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Volume 9, Year 2017- Issue 1

Contents

  1. 1 Effect of stem reserve mobilization on grain filling under drought stress conditions in recombinant inbred population of wheat
  2. 2 Phenotypic (assessment of rice Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for genetic variability and varietal diversity under direct seeded condition
  3. 3 Population dynamics of potential bioagents of mustard aphid, Lipaphiserysimi(Kaltenbach) on different cultivars of rapeseed-mustard
  4. 4 Design and development of FRP mobile fish vending trolley for hygienic fish marketing
  5. 5 In vitro studies of inhibitory activity of plant extracts and cow urine on mycelial growth of stem rot, Sclerotimoryzae of rice
  6. 6 Character association and path analysis studies in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes
  7. 7 Ground water quality assessment for irrigation in Palwal block of Palwal district, Haryana, India
  8. 8 A study of infection stages among anemic, non-anemic children and women living in rural areas of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India
  9. 9 Waterlogged wasteland treatment through agro-forestry: A review
  10. 10 Study of seasonal incidence and impact of abiotic factors on sucking pests of brinjal
  11. 11 Effect of biofertilizers on soil microbial count, nutrient availability and uptake under november sown onion
  12. 12 Combining ability studies for yield, associated traits and quality attributes in rice for South Gujarat (Oryza sativa L.)
  13. 13 Integrated approach for the management of white grub and collar rot in groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) in South West Haryana
  14. 14 Fast protocol for high frequency in vitro cloning of Banana (Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine
  15. 15 Studies on physico-mechanical properties of W. Murcott mandarin
  16. 16 Effect of different treatments of ethrel on ripening behaviour and post- harvest quality of mango (Mangiferaindica L.) during storage
  17. 17 Effect of date of transplanting and mulching on growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Nasik Red
  18. 18 Evaluation of agricultural land resources for irrigation in the cotton growing Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India
  19. 19 Physico-chemical, proximate, sensory and storage quality attributes analysis of Papaver somniferum (poppy) fortified chevon nuggets 
  20. 20 Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria induced resistance in Jatropha curcas through phenyl propanoid metabolism against Rhizoctoniabataticola
  21. 21 Effect of different dates of sowing on yield attributes, yield and quality of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars
  22. 22 Nitrogen management of wheat cultivars for higher productivity - A review
  23. 23 Efficacy of different extracts of propolis against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: In vitro and in vivo study
  24. 24 Rearing performance of tropical Tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta Drury) on Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and its commercial silk properties
  25. 25 Studies of alternaria black spot disease of pomegranate caused by Alternaria alternata in Punjab
  26. 26 Enrichment on quality of aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) fruit bars by blending
  27. 27 Screening of efficient rhizobacteria associated with cauliflower (Brassica oleraceavar. botrytis L.) for plant growth promoting traits
  28. 28 Evaluation of different doses of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the rooting, survival and vegetative growth performance of hardwood cuttings of Flordaguard peach (Prunus persica L. Batch)
  29. 29 Management of red rust thrips, Chaetanophothripssignipennis (Bagnall) in banana
  30. 30 Influence of seed polymer coating with Zn and Fe nanoparticles on storage potential of pigeonpea seeds under ambient conditions
  31. 31 Genotypic correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield contributing traits in released varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under partially reclaimed saline sodic soil
  32. 32 Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of certain plant species grown alongside Parwanoo to Solan National Highway-22 in Himachal Pradesh, India
  33. 33 Tannery effluent effect on the haematological parameters of freshwater fish, Channa punctatus
  34. 34 Character association and path analysis studies in germplasm lines of rabi sorghum (Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench)
  35. 35 Genetic studies for flower yield and component traits in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat
  36. 36 Development of promiscous rhizobia for diverse rabi legumes (Chickpea, Pea and Lentil)
  37. 37 Soil evaporation studies using mini-lysimeters under differently established rice-wheat cropping sequence in Punjab, India
  38. 38 Forecasting phenology of mustard crop in North-western Himalayas
  39. 39 Nutritional, microbial and sensory quality evaluation of fermented Setipinnaphasa, Hamilton 1822, (PhassyaShidal), marketed in North-east India
  40. 40 Effect of different storage conditions and seed treatments on seed viability in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]
  41. 41 Identification and characterization of Pseudomonas fluorescensstrains effective against Xanthomonasoryzaepv. oryzae causing bacterial blight of rice in Punjab, India
  42. 42 Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for various quantitative and qualitative traits in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)
  43. 43 Effect of plant spacing and fertility level on leaf area variation at different phenological stages of cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L.) grown in sodic soil
  44. 44 Efficacy of different fungicides for management of early blight disease of potato
  45. 45 Productivity, water use efficiency and economics of system of rice intensification (SRI) in Nichabanadhi sub basin of southern Tamil Nadu
  46. 46 Effect of potassium and zinc on growth, yield and economics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cv. CO-34
  47. 47 Oxidative stability and storage quality of Menthalongifolia L. extract fortified fish nuggets at refrigeration temperature
  48. 48 Evaluation of casing variables for cultivation of Agaricusbisporus strain U3 in Punjab, India
  49. 49 Influence of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and integrated nutrient management (INM) on yield and economics attributes of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)
  50. 50 Performance of high yielding drought tolerant varieties of maize and in situ moisture conservation techniques in Kandi region of Punjab, India
  51. 51 Combining ability analysis in near homozygous lines of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] for yield and yield attributing parameters
  52. 52 Effect of chemical thinning, gibberellic acid and pruning on growth and production of nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica) cv. May fire
  53. 53 Activities of sucrose to starch metabolizing enzymes during grain filling in late sown wheat under water stress
  54. 54 Bio-efficacy of bifenthrin 8 SC against shoot and fruit borer and red spidermite of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench
  55. 55 Performance of some apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) germplasm accessions for fruit quality traits in Himachal Pradesh
  56. 56 Molecular characterization of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] inbreds using microsatellite markers
  57. 57 Effect of summer season on correlation coefficient in bird of paradise (Strelitzia reginae) progenies
  58. 58 Screening of bacterial strains for pectate lyase production and detection of optimal growth conditions for enhanced enzyme activity
  59. 59 Efficacy of different variants of corn flour (Zea mays) and peanut flour (Arachis hypogea) on quality characteristics of designer low sodium fish (Pangasius pangasius) balls
  60. 60 Biochemical changes in cotton plants due to infestation by cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
  61. 61 Genetic divergence studies in clusterbean [Cyamopsis Tetragoloba (L.) Taub.] genotypes for seed yield and gum content under rain-fed conditions
  62. 62 Studies on solid matrix priming of seeds in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)
  63. 63 An economic analysis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivation in eastern zone of Haryana (India) under polyhouse and open field condition
  64. 64 Estimation of combining ability for yield and yield component traits in upland rice (Oryza Sativa L.) of Uttarakhand hills
  65. 65 Efficacy of some insecticides against Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom cowpea crop ecosystem
  66. 66 Prenatal development of the lingual epithelium in goat (Capra hircus)
  67. 67 Development and evaluation of plastic based solar still for production of distilled water
  68. 68 Performance of summer sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different nutrient management practices in coastal Odisha
  69. 69 Trend of Crop Water Requirement at Akola (Maharashtra), India
  70. 70 Studies on changes in quality characteristics of Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica Colebr.) flour during storage
  71. 71 Selection of parental lines among round fruited brinjal for hybridization aiming at export promotion
  72. 72 Analysis of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxigenic mold in commercial poultry feeds in Tamil Nadu, India
  73. 73 Scanning electron microscopic studies of Beauveria bassiana against Lipaphis erysimi Kalt
  74. 74 Development of unique buttermilk by incorporation of Moringa
  75. 75 Effects of different sub-lethal concentrations of plasticizer-Diethyl phthalate on Fresh water murrel, Channa striatus (Bloch)
  76. 76 Influence of seed treatment and packaging materials on seed longevity of cluster bean [Cyamopsistetra gonoloba (L.) Taub.] 
  77. 77 Toxicological studies on Helicoverpa armigera in pigeonpea growing in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India
  78. 78 Productivity and economics of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in response to nitrogen applied through different sources in conjunction with bio-fertilizer consortium
  79. 79 Root architecture and rhizobial inoculation in relation to drought stress response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris l.)
  80. 80 Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) of Brassicaceae and their role in plant defense against insect herbivores – A review
  81. 81 Study on effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.)
  82. 82 Estimates of combining ability and standard heterosis for grain yield and various agromorphological traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  83. 83 Tribal farmers' perceived constraints in the adoption of good dairy farming practices in the northern hills zone of Chhattisgarh, India
  84. 84 Weed control in soybean (Glycine max L.) through resource management strategies and its influence on yield and nutrient uptake
  85. 85 Effect of sowing dates and varieties on soybean performance in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India
  86. 86 Storage effects on flour quality of commonly consumed cereals
  87. 87 Impact of integrated nutrient management on some important physical and chemical attributes of soil vis-a-vis performance of bitter gourd
  88. 88 Isolation, identification of Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica and screening of tomato parental lines for buckeye rot resistance
  89. 89 Quality characteristics of white cabbage juice stored using thermal processing and addition of chemical additives
  90. 90 Evaluation of shelf-life of aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) cultivars during storage at room temperature
  91. 91 Effect of different orchard management practices on the growth and production of rejuvenated of pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cv. Kandhari Kabuli
  92. 92 Growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.) rootstocks as influenced by pre-sowing treatments
  93. 93 Development of cultivated and wild pomegranate mixed fruit jelly and its quality evaluation during storage
  94. 94 Response of african marigold to NPK , biofertilizers and spacings
  95. 95 Effect of seed coating, storage periods and storage containers on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seed quality under ambient conditions
  96. 96 Combining ability studies in restorer lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
  97. 97 Comparative evaluation of different reference evapotranspiration models
  98. 98 Slip, trip and falls among women of different age groups: A case study from the northern hills of India
  99. 99 Influence of AM fungi and its associated bacteria on growth promotion and nutrient acquisition in grafted sapota seedling production
  100. 100 Melanosis and quality attributes of chill stored farm raised whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
  101. 101 Climate change and biodiversity; impacts, vulnerability and mitigation in Indian perspective : A review
  102. 102 Influence of size grading on physiological parameters in Tephrosia (Tephrosia purpurea) MDU (KO)-1
  103. 103 Influence of growth, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) by drip irrigation and fertigation

Effect of stem reserve mobilization on grain filling under drought stress conditions in recombinant inbred population of wheat

Ashutosh srivastava1* , Puja Srivastava, Achla Sharma, R. S. Sarlach and N. S. Bains

1Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aksri_du@yahoo.com

Received: April 12, 2016; Revised received: September 7, 2016; Accepted: January 1, 2017

Abstract: Pre-anthesis carbon assimilation of stem reserves is considered as an important source for grain filling during post anthesis drought stresses that inhibit photosynthesis. 175 RILs from cross (C518/2*PBW343) along with check cultivars were evaluated for stem reserve mobilization under irrigated and rainfed conditions. These two cultivars belonging to distinct adaptation mechanism, offer several morpho -physiological and biochemical con-trasts. C 518 is tall and adapted to low input rainfed conditions whereas PBW 343 is semi -dwarf and input re-sponsive. Further C 518 is known for better stem reserves on account of larger peduncle and strong commitment to grain filling due to effective stem reserve mobilization. The parents and the RIL population was tested for stem reserve mobilization by defoliation of flag leaf and second leaf at anthesis under irrigated and rainfed environments. Evaluated entries differed significantly (p<0.001) for reduction in 1000 grain weight under defoliation (TGWL). Percent reduction in 1000 grain weight ranged from 4.4 % to 39.6 % under irrigated environment and 3.2 % to 35.0 under rainfed condition. A significant positive correlation (r = +0.357) between stem reserve mobilization and peduncle length was observed under rainfed condition. Tested RILs vary individually for stem reserve mobilization when subjected to removal of flag leaf and second leaf inhibiting the photosynthesis. The genotypes with better stem reserve mobilization based on 1000 grain weight in the absence of photosynthesis may also provide relative tolerance to drought.

Keywords: Carbohydrates, Defoliation, Sink-source modification, Stem reserve mobilization, Wheat


Phenotypic (assessment of rice Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for genetic variability and varietal diversity under direct seeded condition

Anurag Tripathi 1* , Sudhir Kumar1 , Mithilesh Kumar Singh2 , Arun Kumar1 and Mukesh Kumar Karnwal1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, GovindBallabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 2Division of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, National Research Centre for Plant Biotechnology IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anuragtripathi855@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: October 24, 2016; Accepted: January 1, 2017

Abstract: The study on variability and diversity of 32 genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under direct seeded condition revealed significant variability at 5% level among the genotypes for all the characters. High level of broad sense heritability was observed for days to 50% flowering (0.986) followed by filled grains (0.8216) and 1000-grain weight (0.7306). Expected genetic advance was highest for yield per hectare (39.639) and filled grains per panicle (51.39). Genetic divergence analysis using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistic grouped the genotypes into 7 clusters. Cluster II had maximum number (16) of genotypes. Maximum inter cluster distance was found between cluster IV and VII (984.82). However, intra cluster distance was maximum in cluster III (363.58). Genotypes from diverse clusters viz.NR 89, PAU 3284, ARIZE SWIFT, RY 248, Varadhan, RYC489, MTU 1010 and RYC 674 could be recommend-ed for inclusion in hybridization programme for breeding under aerobic rice condition.

Keyword: Aerobic rice, Genetic divergence, Rice, Varietal diversity



Population dynamics of potential bioagents of mustard aphid, Lipaphiserysimi(Kaltenbach) on different cultivars of rapeseed-mustard

Richa Varshney1* , R. R. Rachana1 and R. S. Bisht2

1Department of Insect Systematics, National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore-560024 (Karnataka), INDIA 2Department of Entomology, GovindBallabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: richavarshney84@gmail.com

Received: April 5, 2016; Revised received: October 6, 2016; Accepted: January 2, 2017

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study the population dynamics of potential bioagents of mustard aphids on 9 different cultivars which included: Brassica alba cv. PSB-I, Eruca sativa Mill cv. T-27, Brassica campestriscv. BSH-I, Brassica napuscv. Sheetal, B. carinataBraun cv. CCN-06- 1, B. junceaL. cv. Varuna, B. nigraKoch. cv. PBR-I, Brassica campestriscv.YST-151 and Brassica campestriscv. PT-30. Population of aphid and natural enemies was recorded at weekly intervals. The results indicated that the first appearance of coccinellids and syrphids has been observed during 4th standard week, which gradually build up population and attained peak during 9th (pooled mean 1.42 coccinellids/ plant and 0.122 syrphid larva/plant) and 8th standard week (pooled mean 3.96 coccinellids/plant and 0.228 syrphid larva/plant) in 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively, followed by a declining trend in the following weeks. Similarly first appearance of parasi-tization has been found to occur from 4th standard week followed by a gradual increase in the following weeks with maximum parasitization on PT-30 (33.32%) and BSH-1 (35.25%) during 2008-09 and 2009-10 respectively. Correlation between abiotic factors and these natural enemies was also studied. It has been observed that with the increase of aphid population the population of natural enemies also increased. The population dynamics of mustard aphids and its natural enemies var-ied according to climatic situations and between host plant species. So by computing population trends of both natu-ral enemies and aphids with meterological records would generate information on relative abundance and would certainly help in formulating sound pest management strategies against mustard aphid.

Keywords: Coccinellids, Diaeretiellarapae, Lipaphiserysimi, Percent parasitization, Syrphids



Design and development of FRP mobile fish vending trolley for hygienic fish marketing

B. C. Mohapatra * , P. Sahoo, D. Majhi, K. Anantharaja and P. Jayasankar

ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar-751002 (Odisha), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bcmohapatra65@gmail.com

Received: March 12, 2016; Revised received: October 1, 2016; Accepted: January 3, 2017

Abstract: A mobile fish vending trolley has been designed and developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) - All India Coordinated Research Project on Plasticulture Engineering and Technology (AICRP on PET) centre at ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (ICAR-CIFA), Bhubaneswar to aid the fisher folks for vending their fish harvests in hygienic condition. The unique selling proposition (USP) of the vending unit is its unibody design, where icebox for storing fish, 20 l capacity water storage tank for hand washing, tool box, fish cutting deck and waste collection chambers are integrated into the unit. The icebox can store 100 kg of fish in ice which can be sold in a single day by the fisher folks. The complete unit of mobile fish vending carriage is fabricated with fibre reinforced plastic (FRP), because of its high strength compared to other plastics, ease of fabrication and good insulation property of fiberglass (i.e. thermal conductivity= 0.04 w/mK at normal room temperature 25 ºC). The dimensions of the carriage unit is 4.0’x2’9”x2’6” in which half portion is dedicated for the insulated ice box and the remaining portion houses the fish cutting deck, waste collection chamber and tool box. This fish vending trolley would be a boon for the marginal fish vendors, who want to sell fish in a hygienic condition and to increase income generation potential by selling 100 kg fish in a day.

Keywords: Fish vendor, FRP, Hygienic fish marketing, Mobile fish vending trolley


In vitro studies of inhibitory activity of plant extracts and cow urine on mycelial growth of stem rot, Sclerotimoryzae of rice

Nishant Prakash * and A.P. Sinha

Centre of Advanced Studies in Plant Pathology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gladiator.nishant@gmail.com

Received: August 2, 2015; Revised received: July 29, 2016; Accepted: January 3, 2017

Abstract: Soil borne phytopathogen Sclerotiumoryzae significantly affect rice production. To reduce load of chemical pesticides, antifungal activity of plant extracts and cow urine against mycelial growth of S.oryzaewere tested using poisoned food technique under in vitro condition. Plant extracts of 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% concentration was prepared from Allium cepa, Azadirachtaindica, A. sativum, Ricinuscommunisand Syzygiumcumini. Inhibition of mycelial growth of S.oryzaewas recorded only in case of A. sativum and A. cepa while Azadirachtaindica, Ricinuscommunisand Syzygiumcumini did not show any inhibition of mycelial growth as compared to control. A.sativum plant extracts showed maximum inhibition of mycelia growth of 68.88% at concentration 10% followed by 32.96%, 22.96% and 18.88% at concentration 7.5%, 5.0% and 2.5% resepectively. 22.60%, 19.62%, 17.77% and 8.88% inhibition of mycelial growth as compared to control was recorded at 10%, 7.5%, 5.0% and 2.5% concentration of plant extracts of A.cepa. All the concentration of cow urine inhibited the mycelial growth of S. oryzae. Cow urine at the concentration 5, 7.5 and 10.0 per cent resulted in 100 per cent inhibition of mycelia growth of test pathogen as compared to control. Maximum inhibition of 98.14 per cent was observed at 2.5 per cent concentration followed by 1.25 per cent (63.7%) concentration. This study showed that A.sativum and A.cepa and cow urine possess antifungal activity under in vitro condition. It can also be tested for antifungal activity under in vivo condition.

Keywords: Cow urine, Plant extracts, Sclerotiumoryzae


Character association and path analysis studies in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes

VittalMangi* , H. B. Patil, SanganamoniMallesh, Shivappa M karadi and D. Satish

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-587104 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: vittalmangiphd@gmail.com

Received: February 20, 2016; Revised received: October 22, 2016; Accepted: January 3, 2017

Abstract: Character association and path analysis in sixty genotypes of brinjal was studied for 17 important characters. The character association studies revealed that the total yield per plant had significant and positive association with plant height (0.385), plant spread (0.660), number of primary branches (0.545), stem girth (0.539) at 90 days after transplanting (DAT), early yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and fruit diameter. While it was negatively and significantly associated with days to first flowering (-0.302 and -0.230), days to 50 per cent flowering (-0.272 and 0.229) and days to first fruit maturity (-0.164 and -0.168) at both genotypic and phenotypic level. Narrow differences between the genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed for various traits in the present findings. This indicates the lesser influence of the environment in the expression of these traits and presence of strong inherent association among the traits. Path analysis studies revealed that significant positive association at genotypic level among the traits viz., plant height (0.235), leaf area (at 90 DAT) (0.228), days to first fruit maturity (0.162), number of fruits per cluster (0.280) and early yield per plant (1.903) had exhibited true association with direct effect on yield per plant. The direct selection for these traits would be rewarding for improvement in the total yield per plant.

Keywords: Brinjal, Character association, Genotypes, Path analysis


Ground water quality assessment for irrigation in Palwal block of Palwal district, Haryana, India

Gagandeep1 , Ram Prakash1 , Sanjay Kumar2* , Rajpaul1 , Satyavan1 and S. K. Sharma1

1Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA 2Department of Soil and Water Engineering, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: ramsansanwal@gmail.com

Received: January 16, 2016; Revised received: December 15, 2016; Accepted: January 3, 2017

Abstract: The present study examined the quality of groundwater for agriculture purpose in a 49785 ha region comprising Palwal block of Palwal district of Haryana state by focusing on spatial variability of electrical conductivity (EC), cationic and anionic composition of CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ of the ground water. It was found 75% of the samples showed EC values up to 4 dS/m and the maximum value of EC was found as 10.55 dS/m. Out of one hundred thirty three ground water samples 34.8 % were of good quality, 49.2 % saline and 16.0 % alkali in nature. Out of the saline water, 24.2, 1.5 and 23.5 % were marginally saline, saline and high SAR saline, respectively. In alkali group, 2.3, 2.3 and 11.4 % were marginally alkali, alkali and high alkali, respectively. Residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) varied from nil to 5.50 me L-1 and 2.50 to 23.41 (m mol L-1)½, respectively. Counter map maps of EC, SAR, RSC and water quality of groundwater used for irrigation in the block were prepared through GIS to study spatial variability.

Keywords: Block, Haryana, Palwal groundwater, Salinity


A study of infection stages among anemic, non-anemic children and women living in rural areas of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India

Kiran Bains1*, Harpreet Kaur1 and Navjot Bajwa2

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA 2Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana-141001 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kiranbains68@hotmail.com

Received: April 15, 2016; Revised received: September 26, 2016; Accepted: January 4, 2017

Abstract: The effect of iron deficiency on infection stages in 312 women (15-45 years) and 312 children (6-59 months) belonging to the families of agricultural labourers and of small and marginal farmers residing in rural areas of Ludhiana district of Punjab was assessed. The blood hemoglobin levels were below normal in 50.64% of women and 55.77% of children. No significant difference in the mean values of C-Reactive protein (CRP) and Alpha-1acid glycoprotein (AGP) was observed among non-anemic and anemic women and children, however the average total leukocyte count was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in anemic as compared to non-anemic women and children. CRP indicating acute stage of infection was raised in 10.58% of women while AGP representing chronic infection was higher in 8.65% of the women. The CRP values were high in 7.7% in children, however AGP values were higher in 23.4% of the children. On the basis of combined levels of CRP and AGP, 11.7% of non-anemic and 15.3% of anemic women were detected with infections while 18.8% of non anemic and 26.0% of anemic children were in infection state. The results suggest that iron deficiency is quite frequent in children and women. The blood picture showed that more number of anemic women and children were in acute or chronic infection stages as compared to non-anemics, hence, a comprehensive research on the role of iron deficiency anemia in immunity is needed as lower immunity is one of the significant factor of malnutrition which is the most important nutritional challenge for the global community. 

