan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: monalishaht86@gmail.com

Received: September 4, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 14, 2017

Abstract: For easy separation of arils, pomegranate fruits were subjected to hot water dipping and normal water dipping treatments. Minimum time of separation as 4.10 min/kg of fruit was observed in case of hot water (80±2°C) dip for 2 min which was at par with hot water (80±2°C) dip for 1 min as 4.7 min/kg. All treatments saved time over the traditional method but only hot water dipping was significant without any significant adverse effect on aril quality in comparison with traditional method except anthocyanin and phenols. Anthocyanin content reduced and phenols content increased in comparison to traditional method.

Keywords: Arils, Pomegranate, Separation, Water dipping


Proximate composition, bio-chemical and microbial quality of pet food prepared from chicken byproducts by incorporating cauliflower wastes

N. Brindha* and V. Appa Rao

Department of Livestock Product Technology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai-600 007 (Tamil Nadu ), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: brindha26887@gmail.com

Received:October 15, 2016; Revised received: January 31, 2017; Accepted: April 15, 2017

Abstract: A study was under taken on preparation of pet food from chicken head (20 %), feet meal (15 %) and
cauliflower waste meal (10 %). The proximate composition, chemical and microbial qualities were analysed. The proximate composition (%) viz., crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, total ash, nitrogen free extract and metabolizable energy (K Cal/100g) of pet food on dry matter basis were 26.63, 18.52, 1.38, 10.29, 43.17 and 422.28, respectively. The thiobarbituric acid from 0.46 to 2.52 mg MA/kg, tyrosine value 35.53 to 77.36 mg/100g and total viable count log 3.46 to 5.90 cfu/g were increasing significantly (P<0.01) and yeast and mould count was not detected up to 50 days of storage period. The pets were fed with prepared pet food and evaluated by pet owner gave score for appearance, consistency, odour which were in normal range and overall acceptability was good.

Keywords: Chicken byproducts, Chemical and microbial quality, Pet food, Proximate composition

Mapping of coconut growing areas in Tamil Nadu, India using remote sensing and GIS

Balaji Kannan1*, K.P. Ragunath1, R. Kumaraperumal1, R. Jagadeeswaran1 and R. Krishnan2

1Department of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641003 (Tamil Nadu) INDIA

2Office of the Dean (Agriculture), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIAn

Received: June 24, 2016; Revised received: November 11, 2016; Accepted: April 15, 2017

Abstract: Importance of remotely sensed data for inventorying, mapping, monitoring and for the management and development planning for the optimum utilization of natural resources has been well established. Though, a lot of applications have been attempted using remote sensing tool, mapping of coconut growing areas has not been attempted at a regional level. Hence, this study was envisaged  to map the coconut growing areas in Tamil Nadu, India using Survey of India Toposheet grid (1:50,000 scale) and Digital Globe data. The temporal window of these datasets ranged from March 2012 to June 2014. The data sets have a spatial resolution of 41 cm. It has been observed that Coimbatore has largest area under coconut among all districts of Tamil Nadu, followed by Tiruppur, Thanjavur and Dindigul.  In terms of percentage of coconut area to the total geographical area of the district, Tiruppur, leads the list, followed by Kanyakumari, Coimbatore and Thanjavur. On comparing the area obtained by this study with the area as per Coconut Development Board using a paired t-test, a p-value of 0.005 was obtained and hence, there is no significant difference between the two. Hence, it can be said that geospatial technologies like remote sensing and geographical information system are the best tools for accurate assessment and spatial data creation for crop mapping and area assessment.

Keywords: Area mapping, Coconut, Geographical information system, Remote sensing, Spatial data


Heterosis study in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] genotypes for pod yield attributes

Sujit Kumar1*, A. K. Singh2, Hirdesh Yadav1 and Alka Verma1

1Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar– 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Horticulture, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sujittca5001@gmail.com

Received: August 2, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 17, 2017

Abstract: A study was conducted at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Spring-Summer and Rainy season of 2012 and 2013 using 12 diverse parental lines of okra and their 66 F1 hybrids (through diallel cross-excluding reciprocals) with the objective to measure the extent of heterosis over better parent and standard commercial check varieties for the purpose of judging the extent up to which heterosis can be exploited in commercial okra breeding. The extent of heterosis for five best crosses over better parent and check (48.32 % to 82.42 % and 7.13 % to 35.66 %, respectively) for yield per hectare suggested the great scope of realizing higher yield in okra through heterosis breeding. Other economic traits also recorded moderate to high level of heterosis over the better parents. The cross combination IC -282280×EC – 329380showed high heterosis over better parent and standard check for pod yield (82.42 % and 35.66 %), number of pods per plant (62.82 % and 48.54 %) and respectively. This particular cross combination eventually resulted the height magnitude of heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for the most of the desirable growth parameters as well as yield attributing characters which may be taken for further breeding programme.

Keywords: Diallel cross, Economic traits, Heterobeltiosis, Heterosis, Okra


Assessment on performance and variability in different sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Obseck) cultivars under Punjab conditions

Arvind Kumar Baswal*, H. S. Rattanpal, Gurteg Singh Uppal and K. S. Gill

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: baswal.arvind0@gmail.com

Received: August 10, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 17, 2017

Abstract: Based on morphological characterization, the performance of eighteen sweet orange, (Citrus sinensis Obseck) cultivars were evaluated. On the basis of two year data, the maximum mean fruit weight (316.25 gm) was recorded in Moro, while the maximum mean fruit diameter and mean fruit length was recorded in Mosambi and Olinda Valencia (87.32 mm and 81.33 mm, respectively). Albedo thickness was recorded maximum in Ruby Nucellar (3.42 mm). Highest total soluble solids was recorded in cultivar Moro (11.450 brix), while the titratable acidity was recorded maximum in Valencia Calizonida (1.21 %). Fruit axis diameter and Fruit rind thickness were recorded maximum in Rhode Red Valencia and Vernia (15.12 mm and 8.11 mm, respectively). In the variability studies, the maximum genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) was recorded maximum for titratable acidity (27.88 and 27.94, respectively) followed by albedo thickness (23.77 and 23.78, respectively) and fruit weight (21.52 and 21.67, respectively). Genetic advance per cent of mean was recorded for titratable acidity (57.31%) followed by albedo thickness (48.96 %) and fruit weight (44.03 %) suggesting that further selection will be effective for improvement in these traits.

Keywords: Cultivars, Physico-chemical characters, Sweet orange, Variability


First report of tar spot of Toona (Toona ciliata) in India

Sunita Chandel and Vijay Kumar*

Department of Plant Pathology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vnarwal777@yahoo.com

Received: August 10, 2016; Revised received: December 23, 2016; Accepted: April 17, 2017

Abstract: A new foliar disease of toona tree has been reported during continuous surveys conducted at Solan district of Himachal Pradesh during August, 2015 to December, 2015. On the basis of morphological characteristics of the fungus, the fungus was identified as Rhytisma acerinum, which produces symptoms on upper surface of the leaves as numerous small, superficial and blackish lesion which later gives the similar appearance as given by tar. Tar spot of the toona tree produces the ascomata whose size ranges from 14-16 µm with average of 15µm, asci length varied from 60-80 x 9.5-10.2 µm and size of ascospores varied from 52-58 x 1.8-2.0 µm. Tar Spot disease of leaves of Toona in Himachal Pradesh is the first report of its occurrence and more work is needed so that the disease could remain in manageable level.

Keywords: Ascospores, Rhytisma acerinum, Toona ciliata, Tar spot


Effect of foliar application of potassium and its spray schedule on yield and yield parameters of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cv. Jaffa

Vijay*, R. P. S. Dalal, B. S. Beniwal and Hemant Saini

Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shotreturns@gmail.com

Received: August 25, 2016; Revised received: January 15, 2017; Accepted: April 22, 2017

Abstract: An investigation to evaluate the effect of foliar application of potassium and its spray schedule on yield and yield parameters in sweet orange cv. Jaffa was undertaken at experimental orchard, Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the year 2014-15. The results revealed that the foliar application of potassium nitrate at the rate of 2 and 4 % and potassium sulphate at 1.5 and 3.0 % significantly improved average fruit weight, fruit diameter, percentage of medium and large fruits, and fruit yield of sweet orange cv. Jaffa over control (water spray). The trend was vice-versa on the percentage of small fruits. The number of fruits per plant could not differ significantly due to various treatments. Among K sources and doses, foliar application of KNO3 at 4 % exhibited superiority over other treatments with respect to yield and yield parameters followed by KNO3 at lower dose (2 %) or K2SO4 at higher dose (3 %). Among various spray schedules, application of three sprays of K in the last week of April, May and August were found superior or at par in improving yield and yield parameters with 2 sprays in the last week of April and August. The fruit yield was recorded the highest (76.90 kg/plant) with a combination of the foliar application of KNO3 at 4 % and 2 sprays in the last week of April and August which was non-significant with KNO3 with an additional spray in the last week of May. The findings signify the importance of K spray in improving yield and yield parameters of sweet orange under semi-arid climatic conditions of north western India.

Keywords: Foliar application, Fruit yield, Potash, Spray schedule, Yield parameters


Standardization of mixed fruit cheese from Guava (Psidiumguajava cv. Hisar Safeda) and Mango (Mangiferaindica var. Safeda) and its quality evaluation during storage

Sucheta*, Rakesh Gehlot and Saleem Siddiqui

Centre of Food Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: suchetakkr@gmail.com

Received: August 31, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 22, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to prepare fruit cheese, a fruit confectionery prepared by combining fruit pulp with sugar, pectin and acid from blended fruit pulp of guava (Psidiumguajava) and mango (Mangiferaindica). The storage studies of mixed fruit cheese packed in HDPE bags showed significant changes in chemical properties during three months storage. Total sugars, reducing sugars and browning increased significantly from 66.8 to 68.7 %, 21.1 to 23.4 % and 0.25 to 0.37, while carotenoids and total phenols decreased significantly from 1.2 to 0.7 mg/100g and 39.1 to 35.2 mg/100g in guava-mango cheese during storage. Carotenoids was maximum (2.5 mg/100g) in guava-mango cheese containing highest mango pulp content, while ascorbic acid and total phenols was maximum (13.0 and 54.7 mg/100g) in cheese with highest guava pulp content. The cost of production was found minimum (Rs. 140/kg) in guava-mango cheese with 100 guava: 0 mango pulp ratio and increasing concentration of mango pulp showed a increasing trend in the cost of production of fruit cheese.

Keywords: Chemical quality, Guava, Mango, Mixed fruit cheese, Storage


Detection of Aflatoxin B1 through indirect ELISA from fresh grains obtained from three maize growing zones of India

Shrvan Kumar1*, Asha Sinha1, Meena Shekhar2 and Vimla Singh2

1Mycology and Plant Pathology, IAS, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U.P.), INDIA

2Indian Institute of Maize Research, PUSA Campus IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shrvankb@gmail.com

Received: September 28, 2016; Revised received: February 7, 2017; Accepted: April 22, 2017

Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is most frequently found in plant substrates, which has shown the highest toxigenic potential. Based on previous studies, the IARC has classified AFB1 as a class 1A human carcinogen. Several impacts on consumers, such as loss of human and animal lives; health care and veterinary care costs; contaminated  foods and feeds disposal costs; and investment in research and management of the myco-toxin problem. Fourteen maize seed samples comprising of recommended and local varieties were collected from three maize growing zones (Zone I- Almora, Kullu, Bilaspur, Dhaulakuan, Kangara, Saharanpur, Zone II- Karnal, Ludhiana, Pantnagar, New Delhi and Zone III- Begusarai, Varanasi, Sabour-1 and Sabour 2).  In our studies AFB1 toxin range were noticed Zone-I (0.0294- 153.5081 ppb), Zone-II (0.1761- 161.0537 ppb ppb) and Zone-III (3.8366- 53.1256 ppb) collected seed samples.This indicate that ELISA technique could be applied to the monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination in a lot of samples in a cost, accuracy, simplicity and time effective manner.

Keywords: AFB1 toxin, Aspergillusflavus, Indirect-ELISA, Maize


Soil test crop response based Integrated plant nutrition system for desired yield target of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon on Inceptisols

N. B. Ghube1, A. D. Kadlag2 and B. M. Kamble3*

1Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Naigaon (Bz)-431709 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722 (Maharashtra), INDIA

3Agricultural Research Station, Kasabe Digraj, Sangli- 416 305 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:bmkamble2007@rediffmail.com

Received: October 3, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 23, 2017

Abstract: Studies on Soil Test Crop Response based Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR - IPNS) were
conducted adopting the Inductive cum Targeted yield model onInceptisols (VerticHaplustepts) in Rahuri, District Ahemadnagar, Maharashtra, India  in order to develop fertilizer prescriptions through IPNS for the desired yield targets of  preseasonal sugarcane ratoon. The field experiments were carried out with maize as gradient crop for plant cane and after harvest of plant cane, pre-seasonal sugarcane ratoon as test crop. Using the data on  yield, initial soil test values on available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), doses of fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM) applied and NPK uptake, the basic parameters viz., nutrient requirement, contribution from soil, fertilizers and FYM were computed. It was found that 1.56 kg N, 0.58 kg P and 1.04 kg K were required for producing one tonnemillable cane of preseasonal ratoon sugarcane. The per cent contributions of N, P and K from soil and FYM for preseasonal sugarcane ratoon were 37.65, 85.88 and 19.82 per cent and 11.83, 10.88 and 12.24 per cent, respectively. Making use of these basic parameters, fertilizer prescription equations were developed for pre-seasonal sugarcane ratoon (var. C0-94012) and an estimate of fertilizer doses formulated for a range of soil test values and desired yield targets under NPK alone and IPNS (NPK plus FYM).

Keywords: Basic parameter, Fertilizer prescription equation, Soil test crop response, Sugarcane, Targeted yield approach


Characterization and categorization of Indian mustard genotypes for agro-morphological traits

Neeru*, N. K. Thakral, Ram Avtar and Hari Kesh

Oil seed section,Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004(Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nsmanumuskan22@gmail.com

Received: October 9, 2016; Revised received: January 28, 2017; Accepted: April 24, 2017

Abstract: A total of sixty genotypes and germplasm lines were evaluated and characterized for 14 quantitative and 8 qualitative traits in Brassica juncea. Observations were recorded on the basis of scores given in the DUS descriptor. Majority of accessions were very late in maturity and medium in flowering. No variability was observed for leaf length and leaf width. On the basis of branches, most of the genotypes were classified under intermediate category. Long main shoot length (31), medium number of siliquae on main shoot (46), medium density on main shoot (52), short siliqua length (51), very tall plant height (38), few numbers of seeds per siliqua (33), medium 1000-seed weight (38), medium seed yield per plant (32) and low oil content (40) were observed in most of the genotypes. For qualitative traits, most of the genotype showed dark green leaf color, sparse hairs, dentation of leaf margin lyrate type, open leaf growth habit, yellow petal color, semi-appressedsiliqua angle with main shoot and intermediate siliqua surface texture. Wide (Yellow, Dull grey, Reddish brown, Brown and Black) diversity has been observed for seed color.

