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Volume 8, Year 2016- Issue 4 

Contents

  1. 1 Physico-chemical attributes and organoleptic assessment of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivars grown in eastern Uttar Pradesh
  2. 2 Biology of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) on Citrus reticulate (Mandarin) var. Kinnow
  3. 3 Intercropping in cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.var. capitata f.) for growth, yield, quality and sustainable soil health under foothills of Eastern himalayan region
  4. 4 Taxonomic studies of Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) collected from Uttarakhand, India
  5. 5 Growth in demand and supply of pulses in India-A normative approach
  6. 6 Biology and feeding potential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) against Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt) at different temperature regimes
  7. 7 Nonlinear modelling of sheep and goat populations in India
  8. 8 Genotype × environment interaction for morphological and quality traits of wheat varieties under different nitrogen regimes in the foothills of Shivalik range of Himalayas
  9. 9 Mining bee Andrena (Agandrena) agilissima (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae): A new record from India with morphological and molecular notes
  10. 10 Effect of fertility levels on growth, yield and soil fertility status of maize (Zea mays L.) in vertisol of Maharashtra
  11. 11 Influence of salicylic acid on biochemical parameters and antioxidant system in mashbean plants grown under salt stress conditions
  12. 12 Long-term effects of fertilizer and manure application on soil quality and sustainability of jute-rice-wheat production system in Indo-Gangetic plain
  13. 13 Bioefficacy of some insecticides against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis Guenee on brinjal under Hisar agro-climatic conditions during kharif season
  14. 14 Performance of hymenopteran insects as pollinators of pumpkin in Meghalaya
  15. 15 Study of variance, heritability and genetic advance for various yield contributing and quality traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
  16. 16 Bioefficacy of Imidacloprid 350 SC against sucking insect-pests in chilli (Capsicum annum L.)
  17. 17 Popularization of organic chilli cultivation in the Eastern Ghat high land zone of Odisha, India
  18. 18 Distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in different parts of tomato plants: A serological perspective
  19. 19 Evaluation and comparative performance of six loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) varieties under Punjab conditions
  20. 20 Effect of inter-fruit competition on development of physiological disorder “Aril browning” in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
  21. 21 Identification and description of Indian parasitic bee genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804, (Halictidae: Hymenoptera)
  22. 22 Agroforestry systems practiced in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh, India
  23. 23 Combined effect of land preparation methods and planting geometry on the performance of machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  24. 24 Impact of different tillage methods on growth, development and productivity of maize (Zea mays)-wheat (Tritcum aestivum) cropping system
  25. 25 Irrigation application efficiency and uniformity of water distribution using multi-outlet pipe and resource conservation technologies
  26. 26 Evaluation of the effects of FYM and gypsum on onion (Allium cepa L.) production under sodic water irrigation
  27. 27 Study on genetic diversity in chilli (Capsicum annuum) based on multivariate analysis and isozyme analysis
  28. 28 Impact of foliar application of potassium and its spray schedule on yield and quality of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Jaffa
  29. 29 Inside the plant: Bacterial endophytes and abiotic stress alleviation
  30. 30 Role of agronomic manipulations in modification of wheat microclimate under central Punjab
  31. 31 Effect of bio-composts on soil fertility status and productivity of organic farm: An approach to promote sustainable agriculture
  32. 32 Growth and productivity of Tectona grandis Linn. f. in plantations and farmlands in coastal zone of Karnataka (India)
  33. 33 Studies on genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under protected conditions
  34. 34 Effect of soybean plant phenols and flavonoid on the mean leaf area consumed by Spodopteralitura and Spilosoma obliqua larvae
  35. 35 Priming with potassium solutions improves seedling growth and vigor in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)
  36. 36 Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on growth parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop
  37. 37 Weed control efficiency and weed index as influenced by weed management practices in machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  38. 38 Dynamics of steviol glycosides (stevioside and rebaudioside-A) with growth and development of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
  39. 39 Development and integration of soil moisture sensor with drip system for precise irrigation scheduling through mobile phone
  40. 40 Phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of Elettaria cardamom (Cardamom)
  41. 41 A note on natural population levels of Phthirapteran species on sheep at district Rampur (U. P.), India
  42. 42 Effect of chelating agents on phytoextraction of Ni from contaminated Soil by Zea mays
  43. 43 Extractability and availability index of sulphur in selected soils of Odisha
  44. 44 Heterosis for post harvest and nutritional quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
  45. 45 Fine mapping of rice drought QTL and study on combined effect of QTL for their physiological parameters under moisture stress condition
  46. 46 Effect of different factors on in vitro growth and shoot proliferation of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Allahabad Safeda
  47. 47 Keywords: Adenine sulphate, Light intensity, Multiplication, pH, Shoots Download PDF Back to Contents Generating cadastral base for Kolathupalayam village in Tamil Nadu from high resolution LISS IV sensor data
  48. 48 Gene action and component of genetic variance analysis in the thermo sensitive genetic male sterile (TGMS) line in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  49. 49 Inter-relationship and path analysis of different traits of two line hybrid in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  50. 50 Household dynamics and small timber consumption in rural Kashmir (J&K), India