Keywords: Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, Children, C-reactive protein, Infections, Women


Waterlogged wasteland treatment through agro-forestry: A review

S. Sarvade1*, D. S. Gautam1, D. Kathal1 and Prabhat Tiwari2

1College of Agriculture, Balaghat, Jawaharlal Nehru KrishiVishwaVidyalaya, Jabalpur-482004 (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA 2Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: somanath553@gmail.com

Received: July 21, 2016; Revised received: December 19, 2016; Accepted: January 5, 2017

Abstract: India covers 147.75 mha degraded area, whereas 6.41 mha area confined to waterlogging problem in Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Kerala, Rajasthan and few other states. The transpiration principle of plants is used in bio-drainage treatment to reclaim such problematic areas sustainably. Evergreen broad leaved species recorded high transpiration rate and contribute highly in reclamation of waterlogged saline soils. Short rotation fast growing tree species like Salix, Eucalypt, Acacia, Albizia, Terminalia, Prosopis, Populuswere the suitable species for such areas. Agri-silviculture, agri-horti- silviculture, silvi-pasture, multipurpose woodlots, strip plantation and boundary plantations were widely used for reclamation of saline-waterlogged conditions of India. In agri-silviculture system, Eucalypt based agroforestry systems are widely used for reclamation of waterlogged areas as compared to other woody plant based systems. 0.84–0.86 m total drawdown of ground water in 3 years Eucalypt tree species. The vertical and horizontal root spreading of tree species is one important character for capturing and transpiration of excess water from waterlogged area. From the present investigation, longest root system was recorded from Prosopis cineraria (20-60 m) species. 

Keywords: Eucalypt, Ground water table, Transpiration rate, Waterlogged area


Study of seasonal incidence and impact of abiotic factors on sucking pests of brinjal

Shaik Javed* , K. Vijaya Lakshmi, C. Narendra Reddy, B. VidyaSagar and M. Shanthi

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -500030 (Telangana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: skjaved789@gmail.com

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: November 2, 2016; Accepted: January 6, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to find the impact of abiotic factors on seasonal incidence and sucking pest complex of brinjal under field conditions during kharif 2015-2016. The incidence of leaf hopper population (2.80 Lh/L i.e., Leaf hopper mean population/leaf) was noticed during 34th standard week and reached peak by 40th standard week (5.00 Lh/L) (October) whereas the aphid population was noticed during the 34th standard week (3.00 Lh/L) and peak population observed during the 40th standard week (4.60 Lh/L) (October). Correlation studies showed that among the various abiotic factors, maximum temperature showed highly significant positive correlation (r= 0.77) and sunshine hours (r = 0.61) showed significant positive correlation with the leaf hopper population. In case of aphid population, maximum temperature showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.70), rainfall showed highly significant negative correlation (r = -0.74) and relative humidity evening (r = -0.59) showed significant negative correlation with aphid population. The present investigations will give a brief idea about how the abiotic factors influencing the sucking pests of brinjal.

Keywords: Abiotic factors, Aphids, Brinjal, Leaf hoppers


Effect of biofertilizers on soil microbial count, nutrient availability and uptake under november sown onion

Dilpreet Talwar1* , Kulbir Singh1 and Jagdish Singh2

1Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004 (Punjab), INDIA 2Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: dsingh381@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: August 12, 2016; Accepted: January 6, 2017

Abstract: Biofertilizers improves the soil microbial content, Soil nutrient status and nutrient uptake by plant. In an experiment, fifteen treatments comprised of various combinations of biofertilizers, organic manures and chemical fertilizers were compared to access the impact of different sources of nutrient on performance of onion. The highest soil organic carbon (0.40%) was observed in the treatments T12 (Farm Yard Manure (FYM) @ 20 t/ha) and T11 (FYM myctes count (29.9 X 104) was recorded in T11 (FYM @ 20 t/ha + Azotobacter + VAM) treatment while highest fungal @ 20 t/ha + Azotobacter + Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM)). Highest bacterial (24.5 X 106) and actino-count (17.5 X 103) was observed in T3 (Azospirillium+ Recommended dose of NPK) treatment. At the time of harvesting, available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P) and available potassium (K) were higher in treatment T3 (Azospirillium + Recommended dose of NPK), T9 (Azotobacter+ VAM + Recommended dose of NPK) and T13 (Poultry treatment (162.6 Kg ha-1) as compared to all other treatments except T1 and T9 treatments while P uptake (13.6 Kg ha-Manure @ 5t/ha) treatments respectively than that in other treatments. Azospirillum and Azotobacter application along with recommended dose of N, P and K improved the fertility status of soil. The N uptake was significantly higher in T3 treatments. The present study highlights the need of use of biofertilizers along with organic and inorganic 1) was significantly higher in T9 treatment than that in other treatments except T1, T3, T5 and T7 treatments. The K uptake was significantly higher in T3 treatment (126.9 Kg ha-1) as compare to all other treatments except T1 and T9 manures/fertilizer to enhance the nutrient availability and improve soil health.

Keywords: Chemical fertilizers, Nutrient uptake, Organic carbon, Organic manures, Vesicular-Arbuscular mycorrhizae


Combining ability studies for yield, associated traits and quality attributes in rice for South Gujarat (Oryza sativa L.)

NavinChander Gahtyari1*, P. I. Patel2, Rakesh Choudhary1, Sudhir Kumar3, Naveen Kumar4 and J. P. Jaiswal1
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA 3ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Manipur Centre Lamphelpat, Imphal-795004, INDIA 4Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 

*Corresponding author. E-mail: navinnau.pbg@gmail.com

Received: May 1, 2016; Revised received: September 27, 2016; Accepted: January 8, 2017

Abstract: Line x tester analysis using a set of four females, ten males and their forty hybrids was carried out to esti-mate the general combining ability of parents and specific combining ability of hybrids for yield and ten other associ-ated components in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in a Randomized Block Design during Kharif 2011. GCA variances for females (s2f) were significant at 0.1% level of significance for plant height (40.8), no. of grains per panicle (505.9), grain yield per plant (29.1), test weight(17.9), straw yield per plant (61.3) and kernel L/B ratio (0.2) whereas specific combining ability (SCA) variances for f x m interactions were highly significant for all the characters. Non-additive gene action was prevalent in all characters (Range: 0.03 in amylose content to 0.88 in kernel length breadth ratio) except plant height (1.33) as evident by low GCA to SCA ratio. None of the parents were good general combiner for all traits, however, female IR-28 and male AMT-119 and PNR-546 were good general combiners for a maximum number of traits i.e. five traits out of eleven.. The general combining ability for grain yield per plant for female parent Gurjari (6.19) and NVSR-178 (5.29); and male parents AMT 119 (2.73) and PNR 546 (2.44) makes them a good choice for improving yields in a hybridization programme as these female and male parents are also having signifi-cant GCA effects for maximum number of yield associated traits i.e. four and five traits out of eleven for female and male parents respectively. A vis-à-vis comparison of top three specific combining ability crosses with their mean performance showed correlation and these crosses were having at least one good general combining ability parent.

Keywords: Females, GCA effects, Gene effect, Males, SCA effects


Integrated approach for the management of white grub and collar rot in groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) in South West Haryana

Ram Karan Gaur*, Sushil Sharma, D.V. Pathak and S. S. Dashad1

Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal – 123501 (Rewari), Haryana (India) 1Retired Professor, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal – 123501 (Rewari), Haryana (India)

*Corresponding author. E-mail:drramkaran1965@gmail.com

Received: May 8, 2016; Revised received: September 29, 2016; Accepted: January 8, 2017

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal (Rewari), Haryana during Kharif seasons of 2011 and 2012. Fifteen treatments including three insecticides, one fungicide, three antagonists, one amendment and one neem formulation were evaluated in sole and combination treatments as seed dresser whereas chlorpyriphos 20 EC and poultry manure were incorporated in soil to find out effective combination for control of collar rot and white grub of groundnut. Minimum disease incidence 0.3 and 0.7 per cent and white grub infestation 1.2 and 1.5 per cent was recorded during 2011 and 2012 with seed treatment of chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 25 ml/kg seed + PM 4 @ 10 ml/kg seed + captan 3g/kg seed followed by imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 7 ml/kg seed and chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 25 ml /kg seed + Bacillus thuriengensis@ 10 ml/ kg seed + captan 3 g/kg seed. The yield was significantly (at 5% level) low (7.10 q/ha during 2011 and 6.8 q/ha during 2012) in control as compared to chlorpyriphos 20 EC + PM-4 + captan treatment (20.20 q/ha during 2011 and 19.80 q/ha during 2012) which ranked at first place. The seed treated with imidacloprid 17.8 SL 7 ml /kg seed also produced good yield in both the years and was rated as second best treatment followed by chlorpyriphos + Bacillus thurengiensis+ captan. The results obtained herein provide the foundation for an effective and sustainable programme of management for groundnut white grub and collar rot. Integrated approach having chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 25 ml/ kg seed, Pseudomonas maltophilia(PM4) @ 10 ml/kg seed and captan 3 g/kg seed was found to be most effective for control of collar rot and white grub infestation in ground nut. 

Keywords: Arachishypogaea, Aspergillus niger, Collar rot, Imidacloprid, White grub


Fast protocol for high frequency in vitro cloning of Banana (Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine

S. R. Parida1, S. Beura2, S. Rout3*, R. Beura4 and P. N. Jagadev5

1Department of Biotechnology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam- 530045 (Andhra Pradesh), INDIA 2Biotechnology-cum-Tissue Culture Centre, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751003 (Odisha), INDIA 3School of Forestry and Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA 4College of Basic Science and Humanity, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, (Odisha), INDIA 5Dean of Research, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003 (Odisha), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:srout.forestry@gmail.com
Received: April 29, 2016; Revised received: September 26, 2016; Accepted: January 9, 2017  
Abstract: An investigation was conducted on Fast Protocol for High Frequency in vitro cloning of Banana (Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine at the Biotechnology-cum-Tissue Culture Center, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, during the year 2012. This has helped to determine the best media compositions for shoot multiplication and rooting of cv. Grande Naine, so as to get optimum results with a minimized cost of production. MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/1 Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2.0 mg/1 Kinetin gave the highest number of shoot/explants (11.33) in 30 days. However, MS medium when supplemented with 6.0 mg/1 BAP produced a maximum number of leaves (19.07) with a maximum height 2.73 cm. Among various concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for rooting. Half MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 IBA was found to be ideal for early rooting and producing more number of roots in 21 days. However, MS basal medium was found to be the best treatment to support the formation of long roots. This protocol can be very useful to the future research worker and as well as entrepreneurs for mass production of banana (Musa acuminata) cv. Grande Naine.

Keywords: In vitro, inoculation, Musa acuminate, Shoot proliferation


Studies on physico-mechanical properties of W. Murcott mandarin

Jagbir Rehal1*, GaganJyot Kaur2 and Harsimrat K. Bons3

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141004 (Punjab), INDIA 2Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA 3Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jagbir@pau.edu

Received: April 26, 2016; Revised received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: January 9, 2017
Abstract: The post-harvest physico-mechanical properties of fruits is important in adoption and design of varioushandling, packaging, storage and transportation systems. These are important for sizing and grading the fruit beforemarketing as well as demarcate their end use. Geometric, gravimetric and textural properties were determined forthe fresh samples of W. Murcottmandarin. The results show that W. Murcottfruit diameter varies from 81.82-68.97mm, equatorial length varies from 86.51-68.43 mm, and length varies from 61.33-52.08 mm. The specific mean areais 57.591 with the sphericity of 0.90. The L, a, b values were 53.37, 42.9 and 49.68 respectively. The firmness variedfrom 1.351-1.650 kgf. These physical attributes can be taken into consideration while designing the grading andprocessing equipment.
Keywords: Mandarin, Mechanical properties, Physical properties, W. murcott

Effect of different treatments of ethrel on ripening behaviour and post- harvest quality of mango (Mangiferaindica L.) during storage

Sukhjit Kaur

Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur -143521 (Punjab), INDIA E-mail: sukhi.rose@gmail.com

Received: July 25, 2016; Revised received: October 23, 2016; Accepted: January 10, 2017  

Abstract: An experiment was done to assess the effect of various post -harvest treatments of ethrel on ripening behaviour and post -harvest quality of mango cv. Amrapali (Mangiferaindica L.) during storage at Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur during the years 2013-14 and 2014-15. The experiment was planned under completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The treatment units was six fruits per replication. Total five treatments and control were applied. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of various concentrations of ethrel (500 ppm, 750 ppm, 1000 ppm,1250 ppm, 1500 ppm and control ) on shelf life of mango fruits when stored under ambient conditions. The treated fruits were assessed for physiological changes fruit colour, flavour/aroma, organoleptic taste, marketability, ripening, specific gravity, moisture loss, decay, physiological loss in weight (PLW), total soluble solids (TSS), acidity and sugars. The observations were recorded at 5, 8 and 11 days after storage. At 11th day of storage these mangoes exhibited deep yellow fruit colour with excellent flavour, organoleptic taste and highly acceptable marketability at 1000 ppm ethrel treatment as compared to other ethrel doses. Fruit ripening (100%), specific gravity (0.84), TSS(23°Brix) and sugars(20.65%) were highest in the fruits treated with 1000ppm ethrel as compared to rest of treatments at 11th day of storage. Lowest moisture loss (8.5%), decay (1%), PLW(12.50%) and acidity(0.12%) were observed in the fruits treated with 1000ppm of ethrel as compared to rest of treatments at 11th day of storage. The beneficial effect of the present study is to overcome the problem of uneven and late ripening of Amrapali mango by postharvest treatment of ethrel at 1000 ppm at their mature green stage to develop typical fruit flavour with excellent fruit quality.

Keywords: Ethrel, Mango, Post-harvest quality, Ripening behaviour, Storage


Effect of date of transplanting and mulching on growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Nasik Red

Bhagauti Prasad, SutanuMaji*and Kamal Ram Meena

Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), BabasahebBhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), VidyaVihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow-226025 (U.P.), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: majisutanu@gmail.com

Received: April 27, 2016; Revised received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: January 10, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabiseason of 2014-2015 at Department of Applied Plant Sci-ence (Horticulture), Baba saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025 (U.P.) India to find out the effect of different dates of transplanting and mulching on growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Nasik Red. There were 16 treatments comprising 4 dates of transplanting (15th November, 1st, 15th and 30th December) and 3 mulching (saw dust, rice husk and wheat straw) while, without mulching as control and laid out under two factor RBD with three replications. The study clearly revealed that there were significant effects of all treatments on vegetative growth, yield and quality attributes of onion. Plant height (65.34 cm), number of leaves per plant (8.89), length of leaves (56.07 cm), neck thickness (18.75 mm), yield (5.166 kg/plot and 387.46 q/ha) were found maximum at 1st December planting with wheat straw mulching (T7). The best quality bulb in respect of maximum neck thickness (12.35 mm), basal diameter (13.61.mm), diameter of bulb (54.41 mm polar and 64.15 mm equatorial), length of bulb (65.17 mm), number of scales per bulb (9.24), bulb moisture (85.06 %) T.S.S. (13.84 oBrix), ascorbic acid (10.47 mg/100g), total sugars (10.39 %) etc. were also obtained when mulching was done with wheat straw and transplant-ed on 1st December (T7) followed by T6 (planted on 1st December and mulching with rice husk). The study clearly concluded that i.) mulching is good for production of onion, ii.) late transplanting on 30th December showed very poor performance irrespective of mulching and iii) transplanting on 1st December and mulching with wheat straw was the best combination for getting good quality yield of onion.

Keywords: Date of transplanting, Mulching, Onion, Quality, Yield


Evaluation of agricultural land resources for irrigation in the cotton growing Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India

B. P. Bhaskar1*, Jadish Prasad1 and Gopal Tiwari1 

1Division of Soil Resource Studies, ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Amravati road, Nagpur-440033 (Maharashtra), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: bhaskar_phaneendra@yahoo.co.in 

Received: April 29, 2016; Revised received: September 27, 2016; Accepted: January 10, 2017

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to evaluate suitability of shrink-swell soils for surface irrigation system based upon a parametric evaluation system in low irrigation potential (7%) of cotton growing Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India. The thirty three shrink-swell soil series on basaltic landforms were identified from reconnaissance soil survey on 1:50,000 scale and evaluated for surface irrigation methods using Geographic Information System (GIS). The standard weekwise rainfall data showed that the rainfall is less than 20% of total precipitation during September and December, the top A horizon reaches to wilting point and needs supplementary protective irrigation to cotton based cropping systems . It was estimated that ten soil mapping units (1.8 Mha and 13.89%) of shrink-swell soils on moderate slopes (5 to 8%) were evaluated as suitable for surface methods and calculated the irrigation intervals that vary from 8.61±1.35 days for cotton to 8.9±1.4 days for wheat and 10±1.64 days for sugar cane. The study emphasized the utility of soil resource maps helps to delineate the soils with large PAWC(>200mm) with slight yield advantage and will serve as benchmark sites to monitor the interrelationships of soil water dynamics with respect to climate and cotton yields.

Keywords: Land suitability evaluation, Parametric method, Soil series , Surface irrigation


Physico-chemical, proximate, sensory and storage quality attributes analysis of Papaver somniferum (poppy) fortified chevon nuggets 

Saniya B. Kamal, Arvind Kumar*and Tanuj Tanwar

Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Division of Livestock Products Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu-180009( J&K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: drarvindlpt@gmail.com

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: September 5, 2016; Accepted: January 10, 2017

Abstract: Papaver somniferum(Poppy) seeds contain poly-phenols like tannic acid, ellagitannin that act as antioxidant, fat replacer, sedative, analgesic and anti-tussive properties, disease preventing and health promoting proper-ties. Efficacy of ground P. somniferum poppy seed was used in chevon nuggets was analyzed. The use of ground poppy seed in chevon nuggets formulation had no effect on moisture as well as pH content of poppy seed incorporated chevon nuggets. However, ground poppy seed incorporation in chevon nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) lower fat content, higher protein content, higher emulsion stability and subsequently higher cooking yield. Chevon nuggets having 10% ground poppy seed were having significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores. The ground poppy seed treated chevon nuggets were having significantly (p<0.05) lower TBA and FFA value. The microbial load of developed product was significantly (p<0.05) lower during refrigeration storage. The chevon nuggets prepared with fortification of ground poppy seed was found to be suitable for consumption till 21st day during refrigeration storage based on TBA, FFA, microbiological and sensory profile. Thus, chevon nuggets with good to very good acceptability were developed with incorporation of ground poppy (P. somniferum) seed in it. The chevon nuggets developed consisted of higher amount of antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acid with better sensory scores and longer shelf-life.

Keywords: Chevon nuggets, Fat replacer, Papaver somniferum (poppy), Storage quality

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria induced resistance in Jatropha curcas through phenyl propanoid metabolism against Rhizoctoniabataticola

S. Kumar1, M. Singh2 and Sushil Sharma3*

1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar–125004 (Haryana), INDIA 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar–125004 (Haryana), INDIA 3Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal–123501 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding Author. E-mail: skvrrsbawal@rediffmail.com

Received: April 26, 2016; Revised received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: January 11, 2017

Abstract: The root rot disease in Jatropha curcas L. caused by Rhizoctonia. bataticola (Taub.) Butler has been recorded in causing 10-12 per cent mortality of 20-30 days old seedlings of Jatropha curcasin southern Haryana. The incidence of this disease has also been observed from other parts of Haryana too. Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. Studies on the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria induced resistance in Jatropha curcas through phenyl propanoid metabolism against Rhizoctoniabataticola were undertaken at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Three plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) viz., Pseudomonas maltophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated for their potential to induce systemic resistance in Jatropha against root rot. The maximum increase of 97 per cent in total phenols, 120 per cent in peroxidase, 123 per cent in polyphenol oxidase, 101 per cent in phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 298 per cent in tyrosine ammonia lyase was detected in plants raised with Pseudomonas fluorescens+ Rhizoctoniaba-taticola inoculation in Jatropha curcas at 10 days post inoculation against control except total phenols where it was maximum (99%) at 30 DPI. There was slight or sharp decline in these parameters with age irrespective of inoculations. The pathogen challenged plants showed lower levels of total phenols and enzymes. The observations revealed that seed bacterization with Pseudomonas fluorescens results in accumulation of phenolics and battery of enzymes in response to pathogen infection and thereby induce resistance systemically. 

Keywords: Jatropha curcas root rot, Phenol oxidizing enzymes, Phenol synthesizing enzymes, Rhizoctoniabataticola

Effect of different dates of sowing on yield attributes, yield and quality of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars

Ankur Chaudhary*, Meena Sewhag, V.S. Hooda, Bhagat Singh and Parveen Kumar

Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: ankurchaudhary292@gmail.com

Received: March 8, 2016; Revised received: November 2, 2016; Accepted: January 12, 2017

Abstract: A study was conducted during rabi2013-14 at Barley Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with the objective to study the effect of different date of sowing on growth, yield and quality characters of barley cultivars. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with five date of sowing (30th October, 10th, 20th, 30th November and 10th December) in main plots and four cultivars (BH 902, RD 2552, DWRUB 52 and RD 2668) kept in sub plots replicated thrice. Crop sown on 30th October produced significantly higher values of growth parameters, yield attributes (115 productive tillers per meter row length, no. of grains per spike- 37 and test weight -46.90) and yield (grain yield- 4733 kg ha-1 and straw yield- 8368 kg ha-1). But it was statistically at par with 10th November sowing date. Grain protein content, hectoliter weight and bold grains percentage decreased significantly with delay in sowing while malt content percentage was recorded significantly higher (89.53%) in 10th December date of sowing. Among the cultivars DWRUB 52 produced significantly higher grain yield (4516 kg ha-1) and quality attributes like malt content (86.25%) than other cultivars.