Keywords: Categorization, Characterization, Genotype, Indian mustard, Morphological traits


Impact of different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon in Inceptisols

N. B. Ghube1, A. D. Kadlag2 and B. M. Kamble3*

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Naigaon (Bz)-431709, (Maharashtra), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Mahatma PhuleKrishiVidyapeeth, Rahuri- 413722 (Maharashtra), INDIA

3Agricultural Research Station, KasabeDigraj, Sangli- 416 305 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding  author. E-mail:bmkamble2007@rediffmail.com

Received: October 14, 2016; Revised received: January 30, 2017; Accepted: April 23, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at soil test crop response (STCR) correlation project farm of Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri Maharashtra.The result showed that individual application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P),potassium(K) or organic nutrient sources (Farm yard manure) recorded less value of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon but the integration of both the sources showed significantly improved all the growth, yield and quality parameters of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon. The maximum number of internodes were ranged between 21-30 with mean of 25.42, number of leaves 6-10 with mean of 7.21, length of internodes 12.50-16.80 cm with mean of 14.41 cm, girth of internodes 11.30-13.10 cm with mean of 12.15 cm and height of millable cane 335-385 with mean of 351.75 cm, respectively were found higher with application of residual effect of 30 t ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM). However, the quality traits viz., brix ranged from 18.70 to 22.80 with mean of 19.87, pol per cent ranged from 15.81 to 18.41 per cent with mean of 17.53 per cent and commercial cane sugar (CCS) per cent from 9.39 to 12.09 per cent with mean of 10.76 per cent. The CCS yield was ranged between 9.58-16.30 MT ha-1 with mean value of 14.13 MT ha-1were enhanced considerably with residual 15 and 30 t FYM ha-1 blocks over without FYM. The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers will not only enhance the growth, yield and quality of preseasonal sugarcane ratoon but also conserve agro-ecosystem for sustainable crop production.

Keywords: Growth, Inorganic and organic fertilizer, Preseasonal sugarcane ratoon, Quality and Yield


Eco-friendly management of late blight of potato– A review

Shailbala1 and Amarendra Kumar2*

1Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145   (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kumaramar05@gmail.com

Received: April 12, 2016; Revised received: January 20, 2017; Accepted: April 24, 2017

Abstract: Late blight of potato caused by fungus Phytophthora infestans responsible for Irish famine in the year 1845, is one of the most dramatic episode caused by plant pathogen in human history. One million people died due to famine in Ireland. So eco-friendly management of potato late blight disease is a necessary goal to be accomplished.During last many years, management strategies solely relied upon the application of fungicides due to rapid development of late blight epidemics. However, indiscriminate use of fungicide posesses a serious threat to the environment and human health. It is also responsible for built up of resistance in the pathogen and have adverse effect on beneficial organisms such as nitrogen fixers, resident antagonism and mycorrhizal fungi. So to minimize the fungicide use, eco-friendly means for late blight management are required on a priority basis. In recent years, significant changes in isolates of late blight fungus have been recorded including changes in aggressiveness to the crop also. Since, late blight is a community disease so, effective eco-friendly management must be adopted by the all producers, farmers, gardeners and growers with the help of government agencies, extension specialist and crop consultants etc. The strategy to control late blight is the prevention of establishment of Phytophthorainfestans in potato crop. In this context, disease management by cultural practices is the first line of defense while forecasting system, physiological strategies, biological control, host plant resistance and bio-technological approach are essential for efficient, effective and eco-friendly management of late blight of potato.

Keywords: Potato, Late blight, Phytophthora infestans, Disease, Bio-agents, Forecasting


Exploring possibilities of enhancing water use efficiency in potato: A review

Rinki Khobra*1, Ashutosh Srivastava1, Pinky Raigond2, Alka Joshi2, Som Dutt2, Brajesh Singh2 and Bir Pal Singh2

1ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

2ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla-171001 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rinkikhobra@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: September 22, 2016; Accepted: April 25, 2017

Abstract: Climate change threatens the global agriculture sustainability. Among different kinds of abiotic stresses, water stress is the most devastating component which curtails potato crop productivity. Our recent knowledge is limited concerning water stress tolerance and water use efficiency in potato. Many efforts are being made by the scientific community to reduce water use and to produce “more crop per drop”. This review elaborates quantitative and qualitative aspects of multiple stress mechanisms and their regulating system related to present scenario of water use efficiency (WUE) requirements. WUE can only be improved by using multidisciplinary promising research approaches like molecular breeding, high throughput genotyping, multi-gene transfer and bioinformatics applications to unleash the information needed to exploitation of required traits in potato.

Keywords: Genomics, Genotype, Proteomics, Stress, Water use efficiency


Canopy temperature, excised leaf water retention, productivity and quality of wheat as affected by various nutrient sources in Pearl millet-wheat cropping system

Babli*, Pawan Kumar and R. K. Nanwal

Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bablimamoria@gmail.com

Received: May 14, 2016; Revised received: January 25, 2017; Accepted: April 25, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the year 2013-14 at Agronomy Research Farm of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India). The experiment consisting of twelve treatments was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield of pearl millet (3012 kg/ha) was recorded highest in T6 (50 % RD-NP + 50 % N through FYM). Yield contributing characters were recorded highest in T6 (50 % RD-NP + 50 % N through FYM in pearl millet and 100 % RD-NP in wheat) in wheat crop. In wheat crop, treatment T6 recorded highest growth characters and yield contributing characters. Similarly, highest grain as well as biological yield was recorded in T6. Highest protein content, protein yield, sedimentation value and hectoliter weight was also recorded in T6. Highest grain yield of both pearl millet and wheat (5582 kg/ha) in pearl millet-wheat cropping system was obtained with the application of 50 % RD-NP + 50 % N through FYM in pearl millet and 100 % RD-NP in wheat while lowest yield of pearl millet (976 kg/ha) and wheat (1190 kg/ha) was recorded in T1 (control).

Keywords: Cropping system, INM, NPK, Pearl millet, Wheat


Design and technical characteristics of shark gillnet operating in Mumbai coast

Shabir A. Dar1*, Saly N. Thomas2 and S. K. Chakraborty3

1Faculty of Fisheries, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir - 190006 (J & K), INDIA

2Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Willington Island, Cochin - 682029 (Kerala), INDIA

3Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Versova, Mumbai - 400061 (Maharastra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shabirdar777@rediffmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: February 1, 2017; Accepted: April 25, 2017

Abstract: This paper deals with design and general features of shark gillnets operated along Mumbai coast. A  PA monofilament of 0.60 to 1.0 mm diameter and selvedge meshes of PE of 1 to 2 mm diameter were used for shark set gillnets along Mumbai coast. Mesh size of the main webbing ranged from 120 to 200 mm with average of 144.4 ± 10.83 mm and rigged with a hanging coefficient of 0.41 to 0.51 with average of 0.42 were commonly used. A  hung length ranging from 40 to 105 m with mean of 59 ± 10.37 with total hung depth varying from 6.42 to 10.58 m with average of 8.15 ± 0.49 m. Shark gillnet had a total length of 260 to 456 m with mean of 350.71 ± 28.53 m. The nets  were  operated mostly at a depth up to 18 m very near to the shore and  were of set  type of gillnet. Polyamide (PA) monofilament netting of 0.16 to 0.32 mm diameter and of mesh size 26-200 mm were generally used for construction of gillnets throughout the Mumbai coast. Polyamide (PA) monofilament has completely replaced PA multifilament in all the nets except those targeted i.e. white sardine and seerfish.

Keywords: Design, Mumbai Coast, Polyamide, Shark gillnet


Refinement of fertilizer recommendation based on Soil Test Crop Response technology for rice under System of Rice Intensification

M. Vijayakumar*1, R. Santhi2 and S. Mohamed Jalaluddin1

1Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur, Krishnagiri-635112 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, (Tamil Nadu) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vijayagri1985@gmail.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: January 4, 2017; Accepted: April 26, 2017

Abstract: A study on Soil Test Crop Response based Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR - IPNS) were conducted adopting an Inductive cum Targeted yield model in non-calcareous sandy loam soils of Lithic Haplusteptat Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Paiyur, Tamil Nadu during Kharif 2013 in orderto develop fertilizer prescriptions equation (FPEs) through IPNS for the desired yield targets of rice under SRI technique. A ready reckoner of fertilizer doses at varying soil test value, for attaining 6 to 9 t ha-1 target grain yield of rice has been worked out. Using these equations a validation trial was conducted on Kharif 2014 at this station. The grain yield of rice ranged from 2.54 t ha-1 in absolute control to 8.65 t ha-1 in STCR-IPNS-9 t ha-1. The STCR-IPNS @ 8 t ha-1 was effective and economical as compare with any other treatments. The deviation recorded in the achievement of targets aimed was within the range of ± 10 per cent (90 – 110 %) proving the validity of the FPEs. The STCR treatments recorded relatively higher response ratio (RR) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) over blanket and farmer's practice and STCR-IPNS treatments recorded relatively higher RR and BCR over STCR-NPK alone treatments. Post-harvest soil tests for NPK revealed that there was maintenance of soil fertility. The STCR-IPNS @ 8 t ha-1 was effective and economical as compare with any other treatments. Thus, the Inductive cum Targeted yield model used to develop fertilizer prescription equations provides a strong basis for soil fertility maintenance consistent with high productivity and efficient nutrient management for sustainable and enduring Agriculture.

Keywords: Fertilizer prescription equations, Lithic Haplustept, SRI technique, STCR - IPNS


Endophytic microorganisms of tropical tuber crops: Potential and perspectives

Shubhransu Nayak1*, Archana Mukherjee2 and Soma Samanta2

1Odisha Biodiversity Board, Regional Plant Resource Centre Campus, Bhubaneswar751015 (Odisha), INDIA

2Crop Improvement Division, ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute-RC, Bhubaneswar-751015 (Odisha), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shubhransu.crri@gmail.com

Received: July 5, 2016; Revised received: January 28, 2017; Accepted: April 26, 2017

Abstract: Endophytic microorganisms which include both bacteria and fungi colonise almost every plant species. In order to colonize the plant and compete with other microorganisms, they produce a plethora of secondary metabolites, including toxins, enzymes, antibiotics, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antifungal compounds. Endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities which include abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increase of biomass, decrease of water consumption and alteration of resource allocation, nitrogen fixation, increased drought resistance, thermal protection, survival under osmotic stress and degradation of pollutants. Though tuber crops are the second most important group of crop plants providing food energy to humans after cereals, less attention has been paid to the these traditional crops in general. Investigations regarding the association of endophytes with the tuber crops have been sparsely studied though in some tuber crops like cassava, sweet potato and yams, presence of endophytes have been reported. Hence from the scarcely available literature, in the current review an attempt was made to put light on the various beneficial activities of endophytes on tuber crops. These reports glorified many symbiotically associated endophytes to have antagonistic properties against many plant pathogens like Rhizoctoniasolani, Pythiumaphanidermatumand Sclerotiumrolfsii. Species like Rahnellawas resilient to cold shock, UV irradiation and antibiotics. Many diazotropihic and non-diazotropihicendophytic bacteria were involved in nitrogen fixation. Actinomycetesendophytes were novel sources of industrially important thermostableamylolytic enzymes. However, inspite of all these profound beneficial effects endophytic associations are still to be studied in many tuber crops like taro, elephant foot yam, greater yam etc. So this review put forward the urge to carry out comprehensive research on these important microbes on such important crops.

Keywords: Cassava, Endophytes, Sweet potato, Tuber crops, Yam, Yam bean

Evaluation of economical and rapid method of plant DNA extraction for PCR analysis of different crops

Sweta Sinha1 and Amarendra Kumar2*

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar ), INDIA

2Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar ), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kumaramar05@gmail.com

Received: July 18, 2016; Revised received: February 5, 2017; Accepted: April 26, 2017

Abstract: In the recent genomic era, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a basic tool in molecular studies and the success of PCR depends upon the template DNA. PCR technique is quite robust and often unnecessary to extract high quality of DNA and hence crude DNA can be used as template for amplification. Therefore, we have evaluated NaOH-Tris DNA extraction method for PCR analysis because this is very simple, time saving and safe without the need to use expensive or rare materials and laboratory apparatus. This method only requires a small amount of leaf tissue, NaOH, Tris, micro tube and plastic pestle. The amplified PCR products showed clear, sharp and uniform bands gave similar results as compared with the modified CTAB method. The DNA obtained is crude contains impurities like protein, RNA but these impurities did not affect PCR amplification. This DNA extraction method is evaluated for brinjal (Solanummelongena L.), chilli (Capsicum annuum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.) crop. Many other crop plants could also be amplified using the same DNA extraction method for molecular analysis of large samples. Thus, the use of NaOH-Tris method will allow researchers to obtain DNA from plant quickly for use in molecular studies.

Keywords: DNA extraction, NaOH, PCR, Tris


Seasonal variation in food and feeding habit of Indian major carp (Labeo rohita Ham.1822) in Vallabhsagar reservoir, Gujarat

NanditaSoni* and N. C. Ujjania

Department of Aquatic Biology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat-395007 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nanditasoni17@yahoo.in

Received: July 22, 2016; Revised received: January 25, 2017; Accepted: April 26, 2017

Abstract: The gut content analysis provides the information on food components and feeding habit of fish which is an important aspect for fisheries management. In present study, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut content of Indian major carp rohu (Labeo rohita Ham. 1822) from Vallabhsagar reservoir (Gujarat), were conducted during June 2013 to May 2014. The results on gut content shows that qualitative changes in food component were not found but quantitative changes were observed during the study period. In the gut of fish, food contents i.e. phytoplankton (32.52 %), plant materials (25.07 %), Insects (13.39 %), decay matter (13.39 %) and zooplankton (11.42 %) were observed. The quantitative changes of food contents were also verified by the analysis of gasrosomatic index (GaSI) and it was maximum (5.582 ± 0.106) during post breeding season and minimum (3.589 ± 0.150) during breeding season as fish feeds voraciously to compensate the energy loss due to sexual maturity. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that studied fish (rohu) was herbivorous and mainly fed on phytoplankton and plant materials.

Keywords: Food and feeding, Gastrosomatic index, Gut analysis, Herbivorous, Labeo rohita


Biochemical composition of promising leaves genotypes of buckwheat grown in Himachal Pradesh

Diksha Dogra1* and C. P. Awasthi2

1Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh -160014, INDIA

2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Basic Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural
University  ,Palampur -176062 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drdikhadogra@gmail.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: January 31, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: Buckwheat originated from China and being cultivated all over the world, and has become a prominent pseudocereal. Among the pseudocereals (amaranthus, buckwheat and quinoa), buckwheat plant is economically important primarily due to their carbohydrate and protein rich grains, short growth span; besides foliage being used as a green vegetable and commercial source of the glycoside rutin used in medicine. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the biochemical constituents of nutritional and nutraceutical significance of fourteen promising leaves genotypes of common buckwheat grown in Sangla region by following standard procedures. Wide variations in moisture content, crude protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility were observed to range from 87.4 to 92.2 %, 22.4 to 30.4 %, 1.8 to 3.7 %, 10.6 to 15.4 %, 12.0 to 13.9 %, 34.8 to 42.4 %, 25.0 to 29.2 mg/100g, 1375 to 1390 mg/100g and 53.4 to 65.1 % in that order. The content of minerals such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and copper varied from 1767.5 to 2035.0 mg/100g, 808 to 910 mg/100g, 394 to 409 mg/100g, 232.0 to 248.2 mg/100g, 3.1 to 6.1 mg/100g, 20.4 to 29.8 mg/100g and 0.2 to 1.4 mg/100g respectively. Based on cumulative grading done in respect of nutritionally desirable quality i.e., protein, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, in vitro protein digestibility, calcium, phosphorus, iron and oxalate content, the genotype IC-323731 followed by Kullugangetri and VL-27 emerged out to be overall superior versatile cultivars for cultivation under dry temperate climate.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Buckwheat, Carbohydrates, Oxalates, Protein


Genetic analysis for various yield components and gluten content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Sandeep Kumar1, Pradeep Kumar2*and S. A. Kerkhi1

1Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, 250110 (UP), INDIA

2Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, 132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding authors: E-mail:pradeeptaliyan231@gmail.com

Received: August 22, 2016; Revised received: February 9, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: Genetic analysis was carried out in 55 genotypes (10 parents and 45 F1s) through diallel mating design excluding reciprocals in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Analysis of variance showed wide range of variability among the breeding material for all the traits under study. The highest value of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were recorded for grain yield (PCV= 9.07 and GCV= 8.08). Highest heritability with genetic advance was recorded for grain yield (h2=10.60 and GA=14.84), therefore selection will be effective based on grain yield for further study. Grains per spike (gr = 0.77 and pr = 0.67) and spikelets per spike (gr= 0.63 and pr = 0.52) were found significantly correlated (at <1 % level of significance) with grain yield whereas gluten content showed nonsignificant but positive correlation with grain yield at both genotypic as well as phenotypic level. Similarly, path coefficient analysis estimates for gluten content (g= 0.08 and p= 0.03) and grains per spike (g=0.36 and p=0.23) showed high positive direct effects on grain yield therefore these traits may be used as an index for selection to high yield in bread wheat genotypes.