  51. 51 Maximum rainfall probability distributions pattern in Haryana –A case study
  52. 52 Repellant effect of neem formulation and aqeuous extract of Melia azedarach on greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
  53. 53 Genotype × Environment Interaction and Phenotypic Stability analysis of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Mid-Hills of North-West Himalayas
  54. 54 Chemistry and insecticidal potential of bay leaf essential oil against stored grain pest of wheat
  55. 55 Field evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for microbial activities and yield of maize under alluvial soil
  56. 56 Feeding behaviour and pugmark analysis of elephants in Sarguja, Chhattisgarh
  57. 57 Clonal evaluation for early growth performance of Eucalyptus in South Gujarat, India
  58. 58 Modified planting geometry and fertilizer rate on productivity of corn (Zea mays L.) in Vertisols
  59. 59 Fertility map and horizontal soil potassium status of north-eastern region of Haryana
  60. 60 Growth, fruit set and yield of Santa Rosa plum as affected by nitrogen and boron under rainfed conditions of Kashmir Valley
  61. 61 Bacterial flora associated with the selected life stages and organs of farmed giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)
  62. 62 Effect of deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation on soil moisture content and frequency of irrigation in kiwifruit cultivar Allison
  63. 63 Morphological and Biochemical Analysis of Cicer arietinum L. under Paper Industrial Effluent Stress conditions
  64. 64 Socio-economic status of human-elephant conflict: Its assessment and solutions
  65. 65 Seed yield and quality as influenced by growing conditions in hybrid seed production of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) cv. Pusa Hybrid-1
  66. 66 Physico-chemical and enzymatic changes in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit in response to sodium salts during low temperature storage
  67. 67 Effect of processing on physico-chemical and functional properties of flours from cluster or guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) varieties
  68. 68 Effect of nutriseed pack placement on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under drip irrigation
  69. 69 Prediction of agroforestry adoption among farming communities of Kashmir valley, India: A logistic regression approach
  70. 70 Combined effect of biopriming and polymer coating on chemical constituents of root exudation in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. K 2 seedlings
  71. 71 Rarity of Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. var. lushii and protocol for its ex-situ conservation in the Indian desert
  72. 72 Grain yield of aerobic rice as influenced by seed rate and row spacing in aerobic situation under changed climate
  73. 73 Identification of insect community inhabiting Kaas plateau, Western ghats through cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene
  74. 74 A study on geospatial technology for detecting and mapping of Solenopsis mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in cotton crop
  75. 75 Oxidative stability and storage quality analysis of Ocimum sanctum L. extracts incorporated chicken nuggets
  76. 76 Evaluation of phytochemicals and antibacterial activity of leaf and leaf derived callus extracts of Artemisia annua L. and Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.
  77. 77 Preparation of Erosion Susceptibility Map of Dhaman Khadi Sub-Watershed in Eastern Gujarat Using ArcGIS Interface
  78. 78 Effect of different planting geometry and herbicides for controlling the weeds in direct seeded rice
  79. 79 In vivo evaluation of ziram induced acute toxicity on pathomorphology of broiler chicken
  80. 80 Effect of wheat straw and FYM on growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting
  81. 81 Effect of organic manures on growth and yield attributes of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) based Agroforestry system
  82. 82 Evaluation of seeding rates of rice nursery on seedling vigour and its effect on crop productivity under system of rice intensification
  83. 83 Bio-efficacy of tank mixed herbicides for control of complex weed flora in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril)
  84. 84 Economic impact of zero tillage on wheat cultivation in Ambala (Haryana), India
  85. 85 Effect of foliar spray of elicitors on status of defense proteins in relation to mustard aphid infestation in crop Brassica cultivars
  86. 86 Farmer led gross root level entrepreneurial initiatives for sustainable sugarcane production system in Tamil Nadu, India
  87. 87 Studies on diversity and abundance of parasitoids of Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) (Agromyzidae: Diptera) in north-western Himalayas, India
  88. 88 Weather parameters vulnerability on tea production in north western Himalaya, India
  89. 89 In vitro evaluation of fungicides against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc. causing anthracnose of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
  90. 90 Genetic variability and divergence analysis for yield and yield contributing traits in released varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under partially reclaimed saline sodic soil
  91. 91 Comparative evaluation of happy seeder technology versus normal sowing in wheat ( Triticum aestivum) in adopted village Killi Nihal Singh of Bathinda district of Punjab
  92. 92 Soil quality assessment in difference vegetation structures of Surajpur lake: An urban wetland of Upper Gangetic plain, Northern India
  93. 93 Isolation and characterization of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Salmonella Gallinarum in chicken and antibiogram of the isolates
  94. 94 Combining ability for yield and different quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  95. 95 Influence of pre-harvest application of gibberellin and brassinosteroid on fruit growth and quality characteristics of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai) cv. Gola
  96. 96 Influence of packaging material, storage condition and duration on quality attributes of osmo-cum-microwave dehydrated mushroom flakes
  97. 97 A review on potato microtuber storability and dormancy
  98. 98 Sclerotinia rot of rapeseed mustard: A comprehensive review
  99. 99 Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) approach on Nu tritional Diagnosis in Fruit crops- A Review
  100. 100 A review on diversity, conservation and nutrition of wild edible fruits