Keywords: Barley, Cultivars, Quality, Sowing time, Yield attributes


Nitrogen management of wheat cultivars for higher productivity - A review

Harwinder Kaur* and Hari Ram

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kaurharwinder46@yahoo.com

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: October 25, 2016; Accepted: January 12, 2017

Abstract: The increased population pressure has led to the maximum use of chemical fertilizers especially in the major crops such as rice, wheat and maize production. India has an ever growing population needing food and also the growing urban middle class with higher standards of living is on the lookout for better quality product. The introduction of improved seeds increases the utility of traditional inputs and their consumption as well. Because of genetic variation, BVC 223, Qingnong 8, IPA99, CT 01217, Luomai 8, Seher 06, Sistan, Punjab 2011, Rasco 2005, PBW 343, Halna, HP 1744, VL Gehun 892, WH 1022, PBW 621, and PBW 550 cultivars of wheat crop differ in growth and development behaviour and respond higher to different nitrogen management practices. However, ever increasing prices of Nitrogen (N) fertilizers and possibilities of environmental pollution and groundwater contamination warn for their judicious and efficient use. The application of essential plant nutrients particularly N nutrient in optimum quantity (120-150 kg/ha) and right proportion (3-4 splits) through correct methods and time of application (LCC and green seeker based) is the key to increased and sustained crop production. The increase in quality due to nitrogen fertilization (120-330 kg/ha) may be due to its role in activation of cells division, metabolic and photosynthesis process and nutritive status of wheat plant. Keeping in view above all facts in mind, performance of wheat cultivars as influenced by different nitrogen rates will be discussed in this review.

Keywords: Cultivars, Grain quality, Grain yield, Nitrogen levels, Wheat


Efficacy of different extracts of propolis against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: In vitro and in vivo study

Preeti Kalia1*, Neelima R Kumar1and Kusum Harjai2

1Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA 2Department of Microbiology, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160014, INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: preeti.kalia84@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: November 3, 2016; Accepted: January 14, 2017

Abstract: Present study focussed on the antibacterial and antioxidative effect of honey bee propolis on typhoid causing bacteria i.e. Salmonella. Water, ethanol, methanol were used as solvents for making of extracts. Both Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were calculated for all the three extracts. MIC of ethanolic extract of propolis was 160 mg/ml. It was 200 mg/ml for methanolic and 220mg/ml for wa-ter extracts respectively. Moreover, time kill analysis results confirmed that there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in log count of bacteria when treated with ethanolic extraxt of propolis (3.98±0.15 log cfu/mL) and methanolic (4.66±0.05log cfu/mL) extract of propolis as compared to Salmonella control (7.72±0.03 log cfu/mL) in in vitro experiments. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice was used as an murine model of typhoid. Levels of different liver marker enzymes and antioxidants like Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Reduced Glutathione (GSH) were observed in infected and all the treated groups. By comparing the results, it was concluded that ethanolic extract of propolis showed maximum antimicrobial activity as compare to the rest two. So the results of present study encourages the potential of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative treatment for typhoid and its use in combination with standard antibiotics can also be explored.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Propolis, Salmonella, Typhoid


Rearing performance of tropical Tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta Drury) on Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and its commercial silk properties

K. Vanitha1*, U. C. Javali2 and P. S. Bhat3

1Crop protection, Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur – 574202 (Karnataka), INDIA 2Non- mulberry reeling unit, Central Silk Technological Research Institute, Madiwala- 560068 (Karnataka), INDIA 3Division of Entomology and Nematology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru-560089 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: vanis102@gmail.com

Received: May 10, 2016; Revised received: September 13, 2016; Accepted: January 14, 2017

Abstract: Tasar silkworm, Antheraeamylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is one of the commercially exploited non-mulberry silkworms mainly reared outdoor on many wild plants. The ecorace of tasar silkworm occurring in cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) plantations of Puttur was identified as A. mylitta KE-02. Pooled egg, larval and pupal period of tasar silkworm upon indoor rearing on cashew recorded were 6.43, 28.69 and 25.36 days, respec-tively, with the effective rate of rearing of 40 %. The average cocoon weight, pupal weight and shell weight recorded were 6.24 g, 5.30 and 1.18 g, respectively. The high shell ratio of 22.26 %, shows a healthy trend for high yielding tasar rearing on cashew. The commercial silk properties of cashew reared cocoons were assessed in comparison to silk properties of cocoons reared on Terminalia paniculata. Average filament length, average non-breakable filament length, denier, strength and elongation were found 547.2 m, 1231.6 m, 8.92 D, 1.57 gpd and 16.9 %, respectively on cashew and 518.2 m, 161.94 m, 9.13 D, 1.73 gpd and 18.7 % , respectively on T. paniculata. The present study has documented the biology of tasar silk worm on cashew and also the commercial silk properties of cocoon reared on cashew at preliminary level.

Keywords: Antheraeamylitta, Cashew, Cocoon, Eggs, Larvae, Spinning, Terminalia spp.


Studies of alternaria black spot disease of pomegranate caused by Alternaria alternata in Punjab

Adesh Kumar*, Tanjeet Singh Chahal, Mandeep Singh Hunjan1, Harminder Kaur1 and Roomi Rawal2

Punjab Agricultural University, Fruit Research Station, Jallowal- Lesriwal, Jalandhar-144303 (Punjab), INDIA 1Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA 2Department of Entomology, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125001 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: adeshfrs@gmail.com

Received: May 15, 2016; Revised received: September 26, 2016; Accepted: January 15, 2017

Abstract: Alternaria black spot of pomegranate caused by Alternaria alternata pose significant economic losses in India as it reduce the crop yield. Farm survey was undertaken at Punjab Agricultural University, Pomegranate Research Block, Fruit Research Station, Jallowal- Lesriwal Jalandhar during 2015. Among all the five cultivars highest disease incidence (70%) and severity (30%) was registered in cultivar Bhagwa. Twenty two isolates of A. alternata were recovered from infected fruits and clustered using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) on the basis of disease score produced in five cultivars (Ganesh, Ruby, Bhagwa, Jyoti and Mridula). It was revealed that five isolates namely AL14, AL15, AL20, AL21 and AL22 were highly virulent on almost all the pomegranate cultivars. Two cultivars viz. Bhagwa and Mridula were found to be most susceptible as 45.45 % isolates were found to be highly virulent on them.Thein vitro antifungal effects of the six fungicides on mycelial growth were investigated. Based on the inhibition of mycelial growth, all the fungicides showed most toxic reaction with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of < 1 ppm. However, they varied in EC90 values. 10 ppm cocentration of Tilt (azole group) showed 90% effective concentration (EC90). Folicur also showed approximately same results as Tilt while EC90 value of Natio and SAAF was <25 ppm and > 20 ppm. However, two fungicides namely Dithane Z-78 and Bavistin showed less toxicity against Alternaria alternata as compared to other with EC90 value at concentrations <50 ppm and > 25 ppm. Azole group fungicides (Tilt and Folicur) were found most effective to inhibit the pathogen growth.

Keywords: Alternaria black spot, Alternaria alternata, Cultivars, Fungicides and Pomegranate


Enrichment on quality of aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) fruit bars by blending

Deepika and Payel Panja*

Department of post-harvest technology of horticultural crops, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: payel.panja06@gmail.com

Received: May 14, 2016; Revised received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: January 16, 2017

Abstract: The main objective of the study was to standardize enrichment of aonla pulp to develop fruit bars. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 10 treatments. Aonla pulp was blended with 25 to 75% of different fruit (mango, papaya and jackfruit) pulp viz. Aonla pulp, Aonla with mango, papaya and jackfruit in different proportion of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 each fruit respectively. The initial moisture content was higher in aonlapulp enriched with mango pulp in 1:3 proportions. Enrichment of aonlapulp with fruit pulp of mango, papaya and jackfruit reduced the ascorbic acid, titratable acidity and tannin content of the resultant fruit bars compared to that from pure aonla pulp, which is an indication in the reduction of astringency. Enrichment also resulted in an increase in total soluble solids, reducing, non-reducing and total sugars of the resultant fruit bars. Enrichment of aonla pulp with fruit pulp of provitamin A rich fruits like mango, papaya and jackfruit showed a rise in total carote-noids and reduced astringency and acidity, thereby resulting in fruit bars with altered palatability and enhanced nutrition. Enriched fruit bars contained three vital antioxidants viz. Vitamin C, carotenoids and polyphenols of all the treatments, enriched fruit bar containing 25 % aonlaand 75 % mango (T4) was found superior in organoleptic evaluation.

Keywords: Aonla, Fruit bar, Nutritional properties, Sensory evaluation


Screening of efficient rhizobacteria associated with cauliflower (Brassica oleraceavar. botrytis L.) for plant growth promoting traits

Sonal Bhardwaj1*, Bhawna Dipta1, Shruti Kirti1and Rajesh Kaushal2

1Department of basic sciences, College of forestry, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (HP), INDIA 2Department of soil science and water management, College of forestry, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (HP), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: sonalbhardwaj119@gmail.com

Received: May 22, 2016; Revised received: October 4, 2016; Accepted: January 17, 2017

Abstract: In the current study, a total of 25 isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of cauliflower (Brassica oleraceavar. botrytis L.) from the vicinity of Una district of Himachal Pradesh. The isolates were tested in vitro for their ability to solubilise phosphorous and produce siderophore, indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and antifungal metabolites against the soil borne pathogens. Results revealed that out of 25, only 4 rhizospheric isolates (SB5, SB11, SB8 and SB10) have maximum plant growth promoting attributes. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. The isolate SB11 recorded highest phosphate solubilizing efficiency in solid medium (109.09%) and in liquid medium (350μg/ml). Maximum production of IAA (51.96μg/ml), siderophore (91.41%) and HCN were also observed for the same isolate. Further-more, the isolate SB11 produced highest antifungal metabolite production against Rhizoctoniasolani(37.11%), Sclerotiniasclerotiorum(41.11%), and Pythium sp. (71.11%) causing root rot, stalk rot and damping off diseases in cauliflower, respectively. The selected isolate (SB11) showed optimum growth at a pH of 7.0, 35°C temperature and 2% NaCl. On the basis of multifarious PGP-traits the SB11 isolate has tremendous potential to be used as a bioferti-lizer/bioprotectant for growth promotion and natural protection of cauliflower under low hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh.

Keywords: Biofertilizer, Cauliflower, HCN, P-solubilisation and Siderophore


Evaluation of different doses of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the rooting, survival and vegetative growth performance of hardwood cuttings of Flordaguard peach (Prunus persica L. Batch)

Sukhjit Kaur

Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur-143521 (Punjab), INDIA E-mail: sukhi.rose@gmail.com

Received: May 22, 2016; Revised received: October 5, 2016; Accepted: January 17, 2017

Abstract: The present study was conducted on the evaluation of different doses of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the rooting, survival and vegetative growth performance of hardwood cuttings of Flordaguard peach (Prunus persica L. Batch) during the years 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur. The hardwood cuttings of 10 years old Flordaguard peach plant having 15-20cm in length and 0.8-1.2cm in diameter with 6-7 buds were prepared in the first fortnight of January .The basal portion of the cuttings was dipped in different doses of IBA viz. 1000ppm, 2000ppm, 3000ppm, 4000pppm, 5000ppm and control (without IBA treatment) for 1-2 minutes and planted in an open field conditions by following the recommended cultural practices for nursery raising. It was noticed that hardwood cuttings of Flordaguard peach treated with 3000ppm of IBA for 1- 2 minutes significantly took the minimum number of days to sprouting (7.05), rooting (6.0) with highest sprouting percentage (98.45%), survival percentage (90.55%), plant height(195.45cm), plant girth(10.50cm), number of branches(13.50) ,number of leaves (260.4), leaf length (19.55cm), leaf breadth (4.12cm), leaf weight (2.0gm), per-cent rooting (94.45%), number of roots (75.83), root length (38.0cm), root girth (0.98 cm) and root weight (13.50gm).Therefore, the application of 3000 ppm IBA was found to be best in terms of rooting, survival and vegeta-tive growth of hardwood cuttings of Flordaguard peach (Prunus persicaL. Batch). The beneficial effect of present work develop protocol which can be reliably used to develop the rootstock plant of Flordaguard which is resistant to nematodes through cutting which become ready for budding/grafting in the field in one year instead of two years as raised through seed

Keywords: Indole-3-butyric acid, Hardwood cuttings, Peach, Rooting, Survival, Vegetative growth

Management of red rust thrips, Chaetanophothripssignipennis (Bagnall) in banana

K. D. Bisane1*, S. P. Saxena2and B. M. Naik1

1Fruit Research Station, ICAR-AICRP on Fruits (Banana, Sapota, Papaya), Navsari Agricultural University, Gandevi - 396360 (Gujarat), INDIA 2College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Waghai – 394730 (Gujarat), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kdbisane@yahoo.co.in 

Received: June 4, 2016; Revised received: October 24, 2016; Accepted: January 18, 2017

Abstract: The commercial value of banana is mainly affected by red rust thrips, Chaetanophothripssignipennis(Bagnall) during fruiting phase at maturity. In this context, the trial was framed at F.R.S., N.A.U., Gandevi under ICAR-AICRP (Fruits) programme. The three years data on efficacy of bio-rational pesticides for management of red rust thrips revealed that bud injection of imidacloprid (0.3 ml/ 500 ml water) @ 1 ml/bud exhibited lowest unblemished fruits up to 8.37% over conventional spraying (20.72%) and bunch sleeving method (42.83%). The comparable results on fruit damage (14.83%) was observed with bud injection of azadirachtin (1%) (5 ml/l water) @ 2 ml/bud over conventional spray. The merit of technology furnished higher no. of unblemished fruits (<10%) and original peel superficial appearance remains impassive under bud injection technique with higher benefit cost ratio with very low dose of pesticide provide financial profit to growers and traders. Besides, imidacloprid residue was not detected in harvested fruits and there is no other technology available to remove this malady of banana

Keywords: Banana, Chaetanophothripssignipennis(Bagnall), Red rust thrips


Influence of seed polymer coating with Zn and Fe nanoparticles on storage potential of pigeonpea seeds under ambient conditions

Pradeep Korishettar1*, S. N. Vasudevan1, N. M. Shakuntala1, S. R. Doddagoudar1, Sharanagouda Hiregoudar2 and B. Kisan3

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA 2Department of Processing and Food Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA 3Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kpradeep5061@gmail.com 

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: October 9, 2016; Accepted: January 19, 2017

Abstract: Present laboratory experiment was conducted with an objective to know the effect of seed polymer coat-ing with Zn and Fe nanoparticles (NPs) in comparison to their bulk forms on storage potential of pigeonpea seeds. Results revealed that seed polymer coating with Zn and Fe NPs had significant effect on storability of pigeonpea seeds. Among the treatments Zn NPs at 750 ppm was found to be superior in all the studied parameters viz., seed germination (96.00, 88.67 and 81.67 %), seedling length (25.67, 22.57 and 18.60 cm), seedling dry weight (85, 81.45 and 78. 45 mg), field emergence (89.67, 77.67 and 63.33 %), seedling vigour index (2556, 2001 and 1519), alpha amylase and dehydrogenase enzymes activities at 0, 6 and 10 months, respectively and it was statistically on par with Zn NPs at 500 ppm and Fe NPs at 500 ppm. The nanoparticles treatment didn’t affect the seed moisture content (%) and insect infestation (%), however the significant difference was observed between polymer coated and uncoated seeds. In over all, the results of the study demonstrated the possibility of application Nanotechnology in Seed Science Research.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Pigeonpea, Polymer coating and Storability

Genotypic correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield contributing traits in released varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under partially reclaimed saline sodic soil

Arun Kumar3*, Jaydev Kumar2, Baudh Bharti4, P. N. Verma2, J. P. Jaiswal3, G. P. Singh5 and S. R. Vishwakarma1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad-224229 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA 2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA 3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, GovindBallabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 4Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA 5ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: arungangwar0581@gmail.com

Received: February 14, 2016; Revised received: November 16, 2016; Accepted: January 19, 2017

Abstract: This research sought to determine the correlations between grain yield and its contributing traits and to measure the direct and indirect effects on grain yield in barley. Sixty four released varieties were grown under par-tially reclaimed saline- sodic soil, under irrigated conditions during rabi 2010-11. The grain yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation with 1000 grain weight (0.517), plant height (0.460), length of main spike (0.459), fertile tillers per plant (0.385), and grains per main spike (0.366). On the basis of relationship of grain yield with yield contributing traits, we can select the best genotype and can be utilised in breeding program.

Keywords:
Barley, Correlation coefficient, Path coefficient analysis, Quantitative characters

Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of certain plant species grown alongside Parwanoo to Solan National Highway-22 in Himachal Pradesh, India

Navjot Singh Kaler1*, S. K. Bhardwaj2 and R.K. Gupta3

1,2Department of Environmental Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar UHF, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (H.P.), INDIA 3Department of Basic Science, Dr Y.S. Parmar UHF, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (H.P.), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kalernavjot8888@gmail.com

Received: March 18, 2016; Revised received: November 3, 2016; Accepted: January 20, 2017

Abstract: The study examined the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of selected plant species growing along national highway-22 from Parwanoo to Solan, falling in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Four species namely Grewiaoptiva, Toonaciliata, Melia azedarach and Woodfordia floribunda of uniform size, age, spread and common in occurrence on both sides of the highway are selected. Leaf samples were collected from selected spe-cies and used to estimate four physiological and biochemical parameters, namely; leaf relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid content (AA), total leaf chlorophyll (TChl) and leaf extract pH were used to compute the APTI values. The trend of APTI recorded for various species was Melia azedarach (18.37) >Grewiaoptiva(8.77) >Woodfordia floribunda (7.43) >Toonaciliata(6.82). The APTI also varied with seasons of the year. The highest APTI was noticed in rainy followed by winter and summer season. The study indicated Melia azedarach as most tolerant and Toonaciliataas most sensitive species to air pollution.

Keywords: Air pollution tolerance index (APTI), Melia azedarach, Toonaciliata, Grewiaoptiva, Woodfordia floribunda


Tannery effluent effect on the haematological parameters of freshwater fish, Channa punctatus

S. Parveen1, D. Singh2, Ram Bharose1, S. Rout1*, M. A. Khan3 and E. F. Ansari2

1School of Forestry and Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA 2Department of Environmental Science, ChhatrapatiShahu ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- 208024 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA 3Department of Crop Physiology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur- 208002 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: srout.forestry@gmail.com

Received: May 2, 2016; Revised received: November 4, 2016; Accepted: January 20, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the tannery effluent toxicity stress symptoms in fish blood during a long term of exposure period. The effect of tannery effluent on various haematological parameters were evaluated exposing fresh water fish, C. punctatus to different concentration i.e., [Control, 5% Tannery effluent (TE), 10% TE and 20% TE] of tannery effluent. Exposed of fish to tannery effluent showed a significant decrease in the haemoglobin (Hb) content (9.16± 0.08), red blood cells (3.32 ± 0.12), packed cell volume (34.66 ± 0.33) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) values, whereas significant increase in the white blood cells (WBC), erythro-cyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and clotting time was recorded with increase in exposure periods as compared to control respectively. Hb, RBC and MCHC values showed fluctuating results. The haematological parameters were decreases from 15th days of exposure periods to 45th days of exposure period. The decrease in haematological parameters clearly indicates that the exposed fishes have become anemic due to tannery effluent exposure.

Keywords: Blood, Channa punctatus, Haemoglobin, Tannery effluent, White blood cells


Character association and path analysis studies in germplasm lines of rabi sorghum (Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench)

Santosh Khadakabhavi1*, G. Girish2 and Yashoda1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584104 (Karnataka), INDIA 2Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Gulbarga-585101 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: santoshssk04@gmail.com

Received: May 2, 2016; Revised received: November 4, 2016; Accepted: January 20, 2017

Abstract: The field experiment was carried out using 121 germplasm lines of rabi sorghum to study association among the yield and its component traits, direct and indirect effects of traits on the yield. Association studies indicat-ed that at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, panicle width (rg=0.190; rp=0.204) and 1000 grain weight (rg=0.450; rp=0.520) showed significantly positive correlation with grain yield per plant. Genotypic correlation magnitude was higher than phenotypic correlation. Partitioning of yield and yield components both at phenotypic and genotypic levels into direct and indirect effects revealed that the characters that had positive direct effects on grain yield were 1000 grain weight (Ppi=+0.3085, Pgi=+0.4621), panicle length (Ppi=+0.1516, Pgi=+0.2843), days to maturity (Ppi=+0.1539, Pgi=+0.1391) at both genotypic and phenotypic level. On grain yield indicating importance of these characters hence, due consideration should be given to these characters while planning a breeding strategy by utilizing rabisorghum.

Keywords: Character association, Germ lines, Path analysis, Sorghum bicolor

Genetic studies for flower yield and component traits in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat

R. S. Telem1*, R. Sadhukhan2, H.K. Sarkar2 , R. Akoijam3, A. Haribhushan1 and S. H. Wani

1Farm Science Centre (KrishiVigyan Kendra), SenapatiDistt., P.O. Kangpokpi – 795129 (Manipur), INDIA 2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya , Mohanpur, Nadia -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA 3ICAR-Research complex for NEH Region, Manipur centre-795004 (Manipur), INDIA 4Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025 (Kashmir), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: telem.ratan@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: October 27, 2016; Accepted: January 21, 2017

Abstract: Study on genetic variability, character association and path analysis was carried out with sixty chrysan-themum genotypes keeping in mind of their applicability in future crop improvement programmes. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were found for the character such as number of flower per plant, number of branches per plant, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, plant spread and plant height. High heritability coupled with high expected genetic advance was observed for number of flower per plant, number of secondary branches and branches per plant. In general, genotypic correlation coefficients were found to be higher than the phenotypic correlations for most of the characters. Number of flowers per plant showed highly positive significant correlation at both genotypic and phenotypic level with plant spread (0.977,0.974), number of primary branches (0.952,0,828), number of branches per plant (0.956, 0.950), number of flower per spray (0.932, 0.821) and number of secondary branches (0.770, 0.744). Path analysis revealed that plant spread, number of primary branch-es, number of flower per spray and number of branches per plant had highest positive and direct effects on number of flowers per plant at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Thus, the useful cultivars can be used as parents in hybridization programme to obtain admirable progenies.

Keywords: Correlation, Genetic variability, Heritability, Path analysis


Development of promiscous rhizobia for diverse rabi legumes (Chickpea, Pea and Lentil)

Ikbal1*, Mukesh R. Jangra1, K. M. Sarim2 and V.K. sikka1

1Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA 2Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: iqbalshah5330@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received:December 1, 2016; Accepted: January 21, 2017

Abstract: Conjugation between microsymbiont was used to create genetic variations in rhizobia for diverse rabi legumes (chickpea, pea and lentil) with better characteristics in nodulation and nitrogen fixation process. Ten antibiotics were used as selectable markers for the screening of twenty four bacterial strains to be used in mating experiments for obtaining transconjugants. All bacterial strains were sensitive to gentamycin and resistant to streptomycin, kanamycin and sulphanilamide. Total five fusants were obtained from each rhizobial cross combination with the help of electro-poration. Modified transconjugants, rhizobial strains had promiscuous infection with 50-122% more nodules showed significant increase in shoot fresh weight, dry weight and total nitrogen content in chickpea, pea and lentil plants. Electrofusantsrhizobial strains improved shoot nitrogen content up to 67% in lentil and 54% in pea and chickpea plants. The amount of nitrogen fixed in chickpea was highest (3.71gm) by transconjugants DP-C6- HLN followed by DP-C6-HP14 (3.56gm). Transconjugants DP-HP14-HLN fixed the highest amount of nitrogen (3.92gm) in pea and 4.06gm in lentil plants. Plasmids were also analyzed in order to characterize their role in the evolution of rhizobial symbionts and their involvement in symbiotic behaviour. The developed Rhizobium strains with improved symbiotic association and ability to infect across strict specificity for host legumes would be of great help for the farming community at large.