Keywords: Correlation, Diallel analysis, Yield traits, Gluten content, Triticum aestivum


Effect of sowing dates and varieties for higher productivity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

Abhinaw Kumar Singh1*, Hanumant Singh2, O.P. Rai3, Ghanshyam Singh4, Ved Prakash Singh3, Naveen Prakash Singh3 and Rajneesh Singh3

1Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

3Department of Agronomy, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad – 224229 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dr.singhak99@gmail.com

Received: May 8, 2016; Revised received: February 16, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad during the Rabi season of 2011-12 to access the effect of sowing dates and varieties for higher productivity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Treatments consisted of four dates of sowing viz. D1 (25th September), D2 (5th October), D3 (15th October) and D4 (25th October) was kept as main plot and five varieties viz.V1 (Rohini), V2 (Maya), V3 (Coral-437), V4 (Kranti) and V5 (PBR-357) was kept as sub plot replicated three under split plot design. Results revealed that all the growth, yield attributes and quality were increased significantly under 25th October sowing. The agronomical parameters like initial plant stand per running meter, plant height (cm), days taken to 50 % flowering, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation (g plant-1) and yield and yield attributes like number of siliquae plant-1, number of seed siliqua-1, length of siliqua (cm) and seed, stover yields (q ha-1) of mustard crop were significantly higher with variety Coral-437. The highest seed yield oil content % was computed under 25th October sowing with Coral-437 variety. 25th October sowing with Coral-437 variety proved the most remunerative and economically feasible for cultivation of Indian mustard under the agro climatic conditions of eastern U.P.

Keywords: Different Varieties, Indian mustard, Productivity, Sowing dates


Effect of nitrogen and foliar spray of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate on growth and productivity of yellow sarson (Brassica campestris L. var yellow sarson) crop under irrigated condition

Amrit Raj* and R. B. Mallick

Department of Agronomy, University College of Agriculture, Calcutta University, Kolkata - 700019 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amritagnm@rediffmail.com

Received: June 6, 2016; Revised received: February 13, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2007-’08 and 2008-’09 to study the effect of calcium nitrate {Ca (NO3)2} and potassium nitrate {KNO3} at 50 % flowering stage and soil applied nitrogen {N: (0, 40 and 80kg N/ha)} on growth, productivity and economics ofyellow sarson at farmers field under irrigated old alluvial soil of West Bengal. Highest leaf area index (LAI) values at 40 days of crop age (1.748 and 1.592), dry matter accumulation (1404.3 and 1288.8 gm-2) at 80 days and crop growth rate (C.G.R) (27.87 and 25.68 g m-2 day-1) in between 40 to 60 days were obtained at Nitrogen application at the rate of 80 kg / ha and mixed spray of 0.203 % Ca (NO3)2 + 0.25 % KNO3 respectively. Soil application of 80 kg N/ ha along with foliar spray of 0.203 % Ca (NO3)2 + 0.25 % KNO3 resulted increase in seed yield (1.68 t ha-1) by 12 % over 80 kg N/ ha with only water spray (1.5 t ha-1). Foliar spray of 0.203 % Ca (NO3)2 + 0.25 % KNO3 improved the yield components and seed yield over their sole application. Application of 80 kg N/ha along with 0.203 % Ca (NO3)2 + 0.25 % KNO3 at 50 % flowering stage was found to be the most effective in increasing yellow sarson production in old alluvial soil.

Keywords: Nitrate salts, Nitrogen, Winter season, Yellow sarson


Virulence gene profile and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Kashmir, India

NazimaNazir*, Shakil Ahmed Wani, QaziNyrah, Shaheen Farooq, Mir Nadeem  Hassan and Zahid Amin Kashoo

Division of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir Shuhama Campus, Srinagar- 190006(J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nazimanazir11@gmail.com

Received: June 22, 2016; Revised received: January 24, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: The Staphylococcus aureusis often responsible for a number of diseases in humans and animals, and it is considered as a main etiological agent of bovine mastitis.  The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. This study investigated virulence genes, prevalence and antibiogram profile of S. aureus isolated from dairy cows suffering from mastitis in the Kashmir. A total of 70 S. aureus isolates were obtained from 250 mastitic milk samples collected from both organized (47/150) and unorganized (23/100) dairy farms. Five pathogenic factors including clfA, hld, seo, lukM, and coa and one resistance gene mecAgene were checked through PCR. Clumping factor gene (clfA) was found in most of the isolates with a percentage of 81.42 % whereas,hld, seo, lukM, and coa were present in 61.2, 54.28, 70, and 71 percent of isolates, respectively. However, amplification of coagene yielded DNA bands of two different sizes. A high percentage of antimicrobial resistance rates were observed, wherein, Ampicillin showed highest resistance with 85.7 %, followed by Kanamycin, Cefotaxime, Sulphadizine and Streptomicin showing 71.42 %, 54.28 %, 51.48 % and 42 %, respectively. A high frequency of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA 28.57 %) was observed in these isolates and all methicillin resistant isolates were found to be positive for mecA gene via PCR amplification. These results revealed that mastitis-associated S. aureus among bovines of Kashmir is able to accumulate different virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials, making the treatment of infections difficult.

Keywords: Antibiogram, Genotypic characterization, Mastitis, PCR, Staphylococcus aureus


Integration of biocontrol agents with fungicide, weedicide and plant growth regulator for management of stem and root rot of jute

S.K. Bhattacharyya1, K. Sen2, R.K. De1, A. Bandopadhyay3, C. Sengupta2 and N.K. Adhikary4*

1Crop Protection Division, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres (ICAR), Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120, INDIA

2Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani-741235, Nadia, INDIA

3Applied Mycology & Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballyguange Circular Road, Kolkata-700 019, INDIA

4Department of Plant Pathology, Directorate of Research, BCKV, Kalyani-741235, Nadia, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nayan.bckv@gmail.com

Received: June 24, 2016; Revised received: February  9, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: Combination of chemical fungicides (viz., Carbendazim 50 WP and Tebuconazole 250 EC) and biocontrol agents (viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens Psfl1, P. striata Pst1, Azotobacter chrococcum Azbc3, Bradyrhizobium japonicum Brj4, Trichoderma aureoviridae S12, T. harzianum JTV2, T. virens JPG1, Aspergillus niger AN15 strains respectively either singly or in consortium) were used to counteract Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal organism of stem and root rot of jute. In addition, suitable plant growth regulator viz., Indole-3-acetic acid (100-1.0 µg/ppm) and herbicide Quizalofop ethyl 5 % EC were used to augment the activity of Trichoderma. T. aureoviridae strain S12 was found to be the best among the eight isolates screened for tolerance against the two fungicides and herbicide at a concentration of 10000 - 500 µg respectively as well as against M. phaseolina (Inhibition=72.33 %) in-vitro. This strain showed best compatibility with other strains and highest tolerance to fungicide i.e., Carbendazim 50 % (up to 500 μg). Highest number (13.7×106) of active spores was recorded at a concentration of 25 ppm of IAA under in-vitro condition. S12 recorded a biocontrol efficiency of 61.8 % against stem rot of jute along with significant plant growth promotion and fibre production. Plant biomass also increased up to 7.5-12.1 % and fibre production 37.0-39.9 % with fungal and bacterial consortium + carbendazim seed dressing and soil drenching. These biocontrol fungi and PGPR consortium with high tolerance to fungicide, weedicide and plant growth regulator up to certain extent may be potentially exploited in IDM which may be a low cost technology in jute and allied fibre crops.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Fungicide, Growth regulator, Macrophomina phaseolina, Trichoderma, Weedicide


Monitoring on impact of insecticides on mortality of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in front of beehives

Pashte Vrushali Vijaykumar1* and Patil Chidanand Shivshankar2

1Department of Entomology, Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma PhuleKrishiVidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar-413722 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma PhuleKrishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar-413722 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pashte.vrushali@gmail.com

Received: July 5, 2016; Revised received: February 3, 2017; Accepted: April 28, 2017

Abstract: The present study investigated effect of pesticide usage and public awareness on honey bee mortality. The experiments were conducted at three different sites at Maharashtra, India with domesticated bee hives of Apis mellifera L. The maximum bee mortality during 51st week of 2012-13 (1559.10 bees/hive/week) clearly indicated towards the direct and indirect effect of insecticides in general at study site I (Case I). Similar experiments were repeated at other two different sites during 2013-14. Farmers (Case II and III) were aware of beekeeping and ill effects of pesticides. Farmers followed some precautionary measures to combat with the bad effect of insecticides on bees. As a result there was less mortality of bees. The experiments revealed that farmers should be aware of bee conservation and precautionary measures to combat with the bad effect of insecticides on bees.

Keywords: Bee mortality, Honey bee, Insecticide, Survey  


Morphological characterization of forage sorghum genotypes for its various DUS traits

Nabin Bhusal1, S.K. Pahuja1*, Akshay Kumar Vats1, Ashutosh Srivastava2 and Ravi Shekhar Kumar2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125004(Haryana), INDIA

2ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pahujask66@gmail.com

Received: July 9, 2016; Revised received: February 10, 2017; Accepted: April 30, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to characterize 20 genotypes of sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench} on the basis of 33 morphological characters provided by Protection of Plant Variety & Farmer’s Right Act (PPV&FRA) for Distinctiveness Uniformity and Stability (DUS) testing in sorghum. Experimental results revealed that maximum variation was found on the basis of glume colour among the genotypes i.e. G 46, HC 308, HJ 513 had green white, IS 3237, SSG 9, HC 171 had yellow white, SSG 59-3, COFS 29 had grayed purple, S 437-1, SGL-87, S 540-S, SSG (PSSG) had grayed yellow and remaining seven genotypes had grayed orange glume colour. The studied traits showed five genotypes had distinct state of expression. Genotype S-540 showed very high plant height upto the base of flag leaf, HC 136 had compact panicle density at maturity, COFS 29 had very long glume length, SSG 59-3 had distinct expression for days to panicle emergence (50 % of the plants with 50 % of anthesis) and COFS 29 and IS 18551 had short and very long leaf width of blade, respectively. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed principal Factor (PFI) and Principal Factor (PFII) with maximum variability (64.99 %). Classification of genotypes on the basis of DUS traits provided identification of key characteristics of various genotypes.

Keywords: DUS, Forage, PPV and FRA, Principal component analysis, Sorghum bicolor

Evaluation of thermotolerant rhizobacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits from pigeonpea rhizosphere

Gurmeet Kaur1* and Veena Khanna2

1Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141001 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gk45332@gmail.com

Received: July 15, 2016; Revised received: February 4, 2017; Accepted: April 30, 2017

Abstract: PGPR strains exhibiting optimum functional traits at high temperature and are compatible with Rhizobium can be used in pigeonpea as biofertilizer. A total of 45 rhizobacterial isolates were isolated from 13 different locations of pigeonpearhizospheric soil of Punjab. Out of the 45 isolates, 5 isolates selected on the basis of maximum growth at 30°C and 40°C were morphologically and biochemically characterized, belonging to genera Pseudomonas (P-6, P-9) and Bacillus (P-30, P-31, P-32). Selected isolates were further evaluated for the production of IAA, GA, SA and flavonoids. IAA production was estimated in the range from 0.45-25.13 μg/ml and 4.62-34.34 μg/ml in the presence of tryptophan at 30 and 40°C respectively. Maximum gibberellic acid production was recorded with P-30 (108.99 μg/ml and 112.12 μg/ml) at 30 and 40°C respectively. Similarly maximum salicylic acid was also estimated with P-30 (157.2 μg/ml) followed by P-31 (141.0 μg/ml) at 40°C. All the isolates were also found to produce flavonoids ranged from 2.98 - 4.40 μg/ml at 40 °C. Isolates P-30, P-31 showed superior production of growth hormones and flavonoid-like compounds can further be tested under the field conditions to enhance growth and yield of pigeonpea.

Keywords: Pigeonpea, PGPR, Rhizobium, Rhizobacteria


Mineralogy of soils of major geomorphic units of north-eastern Haryana, India

Dinesh*, Mohammad Amin Bhat, K. S. Grewal, Hardeep Singh Sheoran

Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dineshtomarhau@gmail.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: January 6, 2017; Accepted: April 30, 2017

Abstract: The study was carried to determine the mineralogy of soils of different geomorphic units for providing the more detailed information needed to improve agricultural production in north-eastern part of Haryana. The soils of the study area were slightly acidic to strongly alkaline in reaction (6-9.4). The cation exchange capacity and electrical conductivity varied from 3.10-26.80 cmol (+) kg-1 and 0.16-1.20 dSm-1, respectively. In general, the soils were siliceous in nature with SiO2 ranging from 68.60 to 87.90 percent. The soil samples from surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons were studied through X-ray diffraction. In fine sand, quartz was the dominant mineral followed by feldspars, muscovite, hornblende, tourmaline, zircon, biotite, iron ores and sphene. In silt fraction, quartz was the dominant mineral followed by mica, feldspars, chlorite, kaolinite, interstratified and traces of smectite and vermiculite. Semi-quantitative estimation of clay fraction indicated that illite was the single dominant mineral in the clay fraction of these pedons, however, its quantity was less in alluvial plains (28-30 %) compared to Shiwalik hills (36-49 %). Next to illite, a high amount of smectite (14-20 %) and vermiculite (11-17 %) were observed in clays of alluvial plains of Ghaggar (recent and old) whereas in Shiwalik hills (top and valley) these minerals were detected in small amount (6-11 %). Fairly good amount of kaolinite (10-17 %) and small amount of chlorite (4-11 %) were uniformly distributed in soil clays irrespective of geomorphic units showing their detrital origin. Medium intensity broad peaks in higher range diffractograms (14-24 A˚) indicated the presence of regular and irregular interstratified minerals in old alluvial plains of Ghaggar.