Physico-chemical attributes and organoleptic assessment of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivars grown in eastern Uttar Pradesh

Anupam Tiwari*, A. K. Pal, Sarvesh Singh, S. P. Singh and Vishnu Lal Patidar

Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221005 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: uniquetiwari77@gmail.com

Received: September 29, 2015; Revised received: June 24, 2016; Accepted: September 20, 2016

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the different guava cultivars for their physico-chemical composition and organoleptic assessment during the year 2012-2013. Results of study indicated that Gorakh Bilas Pasand cultivar proved to be superior on the basis of physical characters (Length-7.64 cm, Breadth-7.79 cm , Weight-240.60 g, Number of seeds per fruit-251 etc.) followed by Lucknow-49. However, Lucknow-49 was found noteworthy in respect of chemical composition (TSS-13.00 o Brix, Acidity-0.50%, pH-5.86, Vitamin C-300.36 mg/100g etc). In organoleptic assessment, it was found that ‘liked very much’ rating was provided by consumer to Lucknow-49. On the basis of overall findings, it was concluded that ‘Lucknow-49’ was superior in most of characters studied and might be one of the promising cultivars for quality fruits under eastern Uttar Pradesh conditions.

Keywords: Guava, Lucknow-49, Organoleptic assessment, Shelf life, Vitamin C


Biology of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) on Citrus reticulate (Mandarin) var. Kinnow

Tekchand Saini*, Maha Singh Jaglan , S. S. Yadav and Rajbir Garg

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tsaini398@gmail.com

Received: November 29, 2015; Revised received: July 20, 2016; Accepted: November 24, 2016

Abstract: Screen house studies on biology of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), were conducted during 2014-15 in screen house of Department of Entomology College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar on citrus mandarin (var. Kinnow). Results on biological studies of D. citri revealed that female on an average laid 151±42.99 eggs with an incubation period of 13.3±1.89 days. The mean duration of first, second and third instar nymphs were 13.1±1.77, 11.1±2.05 and 15.4±2.41 days, respectively. The pupal duration was 108.3±4.33 days. Adult Male lived for 16.5±1.96 days whereas adult female lived for 18.6±2.06 days. The male whitefly completed its life cycle in 178.8±6.73 days whereas the corresponding period for female whitefly was 180±7.02 days. This study established that biology of the insect is rather a stable trait because no significant variation was observed when compared with decade old reports despite the fact that agro-ecology including weather phenomenon have undergone significant change in the last decade.