Keywords: Biofertilizer, Nitrogen fixation, Symbiosis, Transconjugants


Soil evaporation studies using mini-lysimeters under differently established rice-wheat cropping sequence in Punjab, India

Rajan Bhatt1and S. S. Kukal2

1USF, Usman, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA 2Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: rajansoils@pau.edu

Received: June 17, 2016; Revised received: October 10, 2016; Accepted: January 23, 2017

Abstract: Present investigations were carried out in rice-wheat cropping sequence as a whole including the intervening period under divergent establishment methods from 2012-14 at experimental farm of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab. Treatments included tillage in wheat viz. zero (ZTW) and conventionally tilled wheat (CTW) - main followed by establishment methods viz. direct seeded rice (DSR) and mechanically transplanted rice (MTR) - sub while tillage in rice viz. puddle (PTR), conventionally tilled (CTR) and zero tilled rice (ZTR) - sub-sub plot. Mini-lysimeters were used for delineating the evaporation trends which found to be fast, low cost, reliable and accurate. During rabi seasons, CTW plots evaporated 15.8 and 3.0% faster respectively, as compared to the ZTW plots. CTW plots during 2012-13 evaporated 7% higher than during 2013-14 while ZTW plots evaporated with almost same pace during both the years. After rabi season during intervening period, ZTW plots evaporated 6.8 and 13.6% faster than the CTW plots during 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. During rice seasons, among pure tillage system, zero tilled plots viz. ZTWDSRZT evaporated 21.7 and 22.2% faster than CTWDSRCT plots during rice 2013 and 2014, while coming over to the mixed tillage systems, CTWDSRZT evaporated 36.7 and 18.4% faster than the ZTWDSRCT plots. The results from this and other studies suggest that mulching suppress the evaporation losses which further improves the water use efficiency and finally land productivity of the rice-wheat sequence in the region.

Keywords: Direct seeded rice, Evaporation, Lysimeter, Rice, Tillage, Wheat

Forecasting phenology of mustard crop in North-western Himalayas

Ranbir Singh Rana1, Bhosale Arjun Vaijinath2, Sanjay Kumar3 and Ranu Pathania1

1Centre for Geo- Informatics Research and Training, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh KrishiVish-vavidyalaya , Palampur-176062 (H.P.), INDIA 2Chatrapati Shahu, Phule, Ambedkar College of Agriculture , Ashti, District Beed-414203 (Maharashtra), INDIA 3Department of Soil Science, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh KrishiVishvavidyalaya , Palampur- 176062 (H.P.), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail:ranars66@rediffmail.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: October 20, 2016; Accepted: January 24, 2017

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during rabiseason of 2007-08 and 2008-09 to study the phenology, thermal indices and its subsequent effect on dry matter accumulation of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) varieties viz., RCC-4, Kranti and Varuna grown under varying environmental conditions of Himachal Pradesh. The early sown (10th October) crop varieties took maximum average growing degree days for flower initiation (492±1), 50% flower-ing (682±1), pod initiation (742±1), 90% pod formation (811±4) and maturity (1394±8) which decreased with subse-quent delay in sowing time and recorded lowest under late sown (9th November) crop. The accumulated helio-thermal units and photo-thermal units decreased from 9824 to 7467 oC day hour and 19074 to 15579 oC day hour, respectively. High heat-use efficiency was obtained under late sown condition on 30th October. The heat-use efficiency (HUE) was high at 90% pod formation stage as compared to other stages in all the varieties and sowing dates (except 9th November sowing). The early sown (10th October) crop had maximum calendar days and cumula-tive pan evaporation (158 days and 448.2 mm) followed by normal (20th and 30th October) (153 days and 434 mm) and late (9th November) (138 days and 403.1 mm) sown crop indicating higher water requirement under early sow-ing. The predictive regression models explained 83-85% variation in dry matter yield in three varieties of mustard. The agro climatic indices are important determinants for temperature, radiations and photoperiods behaviors of crop. The accurate predictions of crop phenology are useful inputs for crop simulation modeling and crop management, and used for climate change assessment and simulated adaptations in present scenarios.

Keywords: Agro-climatic indices, Crop phenology prediction models, Mustard


Nutritional, microbial and sensory quality evaluation of fermented Setipinnaphasa, Hamilton 1822, (PhassyaShidal), marketed in North-east India

Bipul Kumar Kakati1*and Umesh Ch. Goswami2

1Department of Fishery Engineering and Technology, College of Fisheries, Assam Agricultural University, Raha, Nagaon -782103 (Assam), INDIA 2Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati -781014 (Assam), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: bkkakati@gmail.com

Received: June 29, 2016; Revised received: November 25, 2016; Accepted: January 24, 2017

Abstract: Fermented Setipinnaphasa (Phassya Shidal) is a traditional fish product, popular in the north eastern states of India, because of its typical flavor and aroma. The proximate composition, biochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of Phassya Shidal available in markets were studied. The results of the analysis showed that the market samples of Phassya Shidal were a good source of protein (27.20%). The pH and moisture content were 6.2 and 37.52%, respectively. Both Phassya Shidal and fresh Setipinnaphasa (raw material) were rich in lysine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The effect of fermentation on the amino acids content of the sample was not significant except in histidine (P<0.05). An increase in the contents of fatty acids and amino acids composi-tion was observed in the Phassya Shidal during fermentation. Significant variations (P<0.05) in the proportions of some unsaturated fatty acids were noticed between product and fresh fish. The major saturated fatty acids were C16:0 and C18:0. The Oleic acid was the prominent monounsaturated fatty acid. The dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were of the n-3 series. The major PUFA found chiefly in linoleic acid and linolenic acid in both the samples. The physicochemical analysis revealed that the product was of acceptable quality. The bacterial flora of Phaasya Shidal comprised of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Escherichia coli indicating unhygienic handling practices during preparation and storage. Though the product had acceptable sensory quality, strict hygienic measures should be adopted during processing to safeguard the health of the consumers.

Keywords: Fermentation, Phassya Shidal, Quality evaluation, Setipinnaphasa, Traditional fish product


Effect of different storage conditions and seed treatments on seed viability in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

J. B. Patel*, Jyoti Sondarva, C. A. Babariya, R. R. Rathod and V. J. Bhatiya

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh –362001(Gujarat), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: jbpatelvasai38@gmail.com

Received: July 9, 2016; Revised received: October 26, 2016; Accepted: January 25, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out in laboratory of the Department of Seed Science and Technolo-gy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh from the April 2013 to April 2015, wherein two kg of freshly harvested quality seed of soybean cv. Gujarat Junagadh Soybean 3 having high germination percentage and low moisture content (below 8%) was taken for each repetition and for each combination of treat-ments. The treatment consisted of two storage conditions (C) viz., C1 (Ambient temperature) and C2 (Cold storage at 7oC + 2oC), and five seed treatments (S) viz., S1 = Control, S2 = Carbendazim @ 2g/kg seed, S3 = Mancozeb @ 2g/ kg seed, S4 = Neem leaf powder @ 10g/kg seed, and S5 = Neem Oil @ 5 ml/kg seed. The experiment was carried out using Completely Randomized Design (Factorial) repeated three times. After proper mixing or smearing the seeds as per the treatments, seeds were packed in cloth bag and kept in laboratory under two different storage conditions. Observations were recorded at 90 days interval on germination (%), root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling dry weight (g), seed vigour index I, seed vigour index II and seed moisture content (%). The results revealed that storage condition (C) and seed treatments (S) exhibited significant differences almost for the all the traits for germination and seedling parameters after 2 years of storage. The results of soybean seed stored in two different storage conditions showed that on an average, the seed stored under cold storage (70C + 20C) noted higher values for all the traits studied except seed moisture content after 2 years of storage. Among the seed treatments, on an average, after 2 years of seed storage, significantly (P<0.05) higher values were recorded by all the seed treatments over the control. However, seed treated with Mancozeb @ 2g/kg of seed recorded the significantly highest germination percentage (71.50 %) and it was at par with Neem leaf powder @ 10 g / kg seed (70.67%) and Carbendazim @ 2g /kg seed (69.67%) after 2 years of storage. The germination percentage noted in control treatment was 33.17 per cent after 2 years of storage. An ISTA standard for germination in soybean is 70 per cent. Most of the interactions effects were found significant (P<0.05) for all the traits studied.

Keywords: Seed treatment, Soybean, Storage condition, Viability


Identification and characterization of Pseudomonas fluorescensstrains effective against Xanthomonasoryzaepv. oryzae causing bacterial blight of rice in Punjab, India

Mandeep Singh Hunjan*, Anjali Thakur and Pushpinder Paul Singh

Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author E-mail: mandeep.hunjan@pau.edu

Received: July 13, 2016; Revised received: January 9, 2017; Accepted: January 25, 2017

Abstract: For the control of bacterial blight of rice caused by Xanthomonasoryzaepv. oryzae, sixty four Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were recovered from rice and wheat rhizosphere. These strains were identified on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. It was observed that the strains showing fluorescence in the selective media showed the amplification of the targeted P. fluorescens specific ITS region. The strains were also characterized for the production of the antibiotic 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) using phlDlocus. The characteristic 750bp region was amplified in all the DAPG producing strains. These strains were evaluated against X. oryzae in vitro by dual culture method. The P. fluorescens strains found effective in vitro were further tested in field for their antagonistic potentiality and disease suppression ability. P. fluorescens strain number Pf-4-R showed maximum inhibition i.e. of 5.5 mm against the test pathogen X. oryzaepv. oryzae. Talc based powder formulation of the effective strain Pf-4-R used for field evaluation, showed that pre-inoculation foliar sprays were effective in controlling bacterial blight of rice with disease suppression efficiency ranging from 29.6 to 65.6 percent in different treatments.

Keywords: Bacterial blight, phl, Pseudomonas fluorescens; Xanthomonasoryzaepv. oryzae


Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for various quantitative and qualitative traits in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

Syed Berjes Zehra1*, Shabir Hussain Khan1, Asif Ahmad2 , Baseerat Afroza1 , K. Parveen and Khursheed Hussain1

1Division of Vegetable Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir , Shalimar, Srinagar-190025 (J&K), INDIA 2Division of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir , Shalimar, Srinagar-190025 (J&K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: syedandleebzehra@gmail.com

Received:January 16, 2016; Revised received: November 17, 2016; Accepted: January 26, 2017

Abstract: Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for different quantitative and qualitative characters were studied in 64 genotypes of chilli. The study indicated the existence of considerable amount of genetic variability for all the traits under study. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for almost all the traits studied. The maximum range was recorded for fruit yield per plant (150-900 g) followed by vitamin-C content at red ripe stage (35.50 -207.17 mg/100g), vitamin-C content at green stage (24.93-195.83 mg/100g), capsanthin content (39.58-180.35ASTA units, number of fruits per plant (21.32-100.27) and plant height (50.20-105.00cm). The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability were observed for average fruit weight followed by seed yield per plant, average seed weight per fruit, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant and fruit diameter. In general the phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were slight higher than genotypic coefficients of variation GCV), which indicates the minor role of environment in the expression of traits under observation. The estimates of heritability in broad sense was high for all the characters. The present investigation indicates a great scope of in the improvement of these traits as these characters in general possessed high estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advancement except for days to first fruit set, days to first green fruit harvest, days to first ripe fruit harvest and dry matter content (high heritability but moderate genetic gain) indicating the preponderance of additive gene action for control of these traits.

Keywords: Genetic variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Chilli, Capsicum annuum L.


Effect of plant spacing and fertility level on leaf area variation at different phenological stages of cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L.) grown in sodic soil

Angrej Ali1*and B. P. Singh2

1Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura Campus, Sopore-193201 (J&K), INDIA 2Department of Horticulture, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224229 (UP), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: anghort@gmail.com

Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: October 26, 2016; Accepted: January 26, 2017

Abstract: Vegetative and reproductive growth in cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L.) proceed concomitantly during the greater part of the life cycle thereby foliar traits (e.g. leaf area) become important in photosynthetic action of the plant. In present study, the leaf area variation in cape gooseberry was studied at five phenological stages i.e. pre-flowering (30 DAT), start of flowering (60 DAT), early fruiting (120 DAT), peak fruiting (180 DAT) and late fruiting (240 DAT), grown at three spacings (60 × 75, 75 × 75 and 75 × 90 cm) and four NPK levels (control, 60:40:40, 80:60:60 and 100:80:80 kg ha-1). Leaf area increased from per-flowering (73.51 cm2) to start of flowering (82.26 cm2) and thereafter, it was decreased gradually at later stages i.e. early fruiting (79.17 cm2), peak fruiting (73.15 cm2) and late fruiting (60.21 cm2). Spacing had no significant effect on leaf area at pre-flowering and start of the flowering, but at later stages, widest spacing (75 × 90 cm) exhibited significantly maximum leaf area at early fruiting (82.44 cm2), peak fruiting (78.22 cm2) and late and fruiting (65.31 cm2). Leaf area increased due to increased NPK levels with maximum values under 100:80:80 kg NPK ha-1 at all the phenological stages: pre-flowering (78.99 cm2), start of flowering (90.97 cm2), early fruiting (88.47 cm2), peak fruiting (80.74 cm2) and late fruiting (67.22 cm2). Spacing × NPK Interactions was significant only at peak fruiting and late fruiting stages with maximum leaf area (75.22 and 71.02 cm2, respectively) at 75 × 90 cm + NPK @ 100:80:80 kg ha-1. These findings can be further helpful in leaf sclerophylly studies in cape gooseberry.

Keywords: Cape gooseberry, Leaf area, NPK, Phenological stage, Physalisperuviana L., Spacing


Efficacy of different fungicides for management of early blight disease of potato

S. Murmu1, S. Dey2 and A. Chakraborty3

1Survey Selection and Mass Production of Nodule Bacteria, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA 2Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA 3AICRP on Potato, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia - 741235, (West Bengal), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: saharmurmu@gmail.com

Received: February 10, 2016; Revised received: December 15, 2016; Accepted: January 26, 2017

Abstract: The early blight of potato may be controlled by using bio-control agents and plant extracts but not effectively and rapidly. But using of chemical fungicides the disease can be controlled easily and losses of yield will be reduced compare to above mentioned both control measures. Keeping this in mind an experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of seven different fungicides (difenoconazole, propiconazole, hexaconazole, propineb 61% + iprov-alicarb 5.25%, propineb, carbendazim and metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 64%) for controlling early blight of potato un-der in vivo as well as in vitro condition. These antifungal compounds were applied 3 times at 7days interval after first appearance of the disease in the field. Highest percent disease reduction (57.88%) and highest yield of tuber (27.03 t/ha) was recorded in plot sprayed with propiconazole @1 ml/lit followed by propineb and propineb 61% + iprovalicarb 5.25%, with percent disease reduction 55.98%, 51.90% and yield 26.30 t/ha and 24.53 t/ha respectively. Simultaneously in vitro efficacy of these fungicides were also tested against Alternaria solani where propiconazole and propineb exhibited highest percent inhibition(100%) in radial growth and in case of spore germination inhibition in spite of these two fungicides difenoconazole, hexaconazole and propineb 61% + iprovalicarb 5.25% exhibit same result i.e. 100% inhibition compared to control as well as other treatments. Therefore it may be suggested that propiconazole and propineb can be used successfully in controlling of this disease.

Keywords: Early Blight, Fungicide, Management, Potato


Productivity, water use efficiency and economics of system of rice intensification (SRI) in Nichabanadhi sub basin of southern Tamil Nadu

M. Paramasivan*and A. Selvarani

Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam, Vallanad – 628252 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: paramusoil@gmail.com

Received: February 28, 2016; Revised received: November 26, 2016; Accepted: January 26, 2017

Abstract: Four hundred and sixteen on-farm demonstrations on system of rice intensification (SRI) were carried out in 350 hectares of farmer’s fields in Sankarankovil, Vasudevanallur and Kuruvikulam blocks of Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu from 2008-09 to 2010-11 under Tamil Nadu – Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water Bodies Restoration and Management (TN-IAMWARM) project. Two methods viz., SRI and conventional were compared. The results revealed that the adoption of SRI favorable influenced yield attributes and yield of rice. The maximum grain yield (8222 kg ha-1) obtained from SRI which was higher than conventional method (6534 kg ha-1). Higher grain yield coupled with substantial water saving to the tune of 37.1 per cent resulted in higher water use efficiency of rice under SRI method. The best net income ( Rs. 50, 587) and benefit: cost ratio (3.64) were also associated with SRI than conventional method of rice cultivation. The cost of cultivation was comparatively lesser in SRI which re-sulted in gaining an additional income of Rs. 8080 ha-1 as compared to conventional method of rice cultivation. The system of rice intensification (SRI) proved its benefits in this basin.

Keywords: Conventional method, Economics, Grain yield, SRI, Water use efficiency, Yield attributes


Effect of potassium and zinc on growth, yield and economics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cv. CO-34

Pravin Singh1*, Kavita Aravindakshan1, I. B. Maurya1, Jitendra Singh2, Bhim Singh3and M. K. Sharma4 

1Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalawar- 326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA 2Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA 3Department of Agriculture Statistics, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalawar -326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA 4Department of NRM, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA *Corresponding autor. E-mail: hortiveg511@gmail.com

Received: March 23, 2016; Revised received: November 9, 2016 Accepted: January 27, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of potassium and zinc on growth, yield and economics of sweet potato. The experiment was laid out on clay and loam soil by adopting randomized block design with factorial technique (FRBD). The sixteen treatments consisted of combination of four levels of po-tassium (0, 80, 100 and 120 kg/ha through muriate of potash and four levels of foliar zinc (control i.e. water spray, 10, 20 and 30ppm) through zinc sulphate. The individual application of potassium 120 kg K2O/ha significantly in-creased the number of tubers per plant (4.60), average weight of tuber (275.31 g), length of tuber (16.77 cm), diam-eter of tuber (5.69 cm), tuber yield per plot (9.71 kg), tuber yield per hectare (49.04 t) respectively as compared to control. With the foliar application of zinc (30 ppm) significant increase in number of tubers per plant (4.18), average weight of tuber (234.73 g), length of tuber (18.12 cm), diameter of tuber (5.16 cm), tuber yield per plot (8.33 kg) and tuber yield per hectare (42.05 t) was recordedas compared to control. The treatment combination (120 kg K2O+30ppm Zn) recorded the maximum yield parameters i.e. chlorophyll content (37.00 mg/100 g), average weight of tuber (302.17 g), length of tuber (19.82 cm), diameter of tuber (5.97 cm), maximum tuber yield per plot (11.02 kg), tuber yield per hectare (55.67 t) and benefit-cost ratio (B: C ratio) of 4.22:1.While, the treatment (120 kg K2O+30ppm Zn) had the maximum number of tuber (4.86), minimum number of tuber was recorded in control. From the experi-ment, it appeared that application of potassium and zinc can be used to improve yield and higher net monetary re-turns of sweet potato.

Keywords: Growth, Potassium, Sweet potato, Zinc, Yield


Oxidative stability and storage quality of Menthalongifolia L. extract fortified fish nuggets at refrigeration temperature

Fahim Raja, Arvind kumar, TanujTanwar and Saniya Botoul Kamal

Division of Livestock Products Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu-180009 (J&K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: drarvindlpt@gmail.com

Received: April 12, 2016; Revised received: November 21, 2016; Accepted: January 27, 2017

Abstract: The present study was experimented to explore antioxidant potential of herb viz. M. longifolia L. inelongating the shelf life of emulsion based fish product. Since the fish meat product contain excessive amount ofprotein and fat which are vulnerable to spoilage due to proteolysis and lipolysis. Therefore fish nuggets incorporated with 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, and 3% of M. longifolia L. extract along with control was studied to explore the potential of Artemisia nilagiricaL. on oxidative stability and storage of aerobically packaged fish nuggets at refrigeration temp on 0,7,14 and 21st day. Aqueous ethanolic extract of M. longifolia L. was prepared and incorporated in fish nuggets.Fish nuggets prepared with M. longifolia L. (1%) extract were recorded to be the best among all based on varioussensory attributes with overall acceptability of 7.76±0.19. Extract of M. longifolia L. fortified fish nuggets were safefor human consumption till 21st day of refrigeration (4±1)°C storage under aerobically packaging on the basis of TBAvalue, FFA value, microbiological profile and sensory evaluation. The pH, TBA, FFA, total plate count, yeast andmould count were recorded to 6.49±0.008, 0.825±0.0012, 0.320±0.0005, 4.35±0.010, 1.26±0.013 and 2.20±0.008respectively, and were found within acceptable range on 21st day of refrigeration storage. Thus, it can be interpretedthat 1% aqueous ethanolic extracts of M. longifoliacan be utilized in enhancing the shelf-life and improving the sensoryscores of fish nuggets.

Keywords: Fish nuggets, Menthalongifolia L., Oxidative stability, Storage quality

Evaluation of casing variables for cultivation of Agaricusbisporus strain U3 in Punjab, India

Amanpreet Kaur*, Prem Pal Johl and Harpreet Singh Sodhi

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. Email: preetamanpau@gmail.com

Received: May 5, 2016; Revised received: November 3, 2016; Accepted: January 28, 2017

Abstract: Casing is an important step during cultivation of button mushroom. It promotes a shift of vegetative mycelium to form pinheads leading to mature basidiocarps. Therefore, An experiment was planned at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana in which farm yard manure (FYM), biogas slurry (BS), burnt rice husk (BRH), spent compost (SC), coir pith (CP) and sandy soil (SS) were used in six combinations to evaluate their impact on yield of Agaricusbisporus strain U3. Casing mixtures were analyzed for the moisture, water holding capacity (WHC), bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and mineral analysis. The moisture content of casing mixtures ranged between 33 to 56.3% with maximum in FYM+CP (1:1) and FYM+BS (1:1) which results in more water holding capacity with 160% and 100% for FYM+CP (1:1) and FYM+BS (1:1) respectively. The bulk density of different casing mixtures ranged between 33.3 to 83.3% and maximum for FYM+BS as well as the control FYM+SS (4:1). No significant variation in pH of casing mixture was observed while EC was significantly higher in FYM+BS (1:1) with 1.7 mmhos cm-1. Microbial count of different casing mixtures was between 3.0-5.7×105 which was statistically non-significant with respect to casing mixtures. A mixture of FYM+BRH (1:1) gave maximum yield of 15.1 kg with heavy fruit bodies. Number of fruiting bodies in casing mixture FYM+BRH (1:1) were 31.4, 26.4, 148.1,31.4 and 8.1 percent higher over FYM+CP (1:1), FYM+SC (1:1), FYM+BS (1:1), FYM and FYM+SS (4:1,control), respectively. The casing mixture FYM+BRH (1:1) with higher number of fruiting bodies with maximum fruiting bodies weight was the best alternate in mushroom growing industry.