Keywords: Geomorphic unit, X-ray diffraction, Mineralogy, Diffractograms, Interstratified minerals

Pesticides induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney of female Bandicota bengalensis and Tateraindica

Shasta Kalra and Gurinder Kaur Sangha*
Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: shastakalra@yahoo.com
Received: September 7, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017; Accepted: April 30, 2017
Abstract: The liver and kidney of female Bandicota bengalensis and Tatera indica rats collected from Bathinda region of south west region of Punjab were used to investigate the toxic effects of these pesticides. Levels of total proteins decreased in all the rats collected from study area. Activity levels of different OS parameters: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidise (GPx) were differentially altered and the product of oxidation namely, malondialdehyde increased in liver (11.05±0.18, 9.02±0.26 in control rats increased to 11.60±0.10, 9.43±2.58 in study area B. bengalensis and T. indica rats respectively) and kidney (10.03±0.44, 8.68±0.24 in control rats increased to 10.18±0.72, 8.92±4.34 in study area B. bengalensis and T. indica rats respectively) of rats collected from study area as compared to control rats. Histomorphological studies further revealed number of abnormalities as infiltration, vacuolization, enlarged sinusoids and necrosis in liver of Bathinda rats, while renal histo architecture of kidney showed high degeneration of glomeruli. The results infer that environmental contaminants mainly pesticides leads to number of pathophysiological conditions in the liver and kidney and for altering antioxidant defence system in rats inhabiting south- west region of Punjab.
Keywords: Antioxidants, Environmental contaminants, Oxidative stress, Pesticides, Proteins

Evaluation of rapeseed-mustard cultivars under late sown condition in coastal ecosystem of West Bengal

Hirak Banerjee1*, Soumitra Chatterjee2, Sukamal Sarkar3, Saikat Gantait4 and Subhasis Samanta1

1Regional Research Station (CSZ), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kakdwip, South 24-Parganas - 743347 (West Bengal), INDIA

2All India Coordinated Research Project on IFS, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Directorate of Research, Kalyani-741235 (West Bengal) INDIA

3Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252, (West Bengal) INDIA

4All India Coordinated Research Project on Groundnut, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Directorate of Research, Kalyani- 741235, (West Bengal) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hirak.bckv@gmail.com

Received: October 2, 2016; Revised received: February 6, 2017; Accepted: April 30, 2017

Abstract: In our present report, we evaluated seven rapeseed mustard cultivars at coastal saline zone of West Bengal, India under rice-mustard sequence in a triplicated randomized block design for 14 traits to study their performance under late sown (2nd December) condition. The cultivars were sown at 30 cm × 10 cm spacing during winter of 2013−14 and 2014−15. The soil was clay in texture and had the following key properties for the 0−30 cm layer: pH 5.84, electrical conductivity (EC) 1.55 dS/m, available nitrogen (N) 155.24 kg/ha, available phosphorus (P) 105.76 kg/ha, available potassium (K) 365.86 kg/ha and available B 2.63 kg/ha. Among the seven cultivars, Kranti produced significantly (p≤0.05) higher seed yield (1.33 t/ha) closely followed by the hybrids PAC-409 (1.23 t/ha) and Pusa Bold (1.21 t/ha). Seed yield showed significant (p≤0.05) positive correlation with all the independent variables (plant height, R2=0.88; dry matter, R2=0.42; days to 50 % flowering, R2=0.27; number of siliqua/plant, R2=0.38; seeds/siliqua, R2=0.48; except number of fertile plants/m2, R2=-0.06; number of secondary branches/plant, R2=-0.97 and length of siliqua, R2=-0.07). However, number of secondary branches/plant had significant (p≤0.05) and negative correlation with seed yield of mustard (R2=-0.97). Plant height revealed the highest degree of correlation (R2=0.88) with seed yield followed by siliqua per main branch (R2=0.77), days to harvest (R2=0.75) and 1000-seed weight (R2=0.52). The results indicated that selection of suitable rapeseed mustard cultivars based on these traits would be more effective in improving seed yield in mustard.

Keywords: Correlation, Path coefficient analysis, Saline soil, Seed yield


Bioefficacy and dissipation of β-cyfluthrin against white fly Bemisia tabaci Genn.) in okra (Abelomoschus esculentus L.)

S. Deepak*, C. Narendra Reddy and V. Shashibhushan

Department of Entomology, Agricultural College, Hyderabad – 500030, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: deepaksihimoge@gmail.com

Received: April 2, 2016; Revised received: January 30, 2017; Accepted: May 1, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different insecticides viz., bifenthrin, flubendiamide, fipronil, quinalphos, pronofos and β-cyfluthrin against white fly (Bemisia tabaci) of okra (Abelomoschus esculentus) by spraying twice. Among the insecticides evaluated, β cyfluthrin at 18.75 g a.iha-1 was found to be the effective by registering 57.00 and 54.21 per cent reduction of whitefly (B. abaci) during first and second sprays, respectively. Further β-cyfluthrin at 18.75 g a. i ha-1 was subjected to dissipation studies by collecting okra (A. esculentus) fruit samples at interval of zero, one, three, five, seven, 10 and 15 days after last spray. Results of the dissipation studies showed that the initial deposits of β-cyfluthrin (18.75 g a.iha-1) in okra (A. esculentus) fruit sample was registered to be 0.11 mg kg-1 and dissipated to below detectable level (BDL) within five days after spray.

Keywords: β-cyfluthrin, Dissipation, Efficacy, Insecticides, Okra


Characterization of volatile secondary metabolites from Trichoderma asperellum

Nitish Rattan Bhardwaj1* and J. Kumar2

1Crop Improvement division, ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003 (Uttar Pradesh), India

2Department of Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nitish.rattanbhardwaj@gmail.com

Received: June 6, 2016; Revised received: March 28, 2017; Accepted: May 1, 2017

Abstract: Many Trichoderma isolates are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities towards plants and other microbes. The production of such compounds varies according to the strain.  In the present study, volatile secondary metabolites from the culture filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum strain were characterized using Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results of GC-MS detected 43 secondary metabolites in the T. asperellum strain including  many important volatile secondary metabolites such as 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 2-butoxy-2-oxoethyl butyl ester (peak area-3.59%), 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutyl ester (peak area-2.02 %), 2H-Pyran-2-one (peak area-66.63 %), palmitic acid (peak area-2.86 %), several phenolic isomers, methyl cyclohexane etc., all reportedly having effective pesticidal activity. The results indicated that these secondary metabolites could be useful for biological control applications of T. asperellum strain against diverse plant pathogens.

Keywords: GC-MS, Metabolites, Trichoderma, Volatile


Piperine content variation in different Piper longum germplasms of North East India determined through RP-HPLC method

A. Khound1*, P.C. Barua1, B. Saud1, A. Saikia1 and S. Kumar2

1Department of Horticulture, AAU, Jorhat (Assam), INDIA

2Division of Organic chemistry, DMAP (ICAR), Anand (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amritasharmah@gmail.com

Received: July 23, 2016; Revised received: January 18, 2017; Accepted: May 3, 2017

Abstract: The present experiment was conducted at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat with ten accessions including check variety of Piper Longum germplasm collected from different states of North Eastern region during 2013-14 and 2014-15.The piperine, a major alkaloid used in different therapeutic treatment, per cent content was determined from dried plant materials. Deionised water was used throughout the experiment and the chromatographic separation was carried out in an isocratic elution mode on RP-18 column with 5μm particle size, 4.6mm internal diameter and 250mm length. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and water (80: 20). The solvent flow rate was 1.0 ml/minwith injection volume 20 µL. The photo diode array detector wavelength was set at 342 nm for the identification of piperine in all extracts. The per cent piperine content in extract was found to be 42.36 per cent in germplasm PLJ-30.The highest per cent piperine content in fruit was recorded in PLJ-11(7.85%) followed by germplasm PLJ-9 (7.64) and significantly superior over check variety“Viswam”(5.15%). The descending order of piperine content in fruits among germplasm was PLJ-11˃PLJ-09˃PLJ-30˃PLJ-17˃ PLJ-03˃ PLJ-19˃ check variety˃PLJ-01˃ PLJ-20 and PLJ-16. It can be revealed from the present experiment that piper germplasm with high piperine content has a great scope for commercial cultivation as alkaloid piperine has high demand in pharmaceutical use.

Keywords: Northeast India, Phytochemical, Piper longum, Piperine, RP-HPLC method


Genetic diversity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes revealed by simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers

Ashish Kaushal1, Anita Singh1* and Anand Singh Jeena2

1Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145(U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand), INDIA

2 Department of Genetics and plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145(U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anitasingh79@rediffmail.com

Received: July 22, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: May 3, 2017

Abstract: Twenty five tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes were subjected to genetic diversity analysis using twenty SSR markers. Out of 20 markers used, 14 SSRs were polymorphic and a total numbers of 22 SSR alleles were generated by 14 SSR markers, out of which 19 were polymorphic and 3 were monomorphic, with an average of 1.57 alleles per locus. The range of amplified products was 100-400bp approximately. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient varied from 0.65 between germplasm EC519821 and CO-3 to a maximum of 1.0 between genotypes EC519769 and DARL-66, with an average value of 0.83.  Cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed 2 distinct clusters, A and B, comprising 1 and 24 genotypes respectively and at 75 and 78 per cent similarity, respectively. The genotypes which showed similar morphological and genetic trends were grouped more or less together in both these cases were a few. Cluster A comprised most diverse germplasm (EC519821)belongs to pimpinellifolium wild species with similarity coefficient 0.65% and differentiated with other cultivated species.Cherry Tomato and Cherry-2 were trends in similar cluster similar with approximately 96% similarity.SSR markers were able in in differentiating the genotypes based on morphologically and genotypically.However, the grouping of 25 genotypes were independently of geographic distribution.The genetic distance information found in this study might be helpful to breeder for planning among these genotypes.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, Jaccard’s similarity coefficient, SSR, Tomato genotypes

Mulching: A viable option to increase productivity of field and fruit crops

Jagroop Kaur1* and Harsimrat K. Bons2

1Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2 Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jagroopsekhon@pau.edu

Received: August 12, 2016; Revised received: February 12, 2017; Accepted: May 3, 2017

Abstract: Mulching plays an important role in production of agricultural and horticultural crops in the current scenario of declining water table, soil degradation and climate change. The main objectives of mulching are to prevent loss of water by evaporation, prevention of soil erosion, weed control, to reduce fertilizer leaching, to promote soil productivity, to enhance yield and quality of field and fruit crops. So, mulching is useful to save our underground water resource, soil and environment for sustainable crop production. In this review paper, the literature clearly shows pronounced effects of mulching on soil health by improving the soil structure, soil fertility, biological activities, avoid soil degradation in addition to moisture conservation, regulating temperature, encouraging change in favourable micro-climate, check weed growth and ultimately increasing the productivity, quality, profitability and sustainability of crops and cropping systems irrespective of the system/situation.

Keywords: Leaching, Moisture conservation, Mulch, Productivity, Soil properties

Dynamics of inter-district developmental disparities in Haryana

Ekta Hooda, B. K. Hooda and Veena Manocha
Department of Mathematics, Statistics & Physics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: bkhooda@gmail.com
Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: February 7, 2017; Accepted: May 3, 2017
Abstract: The present study deals with the development disparities in districts of Haryana according to their level of development. The study utilized data over three points of time, viz. 1991-92, 2001-02, and 2011-12. Assessment of development in agricultural, industrial, infrastructural and socio-economic sectors has been studied using composite indices based on forty indicators. Out of the forty indicators, 19 were directly concerned with agricultural development, 4, 8 and 9 respectively reflected the progress of development in industrial, infrastructural, and socio-economic sectors. Sector-wise indices were combined to obtain weighted index for the overall development. The study indicated wide disparities in level of development among districts of Haryana in all the periods of study.The district of Mahendragarh lagged behind in almost all the sectors considered for this study. The districts of Faridabad and Gurgaon lagged behind in agriculture while the district of Karnal excelled in agriculture in all the three periods. The districts of Ambala, Faridabad and Gurgaon ranked first in overall development in 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12, respectively, whereas Mahendragarh ranked last in 1991-92 and 2001-02 and the newly formed district Mewat in 2011-12. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study relationships among sectoral developments. Kruskal Wallis test indicated significant changes in development level of industry and infrastructure sectors over the periods 1991-92, 2001-02 and 2011-12.
Keywords: Composite Indices of Development, Kruskal Wallis Test, Regional Disparities, Spearman’s rank correlation.

Component traits influencing seed yield in recombinant inbred lines of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

Alok Kumar*, R. K. Gill and Sarvjeet Singh

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

⃰Corresponding author. E-mail: alokgupta.pau@gmail.com

Received: August 31, 2016; Revised received: January 24, 2017; Accepted: May 4, 2017

Abstract: One hundred and thirty five RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) developed from a cross between an indigenous and exotic line of lentil (Lens culinarisMedik.)were evaluated for seed yield and component traits during rabi 2012-13 and 2013-14. Pooled analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the RILsfor all the traits studied. This suggested that there was ample scope for selection of promising RILs for yield improvement in lentil. Phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were high for pods per plant(32.49% and 26.75%) followed by biological yield per plot(24.38% and 21.28%). Genetic advance was highest for 100-seed weight(47.75%)followed by pods per plant(45.39%). Estimation of phenotypic correlation coefficients indicated that seed yield per plot expressed highly significant and positive correlation with biological yield per plot(0.634), harvest index(0.300) and seeds per pod(0.156). Path coefficient analysis revealed that the traits; biological yield per plot , harvest index, number of pods per plant, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity , plant height and primary branches per plant had positive direct effect on seed yield per plot. The selection of these traits would be helpful for further yield improvement in lentil.

Keywords: Correlation, Genetic Variability, Lentil, Path analysis, Recombinant inbred line (RIL)


Comparative analysis of life tables of Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected from different geographical regions of North India

Priyanka Thakur*, K.C. Sharma1 and Deepali Bakshi2

Department of Entomology, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: thakurento29@gmail.com

Received: April 9, 2016; Revised received: February 3, 2017; Accepted: May 4, 2017

Abstract: The tomato fruitfly, Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pests of the family Cucurbitaceae. Toinvestigate local adaptation, we measured the variations in life-histories and life-table parameters among populations from five different geographical regions of North India, Ludhiana (262 mt amsl), Solan (1,502 mt amsl), Hisar (215 mt amsl), Pantnagar (344 mt amsl) and Jaach (733 mt amsl). The principal components analysis showed the life-history and life-table parameters of B. tau differed among the five geographical populations. The highest fecundity of 233.20 eggs/female was recorded in the Jaach population and was statistically at par with Hisar (209.21 eggs/female) followed by Solan (202.60 eggs/female), Pantnagar (178.60 eggs/female) and Ludhiana population (105.88 eggs/female). The total developmental period among the five populations of B. tau was the longest for the Pantnagar population (16.20 days) followed by Solan (13.90 days), Hisar (12.60 days), Ludhiana (12.30 days) and Jaach (11.60 days). The true intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was 0.120, 0.138, 0.140, 0.116 and 0.153 for the respective geographical regions while the finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.13, 1.15, 1.15, 1.12 and 1.16, thus indicating that the fruit fly from Jaach location is more reproductive than the other five geographical regions of North India. Since the study will be useful in knowing the multiplication rate of fruit fly in specific area, accordingly the management practices for this species can be formulated on the bases of these studies. The results thus indicated the geographical variations among different populations of B. tau.