Keyword: Biology, Citrus, Dialeurodes citri, Kinnow, Weather conditions



Intercropping in cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.var. capitata f.) for growth, yield, quality and sustainable soil health under foothills of Eastern himalayan region

Partha Choudhuri

Department of Vegetable Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya-741252 (W.B), INDIA

E-mail: partha2909@rediffmail.com

Received: July 23, 2015; Revised received: July 22, 2016; Accepted: September 25, 2016

Abstract: The present study was done for intercropping in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f.) for growth, yield, quality and sustainable soil health under foothills of Eastern Himalayan region. The pooled results revealed that head yield, ascorbic acid content and nutrient uptake from soil varied according to treatments combination. Sole cropping of cabbage recorded maximum values for most of the growth characters like plant height (1.30 cm), shoot weight (59.47 g), root weight (46.36 g), shoot to root ratio (1.30), root length (17.97 cm) and root volume (37.24 cc) and yield (37.11 t ha-1). But as per cabbage equivalent yield (44.39 t ha-1),economics (B:C ratio 2.96) and production efficiency (591.80 kg-1ha-1day) are concerned cabbage and garden pea intercropping system recorded significantly highest values than all other treatments. cabbage and garden pea intercropping system also recorded maximum ascorbic content(38.61mg-1 100g).Highest residual N (174.12 kg ha-1) content was obtained in sole garden pea plots whereas maximum values for available P2O5 (30.31 kg ha-1) and K2O (171.83 kg ha-1) were recorded in sole coriander plots. Cabbage and beet root intercropping system recorded minimum values for most of the growth characters like shoot weight (35.88 g), root weight (26.80 g),root length(10.83 cm), shoot and root volume (23.54 cc),cabbage equivalent yield (32.10 t ha-1) ascorbic content(29.94 mg-1 100g). Inclusion of garden pea in cabbage inter rows may be adopted by cabbage growers of foothills of eastern Himalayan region of West Bengal for additional income and soil enrichment.

Keywords: Cabbage, Growth, Intercropping, Soil health, Yield



Taxonomic studies of Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) collected from Uttarakhand, India

More Sandip Parshuram*, Meena Agnihotri and M. A. Khan

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar -263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: msandip40@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2015; Revised received: May 31, 2016; Accepted: September 27, 2016

Abstract: A sound taxonomic knowledge base is a prerequisite for effective conservation, environment assessment, ecological research, management and sustainable use of biological resources. Parasitoids are the major component of the biocontrol, so the correct identification of the parasitoid is very important task. Eulophidae is a large family of the superfamily Chalcidoidea and comprises promising biocontrol agents for the control of insect pests causing harm to agricultural ecosystem. The present study has been done to provide the account and occurrence of 4 genera belonging to subfamily Entedoninae, Eulophinae and Tetrastichinae. Entedon costalis Dalman, Diglyphus horticola Khan, Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault), and Neotrichoporoides viridimaculatus (Fullaway) was collected from Uttarakhand (India) and described in detail with additional morphological characters that aids in clear identification of the parasitoids. Entedon costalis is recorded from this region with additional characters for identification.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae, Parasitoids, Taxonomy


Growth in demand and supply of pulses in India-A normative approach

P. D. Shivagangavva1 and B. S. Reddy2*

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

2College of Agriculture, Aland Road, Kalaburagi-585102 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bsreddyagecon@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: September 30, 2016

Abstract: The changing scenario of consumption and production of pulses will have significant influence on the
demand supply prospects of pulses in India. The country as whole, production of redgram had increased marginally (0.45%) during 1980-2012(Overall study period), though there is positive and significant growth in production (2.86%) during 1980-90 (Period-I), mainly due to lower growth during 1991-2012(period-II). The significant growth in production (1.39%) and productivity (1.04%) of Bengal gram in the entire period except area (0.35%) was observed. However, growth in greengram production (1.14%) and productivity (1.21%) was found almost similar. In case of blackgram, positive growth rate in area, productivity and production in both the periods have ultimately resulted high-er growth rates in the overall period. The growth in total pulses production indicated that growth in area (-0.10%) was negative while it was positive both in production (1.49%) and productivity (1.59%) during period-I. Similar pat-tern of growth was observed during period-II and in the overall study period. The estimated demand for pulses were 183.62 lakh tonnes over supply of 148.66 lakh tonnes indicating deficit of 34.96 lakh tonnes during 2001 –2011. Further, demand for pulses expected to reach 225.36 and 255.16 lakh tonnes in the year 2020 and 2030 respective-ly. Whereas, supply of pulses will reach 218.50 and 237.00 lakh tonnes in the same period indicating narrow gap between demand and supply in the future.