Keywords: Casing, Yield, Farm Yard Manure (FYM), Coir Pith (CP), Biogas Slurry (BS), Spent Compost (SC), Burnt Rice Husk (BRH), Sandy Soil (SS)


Influence of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and integrated nutrient management (INM) on yield and economics attributes of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

Amrita Kumari1*, V. K. Singh1, S. Shree1, Vikash Kumar2 and Vishal Nirgude2 

1Department of Horticulture (Vegetables and Floriculture), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA 2Department of Horticulture (Fruit & Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: amritaicar14@gmail.com

Received: May 17, 2016; Revised received: October 25, 2016; Accepted: January 29, 2017

Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to study the response of naphthalene acetic acid NAA and integrated nutrient management on yield and yield attributes as well as and economics of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) with four levels of NAA (0 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75 ppm) and five levels of vermicompost (VC) along with RDF (V0-100% Recommended dose of fertilizer i.e. 120:60:60 Kg N P K /ha ), V1-100% N through Vermicompost, V2-75% N through VC + 25% (RDF), V3-50% N through VC + 50% (RDF) , V4-25% N through VC + 75% (RDF), having 20 treatment combinations. The results revealed that the combine application of 50 ppm NAA and 100% N through vermicomposti.e. P2V1 performed well in respect of fruit length (8.73 cm), fruit diameter (1.46 cm) and fruit weight (2.91 g) while the application of NAA 50 ppm + 50% N through vermicompost along with 50% RDF i.e. P2V3 gave significantly (P=0.05) maximum number of fruits/plant (73.86) and fruit yield per hectare (121.20 q) with higher gross income (Rs.2,66,640.00/ ha), net profit (Rs.1,98,946.00/ ha) and benefit - cost ratio (2.94). Therefore, it can be concluded that the combine effect of NAA 50 ppm along with 50 % N through vermicompost +50% inorganic fertilizers (RDF) gave better result regarding growth and yield attributes and also generated maximum gross income, net return and B:C ratio while the next best treatment was application of NAA 75 ppm along with 25 % N through vermicompost + 75 % inorganic fertilizers (RDF).

Keywords: Chilli, NAA, RDF, Vermicompost


Performance of high yielding drought tolerant varieties of maize and in situ moisture conservation techniques in Kandi region of Punjab, India

Vijay Kumar*, Vivek Sharma, S. C. Sharma and Sukhvinder Singh

Regional Research Station for Kandi Area (Punjab Agricultural University), BallowalSaunkhri, Balachaur, SBS Nagar- 144521 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: vijaypau@pau.edu

Received: July 5, 2016; Revised received: October 26, 2016; Accepted: January 30, 2017

Abstract: In the present investigation, 87 front line demonstrations (FLDs) of maize were conducted on farmers’ fields to demonstrate the impact of high yielding drought tolerant varieties (JH 3459, Parkash and PMH 1) and in situ moisture conservation techniques (ridge sowing, sowing across the slope, summer ploughing and earthing up) on production and economic benefits in Kandi region of Punjab state during kharif seasons from 2011 to 2013 under rainfed situation. The improved production technologies recorded additional yield ranging from 29.7 to 47.6 q/ha with a mean yield of 37.1 q/ha and 24.4 to 42.6 q/ha with a mean yield of 32.7 q/ha for drought tolerant varieties and in situ moisture conservation techniques, respectively. The per cent average increase in yield of drought tolerant varieties over local cultivars was 35.8, while 15.6 for in situ moisture conservation techniques.The average extension gap, technology gap and technology index were 9.8& 4.4 q/ha, 3.7& 6.1q/ha and 9.1& 16.7 per cent, respectively in drought tolerant varieties and in situ moisture conservation techniques. FLDs recorded higher mean net returns i.e. Rs. 36,292 and 28,234 per ha. with B:C ratio of 2.53 and 2.17 for drought tolerant varieties and in situ moisture conservation techniques, respectively. The FLDS conducted revealed that availability of suitable high yielding variety and lack of knowledge about improved production technologies is the main bottleneck in maize production, enhancement of yield and knowledge of the farmers. Hence, the productivity of maize can be increased by adoption of the recommended management practices and the study resulted in convincing the farming community about potentialities of the recommended production technologies in yield enhancement.

Keywords: FLDs, Improved Technologies, In situ Moisture Conservation, Maize


Combining ability analysis in near homozygous lines of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] for yield and yield attributing parameters

Y. A. Lyngdoh1, R. Mulge2, A. Shadap3, Jogendra Singh1* and Seema Sangwan4

1Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA 2Department of Vegetable Science, K.R.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi-591218 (Karnataka), INDIA 3Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur –741252 (West Bengal), INDIA 4Division of Microbiology, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi-110012, INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: jogendra169@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: November 4, 2016; Accepted: January 30, 2017

Abstract: Line × tester analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying the good combiners and to decide the breeding strategies for developing potential and productive genotypes or cultivars. Parents and hybrids differed significantly for GCA and SCA effects for all the characters respectively. Specific combining ability (SCA) variance was higher than the general combining ability (GCA) variance which shows the predominance of non-additive gene action for the improvement of all the characters studied. The parents and crosses having highest and significant GCA and SCA effects viz., KO-18 (13.69), KO-6 (9.54) and KO-2 × Parbhani Kranti (19.28) for plant height; KO-12 (0.34), KO-14 (0.19) and KO-5 × V5 (0.60) for number of branches per plant; KO-14 (-0.66) and KO-15 × Arka Anamika(-1.66) for days to first flowering; KO-1(1.10), Arka Anamika (0.46) and KO-9 × VRO-5 (3.28) for fruit length; KO-7 (7.91), VRO-5(1.68) and KO-18 × VRO-6 (8.64) for average fruit weight; KO-2 (1.18) and KO-17 × Arka Anamika (2.80) for number of fruits per plant; KO-9(0.05), VRO-6 (0.01) and KO-11 × VRO-6 (0.10) for total yield per plant were identified as good general and specific combiners. The results establish the worth of heterosis breeding for effective usage of non-additive genetic variance in okra.

Keywords: Combining ability, Okra, Line × tester, Variance


Effect of chemical thinning, gibberellic acid and pruning on growth and production of nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica) cv. May fire

Rimpika *, N. Sharma and D.P. Sharma

Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rimpikathakur@yahoo.in

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: October 10, 2016; Accepted: January 31, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out on 12-year old trees of nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica) cultivar May Fire raised on wild peach seedling rootstocks, Farmer’s orchard at Kotla- Barog in District Sirmour during the years 2014 and 2015. In this experiment, experimental trees were subjected to seventeen different treatments;T1: Pruning to retain 60 fruiting shoots tree-1 (control), T2: Pruning to retain 50 fruiting shoots tree-1, T3: Pruning to retain 40 fruiting shoots tree-1 ,T4: NAA 40 ppm, 2 WAPF (week after petal fall) ,T5: Ethrel 300 ppm, 2 WAPF, T6: GA3 100 ppm, 4 WAPF, T7: GA3 200 ppm, 4WAPF, T8: GA3 100 ppm, 6 WAPF T9: GA3 200 ppm, 6 WAPF, T10: Pruning to retain 50 fruiting shoots tree-1 + NAA 40 ppm (T4), T11: Pruning to retain 50 fruiting shoots tree-1 + Ethrel 300ppm (T5), T12: Pruning to retain 50 fruiting shoots tree-1 + GA3100 ppm (T6), T13: Pruning to retain 50 fruiting shoots tree-1 + GA3 100 ppm (T8),T14: Pruning to retain 40 fruiting shoots tree-1 + NAA 40 ppm (T4), T15: Pruning to retain 40 fruiting shoots tree -1 +Ethrel 300 ppm (T5),T16: Pruning to retain 40 fruiting shoots tree -1 + GA3 100 ppm (T6), T17: Pruning to retain 40 fruiting shoots tree -1 + GA3 100 ppm (T8), pertaining to alternative approach to chemical thinning, chemical thinner were more effective in improving the production of superior grade fruits than reducing the crop load directly by pruning or indirectly by GA 3 (Gibberellic Acid) treatments. Treatments with NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) at 40 ppm when applied two weeks after petal fall reduced the crop load to the greatest extent and improve the yield of superior grade fruits and increase the leaf to fruit ratio and decrease the fruit drop. Pruning to retain 40 fruiting shoots tree-1 + NAA 40 ppm, 2WAPF increased the shoot growth (160.80, 170.20cm), tree height (3.70,4.50 cm), tree spread (2.84,3.60), leaf area (42.71, 40.63 cm) during both the year. However, effect of chemical were less pronounced on trees subjected to severe pruning.

Keywords: Growth, Nectarine, Pruning, Production, Thinning


Activities of sucrose to starch metabolizing enzymes during grain filling in late sown wheat under water stress

Reena Mahla1, Shashi Madan1, Vikender Kaur2, Renu Munjal3, Rishi Kumar Behl3 and Raghavendra Midathala1

1Department of Biochemistry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA 2Germplasm Evaluation Division, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi-110012, INDIA 3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: svmadan12@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: September 30, 2016; Accepted: January 31, 2017

Abstract: Tolerance to water deficit in relation to activities of sucrose-to- starch metabolizing enzymes and starch accumulation was studied in the grains of contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes (WH1021 and WH1080; tolerant) and (WH711 and HD2687; susceptible) under late planting conditions. The activities of starch metabolizing enzymes i.e. sucrose synthase (SuSase), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthase (SSS) and starch branching enzymes (SBE) were substantially enhanced by water deficit in all genotypes at early to mid-grain filling stage showing peaks at 14 to 21 days after anthesis (DAA); while decreased significantly at mid-late grain filling stage with maximum decline at 35 DAA. Activities of all the enzymes under study showed maximum decline in activity (28.4–60%) in susceptible genotype WH711; whereas WH1021 proved to be most tolerant one with minimum decline in enzyme activity (14.9–32.8%). Starch content was also markedly reduced (21%) in WH711 due to drought while WH1021 reported 12% decline corresponding well with enzyme activity. A faster pre-mature cessation of starch deposition occurred in susceptible wheat genotypes compared to tolerant ones. A significant and positive correlation of the enzyme activities with starch accumulation (r = 0.491–0.555 at P0.05 for SuSase, AGPase, SSS and r = 0.638 at P0.01 for SBE) under well watered conditions indicated that enhancing the activities of the enzymes would lead to increase in starch accumulation and thus faster grain filling. Genotype WH1021 proved to be most efficient based on comparatively higher enzyme activity and least yield penalty under late planting conditions combined with water scarcity.

Keywords: Drought, Enzymes, High temperature, Starch, Wheat, Yield

Bio-efficacy of bifenthrin 8 SC against shoot and fruit borer and red spidermite of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench

Kusal Roy *, Arun Rathod and M. Soniya Devi

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: roy_ento@rediffmail.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: November 10, 2016; Accepted: February 1, 2017

Abstract: A field study was conducted to evaluate the relative bio-efficacy of bifenthrin 8 SC @60g, 80g, 100g,120g, 140g a.i./ha against shoot and fruit borer and red spider mite of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench cv. OH -152 at the Central Research Farm of BCKV, Nadia, West Bengal, for two consecutive seasons. Cypermethrin10 EC @70g a.i./ha and dicofol 18.5 EC @500g a.i./ha were used as standard treated check in the experiment. Population of beneficial insects like spider, predatory mites and Braconid parasitoid were also recorded during the time of observation on pests’ infestation. Among treatments, bifenthrin 8 SC @ 100 to 140g a.i./ha was found significantly(p≤0.05) superior over treated check cypermethrin 10 EC @ 70g a.i./ha and dicofol 18.5 EC @ 500g a.i./ha tobring down Earias vittella and red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) population, respectively, on okra. Bifenthrin 8SC @ 140g a.i./ha recorded maximum fruit yield (82.3 q/ha during kharif 2012 and 53.1q/ha during rabi 2012-13) ofokra. Also, foliar application of bifenthrin 8 SC did not reveal any significant (p≤0.05) adverse effect on population of spider, predatory mite and Braconid parasitoid in okra crop ecosystem. These findings will facilitate the selection of bifenthrin 8 SC as an effective acaro-insecticides for effective control of shoot and fruit borer and red spider mite of okra.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus, Bifenthrin 8 SC, Earias vittella, Tetranychus urticae

Performance of some apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) germplasm accessions for fruit quality traits in Himachal Pradesh

Dinesh Singh1 , Ankush Thakur1, K. Kumar1, J. C. Rana2*, M.G. Bhoyar1 and Nirmla Chauhan1

1Department of Fruit Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA 2National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, ICAR, Pusa campus, New Delhi, INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: fruitbreeder@rediffmail.com

Received: April 19, 2016; Revised received: November 7, 2016; Accepted: February 2, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out in field gene bank of NBPGR Regional Station Phagli, Shimla during the year 2014-15. Twenty accessions of Prunus armeniaca L. namely St. Ambroise, Wenatchee, Nugget, Stirling, Nari, Harogem, Rakovslik, Viva Gold, IC-432145, Erevani, Safed Perchinar, KS-1, AS-1, AS-2, NJ-A96, Jordan Early, Vitillo, Shahib, Kalola and Anglo Arsani were evaluated for their tree, foliage, floral and fruit characters. St. Ambroise recorded maximum tree height (10.10 m) whereas minimum (2.47 m) was in Stirling. Shedding of leaf started from 29 th October (Nugget) and extended till 27 th November (Vitillo). Time of full bloom extended from 16 th March in Shahib to 23 rd March in Safed Perchinar. The longest duration (22 days) of flowering was recorded in Erevani and shortest (9 days) in Wenatchee. Time of fruit maturity was early (25 th May) in Shahib and late (26 th June) in Vitillo. Largest and heaviest fruits were observed in St. Ambroise (77.59 g) whereas smallest and lightest fruits were in Viva Gold (19.37 g). Maximum pulp to stone ratio was recorded in Safed Perchinar (33.21) and minimum in Nari (15.57). TSS content was maximum (19.56 °B) in Nari whereas minimum (10.73°B) in Anglo Arseni. Titratable acidity was recorded maximum (1.86 %) in AS-1 and minimum (0.76%) in IC 432145. Total sugar content ranged from 8.40 per cent in Anglo Arseni to 16.53 per cent in Nari. Total phenol content was maximum (89.57 mg/100 g) in AS-1 and minimum (70.41 mg/100 g) in IC432145. From the present investigation it may be concluded that St. Ambroise, Nari and Shahib can be used for gene source for developing new hybrid cultivars and St. Am-broise may be suggested for cultivation in wet temperate condition of Himachal Pradesh for its better quality.

Keywords: Apricot, Characterization, Evaluation, Gene source

Molecular characterization of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] inbreds using microsatellite markers

Mamta Nehra1* , Mukesh Kumar2, Dev Vart3, Jyoti Kaushik4 and Rajesh Kumar Sharma5

Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: mamtanehra089@gmail.com

Received: June 30, 2016; Revised received: December 7, 2016; Accepted: February 3, 2017

Abstract: Studies on genetic diversity in Pennisetum germplasm are the promising opportunities for the use of un-domesticated materials for improving pearl millet varieties. DNA based markers have now emerged as a potential genomic tool for estimation of genetic diversity among various cultivars and varietal identification. In present study, genetic diversity among 49 stay green inbreds of pearl millet was studied using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Twenty nine polymorphic SSR primers, identified after initial screening of 70, were used to study diversity among these lines. A total of 108 alleles were amplified, collectively yielding unique SSR profiles for all the 49 inbreds. The average number of SSR alleles per locus was 3.72, with a range from 2 to 13. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of various SSR loci across all the 49 inbreds ranged from 0.14 to 0.87 with an average of 0.51 per lo-cus. This indicated sufficient diversity among the 49 pearl millet inbreds and total 5 out of 29 polymorphic SSR loci, namely Xpsmp2070, Xpsmp2001, Xpsmp2008, Xpsmp2066, Xpsmp2072 revealed PIC values above 0.70, can be considered highly useful for differentiation of pearl millet inbred lines. The lowest PIC value (0.47) for linkage group 7 showed comparatively conserved nature of this linkage group A dendrogram obtained using WARD’s minimum variance method further delineates 49 inbreds into 8 major clusters, and the clustering pattern corroborated with their pedigree and characteristics traits.

Keywords: Pearl millet, Genetic diversity, PIC, SSR Marker, Dendrogram


Effect of summer season on correlation coefficient in bird of paradise (Strelitzia reginae) progenies

Airadevi P. Angadi*, B. S. Reddy, R. C. Jagadeesha, Balaji S. Kulkarni and S. Nishani

Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture (KRCCH) Arabhavi, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-587102 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: abhayaa9@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: October 18, 2016; Accepted: February 3, 2017

Abstract: The study pertaining to the effect of summer season on correlation analysis in bird of paradise (Strelitzia reginae) was carried out among forty progenies. The results of correlation analysis for twelve parameters (plant height, stem girth, leaf length, leaf width, number of leaves per plant, number of suckers/m 2 , flower stalk length, flower stalk girth, spath length, no. of bracts, vase life and no. of flowers/ m 2 ) at genotypic and phenotypic levels revealed that number of flowers per m 2 of progenies during summer, 2011 showed positive and significant correlations with plant height (0.357 and 0.237) and number of suckers/ m2 (0.880 and 0.899). Whereas, it showed positive and significant correlation with stem girth (0.203), leaf width (0.202) and flower stalk girth (0.265) at genotypic level only. While during summer 2012, number of flowers per m 2 showed positive correlations with plant height (0.265 and 0.242), stem girth (0.232 and 0.215), number of suckers/ m 2 (0.913 and 0.900) and flower stalk length (0.268 and 0.249) at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Hence, the selection of these characters would be effective in improving yield in bird of paradise crop.

Keywords: Bird of paradise, Correlation, Flower stalk, Progenies, Stem girth


Screening of bacterial strains for pectate lyase production and detection of optimal growth conditions for enhanced enzyme activity

Monidipta Saha, Rajib S. Rana, Biswanath Adhikary and Sabyasachi Mitra*

All India Network Project on Jute and Allied Fibres, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata – 700120 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mitrasaby@gmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: October 22, 2016; Accepted: February 4, 2017

Abstract: In the present study, the pectatelyase production by fifty two bacterial strains isolated from ramie grown soils were studied and the strain RDSM01 showed maximum pectate lyase activity. According to sequence homology of Genbank, the strain RDSM01 was identified as Bacillus subtilis (Genbank Accession No. KX035109). Maximum pectate lyase activity of the strain was observed when 1.5% (v/v) inoculum was added to the growth medium and was incubated for 48 hours at 34-370C and at pH 7.0. The relative activity of the strain was 19% higher when apple pectin was used as carbon source compared to citrus pectin. Maximum enzyme production (149.1 – 153.4 IU/ml) was recorded when ammonium chloride or ammonium sulphate at 0.4% concentration was used as nitrogen source. Thus, B. subtilis strain RDSM01 possessing high pectate lyase activity may be effectively utilized for removal of gum from ramie fibre, which is primarily made of pectin and hemicellulose.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, Enzyme activity, Growth factors, Pectate lyase

Efficacy of different variants of corn flour (Zea mays) and peanut flour (Arachis hypogea) on quality characteristics of designer low sodium fish (Pangasius pangasius) balls

L.A. Ganie, Arvind Kumar, Sourab Dua* and Fahim Raja

Division of Livestock Products Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu– 180009 (J&amp;K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: drarvindlpt@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: November 21, 2016; Accepted: February 5, 2017

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to analyze the effect of incorporation of different combinations of corn flour (Zea mays) and peanut flour (Arachis hypogea) on quality characteristics of low sodium fish (Pangasius pangasius) balls. Replacement of 50% sodium chloride by 40% KCl, 30% citric acid and 30% sucrose was optimum for preparation of low sodium fish balls. Three different levels of corn flour with peanut flour viz. 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were incorporated for preparation of low sodium fish balls and were compared with fish balls prepared by incorporating 10% refined wheat flour (control). On the basis of physico-chemical and sensory evaluation, emulsion stability, cooking yield and overall acceptability were significantly (p&lt;0.05) found to be higher with incorporation @75% corn flour and 25% peanut flour for preparation of low sodium fish balls. The FFA, TBA and all microbiological profile were found to be significantly (p&lt;0.05) increasing with increase in days of storage. The pH, cooking yield, FFA, TBA, total plate count, pychrotropic count, yeast and mould count, overall acceptability were found to be 5.74 ±0.14, 87.06 ± 0.43, 0.36 ± 0.01, 0.72 ± 0.19, 4.43 ± 0.12,3.74 ± 0.2 ,2.60 ± 0.2 ,7.09±0.09 respectively on 21st day of refrigeration storage. The prepared designer low sodium fish balls were found to be fit for human consumption till 21st day of refrigeration storage (4±1°C).

Keywords: Arachis hypogea, Low sodium fish balls, Quality attributes, Storage quality, Zea mays


Biochemical changes in cotton plants due to infestation by cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

V. S. Nagrare*, J. Annie Sheeba, Paresh Bhoyar, Bhausaheb Naikwadi and Usha Satija

Central Institute for Cotton Research, P. B. No. 2, Shankar Nagar P. O., Nagpur- 440 010 (Maharashtra), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: vs.nagrare@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: October 20, 2016; Accepted: February 5, 2017

Abstract: The study on biochemical changes in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.) due to infestation by cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was conducted at CICR Nagpur during 2014-15. Total protein contents estimated from the shoots of the healthy plants (4.29 mg/g) indicated 50.5% increase over the healthy plants (2.85 mg/g). Total phenol content increased by 185.7% in the mealybug infested plants (0.20μg/g) over the healthy plants (0.07μg/g). Insignificant difference in the level of total soluble sugar was observed in mealybug infested plants (1.00μg/g) as compared to healthy plants (0.90μg/g). Total reducing sugar was found to be unaffected with the mealybug infestation. Although there was depletion in all the photosynthetic pigments viz., chlorophyll a (19.1%), chlorophyll b (23.7%), total chlorophyll (21.2%) and carotenoids (20.8%) due to the mealybug infestation, these values were not statistically different in the healthy plants. This is the first report on biochemical changes in cotton plant due to infestation of P. solenopsis.