Keywords: Bactrocera tau, Fruit fly, Geographical regions, Intrinsic rate

Characterization of Sorghum germplasm for various qualitative traits 

Rajani Verma*, B. R. Ranwah, Baudh Bharti, Ramesh Kumar, Ram Kunwar, Ayush Diwaker and Monika Meena

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313 001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author.  E-mail : rajaniverma84@gmail.com

Received: September 14, 2016; Revised received: February 5, 2017; Accepted: May 6, 2017

Abstract:  Present study was performed to characterize 750 germplasm lines with 4 checks namely CSV17, CSV20, CSV27 and CSV21F for various qualitative traits of Sorghum. These 754 genotypes were sown in augmented RBD with 30 replications during Kharif 2014 at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur. Majority of the accessions showed poor early plant vigour (40.2 %), dark green leaf (88.6 %), non- tan leaf sheath pigmentation (60 %),  drooping leaves (100 %), white midrib colour (51.6 %), senescence (60 %), loose panicle density (31.5 %), elliptical panicle shape (66.5 %), straw glume colour (48.2 %), 3/4 glume coverage (42.9 %), absence of awns (59.5 %), creamy straw seed (39.9 %), oval grain shape (48.8 %), medium seed size (43.7 %), non-lustrous seed (62.0 %), intermediate endosperm texture (50.3 %) and  bicolor race (49.6 %). Very good early plant vigour, tan type leaf sheath pigmentation, drooping leaf orientation, straw glume colour, ½ glume covering, oval grain shape, intermediate endosperm texture  appeared   in all the 4 check. The results of this study indicated that considerable genetic diversity exists among the sorghum accessions.

Keywords:  Accessions, Augmented RBD, Frequency of genotypes, Qualitative traits, Sorghum

Economic analysis of application of phosphorus, single and dual inoculation of Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus)

Narinder Singh1*, Guriqbal Singh2 and Navneet Aggarwal2

1Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nsbamra90.pau@gmail.com

Received: October 24, 2016; Revised received: February 7, 2017; Accepted: May 6, 2017

Abstract: This study investigates the economic returns of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) by the use of phosphorus and biofertilizers [Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)] in Indian Punjab. The field experiments were conducted during Rabi 2013-14 and 2014-15 with combinations of four levels of phosphorus (0, 20, 30 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1) and two/four biofertilizer treatments [uninoculated control and Rhizobium (LLR 12) + PGPR (RB 2)] in 2013-14, and uninoculated control, Rhizobium, PGPR and Rhizobium + PGPR in 2014-15) by replicating thrice. The use of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 provided the highest gross returns whereas net returns and B:C were highest at 30 kg P2O5 ha-1. The combination of Rhizobium + PGPR + 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 provided the highest gross returns (Rs. 45902) whereas Rhizobium + PGPR+ 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 provided the highest net returns (Rs 20620). Furthermore, the integrated use of Rhizobium + PGPR + 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 provided higher net returns (Rs 20620) and B:C (1.88) as compared to sole application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 (Rs 18792 and 1.72). Thus, there was a net saving of 20 kg P2O5  ha-1 with the use of Rhizobium + PGPR inoculation without sacrificing the economics returns.

Keywords: B:C, Biofertilizers, Gross returns, Lentil, Net returns, Phosphorus

Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residues from bovine milk in Patna (Bihar), INDIA

S. B. Sah1, R. N. Gupta2, T. Saha2* and S. P. Singh3

1Department of Entomology Bhola Paswan Shastri Agricultural College, Purnea (Bihar), INDIA

2Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813 210 (Bihar), INDIA

3Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tamoghnasaha1984@gmail.com

Received: December 12, 2015; Revised received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: May 6, 2017

Abstract: The milk has high nutritional properties and is widely used as baby food in different forms. The present study was undertaken to evaluate pesticide contamination in bovine milk samples from Patna district of Bihar. Out of 24 samples analyzed during 2012, 18 samples (75 %) were found to be contaminated with HCH residues varying from ND-0.178 mg kg-1 (mean value 0.135 mg kg-1). Seven samples (29.2 %) had HCH exceeding MRL of 0.01 mg kg-1. DDT residues were detected in 20 samples (83.3 %) and ranged from ND-0.132 mg kg-1 (mean value 0.122 mg kg-1). Five samples (20.8 %) contained DDT residues above the prescribed MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Out of 24 samples of bovine milk analyzed during 2013, 16 samples (66.7 %) were found to be contaminated with HCH and 15 samples (62.5%) with DDT residues. The residues of HCH varied from ND-0.154 mg kg-1 (mean value 0.053 mg kg-1) and DDT from ND-0.120 mg kg-1 (mean value 0.122 mg kg-1). The residues of HCH and DDT were above MRL in four samples (16.7 %) and three samples (12.5 %) respectively.  The management practices of animals and legal punishment on using banned pesticides are the alternatives to reduce pesticide contamination incidences in milk.

Keywords: Bovine milk, DDT, HCH, Monitoring, Pesticide, Residue

Development of fragrant microcapsules for woven cotton fabric

Poonam Kumari1*, Neelam M Rose2 and Saroj S. Jeet Singh2

1Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2I.C. College of Home Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: minkusmile@gmail.com

Received: February 23, 2016; Revised received: February 9, 2017; Accepted: May 6, 2017

Abstract: A consumer-oriented twenty first century challenges garment and fabric producers to come up with innovations which result from the technological advancements to not only help in strengthening the existing product line but also to diversify and flourish in new areas. Many fragrant fabrics have been developed nowadays due to the reason of enjoying a healthy life style, and these novel products often possess additional functionalities which are good for human health. Not only does plant essential oil give off a pleasant smell but also the functions of antiseptic, antiphlogistic and emotional calming. In the present study, microencapsulation of geranium oil was carried out on cotton woven fabric. Geranium oil was selected as the core material and gum acacia as wall material for encapsulation using complex coacervation technique and ratio of 1:4:4 of oil, gum and gelatin, at a temperature of 50°C with initial and final pH 4.5 and 9.0 respectively was optimized for microencapsulation process. Microencapsulation helped in controlling the release rate of aroma and imparted durable fragrance finish on textiles.

Keywords: Fragranced textiles, Geranium oil, Microcapsule gel, Optimization


Performance of wool type angora rabbits under temperate conditions of Kashmir (J&K), INDIA

Nafis I. Assad1, N. N. Khan2, Safeer Alam3* and Dibyendu Chakraborty4

1Frozen Semen Project, Department of Animal Husbandry, (J & K), INDIA

2Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, FVSc, SKUAST-Kashmir(J & K),  INDIA

3Extension (Trgs), SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar(J & K), INDIA

4Division of Animal Genetics and Breeding, SKUAST-J, Jammu (J & K),  INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: safeeralam1@gmail.com

Received: April 15, 2016; Revised received: February 8, 2017; Accepted: May 7, 2017

Abstract: An attempt has been made to determine the production and quality performance of wool type Angora rabbits and screen out the best suitable breed under temperate conditions of Kashmir. A total of 202 records of French Angora and German Angora rabbit breeds maintained for 3 years (2009-2011) were evaluated to estimate the performance of quality and production traits in relation to genetic and non-genetic factors. For French Angora rabbits, the overall  body weight gain (adult weight), annual wool yield (AWY), staple length (SL), medullation percentage (MP) and fiber diameter (FD) were found to be 2.506 ± 0.0432 kg, 303.575 ± 0.316 gms, 5.161 ± 0.0183 cms, 2.228 ± 0.0217 % and 12.289 ± 0.0178 µ, respectively. In case of German Angora rabbits, the values of 2.506 ± 0.033 kg, 605.96 ± 0.474 gms, 6.219 ± 0.0279 cms, 2.513 ± 0.0348 % and 12.347 ± 0.0265 µwere observed for the respective traits. The breed was found to reveal significant effect (P<0.01) on birth weight, weaning weight, annual weight, annual wool yield, staple length and medullation percentage and non-significant effect on fiber diameter. The sex was found to exhibit non-significant effect on all the traits under study. Based on present study, it can be concluded that German Angora breed of rabbit is most suitable for angora wool production and quality under temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir region.

Keywords: Angora rabbits, Kashmir, Production performance, Temperate climate, Wool quality


Effect of EMS on morpho-physiological characters of wheat in reference to stay green trait

Naresh Pratap Singh* and Vaishali

Deptt.of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: naresh.singh55@yahoo.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: February 11. 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017

Abstract: To feed the ever growing world population, the demand of food supply must be increased by 70 % of major cereal crops like wheat, rice etc. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of abiotic stresses like drought, heat, salt etc. on yield would be decreased by genetic improvement in terms of photosynthetic response, long green leaf duration and delayed leaf senescence. ‘Stay green’ is a vital trait of all crops which is directly associated with the capacity of the plant to maintain CO2 assimilation, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. The present study was conducted to develop the stay green mutants genotype by using 1.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). The variety K 7410 showed highest leaf area 37.34 cm2, seeds per spike 65.47, 1000 grain weight 62.03 g after treatment of EMS among morphological characters observed. Among physiological characters of wheat variety Sonalik showed lowest RWC (21.48 %), HD 2135 showed lowest chlorophyll content (33.53 µg/cm2) and C 306 showed lowest photosynthetic rate (15.05 µmol/m2sec) after treatment of EMS. But varieties K 7410, VL 401 and RAJ 3765 varieties showed higher value of physiological characters after the treatment. The results suggested that the stay green trait had been developed by mutation (EMS) in these three wheat varieties and they can exhibit better tolerance under abiotic stress conditions like drought, high temperature. Such results would prove useful for further research and crop management in stress affected areas or under unfavourable climatic conditions.

Keywords: Chlorophyll, Morphological, Photosynthesis, RWC, Stay green, Wheat

Genetic divergence in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Neha Yadav*, S. K. Dhankhar, Aniket V.  Chandanshive and Vikash Kumar

Department of Vegetable Science, CCS HAU, Hisar (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nehayadav67.ny@gmail.com

Received: August 10, 2016; Revised received: February 13, 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017

Abstract: A study of genetic divergence in 40 brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes for various characters to study the diversity based on qualitative and quantitative characters. Significant variations were observed among the brinjal lines for all the parameters under study. Based on D2 values, the accessions were grouped into seven clusters. Average intra- and inter-cluster D2 values among 40 genotypes revealed that cluster II showed a minimum intra-cluster value of 3.793, indicating that the genotypes within this cluster were similar, while the cluster I showed maximum intra-cluster D2 value (4.681) revealing the existence of diverse genotypes in these clusters. The inter-cluster D2 values ranged from 4.657 to 7.174. The minimum inter-cluster D2 value was observed between cluster III and IV (4.657), indicating the close relationship among the genotypes included in these clusters. The maximum inter-cluster value was observed between cluster V and II (7.174), indicating that the genotypes included in these clusters had maximum divergence. Hence, hybridization between the genotypes included in these different clusters may give high heterotic responses and thus better segrigants are greatly suggested for selection and improvement of brinjal crop with good consumer preference and high fruit yield.

Keywords: Brinjal, D2 statistic, Genetic diversity, Solanum melongena L.


Effect of cold stress on boro rice seedlings

Priyanka Kumari* and H. K. Jaiswal

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kpriyanka.choudhary@gmail.com

Received: October 6, 2016; Revised received: February 7, 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017

Abstract: Cold stress at seedling stage is a major constraint in boro rice production. Nine boro rice lines were crossed in diallel fashion excluding reciprocals to obtain 36 crosses. All the 36 crosses along with parents were grown in nursery in three seasons (boro-2014, kharif-2015 and boro-2015). Performance of seedlings for survival per cent, chlorophyll content, relative water content, membrane stability index was recorded just before transplanting in all the three seasons. Scoring for cold tolerance was done in both boro seasons. Gautam showed highest survival rate over three seasons. Among crosses, IR 64 x Krishna Hamsa showed highest survival (84%)  in boro-2014, MTU 1010 x Jaya (86.33%) in boro-2015 and MTU 1010 x Krishna Hamsa (95.67%) in kharif-2015. Jaya x Krishna Hamsa was most cold tolerant cross over both boro seasons. Significant positive correlation was observed among survival per cent, chlorophyll content, relative water content and membrane stability index over seasons.

Keywords: Chlorophyll content, Cold tolerance, Membrane stability index, Relative water content, Seedlings


Estimation of yield and grain qualities of marker assisted backcross derived lines of submergence rice against sheath blight disease

S. K. Ghritlahre2, Mahesh Rao4, S. L. Pavani3, Vineeta Singh3, U. S. Singh5, Sandhya1 and P. K. Singh1*

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, INDIA

2Current address: Crop Improvement Division, National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, (Odisha), INDIA

3Department Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, INDIA

4National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, INDIA

5International Rice Research Institute-Stress Tolerant Rice for Africa and South Asia, India Office, Rajendra Place, New Delhi, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pksbhu@gmail.com

Received:  October 6, 2016; Revised received: February 14, 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017

Abstract: Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa) and causes enormous yield losses over the world after blast, the disease can cause yield loss upto 50 per cent in advanced stage and adversely affects quality of straw. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. In this study, our findings showed a significant increase in number of spikelet’s per panicle (3.45 %), test weight (0.62 %) and grain yield (0.72 %) compared to recurrent parent Swarna sub-1. The range of mean performance of 18 BC2F1 selected improved lines varied for per cent disease severity from 26.75 to 43.58 at 16 days after inoculation. Among the 18 improved lines, only four lines (Swarna sub-1-6, Swarna sub-1-32, Swarna sub-1-13 and Swarna sub-1-29) showed resistance score of 1-3. The remaining fourteen lines showed moderate resistance with a score of 3-5. Hence, the resistance line could be exploited in sheath blight resistance breeding programme and the same line can also be released as a variety against sheath blight of rice after testing over multilocation trails.   

Keywords: Per cent disease severity, Sheath blight, Rice, Yield per plant


Biocontrol of toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from the root tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F) using its rhizospheric mycoflora

Yashasvita Chauhan

Mycology Research Lab, Department of Botany, Agra College, Agra (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: yashasvita.tulip@gmail.com

Received: October 18, 2016; Revised received: March 2, 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017

Abstract: Miraculous herb safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F), family liliaceae, is well recognized for its immense potential as an aphrodisiac. The root tubers of this herbal drug were found to be invested with Aspergillus flavus during field and storage. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the ability of 26 co-existing rhizospheric mycoflora to inhibit A. flavus invasion and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of safed musli. The interaction of these moulds with highly toxigenic strain (CB55) of A. flavus was evaluated by dual culture method and type of interaction was graded. Most likely antagonistic effects were shown by fifteen (15) moulds, out of which Type ‘C’ interaction was evidenced in the case of six moulds; A. clavatus, A. terreus, Botryotrichum piluliferum, Candida albicans, Cephalosporium acremonium, and Cunninghamella sp. Further, ‘D’ type interaction  was displayed by seven moulds which include A. niger, Colletotrichum sp., Drechslera sp., Mucor haemalis, Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus arrhizus and Stachybotrys atra and ‘E’ type interaction was noted in the case of Trichoderma viride and Trihcothecium roseum. Regarding human health it is critical to use an ecofriendly approach to control the invasion of toxigenic moulds with root tubers of safed musli.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Safed musli, Rhizosphere mycoflora


Effect of storage conditions, packing materials and seed treatments on viability and seedling vigour of onion (Allium cepa l.) seeds

J. B. Patel*, C. A. Babariya, Jyoti Sondarva, K. H. Ribadiya and V. J. Bhatiya

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh–362001 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jbpatelvasai38@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: February 8, 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out from July 2013 to July 2015, wherein 100 g of fresh quality seed of onion cv. GWO 1 was having high germination percentage and moisture content below 8 per cent. The treatment consisted of two storage conditions (C) viz., C1 (Ambient temperature) and C2 (Cold storage at 70C + 20C); two packing materials (P) viz., P1 = Cloth Bag and P2 = Polythene Bag (500 gauge = 125 µ), and five seed treatments (S) viz., S1 = Control, S2 = Carbendazim @ 2g/kg seed, S3 = Mancozeb @ 2g/kg seed, S4 = Thirum @ 3g/kg seed, and S5 = Neem leaf powder @ 10g / kg seed. After proper mixing or smearing the seeds as per the treatments, seeds were packed and stored as per treatments. Observations were recorded at 90 days interval on viability and vigour parameters. The results revealed that seed stored under cold storage (7±2 °C) and in polyethylene bags (500 gauge) noted significantly higher values for all the characters even after two years of storage. All the treatment combinations of seed stored under cold storage gave more than 70 per cent germination (As per ISTA standard) even after two years of storage, of which, seed treated with thirum @ 3g/kg seed was the best treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that seed of onion can be stored up to two year in cold storage packed in polyethylene bag without or with seed treatment without deterioration in germination and seedling vigour.