Keywords: Demand, Gap, Growth, Projection, Pulses, Supply


Biology and feeding potential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) against Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt) at different temperature regimes

Richa Varshney1*, R. R. Rachana1 and R. S. Bisht2

1Department of Insect Ecology, National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bangalore-560024 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: richavarshney84@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: August 17, 2016; Accepted: October 3, 2016

Abstract: Biology and feeding potential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) were studied in laboratory on 3rd instar nymphs of mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) at two different temperature regimes. At 30± 20C, fecundity, oviposition period, hatchability of eggs, male and female longevity (232±70.46, 12.8±3.91, 82.87±6.66, 22.70 ± 2.21 and 26.60 ± 4.45, respectively) were higher and incubation period, pre-oviposition period, total grub duration and pupal duration (2.6±0.51, 6.5±3.53, 8.7 ± 1.63 and 5.1 ± 1.10, respectively) were lesser in comparison to 25± 20C where fecundity, oviposition period, hatchability of eggs, male and female longevity, incubation period, pre-oviposition period, total grub duration and pupal duration were 169.8±61.12, 7.9±1.37, 71.68±4.08, 16.2 ± 1.31 and 21.50 ± 1.95, 2.9±0.73, 7.7±2.49, 11.1 ± 1.52 and 5.8 ± 0.918, respectively . At 27± 2 0C, total mustard aphid con-sumption by a grub of C. septempunctata during the whole life span, was 424.4±2.78 mustard aphids in comparison to 272.64±1.79 mustard aphid at 23± 20C. Similarly an adult male and female consumed 103.2±1.52 and 116.6 ±1.46 aphids per day respectively at 27± 2 0C in comparison to 65.6 ± 1.02 and 71.8 ± 1.60 at 23± 20C. Thus, at both temperatures aphid consumption increased gradually till 4th instar and 30±20C was found to be most suitable temperature as compared to 25±20C for the life history of C. septempunctata. Hence, it could be concluded that C. septempunctata might play a suitable role in bio intensive Integrated Pest Management programme because of better longevity and high predatory potential against the mustard aphid.

Keywords: Biology and feeding potential, Coccinella septempunctata, Lipaphis erysimi, Rapeseed-mustard


Nonlinear modelling of sheep and goat populations in India

Leena Dilliwar1, Med Ram Verma1*, Yash Pal Singh2, Vijay Bahadur Sharma1, Sanjay Kumar1 and Ajay Shukla1

1Division of Livestock Economics, Statistics and Information Technology, ICAR Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243122 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2ICAR- ARIS Cell, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243122 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: medramverma@rediffmail.com

Received: January 21, 2016; Revised received: June 14, 2016; Accepted: October 3, 2016

Abstract: The objective of this paper was to study the trend in population of sheep and goat populations during 1951 to 2012 in India. The data were compiled from various issues of BAHS (Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics) for the period 1951 to 2012. Different nonlinear growth models such as Parabolic/Sikka, Brody, Brody modified, Wood, Logistic and Gompertz models were fitted to the census data of sheep and goat population. The goodness of fit of the models was tested by Coefficient of determination (R2), Adjusted coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). The populations of sheep and goat in India during the year 1951 were 39.10 million and 47.20 million numbers respectively and reached 135.17 million and 65.06 million respectively in the year 2012. Based on the various measures of goodness of fit we observed that the Parabolic/Sikka model was the best fitted model for studying the pattern in the populations of sheep and goat in India. This model has been used to project the sheep and goat population in India during 2020, 2025 and 2030. If the present pattern of growth continued in near future then the projected sheep population will be 102.37 million numbers whereas goat population will be 151.57 million numbers in the year 2030. The present study will provide the pattern in which the changes have been observed in sheep and goat populations in India during 1951 to 2012.

Keywords: Adjusted R2 , AIC, Durbin Watson test, MAE, MSE, Nonlinear models


Genotype × environment interaction for morphological and quality traits of wheat varieties under different nitrogen regimes in the foothills of Shivalik range of Himalayas

Meenakshi Uniyal*, J. P. Jaiswal , Birendra Prasad and Rishi Pal Gangwar

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: uniyalmeenakshi53@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: July 12, 2016; Accepted: October 6, 2016

Abstract: Variation among twelve winter wheat varieties with respect to N efficiency (NE) were assessed in field trial planned as per factorial experimental design (two years × three nitrogen doses × twelve genotypes) in which treat-ments were randomized in three replications under three nitrogen levels (control, 150, 250 kg/ha) for two successive years at N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Center, Pantnagar. Stability analysis of nitrogen efficiency contributing traits was performed using mean performance, linear regression and the deviation from regression. No single genotype performed well enough for all the traits under study. QLD 33, HD 2967 and QLD 39 were stable for root length show-ing good performance for nitrogen uptake. HD 3112 was most stable variety for most of the characters whereas, QLD 33 was found to perform best under higher levels of nitrogen fertilisation, thus, not efficient enough. But, QLD 33 showed delayed maturity which could be linked with an increase in grain yield thus, it could be said that functional stay green phenotypes should increase the grain filling period and boost yield.