Keywords: Biochemical changes, Cotton, Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

Genetic divergence studies in clusterbean [Cyamopsis Tetragoloba (L.) Taub.] genotypes for seed yield and gum content under rain-fed conditions

Sukhdeep Singh*, Baldeep Singh and Gajraj Singh

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: sukhdeep.sivia01@gmail.com

Received: April 29, 2016; Revised received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: February 6, 2017

Abstract: The genetic diversity among 33 cluster bean genotypes was evaluated under rain fed conditions during kharif 2012. The genetic material exhibited wide range of genetic diversity for all the twelve characters investigated. All the genotypes were grouped into seven different clusters. Cluster I was the largest comprising 11 genotypes followed by cluster II consisting of 8 genotypes, cluster V (5), cluster VI (4), cluster IV (2), cluster VII (2), cluster III (1). The clustering pattern indicated that there was lot of diversity among the genotypes and there was no relationship and independent. The intra cluster distance was highest at cluster VI followed by cluster I and II over others. The between the genetic and geographical diversity of the genotypes, but the distribution of the genotypes was random higher magnitude of inter-cluster distance were observed between cluster IV and VI (7.644) followed by cluster IV and cluster III and IV (5.861) and cluster II and V (5.834) indicating wider genetic diversity between the genotypes in V (7.582); cluster II and IV (6.802); cluster IV and VII (6.682); cluster I and IV (6.569); cluster II and VII (6.052); likely to produce more transgressive segregants. It is suggested that genotypes belonging to the clusters I, IV and VII these clusters. The uses of genotypes in hybridization from these clusters having most of the desirable characters are having diversified growth habit may be crossed with genotypes belonging to cluster II as they may be expected to produce good segregants with high yield potential.

Keywords: Cross combination, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Genetic diversity, Inter-cluster distance, Tocher’s method

Studies on solid matrix priming of seeds in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

Rajesh Kanwar1* and D. K. Mehta2

1Department of Seed Science &amp; Technology, College of Horticulture, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173 230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA 2Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173 230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: intangiblekanwar07@gmail.com

Received: July 14, 2016; Revised received: November 19, 2016; Accepted: February 6, 2017

Abstract: A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of solid matrix priming of seeds on emergence (%), growth and fruit yield characters of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) cultivar ‘Solan Hara’. The Experiment comprised of two vigour groups of seeds viz., ‘V1’ (High vigour seeds) and ‘V2’ (72 hours accelerated aged seeds/low vigour seeds) and five seed priming treatments viz., ‘P1’ (Solid matrix priming with Cocopeat), ‘P2’ (Solid matrix priming with Perlite), ‘P3’ (Solid matrix priming with Vermiculite), ‘P4’ (Seed soaking in water), ‘P5’ (Control -Without treatment).Investigation proved that low vigour seeds were inferior in respect of high vigour seeds in terms of seed physiological quality, emergence, growth and yield characteristics. Seed priming with Perlite for 72 hours proved its potential over other priming treatments, seed soaking and control (non-primed seeds) in both high vigour and low vigour seeds for agronomic attributes under study. High vigour seeds primed with Perlite ‘V1P2’ was found to be the best treatment for most of the traits understudy recording highest total field emergence (76.60%), fruit yield per plot (16.12 Kg) and per hectare (250.35 q). Similarly, Low vigour seeds primed with Perlite also recorded enhanced and improved total field emergence (73.83%) fruit yield per plot (9.28 Kg) and per hectare (143.26 q) compared to other low vigour treated and non treated seeds. From the present investigation it was inferred that that the extent of improvement w.r.t. attributes studied was more in low vigour seeds (V2) and seed priming with solid matrix carrier ‘Perlite’ can be used as a beneficial pre-sowing treatment to enhance the seedling emergence, growth and yield characteristics in bitter gourd.

Keywords: Emergence Percentage, Fruit yield, Growth, Solid Matrix Priming


An economic analysis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivation in eastern zone of Haryana (India) under polyhouse and open field condition

Parveen Kumar*, R. S. Chauhan and R. K. Grover

Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author E-mail: parv2509@gmail.com

Received: June 28, 2016; Revised received: December 7, 2016; Accepted: February 7, 2017

Abstract: The study was conducted in north zone of Haryana (India) state to find out the economic analysis of cucumber cultivation under polyhouse and open field condition. The primary data was collected by personal interview of the selected respondents with the help of well-designed and pre tested schedule. Simple statistical tools like average and percentage were used to calculate the economics of the crop. In the present study, it was found that the cost of cultivation of cucumber per acre under polyhouse was Rs. 283684.40 while in case of open field condition it was Rs. 98003.39. In case of production and net returns, it was higher per acre in polyhouse; 245.47 quintal and Rs. 97138.68, respectively. Present study concluded that yield and income of farmers can be increased with help of polyhouse technology in case of cucumber cultivation.

Keywords: Cost of cultivation, Economic analysis, Open field condition, Polyhouse, Returns

Estimation of combining ability for yield and yield component traits in upland rice (Oryza Sativa L.) of Uttarakhand hills

J. P. Aditya* and Anuradha Bhartiya

Crop Improvement Division, ICAR-Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora - 263601 (Uttarakhand) *Corresponding author E mail: jayprakashaditya@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: December 26, 2016; Accepted: February 8, 2017

Abstract: Combining ability for grain yield and its component characters in rainfed upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) were studied during Kharif 2014 using half diallel involving ten parents viz., VL Dhan 221, Vivek Dhan 154, VL 30240, VL 7620, VL 30560, VL 8116, VL 8549, VL 8724, VL 8732 and Sukradhan1. Both general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) variances were found to be highly significant for the characters viz., plant height (gca=85.42; sca=23.12), days to 50% flowering (gca=101.61; sca=42.61), days to maturity (gca=90.37; sca=37.73), tillers per plant (gca=4.63; sca=1.38), panicle per plant (gca=2.36; sca=0.90),kernel length (gca=28.88; sca=23.61), kernel width (gca=1.64; sca=1.92),1000 grain weight (gca=3.60; sca=4.91), grain yield per plot (gca=8.57; sca=3.03), fertile grains per panicle (gca=690.67; sca=300.95) and grains per panicle (gca=1050.58; sca=437.75) indicating the importance of additive and non-additive gene actions in the expression of these traits. However, predominance of non-additive gene action was recorded for all the characters. Parents VL Dhan 221, VL 7620, VL 30560, Sukradhan 1 were good general combiners for grain yield and related characters. VL Dhan 221 and Vivek Dhan 154 were good general combiners for plant height and earliness. On the basis of specific combining ability effects, cross combinations Vivek Dhan 154 x VL 8549, VL 7620 x VL 30560, VL 8549 x VL 8732, VL 30560 x VL 8116 and VL 30240 x VL 8116 were the best specific combiner for grain yield per plot and other associated characters viz., plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, kernel length and kernal width.

Keywords: Combining ability, Rice (Oryza sativa L.), Rainfed upland hill ecosystem, Yield

Efficacy of some insecticides against Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom cowpea crop ecosystem

Gopi Ram Yadav1, Poonam Srivastava1, Vijay Kumar Mishra2* , Deepika Chauhan and Rajveer1

1Department of Entomology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 2Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: premvijaybhu@gmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: October 26, 2016; Accepted: February 9, 2017

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine efficacy of insecticides against Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom on cowpea grown at field experiments were conducted at Breeder Seed Production Centre, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 2014.The most effective treatment for the control of thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom was seed treatment with fipronil @ 3 ml/kg + spray with fipronil @ 5 ml/lt with maximum reduction (70.06%) in the thrips population of cowpea while lowest effective treatment for the control of thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom was seed treatment with imidacloprid 17.8SL @ 10ml/kg + spray with monocrotophos 36SL @ 2ml/lt with minimum reduction (16.02%) in the thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom population of cowpea crop.

Keywords: Cowpea crop, Efficacy, Fipronil 20 SC , Imidacloprid 17.8 SL, Monocrotophos 36SL, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thrips)

Prenatal development of the lingual epithelium in goat (Capra hircus)

Yousuf Dar*, Kamal Sarma, Shalini Suri and Jonali Devi

Division of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, A.H. Sher-e- .Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences &amp; Technology, Jammu-181102 (J&amp;K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: yousufdar8@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: February 10, 2017

Abstract: The present study was conducted on the tongue of 18 goat foetii divided into three prenatal age groups viz- Group I ( below 50 days of gestation), Group II ( between 50-100 days of gestation) and Group III ( above 100 days of gestation to up to full term) containing 6 number of foetii in each group to study the sequential events in regard to histological development of the same in goat foetii. The tongue was lined by 3-4 layered epithelium in the foetus at 40 days of gestation (CRL= 2.40cm). The lingual epithelium consisted of a basal layer of cuboidal cells with squamous to cuboidal shaped more superficial layers. At 62 days of gestation (CRL= 10.10 cm), the lamina epithelialis of the tongue of goat foetus was distinctly stratified. At this stage of development, the epithelial layers could be divided into dark basal and a light apical or superficial zones. At 80-84 days of gestation (CRL=15.3 to 16.0 cm), the stratified squamous epithelium of the tongue was better developed both on the dorsum and ventral surfaces. At 93 days of gestation (CRL= 20.6 cm), the stratified squamous epithelium of the tongue was well developed and all the layers of the epithelium could be observed. In the foetii of gestational age of 100 days onwards, the lingual epithelium of the tongue showed various degrees of keratinization. Thus, it was concluded that the tongue of goat was lined with 3-4 layers of epithelial cells. The degree of stratification increased with an increase in gestational age. Also with age there was an increase in the degree of keratinization. This research further implicated that with further advancement of age the basal layer of the epithelium comprised high cylindrical cells along with well defined basement membrane. The decrepancy of histogenesis and keratogenesis between different species may be due to difference in the duration of the gestation period.

Keywords: Goat, Histomorphology, Prenatal development, Tongue

Development and evaluation of plastic based solar still for production of distilled water

S. H. Sengar*, T. V. Chavda1 and Alok Singh1

Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Dediapada, Navasari Agricultural University, -393040 (Gujrat), INDIA 1Department of College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dediapada, Navasari Agricultural University, 393040 (Gujrat), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: shsengar@nau.in

Received: February 22, 2016; Revised received: December 6, 2016; Accepted: February 11, 2017

Abstract: Solar still was developed and evaluated at Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dediapada. The average yield of distilled water in developed solar still varied from 1055-1498 ml/m 2 -day during winter and summer where as in already developed still varied 1350 to 1550 ml /m 2 day . Thermal efficiency of developed solar still was found as 20 per cent .The physicochemical analysis was carried out to examine the effect of distillation on tap water. A drastic reduction in the TDS, Chlorides, Calcium hardness and magnesium hardness, dissolved silica was observed through solar distillation. The payback period of the unit was only 6 months and after that period the unit produced net profit. The manufacturing cost of this developed solar still was only Rs. 1640/- which was totally manufactured in plastic material so no any corrosive material came in contact for changing the property of distilled water as output. Cleaning of solar still could be easily carried out by just removing the w shape dome of developed device which cannot be possible in available solar still in market.

Keywords: Low cost, Efficiency, TDS, pH, Economics

Performance of summer sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids under different nutrient management practices in coastal Odisha

Sarthak Pattanayak *, A. K. Behera, Priyanka Das, Manas Ranjan Nayak1, S. N Jena, B. Behera and S. Behera2

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003 (Orissa) , INDIA 1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Koraput, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar-751003 (Orissa)INDIA 2Department of Agroforestry, College of Forestry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar-751003 (Orissa), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: sarthakekun@gmail.com

Received: April 8, 2016; Revised received: December 23, 2016; Accepted: February 12, 2017

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar during summer 2014 to find out appropriate hybrids and nutrient management practices for summer sunflower. Application of recommended dose of Fertiliser(RDF) i.e. 60-80- 60 kg N, P2O5-K2O ha -1 + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha -1 recorded the maximum capitulum diameter (15.60cm), seed yield (2.17 t ha -1 ), stover yield (4.88 t ha -1 ) and oil yield (0.91 t ha -1 ), while application of RDF + Boron@ 1 kg ha-1 recorded the highest number of total seed (970) and filled seed per capitulum (890) with the lowest unfilled seed (80) and sterility percentage (9.0%). The hybrid ‘Super-48’ recorded the highest seed and oil yield of 2.17 and 0.91 t ha -1 , respectively, at recommended dose of fertiliser + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha -1 . Experiment was conducted in evaluating the new hybrids in addition to evaluate the response of variety to different nutrient management practices.

Keywords: Boron, Economics Fertility levels, Sulphur, Sunflower

Trend of Crop Water Requirement at Akola (Maharashtra), India

J. N. Lokhande, M. U. Kale* and S. B. Wadatkar

Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 (MS), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kale921@gmail.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: November 5, 2016; Accepted: February 13, 2017

Abstract: Climate change scenario badly affects the agriculture. The present study aimed to characterize the trend in maximum temperature and crop water requirement over a last decade at Akola station (Maharashtra State), because of changing trend in meteorological parameters. Study investigated the trends in temperature and reference evapotranspiration using various statistical parameters like mean, coefficient of variation, coefficient of skewness and coefficient of kurtosis. Monthly maximum air temperature showed slightly decreasing trend over summer season while increasing trend over monsoon and winter season. On the contrary, the monthly reference evapotranspiration showed decreasing linear trend over monsoon and winter season, while increasing trend over summer season. The study concluded that as the monthly reference evapotranspiration showed decreasing linear trend over cropping seasons (i.e. monsoon and winter), the crop water requirement at Akola station shall decrease in future.

Keywords: Climate change, Evapotranspiration, Moving averages, Temperature, Trend analysis

Studies on changes in quality characteristics of Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica Colebr.) flour during storage

Pradeep Kumar1* and N. S. Thakur2

Department of Food Science and Technology (FST), Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: pradeep6751@gmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: October 15, 2016; Accepted: February 13, 2017

Abstract: Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica Colebr.) is a rich source of starch but contains toxic compound known as saponins which makes it bitter and unsuitable for edible purposes. To exploit the starch source for edible purpose first of all the saponins were removed to a acceptable limit by pretreating the crushed mass of Indian horse chestnut as suggested earlier. Edible mass of Indian horse chestnut was dried and milled into flour and packed in different packaging materials and further stored under refrigerated (4-7°C) and ambient (18-25°C) storage conditions for 6 months. The flour packed in aluminium laminated pouches and stored under refrigerated condition showed minimum increase in physico-chemical and rheological characteristics like moisture content (6.49%), water activity (0.155), reducing sugars (1.72%) and retained highest amounts of total solids (93.50%), total sugars (3.75%), starch (63.89%), ash (2.36%), proteins (102.23 mg/100g) along with oil absorption capacity (1.54 ml/g), water absorption capacity (4.44 ml/g) and bulk density (0.635 g/ml). The sensory characteristics scores like colour (7.60), taste (7.25), aroma (6.88), texture (6.87) and overall acceptability (7.08) were retained highest in this packaging material as compared to others.

Keywords: Aluminium laminated pouch, Indian horse chestnut flour, Oil absorption capacity, Saponins, Starch

Selection of parental lines among round fruited brinjal for hybridization aiming at export promotion

Varun Durwas Shende1, Tania Seth2, Subhra Mukherjee1 and Arup Chattopadhyay3*

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA 2ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi– 221305 (U.P.), INDIA 3All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia741252 (West Bengal), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: chattopadhyay.arup@gmail.com

Received: July 12, 2016; Revised received: January 1, 2017; Accepted: February 14, 2017

Abstract: Selection of parental lines for considering export trade in hybridization programme is a new approach in brinjal breeding. Eight quantitative characters were taken to estimate genetic variation and relationships among twenty seven genotypes of round fruited brinjal, and to identify potential donors for the development of recombinants suitable for export. Analysis of variation revealed considerable level of variability among the genotypes. High broad sense heritability (˃80 %) and genetic advance as per cent of mean (˃20 %) were observed for the maximum number of traits under study. Among the yield components, only number of marketable fruits per plant showed positive and significant correlation (r = 0.771 and 0.725 at genotypic and phenotypic level, respectively) with marketable fruit yield per plant. However, number of marketable fruits per plant (1.24) followed by average fruit weight (0.834) ex-hibited maximum positive direct effects on marketable fruit yield per plant suggesting to give emphasis on these traits while imposing selection for amenability in fruit yield of round fruited brinjal. Principal component analysis showed the amount of variation by principal components 1 to 4 viz., 26.75, 49.98, 69.81 and 84.28 %, respectively. Divergence analysis based on various yield component traits grouped 27 brinjal genotypes into nine main clusters. Dendrogram based on hierarchal clustering grouped genotypes based on their yield component traits rather than their geographic origin. Based on averages and principal component analysis, six genotypes (BCB-30, Deshi Makra, Gujrat Brinjal Round, 09/BRBWRes-3, BCB-10, 10/BRRVar-2) appeared to be promising donors for use in export oriented breeding programme.

Keywords: Brinjal, Clustering, Correlation, Diversity, Export , Principal component analysis


Analysis of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxigenic mold in commercial poultry feeds in Tamil Nadu, India

Y. Sireesha1, J. Vimal Keerthana1, G. Sarathchandra2 and R. Velazhahan1*

1Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003(Tamil Nadu), INDIA 2Pharmacovigilance Laboratory for Animal Feed and Food Safety, Centre for Animal Health Studies, Chennai- 600051 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai-600051 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: velazhahan@hotmail.com

Received: July 19, 2016; Revised received: November 17, 2016; Accepted: February 14, 2017

Abstract: A total of 48 commercial poultry feed samples collected from different poultry feed manufactures in Tamil Nadu, India were examined for the contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Aspergillus flavus. AFB1 in the samples was estimated by sandwich ELISA and the presence of A. flavus was detected by Real-Time PCR assay. Real-Time PCR analysis using A. flavus- specific omt primers confirmed the presence of A. flavus in all the samples tested. ELISA results indicated that the AFB1 contents in the poultry feeds ranged from 1.0 to18.7 ppb, which were below the permissible safe limits for poultry bird consumption and health. The results suggest adoption of good man-ufacturing practices by the commercial poultry feed manufacturers during procurement of feed ingredients, handling, storage and processing which might have suppressed the growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, ELISA, Molecular detection, PCR


Scanning electron microscopic studies of Beauveria bassiana against Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

Tanvi Sharma, Neelam Joshi* and Anu Kalia

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E- mail: neelamjoshi_01@pau.edu

Received: July 4, 2016; Revised received: December 15, 2016; Accepted: February 14, 2017

Abstract: This work was aimed to identify the LC50 of the indigenous fungal isolates for controlling L. erysimi infesta-tion in mustard aphid besides to probe the mechanism of action of the local isolates and comparison of the efficacy with the reference culture and commercial formulation ‘Mycojaal’. Three isolates of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana were tested for infection on nymph of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to record any variation. The SEM revealed adhesion of spores of B.bassiana followed by penetration of L.erysimi nymph surface. It was observed that all Beauveria isolates showed little variation with respect to penetration and adhesion at different time intervals. Further, lethal concentration (LC50) values of B. bassiana isolates against L. erysimi was recorded and was lowest (0.05x107 spores/ml) in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 and highest (0.11.X107 spores/ml) was recorded in native isolate F10 after 120 hours of treatment. The study has established the need for the isolation and evaluation of the indigenous Beauveria isolate. Moreover, it also exhibited the efficacy of the reference and commercially available biocontrol agents.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Lipaphis erysimi, Lethal concentration, Scanning electron microscopy


Development of unique buttermilk by incorporation of Moringa

Binjan K. Patel*, Sunil M. Patel and Suneeta V. Pinto

Department of Dairy Engineering, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388110 (Gujarat), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: binjanpatel7@gmail.com

Received: June 24, 2016; Revised received: December 28, 2016; Accepted: February 15, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was aimed at formulating a fermented beverage with incorporation of Moringa Pod Powder (MPP) to develop therapeutic buttermilk. Dahi (prepared from standardized milk) mesophilic/ thermophilic dahi culture. Optimisation of the product formulation was done by using Response Surface Methodolo-gy (RSM) with central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with varying levels of MPP, total milk solids (TMS) in but-termilk and acidity of dahi. It was found that 5.60 % TMS, 0.90 % acidity of dahi and 1.92 % MPP gave the most acceptable product with a desirability of 0.917 which is very high. From amongst various stabilizers, it was found that a blend of 0.04 % pectin and 0.015 % carrageenan most suitable and addition of salt, sugar and spices blend @ 0.5 %, 4.0 %, 0.5% respectively were most acceptable. The proximate chemical composition of Moringa Pod Buttermilk (MPBM) was 11.77 % total solids, 1.51 % protein, 1.84 % fat and 0.89 % ash. One serving size (300 g) of MPBM could be an "excellent source of calcium" having 21 % Daily Value (DV). The product could be labelled as "a good source of Vitamin A, calcium and iron" providing 10, 18 and 11 % DV respectively. MPBM was found to have consid-erable amount of Potassium and Vitamin C and fiber (9.0, 9.0 and 6.5 % DV respectively). The shelf-life of the prod-uct was 20 days under refrigeration (7±2⁰C). The developed product is rich in fiber and iron, that is conventionally deficient in milk and hence makes the developed product complete food.

Keywords: Buttermilk, Chhash, Drumstick Moringa, Moringa pod

Effects of different sub-lethal concentrations of plasticizer-Diethyl phthalate on Fresh water murrel, Channa striatus (Bloch)

K. Roy George*, G. N. Gokul and N. A. Malini

Post-Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College Kozhencherry - 689641 (Kerala), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: dr.roygeorgek@gmail.com

Received: June 9, 2016; Revised received: December 8, 2016; Accepted: February 15, 2017

Abstract: In the present study, effects of exposure to different sub lethal concentrations of diethyl phthalate on hematological, biochemical and histological parameters of fresh water murrel, Channa striatus were evaluated. LC50 of DEP was determined and was found to be 70ppm for the present study. The experimental fishes were divided into control and DEP exposed groups. DEP exposed fish species were subjected to 0.4 ppm, 4 ppm and 40ppm concen-trations of DEP and observed after an interval of 7, 14 and 21days. Exposure to sub lethal levels of DEP revealed significant decrease in haematological parameters due to anemic condition induced by impaired haem synthesis. Exposure to DEP caused reduction in level of protein in muscle (*182.5, *180.7, *176.7, *176.1, *173.4,*167.5 and *165.7) and liver (*104.7, *98.6, *92.7, *87.7, *87.4, *86.4, *80.8, *75.6 and*68.6) due to impairment of protein synthesis. Levels of cholesterol in muscle and liver of DEP exposed fish were found to be decreased after treatment indicating either an inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in liver or reduced absorption of dietary cholesterol. Histo-pathological examination of liver of DEP exposed fish species showed necrosis in hepatocytes and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Histoarchitecture of kidney of DEP exposed fish species revealed shrinkage of glomeruli, glomerular distortion, vacuolization of tubular cells, necrosis and atrophy of renal tubules. As an endocrine disruptor, DEP interferes with the haematopoietic system metabolic machinery and histoarchitecture of organs of Channa striatus.