Keywords: Ambient, Cold storage, ISTA, Onion, Packing materials, Seed treatment


Biochemical assessment of nutritional status in Indian mustard

Nisha Kumari1*, Ram Avtar2, Bunty Sharma1, Babita Rani1, Veena Jain1 and R.K. Sheoran2

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Oilseeds Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nishaahlawat211@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: February 14, 2017; Accepted: May 10, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the nutritional potential of five different Indian mustard genotypes. Fatty acid composition was determined in the oil, whereas seed meal was analyzed for limiting amino acids (tryptophan and methionine), protein content, glucosinolate content and antioxidant potential (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity and iron chelating activity). The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found to be maximum in RH 0749 (58.70 %) followed by RH (OE) 0801 (48.91 %), JM 6011 (47.03 %), EC 597328 and EC 597340 (45.77 %). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were observed maximum in EC 597340 (47.45 %).Glucosinolate content ranged from 42.80 (EC 597328) to 79.79 μmole/g defatted seed meal (EC 597340). The methanolic seed meal extract exhibited a concentration dependent elimination of DPPH free radicals. All the five genotypes showed about 50 % inhibition in 3.0 mg of dry seed meal. The highest total antioxidant activity (20.41mg/g) and metal ion chelating activity (32.58 %) was observed in RH 0749. Protein content varied from 33.57 [RH (OE) 0801] to 38.01 % (RH 0749). Maximum methionine and tryptophan content were recorded in RH 0749 (0.99 and 1.01 g/100g protein, respectively). Thus, RH 0749 was observed as a potent variety in terms of total antioxidant activity, metal ion chelating activity, protein content, methionine and tryptophan content.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Fatty acids, Glucosinolates, Methoinine, Protein


Effect of agro-input management practices on yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under vertisols of Chhattisgarh, India

Rajkamal Patel1*, Sanjay K. Dwivedi1 and R. K. Patel2

1Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi KrishiVishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh), INDIA

2Department of Agriculture, Government of Chhattisgarh (Chahattisgarh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: raazpatel24@gmail.com

Received: July 22, 2016; Revised received: February 16, 2017; Accepted: May 10, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of agro-input management practices on yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, (C.G.) during Rabi 2015-16. Different agro input management practices had significant (P=0.05) effect on growth, yield attributes and yield of linseed. However, seed rates did not give significant influence on seed yield. Whereas, application of RDF + FYM placement in rows @ 5 t ha-1 (N3) recorded significantly (P=0.05) higher growth parameters viz. plant height (88.44 cm), primary branches plant-1 (3.83), secondary branches plant-1 (23.39), dry matter accumulation (6.76 g plant-1) and yield attributes viz. capsules plant-1 (30.86), seeds capsule-1(7.63), seeds plant-1 (235.32), seed yield (2100 kg ha-1) and stover yield (4885 kg ha-1). In case of foliar spray, application of 2 % urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3) gave significantly higher growth parameters viz. plant height (88.37 cm), primary branches plant-1(3.82), secondary branches plant-1 (23.68), dry matter accumulation (6.59 g plant-1) and yield attributes viz. capsules plant-1(31.74), seeds capsule-1(7.63), seeds plant-1 (241.38), seed yield (2089 kg ha-1) and stover yield (4772 kg ha-1). Interaction among seed rate 30 kg ha-1 (S2) X RDF 60:30:30 N: P: K kg ha-1 (N1) with foliar application of 2 % urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3) (S2 XN1X F3) recorded the highest benefit-cost ratio (4.39). Line placement of FYM was better than broadcasting in terms of seed yield; and foliar application of urea was economical than Nitrobenzene.

Keywords: Economics, FYM, linseed, Yield attributes, Yield


Validation of integrated pest management module against insect pests of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan in Tarai region of Uttarakhand

R.P. Maurya*, Meena Agnihotri, S. Tiwari and L.B. Yadav

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rpmaurya_etno@rediffmail.com

Received: August 2, 2016; Revised received: January 27, 2017; Accepted: May 12, 2017

Abstract: Experiments on validation of integrated pest management (IPM) module against insect pest of pigeonpea in comparison with the Non-IPM (farmer’s practices) were conducted at N.E.B. Crop Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar during Kharif 2014 and 2015. Adopted IPM module contained Seed treatment with Trichoderma spp. @10g/kg of seed, Sole crop, Bird perches @ 50/ha, need based insecticides spray (Chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC @ 30 g a. i./ha; Neem soap@10g/lit; Acetamiprid 20SP @ 20 g a. i./ha). The results indicated that minimum population of pod borers (Helicoverpa armigera,Maruca vitrata and podfly) and sucking insects (aphids, jassids, pod bug) was reported in IPM plots and maximum population of insects was observed in Non-IPM plots. Percent insect control over non-IPM was 50.98 % for H. armigera, 44.69 % for M. vitrata and 19.17 % for Maruca webbing were recorded. While, for sucking pest complex, insect control over non-IPM was 51.59 %, 40.36 % and 36.17 % against jassids, aphids and tur pod bug, respectively. Similarly, minimum pod borer damage (6.48 and 7.71 %) was recorded in IPM plots as compared to maximum pod borer damage (8.37 and 8.22 %) in non-IPM plots, respectively during 2014 and 2015. Whereas, pooled grain yield for IPM plots was 1286.5 kg/ha for both seasons as against 888 kg/ha in non-IPM plots with 1:2.89 benefit cost ratio. Hence, It is apparent that studied IPM module was able to increase the yield of pigeonepea with lower cost of production as against non-IPM thus it would be benefiting the farmers.

Keywords: Insect pests, IPM, Non-IPM, Pigeon pea, Validation.


Effect of dates of sowing and varieties on yield and quality of cluster bean (Cyamopsistetra gonoloba L.)

Sunil Kumar1*, M. Martin Luther1, Vikram Kumar2 and K. Hemalatha2
1Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College, Bapatla-522 101(Andhra Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Agronomy, Institute of agricultural sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: skumar21787@gmail.com
Received: September 13, 2016; Revised received: February 13, 2017; Accepted: May 25, 2017
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla (Andhra Pradesh), study the effect of different sowing dates on the yield and quality of different varieties of clusterbean. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design replicated thrice, six dates of sowing from 15th September to 1st December at fifteen days interval and two clusterbean varieties viz. RGC-936 and RGC-1003. Results revealed that growth parameters, yield attributes, yield (1568 kg ha-1) and quality parameters viz. gum content (31.6 %), protein content (30.1 %) and viscosity (3783 cP) were highest with RGC-1003 sown at 15thNovember, which was at par with 1st December sowing with same variety. The study results showed that the clusterbean crop can be grown successfully in non-traditional area as a rabi crop.
Keywords: Cluster bean, Quality, Sowing dates, Varieties, Yield

Induced chlorophyll mutations in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum)

Sonia Sood*, Sanjay Jambhulkar1, Yudhvir Singh, Nivedita Gupta and Saloni Sharma

Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur - 176 062 (H.P) , INDIA

1NA and BTD, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai - 400085 (Maharashtra) , INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: soniasood2005@rediffmail.com

Received: August 21, 2016; Revised received: February 9, 2017; Accepted: May 12, 2017

Abstract: An investigation entitled “Induced chlorophyll mutations in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum)” was conducted during kharif (summer-rainy season) 2012 and 2013 at Experimental farm of the Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, H.P., India. Healthy seeds of California Wonder of bell pepper were exposed to physical mutagen Gamma rays using 60CO as a source of radiation at Mutation Breeding Centre, Department of Biotechnology, BARC Trombay, Mumbai and chemical mutagen EMS (Ethyl Methane Sulphonate) to obtain the spectrum and frequency of chlorophyll mutations in M2 generation. The M1 generation was produced from these mutagen treated seeds. Several unique and interesting chlorophyll and viable mutants were obtained in M2 generation. In M2 generation, gamma rays induced higher proportion of chlorophyll mutants then EMS. A progressive increase in mutation frequency of chlorophyll mutations was observed with increasing doses/concentrations. Four different types of chlorophyll mutants namely xantha, yellow xantha, chlorina and viridis were induced. Out of these mutants, chlorina and viridis were most frequent and were produced even in lower doses/concentrations while yellow xantha was least frequent and produced only in higher doses. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations (18.8 %) was reported in the 22 kR of gamma dose, while the lowest (0.80 %) frequency of chlorophyll mutations was found in the treatment of 1.0 % EMS. There was a dose dependent increase in the spectrum and frequency of chlorophyll mutations. These chlorophyll mutants induced by gamma radiation and EMS could be used in mutation breeding programme for inducing viable mutations for improvement of bell pepper varieties.

Keywords: Bell pepper, Chlorophyll mutants, Spectrum, Frequency, Gamma rays, Ethyl methane sulphonate


Potential of Inula racemosa root extract and its fractions to suppress root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Ramandeep Kaur1, K. K. Chahal1*, N. K. Dhillon2 and Urvashi Bhardwaj1

1Department of Chemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drkkchahal@pau.edu

Received: August 27, 2016; Revised received: February 8, 2017; Accepted: May 12, 2017

Abstract: Nematicidal potential of chloroform root extract of Inula racemosa and its fractions was investigated on egg hatching and mortality of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Egg masses and second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita were exposed to different concentrations (0.1-8.0 mg ml-1) of I. racemosa root extract and its fractions. Observations on egg hatch were recorded on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th day and those of mortality studies were recorded on 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th day, respectively. Significant mortality as well as egg hatch inhibition was observed for all the tested components at 5 %. The root extract was found to be most effective in controlling egg hatching as complete inhibition was observed at 8.0 mg ml-1 concentration on 1stday of treatment and nonpolar fraction was most effective in causing mortality of J2 of M. incognita as 100 % inhibition was observed at 6.0 and 8.0 mg ml-1 concentration on 2nd day of treatment. Maximum inhibition of egg hatching was observed for root extract at 8.0 mg ml-1 concentration and 100 % mortality was observed for root extract as well as nonpolar fraction at the same concentration. The nonpolar fraction was most effective in causing mortality as maximum mortality was observed at 6.0 and 8.0 mg ml-1 concentration throughout the exposure time. Polar fraction was least effective among all the components both in egg hatch inhibition and J2 mortality of M. incognita. Both the activities showed concentrations as well as time dependence. Results show different role of tested components on egg hatching and mortality of root knot nematode. The root extract of I. racemosa and its fractions showed a potential to develop new nematicide.

Keywords: Asteraceae, Egg hatching, Juvenile, Root knot nematode, Soxhlet extraction

Role of Information and communication technology (ICT) in agriculture and extension

Anil Kumar Rohila*, Krishan Yadav and B. S. Ghanghas

Department of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rohillaextension@gmail.com

Received: September 4, 2016; Revised received: January 11, 2017; Accepted: May 12, 2017

Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) aids provide up-to-date information on the market prices of commodities, inputs and consumer trends which ultimately can improve a farmer's negotiating position and their livelihood. Major aspect of ICT is that accurate information should reach the farmers at the right time to make more sustainable use of on-farm resources. Now the question arises that how this information can be disseminated to such a diverse group of the farming community. ICT is going to play greater role in agricultural extension as well as private sector agribusiness, market information and market intelligence. Here this paper review the role of ICT not only in providing greater awareness and knowledge in agriculture technology and information but also in terms of farmer’s attitudes towards trying to adopt new technologies.

Keywords: Agricultural, Cyber, ICTs, Impact and extension


Creating variability through interspecific hybridization and its utilization for genetic improvement in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

Simranjeet Kaur*, T. S. Bains and Pritpal Singh

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: simransidhu331@gmail.com

Received: September 7, 2016; Revised received: February 9, 2017; Accepted: May 15, 2017

Abstract: Interspecific hybridization is important for genetic enhancement of crop plants. The present study was conducted to study genetic variation in advanced interspecific lines of mungbean for yield and its component traits, to determine the association among different traits and their contribution towards seed yield through correlation and path coefficient analysis. A set of 64 genotypes including 51 advanced interspecific lines derived from mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) × urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper)  and mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) × ricebean (Vignaumbellata Thumb.) crosses and 13 parents (mungbean, urdbean and ricebean) was the experimental material for this study. The mean sums of squares for genotypes were highly significant for all the traits. Mean sum of squares for replications were also highly significant for all traits except days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity and harvest index at 1 % and 5 % level of significance. This indicated substantial magnitude of diversity and variability in the interspecific lines and parents under study, which could be further exploited. High to moderate PCV and GCV along with high heritability and genetic advance was observed for biological yield per plant, seed yield per plant and plant height, indicating that these traits could be easy targets for phenotypic selection and consequently, may be improved genetically via simple plant selection methods. On the basis of correlation studies, it could be concluded that all the traits under investigation except number of seeds per pod and harvest index were important for selection for yield improvement. Path analysis further revealed that harvest index could also be one of the criteria of selection for higher yield in these interspecific lines.

Keywords: Correlation, Interspecific hybridization, Mungbean, Path analysis, Variability


Effect of weed management on yield and nutrient uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea)

Sumitra Devi Bamboriya1*, M.K. Kaushik1, Shanti Devi Bamboriya2 and Priyanka Kumawat1

1Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110 012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:sumisaani@gmail.com

Received: September 11, 2016; Revised received: January 31, 2017; Accepted: May 15, 2017

Abstract: Field investigation was carried out during rabi season of 2014-15 at Udaipur to evaluate the effect of different weed management practices on yield and nutrient uptake of mustard. The maximum seed yield was registered with two hand weeding (1955.25 kg ha-1) except weed free check and was at par with fluazifop-p-butyl 0.055 kg ha-1 10 DAS + hoeing 40 DAS and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 0.075 kg ha-110 DAS + hoeing 40 DAS. The highest amount of total N, P and K (112.61, 25.31 and 76.90 kg ha-1, respectively) was removed by mustard in weed free treatment followed by two hand weeding while the lowest N, P and K with the values of 70.11, 16.05 and 51.86 kg ha-1, respectively was removed by weedy check followed by isoproturon 0.75 kg ha ha-1. Among the weed management practices, the total uptake of N, P and K by weeds was found significantly less in all the weed management practices as compared to weedy check(5.87, 0.86 and 5.51 kg ha-1, respectively). The least nutrient depletion by weeds was registered with the hand weeding twice (0.52, 0.08 and 0.49 kg ha-1, respectively) followed by fluazifop-p-butyl 0.055 kg ha-1 10 DAS + hoeing 40 DAS and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 0.075 kg ha-110 DAS + hoeing 40 DAS. Use of post emergence herbicides of ‘fop’ group such as fluazifop-p-butyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (which are mostly used in soybean and groundnut crop) in indian mustard found most effective in controlling grassy weeds in early stage whereas at latterly, one hoeing 40 DAS  was found effective  in controlling grassy as well as broad leaved weeds under irrigated conditions.