Keywords: G × E interaction, Morphology, Nitrogen use efficiency, Quality, Wheat genotypes


Mining bee Andrena (Agandrena) agilissima (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae): A new record from India with morphological and molecular notes

Gurpreet Singh Makkar1, Debjani Dey2 and Pardeep K. Chhuneja3*

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa-110001, New Delhi, INDIA

3*Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pkchhuneja@pau.edu

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: July 31, 2016 Accepted: October 6, 2016

Abstract: The mining bee Andrena agilissima (Scopoli, 1770), is recorded for the first time in India from the western agro-climatic zone of its Punjab state. This is the first account of morphological and molecular characteristics of A. agilissima. This new record now increases the number of mining bees known in India to 21. Taxonomic comments and metric values of 40 morphological characters have been presented. The mean values for body length, head width, compound eye length, median ocellus diameter, forewing length and hamuli number were 14.04±0.04 mm, 4.26±0.003 mm, 2.327±0.008 mm, 0.255±0.005 mm, 12.75±0.022 mm and 17.00±0.00, respectively. Using the standard barcoding protocols, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 marker (standard DNA barcode region) based 658 bp DNA barcode sequence of the species has been established, as a first step towards the DNA barcode library of solitary bees of Punjab. The barcode sequence generated for the species has been registered by Gene Bank, National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession ‘KT960836’ and Barcode of Life Data (BOLD) Systems under Barcode Index Number ‘BOLD:AAY6909’. The floral sources for A. agilissima in Punjab are also provided. The results can be used to further study the races/ecotypes in different parts of country, habitat management studies, plant-pollinator interactions and in conservation programmes for the species. Further, the pre-cise identification of A. agilissima and the inventory of its foraging plants would provide new opportunities for its po-tential use as pollinator of crops.

Keywords: Andrenidae, Andrena agilissima, DNA barcoding, Morpho-taxonomy, New species record


Effect of fertility levels on growth, yield and soil fertility status of maize (Zea mays L.) in vertisol of Maharashtra

Keteku Agbesi Kwadzo, W. N. Narkhede and G. S. Khazi*

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and AICRP on Integrated Farming System, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani-431402 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: siddiqui.gn@gmail.com

Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: July 11, 2016; Accepted: October 7, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, AICRP on Integrated Farming Systems, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani during 2014-15 to assess the nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc requirement for maize crop. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design using eight treatments with three replications. The main plot consists of three levels of Nitrogen i.e., 100 kg ha-1(N1), 125 kg ha-1(N2),150 kg ha-1(N3) with two Zinc levels viz.,25 kg ha-1(Z1), 35 kg ha-1(Z2) and sub plot comprised of three levels of 50 kg ha-1(P1), 75 kg ha-1(P2)and 100 kg ha-1(P3). Application of 150 kg N ha-1, 100 kg P ha-1 and 35 kg Zn ha-1 recorded significantly higher growth at 5% level of significance attributes viz., plant height (218.64), no. of functional leaves (11.30), leaf area plant-1 (65.07 cm2), total dry matter plant-1 (269.08) and grain yield (6705.8 kg ha-1), husk yield (1378.2 ha-1), spindle yield (1642.6 ha-1), stover yield (7161.0 ha-1) and biological yield (13866.8 ha-1). The nutrient status after harvest of maize was highest in the treatment combination of N3P3Z2 receiving 150 kg N ha-1, 75 kg P ha-1 and 35 kg ZnSO4 ha-1. But the result were at par with the treatment combination N2P2Z1 which received 125 kg N ha-1, 75 kg P ha-1 and 25 kg ZnSO4 ha-1. From the results, it was concluded that the maximum growth, yield, & post-harvest nutrient status could be achieved by judicious application of chemical fertilizers (N, P & Zn).