Keywords: Channa striatus, Diethyl phthalate, Necrosis, Plasticizer

Influence of seed treatment and packaging materials on seed longevity of cluster bean [Cyamopsistetra gonoloba (L.) Taub.

Umesha1*, B. C. Channakeshava2, K. Bhanuprakash3, D. Nuthan4, R. Siddaraju1 and J. Lakshmi1

1All India Coordinated Research Project- National Seed Project (Crops), University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA 2Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra, Bengaluru-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA 3Section of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Institution of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru- 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA 4Associate Director of Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignan Kendra, Bengaluru- 560065 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: umesh3980@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: December 15, 2016; Accepted: February 15, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of packaging materials and seed treatments on storability of cluster bean under ambient conditions of Bengaluru. The experiment consisted of six treatments viz. control (T1), bavistin @ 2 g kg-1 (T2), spinosad @ 0.04 ml/kg (T3), neem leaf powder @ 1:20 ratio (T4), Acorus calamus@ 10 g kg-1 (T5) and cow dung powder @ 10 g kg-1 (T6) and three packaging materials viz., cloth bag (C1) super grain bag (C2) and poly lined cloth bag (C3). Treated seed samples were stored in three containers under ambient storage conditions up to the duration of which seeds maintain minimum seed certification standards and samples were drawn at bimonthly intervals for ascertaining the seed quality parameters. The study suggested that seed treat-ment could be useful to prolong the storage life of cluster bean seeds. The seeds treated with spinosad (0.04 ml/kg) and stored in super-grain bag were better for maintenance of higher seed quality parameters [germination (80.00%), root length (11.70 cm), shoot length (13.60 cm), mean seedling dry weight (152 mg), seedling vigour index I and II (2024&12140) and TDH activity (1.224) with low electrical conductivity (0.368 dSm-1)] up to 18 months under ambient conditions of Bengaluru (room temperature). Super-grain bag proved to be better storage container with higher seed quality attributes viz., germination (72.38 %), seedling vigour index-I (1726), total dehydrogenase activity (1.201) and other seed quality parameters compared to cloth bag. The study suggested that use of appropriate packaging material and seed treatment could be useful to prolong the storage life of cluster bean seeds.

Keywords: Acaruscalamus, Cluster bean, Guar, Spinosad, Super-grain bag

Toxicological studies on Helicoverpa armigera in pigeonpea growing in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India

P. B. Salunke*, S. S. Lande and R. M. Wadaskar

Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 (Maharashtra), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: pankajsalunke75@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: December 15, 2016; Accepted: February 15, 2017

Abstract: Insecticide resistance level in pigeonpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) to technical grade insecticides collected from major pigeonpea growing districts of Vidarbha viz., Akola, Amravati, Buldhana, Yavatmal and Washim was worked out. LDP indicated LD50 of Cypermethrin in the range of 1.402 to 9.209 ppm with maximum in Yavatmal (9.209 ppm); LD90 within range of 6.021 to 18.427 ppm. LD50 of Quinalphos in the range of 1.303 to 4.789 ppm with maximum in Yavatmal (4.789 ppm); LD90 within range of 3.150 to 14.194 ppm.LD50 of Methomyl in the range of 1.297 to 3.792 ppm with maximum in Yavatmal (3.792 ppm); LD90 within range of 4.993 to 16.737 ppm.LD50 of Indoxacarb in the range of 0.521 to 2.709 ppm with maximum in Yavatmal (2.709 ppm); LD90 within range of 2.819 to 20.947 ppm.LD50 of Spinosad in the range of 0.713 to 2.408 ppm with maximum in Buldhana (2.408 ppm); LD90 within range of 6.413 to 18.349 ppm. The resistance level is visibly high in cypermethrin, moderate to indoxacarb, quinalphos, spinosad and low to methomyl; Yavatmal and Washim strains expressed higher resistance level to cypermethrin, quinalphos and methomyl, whereas Yavatmal and Buldhana strains expressed higher resistance level to indoxacarb and spinosad. The investigation will help to track resistence level in Helicoverpa armigera to different groups of insecticides.

Keywords: Cypermethrin, Indoxacarb, Methomyl, Quinalphos, Spinosad


Productivity and economics of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in response to nitrogen applied through different sources in conjunction with bio-fertilizer consortium

Davinder Singh*, Rajender Kumar, S. S. Walia, Amandeep S. Brar and Roopinder Singh

Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana– 141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: davinderbuttar@gmail.com

Received: February 16, 2016; Revised received: December 6, 2016; Accepted: February 18, 2017

Abstract: A Field investigation was carried out to study the effects of organic (FYM) and inorganic nitrogen alone or in combination with bio-fertilizer consortium (Azotobacter, PSB and PGPR) on growth, yield attributes, yield and economics of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) during 2012-13 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The treat-ments were comprised of 75, 100 (25 t ha-1 FYM ~ 125 kg N ha-1) and 125 per cent of recommended N and control. Results revealed that application of organic manure (FYM) had beneficial effects on the growth, yield attributes and yield of turmeric. The maximum yield of 204.4 q ha-1 was obtained with application of 125 per cent of recommended organic manure combined with the bio-fertilizers, which was statistically at par with that of 100 per cent of recom-mended organic manure alone or in combination with the bio-fertilizers. Application of bio-fertilizers improved the growth and yield of turmeric to some extent.

Keywords: Bio-fertilizers, FYM, Inorganic nitrogen, Turmeric


Root architecture and rhizobial inoculation in relation to drought stress response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris l.)

Parvaze A. Sofi* , Iram Saba and Zakir Amin

Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore-193201 (J&K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: parvazesofi@gmail.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: January 2, 2017; Accepted: February 18, 2017

Abstract: The present study was aimed at assessing the root traits and rhizobial inoculation in relation to drought in common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. Drought caused the largest decrease in shoot biomass followed by plant height, while an increase was recorded inroot/shoot ratio. Rhizobial inoculation caused largest increase in shoot biomass followed by root volume and root biomass and smallest increase in rooting depth. WB-216 and WB-185 had better rooting depth in all treatments. However, WB-83 (92.67) had highest rooting depth under irrigated conditions and SR-1 had highest rooting depth under irrigated conditions treated with rhizobium (108.50). Similarly, WB-216 had highest root/shoot ratio under drought (2.693) followed by WB-185 (1.285) while lowest value was recorded for Arka Anoop (0.373). In rhizobium treated drought condition, WB-216 recorded highest root/shoot ratio (5.540) followed by SFB-1 (1.967). Under irrigated conditions (both with and without rhizobium), WB-185 recorded highest root/shoot ratio while lowest was recorded for SR-1 (0.166). The mean squares due to root depth, root biomass and root volume were significant whereas the mean squares due to water and rhizobium were non-significant. Among interactions the genotype x water regime was significant for rooting depth (5 % level), genotype x rhizobia was significant for rooting depth and root volume (1 % level) and the interaction of genotype x water regime x rhizobium was significant for rooting depth, root biomass and root volume (1 % level). The results reinforce the need to further analyse the potential of other soil microbes in common bean rhizosphere in amelioration of the effects of water stress.

Keywords: Common bean, Drought stress, Root traits, Rhizobia

Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) of Brassicaceae and their role in plant defense against insect herbivores – A review

Sarwan Kumar

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004 (Punjab), INDIA
E-mail: sarwanent@pau.edu

Received: March 13, 2016; Revised received: November 6, 2016; Accepted: February 18, 2017

Abstract: The genus Brassica includes economically important oilseed and vegetable plants. A number of insect pests are known to infest these crops and cause significant losses in yield. The plants in the family Brassicaceae have multiple defense mechanisms to overcome or reduce the damage by these pests including defensive biochemicals. These Plant Secondary Metabolites (PSMs) involve myrosinase-glucosinolate system, different volatile com-pounds, lectins, phytoalexins and phytoanticipins. While some of the compounds are always present in the plant system, the others are synthesized after herbivore attack. These compounds can either directly protect the plant by having effect(s) on insects’ biology/behaviour or indirectly by attracting the natural enemies of the pests. Because of these secondary compounds, Brassicas have the potential to be used in pest management such as biofumigation against soil pests, as trap crops and cover crops and hence, can be a part of push-pull strategy. An attempt has been made to review these compounds in Brassicas, their role in defense against insects and potential in pest management.

Keywords:
Biocontrol, Biofumigation, Brassica, Defense, Plant secondary metabolites

Study on effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.)

Rohit Pawar* and Santosh Barkule

84/B, Baba Sadan, Jotirling Colony, Golibar Maidan, Godoli, Satara-415001 (Maharashtra), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: rohitpawar0099@gmail.com

Received: April 26, 2016; Revised received: November 24, 2016; Accepted: February 19, 2017

Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield components in Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., cv. Pusa snowball- 16, an experiment was conducted using Randomized Block Design with two replications. The experiment comprised of 14 different treatment combinations comprising of different sources of nutrients including organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers. The growth parameters like height of plant (12.10, 23.50 cm), number of leaves per plant (9.10, 14.40) and diameter of stem (1.20, 2.10 cm) at 40 and 60 DAT respectively, the days required for curd initiation (62.00 days), days required for curd maturity (85.70 days) and staying period of curd (9.50 days) were observed maximum in treatment combination 75 % RDF + FYM + Azotobacter + Azospirillum (T6). The yield parameters like weight of curd per plot (17.50 kg/plot) and yield per hectare (180.04 q/ha) which was increased 44.10 per cent over RDF. From the studies it can be inferred that the application of 75 % RDF + FYM along with Azospirillum and Azotobactor was found to be the most effective treatment combination for getting enhanced growth and yield in cauliflower.

Keywords: Cauliflower, Fertilizers, Growth, Yield

Estimates of combining ability and standard heterosis for grain yield and various agromorphological traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Gaurav Kamboj1, Pradeep Kumar2* and Devi Singh1

1Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut- 250110 (UP), INDIA 2Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal- 132001 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: pradeeptaliyan231@gmail.com

Received: May 14, 2016; Revised received: October 25, 2016; Accepted: February 19, 2017

Abstract: A study was conducted for estimating combining ability and standard heterosis for grain yield and various agromorphological traits involving 10 parents and their 45 F1s (half diallel) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The results of present investigation revealed that additive gene action played a predominant role in the inheritance of most of the traits under study. On the basis of general combining ability (GCA) effects and specific combining ability (SCA) effects, three parents (Vallabh Basmati 21, Pusa Basmati 1, CSR 13) and three crosses (Vallabh Basmati 21 x Pusa 1121, Pusa 1121 x CSR 13 and Pusa Basmati 1 x CSR 13) were found good general and specific combiners. The best combinations mostly involved good x good and good x poor parental GCA effects suggesting that there is addi-tive x additive and additive x dominance type of gene action for yield and other component traits. The cross showing additive gene action can be improved by pedigree breeding and selection can be postponed to later generations. The most appropriate breeding method for the exploitation of non additive gene action will be heterosis breeding. The six best cross combinations (Vallabh Basmati 21 x CSR 30, CSR 30 x CSR 13, Vallabh Basmati 21 x CSR 13, CSR 30 x Pusa basmati 1, Pusa basmati 1 x CSR 13 and Vallabh Basmati 21 x Pusa basmati 1) had significant standard heterosis for grain yield and other component traits. The crosses which showed significant standard heter-osis is highly suitable for commercial exploitation of heterosis in rice crop.

Keywords: GCA, SCA, Diallel analysis, Gene effect, Rice, Standard heterosis


Tribal farmers' perceived constraints in the adoption of good dairy farming practices in the northern hills zone of Chhattisgarh, India

P. Mooventhan1*, K. S. Kadian2, R. Senthil Kumar3, A. Manimaran4 and C. Karpagam5

1ICAR- National Institute of Biotic Stress Management, Raipur - 493225 (Chhattisgarh), INDIA 2ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132001 (Haryana) INDIA 3ICAR- Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering , Regional Station, Coimbatore - 641007 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA 4ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute, Southern Regional Station , Bengaluru - 560030 (Karnataka), INDIA 5ICAR- Central Institute for Cotton Research , Regional Station, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: agriventhan@yahoo.co.in

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: November 26, 2016; Accepted: February 20, 2017

Abstract: This study was carried out during the year 2014-15 to explore the perceived constraints encountered by the tribal dairy farmers in the successful adoption of Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFPs). Out of 27 districts in Chhattisgarh, three tribal populated districts were selected for this study from northern hills zone of the state and totally 300 respondents were selected for constraints analysis. The study revealed that 55.33 % of the tribal farmers realised that insufficient knowledge and awareness towards good dairy farming practices is the major constraints in the adoption process, majority (70.00 %) of the tribal farmers perceived that lack of progeny tested superior bulls for AI and natural service are the main constraint in the adoption of good breeding practices, about (75.70 %) of the tribal farmers expressed the higher cost of concentrates, mineral mixtures and vitamin supplements are the main constraints in the adoption of good feeding practices, majority (70.70 %) of the tribal farmers responded that less number of veterinary hospitals in their locality is the main constraints and its ranks first in the healthcare constraints list, little less than three-fourths (67.67 %) of the tribal farmers articulated that lack of advanced farm machineries (portable milking unit) for small dairy holders is the main constraints in the adoption of good management practices and about three-fourths (75.30 %) of the tribal farmers conveyed that the lack of insurance for longer period is the main constraints and tops in the socio-economic constraints. This constraints study will be highly useful to policy makers and the scientific community to assess the dairy production technologies for refinement and appropriate strategies can be formulated to promote tribal dairying from subsistence level to intensive in order to increase the income from dairy sector.

Keywords: Adoption, Constraints, Good dairy farming practices, Tribal dairying


Weed control in soybean (Glycine max L.) through resource management strategies and its influence on yield and nutrient uptake

Aradhana Bali1*, B. R. Bazaya2 and Sandeep Rawal1

1Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar– 125004(Haryana), INDIA 2Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu– 180009 (J&K), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: baliaradhana13@gmail.com

Received: June 4, 2016; Revised received: December 15, 2016; Accepted: February 20, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2011 at Research Farm, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha, Jammu to evaluate the effect of weed management prac-tices on yield and nutrient uptake of soybean utilizing different resource management strategies. The lowest weed density and dry matter of weeds was recorded with hand weeding at 15 and 35 days after sowing (DAS) which was equally effective as imazethapyr @ 75 g ha -1 (PoE) fb hoeing at 35 DAS and quizalofop-ethyl @ 40 g ha-1 (PoE) fb hoeing at 35 DAS. All weed control treatments had significant effect on yield and nutrient up-take of soybean. Among the different weed control treatments, lowest N, P and K uptake by weeds were recorded in hand-weeding (15 and 35 DAS) which was statistically at par with imazethapyr @ 75 g ha -1 fb hoeing at 35 DAS. The maximum uptake by seed and straw were recorded in weed free which was statistically at par with twice hand weeding at 15 and 35 DAS, imazethapyr @ 75 g ha-1 fb hoeing at 35 DAS and quizalofop-ethyl @ 40 g ha-1 fb hoeing at 35 DAS. The highest seed and straw yield of soybean was harvested with hand-weeding (15 and 35 DAS) followed by imazethapyr @ 75 g ha -1 fb hoeing at 35 DAS. For the first time, soybean crop has been introduced in Jammu region for research purpose. Weed management varies with agro-climatic conditions. The study would be helpful to understand weed menace in this particular climatic condition of Jammu and to manage them combinedly and efficiently.

Keywords: Nutrient uptake, Resource management, Soybean, Weed control, Yield


Effect of sowing dates and varieties on soybean performance in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India

Anil Nath*, A. P. Karunakar , Arvind Kumar and R. K. Nagar

Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444104 (MH), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: anil07nath@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: December 31, 2016; Accepted: February 21, 2017

Abstract: Soybean production is widely fluctuating in response to agro-environmental conditions year to year in Vidarbha region. Weather variations are the major determinants of soybean growth and yield. It is also important to study the response of suitable soybean varieties to varying weather parameters. So a field investigation was carried out to study the crop weather relationship of soybean and to optimize the sowing date with different soybean varie-ties. The results revealed that soybean crop sown up to 27th MW accumulated higher growing degree days (1640.5 0C day), photothermal units (20498.1 0C day hour) and recorded significantly higher seed yield (839 kg ha-1) and biological yield (2773 kg ha-1) with maximum heat use efficiency (0.51 kg ha-1°C day-1) and water productivity (2.49 kg ha-mm-1). Later sowings i.e. 30th MW sowing caused decreased amount of rainfall and increased maximum temperature regime across the total growing period with consequently lower seed yield (530 kg ha-1), GDD (1539.2 0C day), PTU (18689.9 0C day hour), heat use efficiency (0.34kg ha-1 °Cday-1) and water productivity (2.05kg ha-mm-1). Soybean variety TAMS 98-21 recorded significantly higher seed yield (734 kg ha-1) and highest biological yield (2649 kg ha-1) with maximum heat use efficiency (0.44 kg ha-1 °C day-1), GDD (1650.5 0C day ) and water productivity (2.41 kg ha-mm-1). Thus, the results of this study illustrated the importance of early sowing with suitable variety of soybean and indicates that sowing upto 27th MW with variety TAMS 98-21 is optimum for maximizing the yield in the Akola region of Vidarbha.

Keywords: Crop weather relationship, Soybean, Sowing date, Varieties


Storage effects on flour quality of commonly consumed cereals

Preeti Goyal1*, Lakshman Kumar Chugh2 and Mukesh Kumar Berwal3

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA 2Pearl Millet Quality Lab, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA 3Physiology and Biochemistry Section, ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod-671124 (Kerala), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: goyalpreetigoyal@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: January 8, 2017; Accepted: February 20, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of storage period on flour quality of wheat, maize and pearl millet. Their flour were stored at 15 °C and 82 % relative humidity RH for one month and changes in fat acidity (FA), activities of peroxidase (POX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in control and stored flour along with change in pH of water extract of flour were monitored. Increase in FA (mg KOH/100 g d.m.) and decrease in pH of flour was maximal in pearl millet (287.5 mg KOH/100 g d.m. and 0.4) followed by maize (151 mg KOH/100 g d.m. and 0.23) and wheat (61 mg KOH/100 g d.m. and 0.1) respectively. A decline in activity of POX, LOX and PPO was observed during storage. Pearl millet flour possessed almost double activity of POX (413 Units/g d.m.) in comparison to wheat (198 Units/g d.m.) and 1.3 fold higher than that of maize (153 Units/g d.m.) and even after decrease activity of POX was higher in flour of pearl millet compared to the other two. However, activity of LOX and PPO was found to be comparable in fresh flour of pearl millet, maize and wheat. Since pearl millet has poor shelf life and increase in FA, decrease in pH and activity of POX was found to be very high in pearl millet (poor shelf life) as compared to wheat and maize, therefore, these selected parameters might be used as biochemical markers to determine shelf life of flour.

Keywords: Cereal grains flour, Fat acidity, Oxidative enzymes, pH, Shelf-life


Impact of integrated nutrient management on some important physical and chemical attributes of soil vis-a-vis performance of bitter gourd

Soumyabrata Chakraborty* and Gyanendra Kumar

Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: som1993.kol@gmail.com

Received: June 17, 2016; Revised received: November 25, 2016; Accepted: February 21, 2017

Abstract: An experiment has been conducted under AICRP on Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) at the Central Research Farm (Gayeshpur), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management in ArkaHarit variety of bitter gourd. The treatments contain different organic and inorganic fertilizer viz. Control (T1), NPK @ 90:60:60 kg/ha (T2), Vermicompost @ 12t/ha (T3), NPK+ Vermicompost @ 3t/ha (T4), FYM @ 25t/ha (T5), NPK+FYM @ 6.25t/ha (T6), Mustard oil cake (MOC) @ 7t/ha (T7), NPK+MOC @ 1.75t/ha (T8). Application of organic and inorganic sources in an integrated manner has resulted higher in yield, physical and chemical parameter such as seed yield (2815 kg/ha), aggregate ratio (0.69), mean weight diameter (0.593 mm), geometric mean weight diameter (0.679 mm), organic carbon (1.28 %), CEC (12.88 meq/100g), available nitrogen (208 kg/ha), phosphorus (62 kg/ha), potassium (167 kg/ha) in higher magnitude as compare to the single application of inorganic fertilizer. In maximum cases, the chemical parameters is highest in harvesting stage rather than other stage. Quality characters such as Vitamin A, C, crude fibre are nourished in favourable way due to integrated appli-cation of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Based on the performance, it was found that treatment combination of NPK+MOC @ 1.75t/ha (T8) was best among all treatments in most cases for yield, productivity and nutritional as-pects of ArkaHarit variety of bitter gourd.

Keywords: Bitter gourd, Crop quality, Integrated nutrient management, Physical and chemical properties

Isolation, identification of Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica and screening of tomato parental lines for buckeye rot resistance

Shilpa1*, Rajinder Kaur1, Monica Sharma2 and M. N. Adarsh3

1Department of Biotechnology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA 2Department of Plant Pathology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-1732309 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA 3Department of Vegetable Science, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: shilpachaudhary05@gmail.com 

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: January 26, 2017; Accepted: February 21, 2017

Abstract: Buckeye rot disease of tomato which is one of the most devastating diseases of tomato crop is caused by soil born fungus Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica. In present study, the pathogen was isolated, morphologically identified and its pathogenicity was proved on susceptible commercial variety Solan Lalima and resistant line EC-251649 of tomato. Isolation of pathogen from the infected tomato fruit was achieved on Corn Meal Agar (CMA) out of two different media viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and CMA. Fungal inoculum was prepared on Corn Meal broth. Inoculation with 10 ml of inoculum was found optimum in plant parts namely, stem, leaves and fruits. Parental lines were inoculated to test their disease reaction to buckeye rot. Symptoms of infection appeared on leaves and fruits only. Solan Lalima was found to be highly susceptible to with disease severity of 92 % and 100 % disease incidence, while EC-251649 was found moderately resistant on the basis of 16 % disease severity and 10 % disease incidence to the disease. After confirmation of resistance and susceptibility, the parental lines were surveyed for polymorphism using 42 primers and 32 were recorded to be polymorphic revealing that the differences are present at DNA level also. This is the very first study which evaluated parental lines for buckeye rot disease reaction on morphological as well as molecular basis. These lines will be further used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis/gene tagging for buckeye rot and marker assisted selection to provide improved varieties to the farmers.