Keywords: Herbicides, Mustard, Nutrient uptake, Weed management


Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) genetic resources for climate change intervention and its future breeding

Vikender Kaur1*, Rashmi Yadav1 and D.P. Wankhede2

1Germplasm Evaluation Division, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA

2Division of Genomic Resources, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi- 110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Vikender.Kaur@icar.gov.in

Received: September 12, 2016; Revised received: February 3, 2017; Accepted: May 15, 2017

Abstract: Linseed or flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), a multiple purpose crop valued for its seed oil, fibre, probiotic and nutraceutical properties, is adapted to different environments and agro-ecologies. Modern breeding techniques using only limited number of selected varieties have resulted in a loss of specific alleles and thus, reduction in total genetic diversity relevant to climate-smart agriculture. However, well-curated collections of landraces, wild linseed accessions and other Linum species exist in the gene banks and are important sources of new alleles. This review is primarily focused on the studies of genetic diversity of linseed species and evaluation related to tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress factors that could be useful for improving linseed through future promising breeding programs in addition to briefly discussing different morphotypes and nutraceutical importance. Wide diversity in linseed germplasm indicates a considerable potential for improving this crop for both agronomic and quality traits required for developing climate-resilience tailored to specific environments. Recent release of the flax genome sequence coupled with wide range of genomic and analytical tools in public domain has furthered understanding of molecular mechanisms for detailed study of the genes underlying flax adaptation to stress and diversity in commercially important accessions. Important climate related traits and their constituent genes are presented and key developments for the future highlighted emphasizing the urgent need to increase the use of genetically diverse germplasm to meet the emerging challenges in agricultural production and to conserve valuable genetic resources for the future.

Keywords: Climate change, Genebank, Genetic resources, Germplasm characterization, Linseed


A rapid and reproducible method for isolating genomic DNA from a few crop plants suitable for polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping

Vikash Kumar, Pawan Kumar, Tirthartha Chattopadhyay*

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bihar Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tirthartha@gmail.com

Received: September 22, 2016; Revised received: January 24, 2017; Accepted: May 15, 2017

Abstract: As most of the molecular markers in crop molecular breeding programmes are successful based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the isolated genomic DNA must be suitable for the same. Though PCR is a robust method and in most of the cases requires only a minute amount of genomic DNA as template, removal of potential PCR-inhibitory factors is quite important. The present work reports the optimization of a rapid genomic DNA isolation method, suitable for PCR-based genotyping of plants. As very minute amount of the genomic DNA isolated in this rapid method was found to be sufficient for PCR, a researcher is capable to go for several hundred independent PCR from single isolation. The method was validated in 4 different crops (wheat, tomato, brinjal and cauliflower) using different PCR-based molecular markers. In case of wheat, genomic DNA isolated in this method was found to be suitable PCR using the specific marker for the detection of the Lr34 gene. For tomato, genomic DNA isolated in this method was successfully used with the molecular markers for the detection of resistance alleles for yellow leaf curl disease and root knot disease. In case of brinjal, the isolated genomic DNA was found to be suitable for simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker assay. In a similar way, genomic DNA isolated in this method from cauliflower leaves was observed to be suitable for amplifying a gene of ~1.5 kb length. Thus, this method will be quite helpful to expedite marker assisted selection of plants in plant molecular breeding programmes.

Keywords: Genomic DNA, Molecular markers, polymerase Chain Reaction, Rapid method, SDS-potassium acetate method


Nitrogen release kinetics of organic nutrient sources in two benchmark soils of Indo-Gangetic plains

Manpreet S. Mavi*, B. S. Sekhon, Jagdeep Singh and O. P. Choudhary

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 ( Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mavims16@pau.edu

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: February 15, 2017; Accepted: May 15, 2017

Abstract: An understanding of the mineralization process of organic amendments in soil is required to synchronize N release with crop demand and protect the environment from excess N accumulation. Therefore, we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment to assess nitrogen mineralization potential of crop residues (rice and wheat straw) and organic manures (poultry manure, farmyard manure, cowpea and sesbania) in two benchmark soils (Typic Haplustept and Typic Ustifluvents) of semi-arid region of Punjab, India, varying in textureat field capacity moisture level at a constant temperature of 331°C. Mineralization was faster during first 7 days of incubation in Typic Haplustept and upto 14 days in Typic Ustifluvents which subsequently declined over time. In both soils, net N mineralization continued to increase with increasing period of incubation (expect with crop residues) and was significantly higher in Typic Ustifluvents (54-231µg g-1) than Typic Haplustept (33-203 µg g-1). Compared to unamended soils, percent N mineralized was highest is sesbania (35-40 %) followed by cowpea (32-37 %) and least in wheat (10-11 %) after 42 days of incubation. Thus, sesbania and cowpea may preferably be used to meetthe large N demand during early period of plant growth. Further, mineralization rate constants (k) also indicated that availability of mineral N was significantly higher with application of organic amendments than unamended control treatments in both soils. Therefore, it may be concluded that considerable economy in the use of inorganic N fertilizer can be employed if N mineralization potential of organic inputs is taken into consideration.

Keywords: Crop residues, Organic manures, Mineralization, Kinetics, Soil texture



People’s participation in joint forest management in higher hills of Himachal Pradesh

Chandresh Guleria1*, Manoj Kumar Vaidya1, K. Kireeti1 and Chaman Negi4

1Department of Social Sciences, College of Forestry, Dr.Yaswant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad-500030 (Telengana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. guleriachandresh88@gmail.com

Received: May 17, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: May 16, 2017

Abstract: Joint Forest Management (JFM) is an effort which involved people to participate for the protection, conservation and rehabilitation of forests whilst safeguarding the rights of forest dwellers. Women and other marginalized sections of the community need to be empowered to ensure their participation in JFM (Aggarwal and Chauhan, 2015). Such programmes while ensuring the conservation of flora and fauna, also provided stability for the agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and local cottage industries and thus, help in all round economic development (Bhatia, 2000). The present study analysed the people’s participation in different stages of JFM programmes in the higher hills of Himachal Pradesh (Sundernagar and Kullu forest division). The results showed that people of age group 40-60 years participated most in the JFM programme. The participation of the general category people was found highest followed by scheduled caste, other backward class and scheduled tribe. The literacy rate of the respondents was found to be 98.51 percent while the literacy index was found to be 2.51 representing level of education in between middle class and higher secondary. In both the regions participation of people was found maximum during maintenance stage followed by planning stage and implementation stage. The overall participation index was found to be 61.91 per cent. The capacity building through training and awareness can help in safeguarding livelihood and conservation efforts of JFM.

Keywords: Implementation, JFM, Maintenance, Planning and PPI

Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and IBA treatments on rooting in cuttings of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) clonal rootstock Merton 793

Pramod Verma1*, P. S. Chauhan2 and J. S. Chandel1

Department of Fruit Science, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan – 173230 (H.P.), INDIA

2College of Horticulture, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan – 173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: verma.pramod92@gmail.com

Received: June 29, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: May 17, 2017

Abstract: The preliminary studies on the effect of different strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) alone and in combination with IBA at 1000 ppm on rooting in cuttings of apple clonal rootstock Merton 793 were carried out during 2012-13. The PGPR strains (RG (1)3 – Bacillus sp.), B6 – Bacillus licheniformis and R3 (3) – Sirretia sp. alone failed to induce rooting response in cuttings of apple clonal rootstock Merton 793. The results revealed that IBA 2500 ppm recorded the maximum rooting (65 %), number of primary roots (5.00), length (28.43 cm) and diameter (3.25 mm) of primary roots, fresh (3.67 g) and dry weight (2.59 g) of roots, length of main shoot (134.14cm), diameter of main shoot (8.18 mm), fresh (30.40 g) and dry weight (22.60 g) of shoots in cuttings of Merton 793. However, the PGPR strains RG (1)3 – Bacillus sp., B6 – Bacillus licheniformis and R3 (3) – Sirretia sp. in combination with IBA 1000 ppm showed improvement in rooting of cuttings to the extent of 10, 15 and 5 per cent rooting, respectively and growth of the rooted plants. IBA at 2500 ppm resulted better rooting and growth of rooted plants. Hence, this treatment is suggested for commercial propagation of apple clonal rootstock Merton 793 through cuttings.

Keywords: Apple, IBA, Merton 793, PGPR, Rooting


Determination of heavy metal pollution index of ground water of village Wallipur in Ludhiana district

Singla Chetan1* Sanjay T. Satpute2 and Garg Sunil2

1Director Farms, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: chetan_singla@pau.edu

Received: July 20, 2016; Revised received: February 8, 2017; Accepted: May 17, 2017

Abstract: The objective of the study was to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metals contamination near Buddha Nullah in Ludhiana district. To get the extent of trace metals contamination, groundwater samples from tube wells were randomly collected from 16 different points on both sides along the course of Buddha Nullah from areas of Bhamian Kalan, Khasi Kalan and Wallipur Kalan villages of Ludhiana district during first fortnight of June (Pre-monsoon), first fortnight of November (Post-monsoon) and first fortnight of January (Winter season) during the year 2013-14. The concentrations of toxic and heavy metals such as metalloids B, As, Pb; alkaline earth metals Mg, Ca; alkali metals Na, K; transition metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and nonmetal S were determined. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) was calculated. Most of the parameters were found within permissible limit of BIS, 2004. The average values of concentration of Ca, Cr, Mn, As and Pb for pre-monsoon season was higher than average concentration of post-monsoon and winter season. Overall HPI calculated based on the mean concentration of the heavy metals was found to be 18.11, 15.32 and 16.10 for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter season, respectively, which was below the critical pollution index value of 100. The study recommended proper treatment to the sewage water which is being discharged into the Buddha Nullah.

Keywords: Buddha Nullah, Groundwater pollution, Heavy metal pollution index, Ludhiana


Effect of planting geometry and training on growth and seed yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Gulshan Ansari1, Manohar Lal1*, H. S. Kanwar2, Rajesh Kanwar1 and Rohit Verma1

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (H.P.), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manoharlal647@gmail.com

Received: July 24, 2016; Revised received: February 28, 2017; Accepted: May 17, 2017

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting geometry and training on growth and seed yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) using cultivar Solan Lalima during Kharif 2013 at Experimental Farm of Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P.). The treatments comprised of four training levels i.e. Y1 (single stem), Y2 (double stem), Y3 (unpruned with horizontal string) and Y4 (unpruned bush stakes (control)) and eight plant densities viz. S1 (60×15 cm), S2 (60+30×15 cm), S3 (60×30 cm), S4 (60+30×30 cm), S5 (90×15 cm), S6 (90+30×15 cm), S7 (90×30 cm) and S8 (90+30×30 cm). Analysis of variance showed that the treatment combination Y1S7 (single stem and plant spaced at 90×30 cm) resulted in maximum ripe fruit length and width (5.86 cm and 5.06 cm, respectively), maximum number of seeds/fruit (110.67), minimum days to ripe fruit harvest (71.00) and maximum harvest duration (59.84 days) but gave the low seed yield. The combination Y2S5 (double stem and 90×15 cm) resulted highest seed yield i.e. 519.71 kg per hectare. Therefore, planting density S5 (90x15 cm) in combination with training system Y2 (double stem) may be recommended for commercial seed production of tomato.

Keywords: Cultivar, Plant density, Seed Yield, Training levels


Integrated nutrient management of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson) grown in a typic haplaquept soil

Sayan Majumder1*, Tapas Kumar Halder2 and Dipankar Saha1

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741252, District-Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

2Assistant Director of Agriculture (Research), State Soil Testing Laboratory, Tollygaunge, Kolkata-700040 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author.  E-mail: 1991sayan@gmail.com

Received: August 10, 2016; Revised received:  February 21, 2017; Accepted: May 17, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to study the influence of integrated nutrient management on fertility build up in a Typic Haplaquept soil as well as its effect on yield and quality parameters of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson).  Treatments comprised of recommended doses of N, P and K fertilizers (RDF) in presence and absence of FYM along with different doses of S and Zn either alone or in combination. Results revealed that in general, available N, P, K, S and Zn in soil decreased with increase in the period of crop growth. Addition of FYM increased organic carbon content in soils (upto 104.98 g kg-1increase over initial value). Application of elemental S and Zn-EDTA increased SO4-2 content (upto 101.03 kg ha-1 increase over initial value) in S-treated and DTPA extractable Zn content (upto 0.3 mg kg-1 increase over initial value) in Zn-treated systems respectively. Combined application of higher doses of S and Zn along with FYM and recommended doses of N, P and K fertilizers increased N, P, K, S and Zn uptake by rapeseed crop. Highest seed yield (14.2 q ha-1) as well as oil (43.2 %) and protein contents (21.82 %) were recorded in rapeseed which received comparatively higher doses of S and Zn along with FYM and RDF.

Keywords: FYM, INM, Oil and protein content, RDF, Sulphur and zinc

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation on enzymatic activity and zinc uptake under direct seeded rice system

Ranjeet Kumar and Mahendra Singh*

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, BAU, Sabour-813210, Bhagalpur (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mahendra_saini_soil@yahoo.com

Received: August 18, 2016; Revised received: February 21, 2017; Accepted: May 20, 2017

Abstract: The application of treatment T3 (Glomus mosseae + 100 % RDF NK) produced significantly more root volume by 72.60 %, 17.80 %, 12.25 %, 14.13 % over the application of treatment T1 (Control), treatment T5 (Glomus coronatum+ 100 % RDF NK), T6 (Gigasporadecipein + 100 % RDF NK) and T7 (BAU AM-1(Glomus sp + 100 % RDF NK), respectively. Similar trend shows at harvesting stage, here the maximum root volume (23c.c) was recorded by the application of T3 (Glomus mosseae + 100 % RDF NK).  Maximum AM colonization and spore count was observed at panicle initiation stage with the application of treatment T3 (Glomus mosseae + 100 % RDF NK). This treatment also gave maximum dehydrogenase activity (55.86 µg TPF g-1 24 hr-1), acid phosphatase activity (0.299 mg PNP g-1 hr-1) and alkaline phosphatase activity (0.54 mg PNP g-1 hr-1) at panicle initiation stage. Application of treatment T3 (Glomus mosseae + 100 % RDF NK) significantly increased DTPA extractable Zn in soil and Zn content in plant when compared with all the treatments except treatment T6 (Gigasporadecipien+ 100 % RDF NK). The maximum zinc uptake (0.056 mg pot-1) by grain was recorded under treatment T3 (Glomus mosseae + 100 % RDF NK) followed by application of treatment T6 (Gigasporadecipien + 100 % N and K). Highest grain yield (14.08 g pot-1) was found with the treatment T3 (Glomus mosseae + 100 % RDF NK). As evident from the results, the AM fungal inoculation can effectively modify the soil microbe population and community structure by increasing the soil enzymatic activities and significantly increased the zinc uptake by grain in direct seeded rice (DSR).