Keywords: Growth, Maize, Vertisols, Yield, Zinc


Influence of salicylic acid on biochemical parameters and antioxidant system in mashbean plants grown under salt stress conditions

Manpreet Kaur1*, Navita Ghai1, Jagmeet Kaur2 and Inderjit Singh2

1Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sohalmanpreet87@gmail.com

Received: June 18, 2015; Revised received: July 24, 2016; Accepted: October 8, 2016

Abstract: Abiotic stress factors affect almost every aspect of physiology and biochemisrtry of a plant. The present study investigates the role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. The application of 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM SA to mashbean (Vigna mungo L.) plants provided protection against 30mM or 45mM NaCl stress through elevated antioxidant system. The genotypes KUG 363, KUG 310, (salt sensitive), KUG 502 and KUG 529 (salt tolerant) along with UL 338 (as check) were subjected to salt stress. Relative leaf water content (61%) decreased under 45mM salt stress in salt tolerant genotype KUG 529 as compared to control (85%). Leaf water potential was also recorded at 50 DAS in salt tolerant genotype KUG 529 (-2.66 mpa) and in salt sensitive genotype KUG 363(-3.76 mpa) .All the genotypes showed higher accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species under salt stress. A remarkable decrease was shown in antioxidant enzymes like catalase (179 micro mole/min/g FW) and ascorbate peroxidase (1617 n moles/min/g FW) in KUG 529 . The level of antioxidant system was enhanced catalase (184 micro mole/ min/g FW) and ascorbate peroxidase (1853 n moles/min/g FW) in mashbean plants under NaCl stress following SA applications. Thus SA helped in conferring stress tolerance to mashbean plants through enhanced antioxidant system. However, tolerant genotypes responded better than sensitive ones and lower concentration of SA (0.5mM) was more effective.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Mashbean, Salicylic acid, Salt stress


Long-term effects of fertilizer and manure application on soil quality and sustainability of jute-rice-wheat production system in Indo-Gangetic plain

D. K. Kundu, S. P. Mazumdar*, D. Ghosh, A. R. Saha, B. Majumdar, A. K. Ghorai and M. S. Behera

ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore-700120 (Kolkata), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sonalimazumdar110@gmail.com

Received: December 15, 2015 Revised received: July 23, 2016; Accepted: October 9, 2016

Abstract: A long-term fertilizer experiment was initiated in 1971 in sandy loam soil (Eutrochrept) of Barrackpore, West Bengal to study the effects of applying organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on yield of jute-rice-wheat system and soil health. The unfertilized soil supported yields of 0.8 t ha-1 of jute fibre, 1.5 t ha-1 of rice grain and 0.7 t ha-1 of wheat grain (average yield of 42 years). Application of 150% recommended NPK through chemical fertilizers produced maximum yields of jute (2.1 t ha-1), rice (3.8 t ha-1) and wheat (2.8 t ha-1). The yields obtained with 150% NPK fertilizers were 5%, 2.7% and 12% higher than that with 100% NPK fertilizers +FYM. Combined application of 100% NPK fertilizers and FYM, however, increased soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from 5.60 to 8.90 g kg-1, 270 to 316 kg ha-1, 40.7 to 120 kg ha-1 and 139 to 236 kg ha-1 respectively. Maximum DTPA-extractable micronutrients in soil were also observed with 100%NPK fertilizers+FYM. Applying FYM together with NPK fertilizers increased microbial biomass from 221 to 435 mg kg-1 and microbial quotient from 3.95 to 4.89 with concomitant increase in dehydrogenase, phosphatase and fluorescein-diacetate-hydrolyzing activities in the soil. The acid phosphatase activity (139 to 275 μg PNPg-1 h-1) was much lower than alkaline phosphatase activity (479 to 616 μg PNPg-1 h-1). The enzymes assayed showed significant correlation with microbial-C and organic C. Beneficial effects of integrated nutrient management (NPK+FYM) on soil health were reflected on the yields of all the crops.

Keywords: Indo-Gangetic plains, Jute-rice-wheat, NPK uptake, Soil fertility, Yield sustainability


Bioefficacy of some insecticides against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis Guenee on brinjal under Hisar agro-climatic conditions during kharif season

Jyoti Raina*, G. S Yadav and S. S Sharma

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jyotiraina222@gmail.com

Received: January 1, 2016; Revised received: July 4, 2016; Accepted: October 10, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the bioefficacy of some insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis during kharif season of 2014 on brinjal var. BR-112 at Entomology Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Five foliar sprays of insecticides viz., cypermethrin 25EC @ 43.75 g a.i/ ha, fenvalerate 20EC @ 40 g a.i/ ha, deltamethrin 2.8EC @ 14 g a.i/ ha, chlorpyriphos 20EC @ 200 g a.i/ ha, Prempt 20EC @ 150 g a.i/ ha, malathion 50EC @ 250 g a.i/ ha and Nimbecidine 0.03% @ 3 ml/l were evaluated and it was found that all the insecticides proved significantly superior (at 5% level) to control (untreated) in reducing the damage of shoot and fruit