Keywords: Medium, Molecular markers, Polymorphism, Tomato



Quality characteristics of white cabbage juice stored using thermal processing and addition of chemical additives

Gurpreet Kaur*and Poonam Aggarwal

Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: gurpreet.pau.86@gmail.com

Received: July 19, 2016; Revised received: December 9, 2016; Accepted: February 21, 2017

Abstract: Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) is one of the most important vegetables grown worldwide. Cabbage is valued for medicinal purposes in treating headaches, gout, diarrhea and peptic ulcers. The beneficial phytochemicals in cabbage help to activate and stabilize the body’s antioxidant and detoxification mechanisms that dismantle and eliminate cancer-producing substances. This seasonal vegetable can be made available for the consumers in off seasons also in the form of juice. The juice can be made shelf stable by using thermal treatment and various chemical additives. Therefore, the aim of the experiment was to compare the effect of different chemical additives namely Sodium benzoate, Potassium metabisulfite (KMS) and their combinations and the heat treatment, on the physicochemical, phytochemical parameters and antioxidant activity of Cabbage juice for a period of 6 months at room temperature at the regular intervals.The parameters like TS and TSS did not change significantly. The minimum increase in acidity was found in samples treated with combination of Sodium benzoate and Potassium metabisulfite. The color was best preserved by addition of KMS where the L value changed from 52.66 to 50.86 after 6 months. The ascorbic acid, total phenol content and antioxidant activity was best preserved by KMS with final values of 2.51 mg/100 g, 21.18 mg/100 g and 15.97 % respectively that were far better than the thermally treated samples with values 1.47 mg/100 g, 8.14 mg/100 g and 6.98 % respectively. Keeping in view all the parameters KMS was found to be the most appropriate agent for preservation.

Keyword: Antioxidant activity, Cabbage, Phytochemicals, Storage

Evaluation of shelf-life of aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) cultivars during storage at room temperature

Poonam Kumari1*, Archana Brar2 and Jitender Kumar1

1Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA 2Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: poonamsanwal86@gmail.com

Received: July 19, 2016; Revised received: January 4, 2017; Accepted: February 22, 2017

Abstract: Five aonla cultivars viz. Chakaiya, Banarasi, Hathijhul, Krishna and Kanchan were evaluated for shelf-life during storage at room temperature. PLW increased with increase in the period of storage in all cultivars (0-15 days). There was no decay loss up to 6th day of storage, however it was observed on 9th day of storage in all the cultivars and it increased up to 15th day of storage. Maximum PLW and decay loss was recorded in fruits of cv. Banarasi (8.14 % and 38.97 %, respectively) on 15th day of storage whereas fruits of cv. Chakaiya had minimum PLW and decay loss (5.83 % and 15.17 %, respectively) on same day of storage. Specific gravity and firmness decreased during the storage from 0-15 days in all the cultivars. Fruits of cv. Banarasi had minimum specific gravity (0.99) as well as firmness (10.83kg/cm2) whereas fruits of cv. Chakaiya had maximum specific gravity (0.93) and firmness (11.10kg/cm2) at the end of the storage. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the different cultivars of aonla fruit for their biochemical and physiological behavior under room temperature storage and to find out the best among five cultivars for their shelf life under the Haryana agro-climatic conditions.

Keywords: Aonla, Cultivars, Firmness, PLW, Specific gravity

Effect of different orchard management practices on the growth and production of rejuvenated of pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cv. Kandhari Kabuli

D. P. Sharma, Julius Chakma, N. Sharma and Niranjan Singh*

Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (HP), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: niranjangautam@gmail.com

Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: December 2, 2016; Accepted: February 23, 2017

Abstract: Orchard management practices are the most important cultural tools for successful and sustainable cultivation of any fruit crop including pomegranate. Orchard management systems have an effect on growth, yield and fruit quality through their smoothening effects on the availability of nutrients, conservation of moisture and reduction of weed competition. Orchard management practices treatments viz., five orchard floor management treatments viz., T1: Grass mulch (10 cm thick), T2: Black polythene mulch, T3: Clean basin + Herbicidal treatment (Glyphosate 7ml/ litre), T4: Ridge basin + Grass mulch and T5: Control (No mulching). The results of the experiment, black several that polythene mulch proved to be most effective in increasing plant growth (51.80 cm), yield (13.05 kg/plant) of superior fruits and also in conservation of soil moisture. Grass mulch was better when compared to other orchard floor man-agement practices in terms of growth (47.00 cm) and yield (12.35 kg). The orders of the orchard floor management practices in moisture conservation are: black polythene mulch 13.51 %> grass mulch 12.38 % > ridge basin + grass mulch 9.31% > clean basin + Herbicidal treatment (Glyphosate 7 ml/litre) 9.20 %> control 7.64 %. Orchard floor management treatments did not exert any significant effect in controlling bacterial blight disease on leaf and fruit surface.

Keywords: Disease incidence, Fruit quality, Mulching, Orchard management, Pomegranate, Yield


Growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.) rootstocks as influenced by pre-sowing treatments

R. J. Patel, T. R. Ahlawat* A. I. Patel, J. J. Amarcholi, B. B. Patel and Kapil Sharma

Department of Fruit Science, ASPEE College of Horticulture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari – 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: tahlawat4@gmail.com

Received: June 23, 2016; Revised received: December 18, 2016; Accepted: February 23, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was carried out at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during 2014 to evaluate the effect of pre-sowing treatments on survival percentage and growth of mango rootstocks. Mango stones were soaked in aqueous solutions of GA3 (100 and 200 ppm), Beejamruth (2 % and 3 %) and Thiourea (1 % and 2 %) for 12 and 24 hours. The trial was evaluated in Completely Randomized Design based on factorial concept and the treatments were replicated thrice. Imposition of treatments led to significant differences at 5 % level of significance for all parameters chosen in this study. Mango stones when treated with Thiourea at 1 % had the maximum shoot length (49.93 cm), root length (34.38 cm), shoot dry weight (21.08 g) and total dry weight (26.36 g). The highest number of lateral roots (10.90) and survival percentage (64.17) was observed in mango stones dipped in 100 ppm GA3. Between the two soaking duration, soaking mango stones for 24 hours recorded higher values for shoot length (45.03 cm), root length (32.79 cm), number of lateral roots (9.83), survival percentage (62.72), shoot root fresh weight ratio (4.30), shoot dry weight (21.33 g), total dry weight (26.28 g) and shoot root dry weight ratio (4.32). Thus, survival percentage and growth of mango rootstocks can be substantially improved by soaking mango stones in aqueous solutions of 100 ppm GA3 or Thiourea at 1 % for 24 hours before sowing.

Keywords: GA3, Mango, Shoot length, Survival percentage, Thiourea

Development of cultivated and wild pomegranate mixed fruit jelly and its quality evaluation during storage

N. S. Thakur, G. S. Dhaygude and Anshu Sharma*

Department of Food Science and Technology (FST), Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: anshufst1989@gmail.com

Received: July 5, 2016; Revised received: January 2, 2017; Accepted: February 23, 2017

Abstract: The present study was undertaken for the development of jelly from cultivated and wild pomegranate fruit juice mix and its quality evaluation during storage of six months. A product with 55 % mixed fruit juice content (cultivated and wild pomegranate juice in 80:20 ratio) with 45 % sugar was found to be the best on the basis of sensory analysis of prepared jelly. Jelly could safely be stored for a period of half year under both the ambient and refrigerated conditions without much change in its various chemical attributes viz., total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, pectin, total phenolics and sensory quality characteristics viz., colour, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. However, the changes in the quality characteristics of the jelly were slower in refrigerated storage conditions as compared to ambient conditions. Under refrigerated conditions, changes in TSS from 67.00 to 67.36 0B,titratable acidity from 0.75 to 0.71%, ascorbic acid from 9.18 to 7.35 mg/100 g, anthocyanins from 11.34 to 10.17 mg/100 g and total phenols from 63.10 to 60.06 mg/100 g were observed after 6 months of storage. Both the packaging material viz., polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass jars were found suitable with comparatively slower changes occurring in glass jars under refrigerated conditions.

Keywords: Jelly, Packaging material, Storage, Wild pomegranate juice


Response of african marigold to NPK , biofertilizers and spacings

Manoj Kumar Rolaniya*, S. K. Khandelwal, A. Choudhary and Priynka Kumari Jat

Department of Horticulture, S. K. N. Agriculture University, Jobner, Jaipur-303329 (Rajasthan), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: manojetawa91@gmail.com

Received: July 16, 2016; Revised received: November 26, 2016; Accepted: February 23, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment on African marigold (TagetserectaL.) was conducted during winter season of 2014-15 to study the effect of NPK, biofertilizers and plant spacings on growth and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta Linn). The treatment combinations F6 100 % RDF of NPK + Azotobacter + PSB recorded the maximum longevity of intact flower (27.93), average diameter of flower (7.37 cm), average weight of flower (8.96 g) number of flowers per plant (56.54), yield of flowers per plant (515.62 g), per plot (11.93 kg) and highest flower yield ha (184.13 q). The spacing D3 (60× 60 cm) registered significant (5 %) maximum longevity of intact flower, larger size flower (7.80 cm), average weight of flower (9.14 g) and highest flower yield per plant (456.22 g). Highest flower yield per plot (10.19 kg), number of flower per plant (52.22) and per hectare flower yield (157.29 q/ha) with 60× 45 cm. These results are conclusive that application of 100 % RDF of NPK + Azotobacter+ PSB and plant spacing (60× 45 cm) may positively increase the growth and flowers yield parameters of marigold.

Keywords: African marigold, Bio fertilizers, NPK, Plant spacing


Effect of seed coating, storage periods and storage containers on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seed quality under ambient conditions

Ajay Puri Goswami1*, Karuna Vishunavat2, Chander Mohan3 and Sanjeev Ravi4 

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand) INDIA Present address: Shivalik Institute of Professional Studies, Shimla bypass Road, Shiniwala, Sherpur, Dehradun- 248197 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 2Department of Plant Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 3Uttarakhand Seeds and Tarai Development Corporation, Udham Singh Nagar-263146 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 4Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal-246123 (Uttarakhand), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: ajaypuristudent@gmail.com 

Received: July 11, 2016; Revised received: January 10, 2017; Accepted: February 24, 2017

Abstract: Soybean seed is classified as “poor storer” as it loses viability under warm and humid conditions and is invaded by storage fungi. The seed of soybean variety PS 1347, obtained from Breeder Seed Production Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar was used for storage study. Root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling fresh weight (g) and seedling dry weight (g) decreases with the increase in seed storage periods. Out of all chemical treatments, Flowable thiram @ 2.4 ml/kg (T2) and Polymer + vitavax 200 @ 2g/kg seed (T5) were found effective to maintain Seedling root length, shoot length, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight by producing vigorous seedlings. Seeds stored in cloth bags exhibited higher seed infection than in seed stored in polythene bags, irrespective of seed treatment and period of storage. Treatment T4 (Vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg seed)and T5(Polymer + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg seed) exhibited minimum percent seed infection of Aspergillus flavus. Cloth bag was not found safe for longer storage of soybean seeds under ambient storage at Pantnagar.

Keywords: Soybean, Storage periods, Storage container, Treatments


Combining ability studies in restorer lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

T. Rudra Gouda Mali Patil, Vikas V. Kulkarni2*, Mallikarjun Kenganal2, I. Shankergoud2 and J. R. Diwan1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA 2AICRP on Sunflower, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: vik_gene@rediffmail.com 

Received: July 28, 2016; Revised received: November 22, 2016; Accepted: February 24, 2017

Abstract: The restorer lines are used to get fertile hybrids in hybrid seed production system of sunflower. Improve-ment of R-lines for fertility and oil content of sunflower is required to get desirable hybrids upon crossing. In the pre-sent study, 6 restorer lines were crossed in full diallele and both direct and reciprocal crosses along with parents were evaluated for their combining ability. The analysis of variance revealed higher magnitude of SCA variance than GCA variance for all the characters studied except for days to 50 per cent flowering. Among six parents, GMU -520 and R-GM-41 were best general combiner for plant height, head diameter, test weight and leaf size in the desired direction. However, GMU-520 has advantage of yield per plant and oil content. From 15 direct crosses R-GM-41 x R -GM-49 exhibited significant specific combining ability for viz., days to 50 per cent flowering (-1.08), plant height (13.69), head diameter (4.79), leaf size (0.74), yield per plant (17.14), volume weight (2.54), test weight (1.75) and oil content (0.34) followed by RCR-630 x GMU-520, R-GM-41 x EC-602060, R-GM-49 x GMU-520 and EC-602060 x GMU-520 each exhibiting good specific combining ability for majority of characters. Among reciprocal crosses R-GM -41 x RCR-8 exhibited a high reciprocal effects for head diameter (4.57), yield per plant (15.16), test weight (2.02) and leaf size (0.75).

Keywords: Gca, Gene action, Restorer lines, Sca, Sunflower


Comparative evaluation of different reference evapotranspiration models

C. K. Arya1*, R. C. Purohit2, L. K. Dashora1, P. K. Singh2, Mahesh Kothari2 and Bhim Singh1

1College of Horticulture and Forestry, Agriculture University, Kota, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA 2Department of Soil and Water Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: er_ckarya@yahoo.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: January 25, 2017; Accepted: February 24, 2017

Abstract: The study was carried out to select best alternative method for the estimation of reference evapotranspi-ration (ET0). Accurate estimation of potential evapotranspiration is a necessary step in water resource management. Recently, the FAO-56 version of Penman-Monteith equation has been established as a standard for calculating ref-erence evapotranspiration (ET0) which requires measurement of a number of meteorological parameters namely, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed which may not be available in most of the meteoro-logical stations. Still there are different approaches (requiring less data) which estimate ET0 closely to Penman- Monteith (P-M) method for different climatological conditions. The present study is based on analysis of long term of 13 years (2000 to 2012) climatic data to calculate monthly reference evapotranspiration for Capsicum production (September–March) and also to compare the performance of evapotranspiration equations for Jhalawar district of Rajasthan with the standard FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method on the basis of the least root mean square error (RMSE) analysis. Hargreaves method and Pan evaporation (E-Pan) method overestimated the values of ETo when compared with FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method. On the basis of lowest value of RMSE, Pan evaporation method is found best alternative method to FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method in the study area.

Keywords: CROPWAT, Hargreaves and Pan evaporation, Reference evapotranspiration, RMSE analysis

Slip, trip and falls among women of different age groups: A case study from the northern hills of India

Hema Bhatt1*, Promila Sharma1and Maury A. Nussbaum2

1Department of Family Resource Management, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263153 (Uttarakhand), INDIA 2Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA *Corresponding author. E-mail: hemabhatt2000@fulbrightmail.org

Received: July 20, 2016; Revised received: January 23, 2017; Accepted: February 25, 2017

Abstract: Slip, trip and falls continue to be significant occupational safety concern, and causes of occupational injuries and fatalities in the workplace and daily activities. This paper shows the results of a comparative study done in the hill region of India. It explored the slip, trip and fall injuries in terms of activities leading to them and impact o f such injuries among the hill women of different age groups: young adults, middle aged and elderly. It was found that most of the slip, trip and falls were faced during the activity of carrying fodder (52.78 %), carrying firewood (49.44 %), collecting fodder (47.78 %), collecting firewood (43.89 %) and collecting dung (40.56 %). Most of the slip acci-dents were reported by elderly age group as compared to middle aged and young adults. Majority of the respond-ents got hurt their back and/or they suffered from back pain (76.67 %), faced general pain (72.22 %) and fractures (45.00 %). Most of the respondents reported the possible perceived reason for slip, trip and falls as slippery terrain (82.78 %), followed by 80.00 % of respondents who reported carrying excess load as the major reason. Other reasons reported were being rushed at work (77.77 %), awkward or unusual working posture (76.66 %).This study brings in light the dangerous working conditions of hill women, who often suffers from many injuries including slip, trip and falls even just for meeting her daily family needs such as water, fuel, fodder.

Keywords: Accidents, Falls, Hills, Slip, Trip


Influence of AM fungi and its associated bacteria on growth promotion and nutrient acquisition in grafted sapota seedling production

P. Panneerselvam*and B. Saritha1

1Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru- 560 089 (Karnataka), INDIA *Division of Crop Production, ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753006 (Odisha), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: panneerccri@rediffmail.com

Received: July 14, 2016; Revised received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: February 25, 2017

Abstract: A study was undertaken to know the effect of co-inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and its associated bacteria on enhancing AM root colonization, growth promotion and nutrient acquisition in grafted sapota plants. The best mycorrhiza associated bacteria i.e. Pseudomonas putida (HM590707) isolated from Funneliformis mosseae spore was evaluated along with AM fungi for growth promotion and AM fungal colonization in grafted sapota plants. The combined application of P. putida along with AM fungi significantly increased plant height (39.67 %), stem girth (3.2 cm), total biomass (66.8 g plant-1), AM root colonization (73.4 %)and plant nutrient concentrations viz., N (2.52 %), P (0.18 %), K (2.90 %), Fe (428.4 ppm) and Zn (21.40 ppm) as compared to uninoculated control. This finding clearly demonstrated that grafted sapota plants can be successfully established by combined inoculation of AM fungi and its associated bacteria which have a greater impact on healthy grafted plants.

Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi, Grafted sapota plants, Mycorrhiza associated bacteria


Melanosis and quality attributes of chill stored farm raised whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

S. R. Senapati, G. Praveen Kumar, Chongtham Baru Singh, K. A. Martin Xavier, M. K. Chouksey, B. B. Nayak and Amjad K. Balange*

Department of Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400061 (Maharashtra), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail:amjadbalange@cife.edu.in

Received: March 17, 2016; Revised received: January 19, 2017; Accepted: February 26, 2017

Abstract: Loss of market value of shrimp is mainly due to the formation of black spot called melanosis. A study was conducted for 14 days to determine the extent of melanosis and quality changes during that period of freshly har-vested whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under chilled storage (2℃). Among quality parameters, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR-S), were varied from 13.17 mg % to 44.50 mg % and 0.04to 2.57 mg malondehaldehyde/kg of fat respectively whereas melanosis score and metric chroma (C) exhibited significant increases during chilled storage (P<0.05). There was a slight increase in moisture, crude fat and pH from 73.96 % to 74.57 %, 1.05 % to 1.14 % and 6.52 to 7.60 respectively at 14th day of storage. Loss of protein from 22.51 % to 21.28 % may be due to decrease in available amino acids during chilled storage and total plate count (TPC) showed gradual increase of bacterial load up to 1.73*107 log CFU/g at the end of chilled storage. The sensory analysis by panellists indicated, the acceptability of white leg shrimp was up to 6 days in chilled condition and formation of black spot is one of the major parameter for rejection by the panellists.

Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei, Melanosis, Quality, Sensory characteristics

Climate change and biodiversity; impacts, vulnerability and mitigation in Indian perspective : A review

D. K. Soni and Farid Ansari*

Central Pollution Control Board (Zonal Office), PICUP Bhawan, Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow- 226010 (U.P.), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: checkfarid@gmail.com

Received: February 16, 2016; Revised received: December 2, 2016; Accepted: February 27, 2017

Abstract: As per the nature of law, changes are bound to be happening in the system if any component of the system gets altered by any means. Change of climate and subsequently loss of biodiversity threatens the existence of human being. The loss of biodiversity, which has been happening worldwide, poses a serious threat to the anthro-pological system. An investigation of the current trend and future scenario shows that this loss is likely to continue in the foreseeable times. India has a huge variety of biodiversity and in the last few decades, its biodiversity has come under threat from climate change which accelerated by the anthropogenic activities of various sources of pollution. The review shows that climate change is a serious environmental challenge that undermines the determination for sustainable development. Climate change has become the most crucial environmental concern of the decade. Much attention is rightly focused on reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gases from industrial, energy and transport sector through reduction in fuel consumption and use of renewable/green energy. However, as countries are looking for mitigation and adaptation processes, protection of natural habitats is a key factor of climate change strategies. Strengthened support for protected areas and more sustainable resource management can contribute to strategies as well as for protection of the biological resources and ecosystem. Climate change is developing as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, increasing pressures on genetic resources, species and populations. Biodiver-sity conservation and sustainable development are the possible ways to curtail the impact of climate change. Although, adequate efforts have been made worldwide to tackle the environmental challenges, the adverse effects of climate change are still accelerating and the rate of loss of biodiversity is continuing globally.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate change, National and International conventions, Sustainable development

Influence of size grading on physiological parameters in Tephrosia (Tephrosia purpurea) MDU (KO)-1

S. Sivasubramaniam*, S. Ambika and M. Vetrivel

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (TN), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: seedmani@yahoo.com 

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: October 20, 2016; Accepted: February 27, 2017

Abstract: Seed grading is an important practice for better crop establishment and to improve efficiency of planting ratio in field and also useful in separation of quality seed in a seed lot. The influence of seed size on physiological and biochemical seed quality characters were evaluated in Tephrosia seeds using seeds retained on 5.5/64″, 6/64″ and 7/64″ sieves along with control. The estimations revealed that larger size seeds retained on 7/64" sieves recorded the maximum recovery (64 %), 100 seed weight (2.0 g), speed of germination (14.1) germination ( 86 %), root length (8.5 cm), shoot length (11.0 cm), dry matter production (15.92 mg seedlings-10), vigour index (1677) and protein (10.56 %) compared to BSS 5.5 / 64'', BSS 6 / 64'' and ungraded seeds.

Keywords: Germination, Seed weight, Sieve, Size grading, Tephrosia


Influence of growth, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) by drip irrigation and fertigation

K.V. Ramana Rao*, Suchi Gangwar, Arpna Bajpai, Lavesh Chourasiya and Kumar Soni

Precision Farming Development Centre, ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal-462038 (MP), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: kvaramanarao1970@gmail.com 

Received: July 5, 2016; Revised received: December 6, 2016; Accepted: February 28, 2017

Abstract: A study was conducted during 2010-2015 at Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, to find out effect of irrigation and fertigation scheduling on growth, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava ). The ex-periments were laid out in factorial randomized block design with six treatment combinations which include three irrigation level (100, 80 and 60 %) along with two fertigation level (100 and 75 % water soluble fertilizers) and repli-cated thrice. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were applied through fertigation as well as soil ap-plication to test various attributes of five six old guava cv. L-49. The investigation indicated that the maximum plant height, Periphery of rootstock, yield per plant (kg/plant) and yield (t/ha) were higher under D1F1 (100 % irrigation with 100 % fertigation) followed by D2F1 (80 % irrigation with 100 % fertigation) and minimum under D3F2 (60 % irrigation with 75 % fertigation). Interaction effect was non-significant at 0.05 % level due to plant height (3.90 m) and Periphery of rootstock (26.26 cm) but significantly influenced by yield per plant (27.65 kg/plant) and yield (7.65 t/ha). Physico-chemical properties like fruit diameter (6.76 cm), fruit weight (182.10 g) and pulp weight (134.38 g) were significantly at 0.05 % due to different irrigation and fertigation level as well as interaction effects but fruit length (7.45 cm), TSS (13.22 %) and ascorbic acid (54.32 mg/100 g pulp) were non-significant due to different level of irri-gation and fertigation as well as interaction effect.

Keywords: Drip irrigation, Fertigation, Guava, Physico-chemical quality