Keywords: DSR, Mycorrhiza, Rice yield, Soil enzyme, Spore count, Zinc uptake


Influence of rice varieties and fertility levels on performance of rice and soil nutrient status under aerobic conditions

Sandeep Kumar1*, Sarabdeep Kour2, Meenakshi Gupta1, Dileep Kachroo1 and Hari Singh3

1Division of Agronomy,  Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha, Jammu-180009 (J&K), INDIA

2Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha, Jammu-180009 (J&K), INDIA

3College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agriculture University, Bikaner (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sksandeepkumarrao@gmail.com; hsagro666@gmail.com

Received: September 4, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: May 20, 2017

Abstract: Scarcity of water resources in India is limiting the production of flooded rice crop. A field experiment was conducted in  factorial RBD with sixteen treatment combinations including four rice varieties viz. V1: PR-115, V2: DRRH-3, V3: PAC-837 and V3: PR-121 and four fertility levels viz. F1: control (N0P0K0), F2: N, P2O5, K2O at 90: 45: 22.5 kg ha-1, F3: N, P2O5, K2O at 120:60:30 kg ha-1 and F4: N, P2O5, K2O at 150: 75: 37.5 kg ha-1 replicated thrice. The results revealed that among the different varieties, PAC-837 recorded highest plant height and number of tillers m-2 at all the growth stages. All yield attributes viz. number of effective tillers m-2, number of seeds per panicle, 1000-grain weight, spikelet sterility and grain yield, straw yield and harvest index significantly differed in different varieties and were recorded highest in PAC-837 which were however, statistically at par with DRRH-3 except grain yield and effective tillers m-2. Rice variety PAC-837 recorded highest grain yield of 45.65 q ha-1 and straw yield of 59.98 q ha-1. Among the fertility levels, number of effective tillers m-2 significantly increased up to 120: 60: 30 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 thereafter nonsignificant differences were noticed. The grain and straw yield increased up to 150: 75: 37.5 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 and recoded grain yield of 52.78 q ha-1 and straw yield of 73.85 q ha-1 with application of 150:75:37.5 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1. Nutrient application of 150: 75: 37.5 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 recorded highest available N (238.16 kg ha-1), P (16.18 kg ha-1) and K (163.25 kg ha-1) in soil after harvest of the crop.  Higher available nitrogen (235.28 kg ha-1), phosphorus (16.38 kg ha-1) and potassium (154.24 kg ha-1) n soil were recorded with PR-121 and lowest available major nutrients were recorded with variety PAC-837. This study would help to introduction and adaptation of new rice variety PAC-837 with application of 150: 75: 37.5 N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1 under aerobic conditions in Shiwalik foothills region of North-Western Himalayas.

Keywords: Aerobic rice, Fertility levels, Productivity, Soil status, Varieties

Response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to fertigation by irrigation scheduling in drip irrigation system

Ankush*1, Vikram Singh2 and S. K. Sharma1

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ktankdhanda@gmail.com

Received: September 25, 2016; Revised received: February 23, 2017; Accepted: May 20, 2017

Abstract: Drip irrigation technique has proved its superiority over other methods of irrigation due to direct application of water and nutrient in the vicinity of root zone. A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation and fertigation scheduling through drip irrigation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Rabi season of 2015-16 at Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur. There were three irrigation levels and five fertilization levels in split-plot design with three replications. Nutrient content in plant and fruit was found higher under the application of drip irrigation at 100 % PE (I1) and at 100 % RDF through fertigation (F1). Maximum nutrient uptake by tomato i.e. nitrogen (166.83 kg ha-1), phosphorus (41.59 kg ha-1) and potassium (183.08 kg ha-1) was recorded with treatment combination of drip irrigation at 75 % PE (I2) + 75 % RDF through fertigation + 2 foliar spray of 1 % urea phosphate (F3). Similarly, significantly maximum yield and growth attributes i.e. fruit yield (201.25 q ha-1), plant height (67.43 cm) and number of branches (12.33) were registered with treatment combination of drip irrigation at 75 % PE and 75 % RDF through fertigation + 2 foliar spray of 1 % urea phosphate. Drip fertigation method has  proved to be very significant in improving nutrient uptake which finally resulting in enhancement of growth and yield of tomato crop.

Keywords: Fertigation, Growth, Nutrient content and uptake, Tomato, Yield

Association analysis for yield and related traits in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) under different environmental conditions

Preeti Yadav*, Sumit Deswal and Avtar Singh

Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: preetiyadav436@gmail.com

Received: September 25, 2016; Revised received: February 22, 2017; Accepted: May 20, 2017

Abstract: Sixteen diverse genotypes of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were grown in five (E1 to E5) environments which were created by different date of sowing during the rabi seasons at the Vegetable Farm of CCS HAU, Hisar. (29°15ˈN, 75°69ˈE) during 2012-13. Observations were recorded on ten randomly selected plants from each genotypes in each replications for characters viz. field emergence index, days to 50 % flowering, plant height, number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, seed yield (q/ha), test weight, seed germination, seed vigour index-I and II. The estimation of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients (GCV and PCV) variation in all the environments was consistently decreasing with the delaying in sowing date for all the character studied except plant height and test weight indicating that the environmental influence was comparatively more pronounced for these characters in expressing the phenotypic performance of different genotypes. Highest GCV and PCV was estimated as 50.36 % and 55.93 %, respectively for seed vigour index-I in E1. High value of heritability estimated for characters seed yield, seed vigour index-II, seed germination and branches per plant (above 70 %) in E1 revealed that these were less influenced by environment and low heritability estimated for days to 50 % flowering in E2, plant height in E2, seeds per pod in E3, field emergence index in E5 indicated high influence of environment. Based on environmental indices, the environment E2 was most favourable for all the characters studied except field emergence index.

Keywords: Environmental Indices, Fenugreek, GCV, Genetic advance, Heritability, PCV


Effect of barley malt, chickpea and peanut on quality of Barley based beverage

Isha Kaushik1*, R. Singh1 and Jyoti Prabha Bhisnoi2

1Center of Food Science and Technology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Amity institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur -303002 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ishakaushikfst@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: February 23, 2017; Accepted: May 20, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation had been done to optimize the effect of barley malt on production of barley based beverage. Malting of barley was carried out by steeping the cleaned and bold grains in tap water at 16°C for 2-3 days. The steeped grains were also germinated at 16°C for 2-3 days and the grains showing optimum growth were sorted out and kilning was done at 60°C for 1 day. Different levels of malted grain (i.e. 0, 1, 2, and 4 %) in barley extract were optimized. It was found that addition of 4 g malt to the extract was found to be effective in decreasing the viscosity and avoiding the formation of gruel like structure. There was non significant sensory change found on addition of roasted malt grain. Amylase activity of malt significantly increased on increasing time and no reducing sugars resulted at 90°C. Nutritive value of malted beverage was improved over control. Total soluble solids (TSS), viscosity, protein, fat, reducing sugar and total sugar of malted beverage was significantly increased as compared to control. Malted beverage was more organoleptically acceptable than control. Final beverage was made with 4 g malt, 25 g bengal gram and 15 g peanut per extract from 100 g barley with addition of sugar to 17°brix and homogenizing for proper mixing was autoclaved. Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy.

Keywords: Barley, Beverage, Bengal-gram, Malting, Peanut


Variation in physico-chemical properties of soil under different agri-horti system in Vindhyan region

Akankasha Ankita Ekka, Dileep Kumar*, Anand Prakash Singh and Awtar Singh

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.), INDIA

*Present Address: Micro Nutrient Research Project (ICAR), Anand Agricultural University, Anand 388110 (Gujarat) ,INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dileepdixit.bhu@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: December 6, 2016; Accepted: May 22, 2017

Abstract: Adoption of unsuitable production system may lead to deterioration of soil physico-chemical properties. Hence, it becomes important to assess the impact of various production systems. For this purpose, a study was carried out to find out variation in physico-chemical properties of soil in agri-horti system based four orchards of Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Mirzapur, India. Soil samples were collected from the orchards of custard apple (Annona reticulate), guava (Psidium guajava), bael (Aegle marmelos) and crane berry (Carissa carandas) from two depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm) separately within canopy and out of canopy of different plants. The results of the study revealed that all the agri-horti systems were effective in bringing gradual improvement in the physico-chemical properties of the soil. Among different orchards tried, the custard apple system resulted in the highest improvement in temperature (27.16 oC), moisture (24.53 %) and water-holding capacity (41.80 %), whereas crane berry based system recorded better result in case of bulk density, porosity, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon, available N (187.55 kg ha-1) and K (193.46 kg ha-1). Custard apple based system recorded highest DTPA extractable micronutrients (Zn 0.54, Fe 17.23, Cu 0.88 and Mn14.72 mg ka-1).

Keywords: Agri-harti based orchard, Depth of soil, Physico-chemical properties of soil, Plant canopy


A study on the causes for depletion of Kalayat wetland in Haryana province, India and its winter migratory birds’ diversity

Tirshem Kumar Kaushik1*, Rohtash Chand Gupta2 and Parveen Kumar Vats2

1Department of Biology, Govt. Senior Secondary School, Garhi Jattan, Indri, Karnal-132041, Haryana

2Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136118, Haryana

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tarshemkaushik@rediffmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: November 28, 2016; Accepted: May 22, 2017

Abstract: Kalayat wetland is a historical and religious natural lake having direct connection with a sage, writer, namely, “Kapil-Muni” who is revered in the echelons of Hindu thought as a authority of literary predicament and his epical compositions were composed on the moorings of this very wetland. The objective of this research work is to singularly emphasize on the silently ongoing process of depletion of age-old wetland on a very fast rate in Haryana province of India. In the present research work, a total of 57 species of wetland birds belonging to 8 orders and 15 families were recorded. Out of the 57 species of wetland birds, 29 species of birds were winter migratory, 18 species resident and 7 species were Local migratory. The major causes of extinction of this historical lake of immense universal importance includes its renovation and supposedly rejuvenation by constructing cemented brick wall and consequently destroying the age old aquatic plants and animal, purely decimating the trophic structure. In addition, land filling deliberate and subsequent encroachment has spelled havoc with vast sheet of water. Resultantly, migratory birds coming in winter to Kalayat Wetland from far off places like Ladakh, Siberia, Russia and central Asia have stopped coming.

Keywords: Avian diversity, Haryana, Kalayat-Sarovar, Migratory birds, Rural Ponds


Effect of different organic inputs and transplanting dates on seed quality parameters of radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

D. P. Singh*, S. C. Verma, H. K. Sharma, D. K. Mehta, K. S. Thakur and N. K. Bharat

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Entomology and Vegetable Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: d.p.singhag@gmail.com

Received: June 22, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: May 22, 2017

Abstract: An investigation was carried out during two consecutive years (2014-15 and 2015-16) at experimental farm of Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-273230 (H. P.). The experiment was conducted on effect of different organic inputs like vermicompost, FYM, Azotobactor, PSB and PGPR and transplanting dates on seed quality attributes of radish (RaphanussativusL.). The transplanting was done on three different dates during both years. There were seven treatments including control and each treatment was replicated thrice. The data was analysed in factorial randomized block design. The study revealed that all the seed quality parameters like germination % (95.08), seedling length (24.46 cm), shoot length (13.02 cm), root length (13.04 cm), seedling dry weight ( 0.110 mg), seed vigour index I (2329.07) and seed vigour index II (10419.25) were found maximum with treatment Vermicompost (@ 50 q ha-1) + Azotobacter (root dip @ 2.5 Kg/ ha-1) + PSB (root dip @ 2.5 Kg/ ha-1) + NSKE (5 %) and maximum 1000 seed weight (12.52 g) was found with treatment FYM @100 q ha-1 + Azotobacter @ 2.5 kg ha-1 (root dip) + PSB @ 2.5 kg ha-1 (root dip) + NSKE @ 5 % in 4th November transplanting. All parameters showed a decreasing trend as sowing date was delayed.

Keywords: Seed quality parameters, Organic inputs, Raphanussativus, Transplanting dates


Foraging behavior of major insect pollinators on pumpkin, Cucurbita moschata (Duch.ex Lam)

Lalita* and Yogesh Kumar

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email- lalitapanwar17@gmail.com

Received: July 19, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: May 22, 2017

Abstract: Foraging activity period of different honey bee species on C. moschata (C-1076) flowers at different day hours during August-September (2013) revealed that  A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana  and A. florea initiated their activity early in the morning at 0530, 0615, 0625 and 0630 h, respectively and stopped their activity at 1030, 1020, 1025 and 1030 h of the day,  respectively while on  C. moschata  (C-1106, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana  and A. florea  initiated their activity early in the morning at 0535, 0615,  0620  and 0625 h, respectively and ceased their activity at 1045, 1025, 1015 and 1040 h of the day, respectively. The mean foraging speed (time spent per flower) in seconds on flowers of pumpkin (C-1106) was maximum of A. florea (181.72), followed by A. mellifera (7.15), A. cerana (6.05) and A. dorsata spent least time (5.83) and in pumpkin (C-1076), foraging speed was maximum in case of A. florea (178.71), followed by A. mellifera (7.63), A. cerana (6.24) and A. dorsata spent least time (6.06). The mean foraging rate (flowers visited per minute) on flowers of pumpkin (C-1106) was maximum in case of A. dorsata (5.13), followed by A. cerana (4.30), A. mellifera (4.16) and A. florea visited least flower (0.32) and in pumpkin (C-1076), foraging rate was maximum in case of A. dorsata (4.96), followed by A. cerana (4.19), A. mellifera (4.02) and A. florea visited least flower (0.33). Present study advises the farmers that they should not apply the pesticide when the activityof honey bee is on the peak period because pesticides application at the time of bee activity in the field crop causes mortality of bees.

Keywords: Foraging rate, Foraging speed, Honey bee species, Pumpkin


A review on bacterial stalk rot disease of maize causing by Dickeya zeae

Adesh Kumar1*, Mandeep Singh Hunjan1, Harleen Kaur2, Roomi Rawal3, Ajay Kumar4 and P.P. Singh1

1Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

3Department of Entomology, C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University , Hisar, (Haryana) INDIA

4Department of Plant Protection, C.C.S. University Meerut (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author.E-mail: adeshpp@gmail.com

Received: August 2, 2016; Revised received: February 13, 2017; Accepted: May 25, 2017

Abstract: Bacterial stalk rot of maize caused by Dickeya zeae previously known as E. chrysanthemi pv. zeaehave economic importance of reduced crop yield up to 98.8%. The disease is more prevalent in rainy season in India.  The bacterium prefers high temperature and moisture for their growth result is plant toppled down within week. The pathogen has wide host range (maize, rice, tomato, chilli and brinjal etc.) which help to pathogen for long survival in soil. The bacterium characterized by biochemical and molecular tactics. In present, Pel gene and rDNA specific primers are frequently used for D. zeae characterization. The pathogen significantly controls under in vitro and in vivo condition via bleaching powder (drenching of 100 ppm) and antibiotics. The present studies generated data on pathogen nomenclature, etiology, epidemiology, host range, pathogen survival, biochemical, physiological and molecular characterization, germplasm evaluation and disease management.

Keywords: Bacterial stalk rot, Crop yield, Disease, Dickeya zeae, Maize