borer in brinjal. Among all, deltamethrin proved most effective in reducing shoot damage (60.40%) and fruit damage,

on number basis (88.87%) and weight basis (88.89%) over control. Deltamethrin recorded the highest marketable fruit yield of 132.27q/ha and lowest was found in case of Nimbecidine (33.53 q/ha). Highest (1:8.7) cost to benefit ratio was recorded in deltamethrin followed by fenvalerate (1:8.5), cypermethrin (1:6.5), chlorpyriphos (1:4.5), Prempt (1:1.9), malathion (1:0.6) and Nimbecidine (1: -0.3). From these findings, it was revealed that synthetic pyretheroids

being the most effective and economic over other insecticides, may be incorporated in IPM practices followed

against brinjal shoot and fruit borer.

Keywords: Deltamethrin, Insecticides, Leucinodes orbonalis, Shoot, Fruit damage


Performance of hymenopteran insects as pollinators of pumpkin in Meghalaya

Rachna Pande1* and V. K. Verma2

1Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umroi Road, Umiam - 793103 (Meghalaya), INDIA

2Division of Horticulture, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umroi Road, Umiam - 793103 (Meghalaya), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rachna.ento@gmail.com

Received: January 16, 2016; Revised received: June 3, 2016; Accepted: October 10, 2016

Abstract: Pumpkin is a major cultivated crop particularly in north eastern states of India that depends on insects for the pollination, as the pollens of these plants are large sized and sticky. In the present study, field and lab experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of the pollinators of pumpkin based on their diversity, relative abundance and foraging activity. Total four hymenopteran insect pollinators were observed in field viz., bumble bee, little honey bee, Indian honey bee and Digger bee. On the basis of abundance and relative abundance bumble bee was identified as most abundant pollinator of pumpkin with 69.69 per cent mean relative abundance as other pollinators mean relative abundance was less than 25 per cent and it was only 3.49 per cent for Indian honey bee. Forag-ing speed and foraging rate of bumble bee was 7.13 sec/flower and foraging rate was 3.80 flower/minute. To ensure the efficient pollinator of pumpkin flower, pollen carrying capacity, pollen deposition and percent deposition of viable pollen was studied for all the pollinators in field and laboratory condition. The pollen carrying capacity of pollinators ranged from more than 7 mg to 1 mg. It was highest for bumble bee which was 7.33 mg followed by little honey bee (6.66 mg) and least pollen carrying capacity was observed in Digger bee (1.67 mg). Pollen depositions by pollinators on stigma in a single visit was again highest for bumble bee (565 pollen grains) with maximum number of viable pollen deposition 224.33 pollen grains out of which 39.7 per cent pollen was viable. So on the basis of above result it can be concluded that bumble bee was the most abundant and most efficient pollinator of pumpkin.

Keywords: Bumble bee, Indian honey bee, Pollen carrying capacity, Relative abundance, Viable pollen


Study of variance, heritability and genetic advance for various yield contributing and quality traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Harshwardhan, Anil Kumar, Amarjeet Kumar* and Birendra Prasad

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amarjeetagriculture@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: July 23, 2016; Accepted: October 12, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the coefficient of variance, heritability and genetic advance for different traits in spring wheat .The investigation comprised of 7 lines of wheat and their 21 crosses in half diallel fashion was carried out in RBD with three replications. Data were recorded for days to 75% heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield per plant, harvest index, grain yield per plant, protein content and sedimentation value. The mean squares of the analysis of variance revealed significant and highly significant differences among genotypes for characters studied. Both PCV and GCV (21.8% and 21.3%) were highest for biological yield per plant followed by grain yield per plant (20.9%) and harvest index (19.7%) respectively. Whereas, ECV was maximum (15.2%) for grain yield per plant followed by harvest index (12.2%) and lowest value was recorded for days to 75% heading (0.85%). Days to 75% heading was highly heritable (90.94%) trait followed by plant height (87.23%) while least heritability (17.73%) was noticed for number of grain per spike. The highest genetic advance shown by the biological yield per plant (48.33g) followed by grain yield per plant (19.75g), however, the greatest genetic value percent mean 43.084 for the days to maturity and minimum (2.10) for spike length. Hence, these statistical parameters might be given top priority to strengthen the successful breeding program.

Keywords: Genetic advance, Heritability, Quality, Spring wheat, Variance, Yield


Bioefficacy of Imidacloprid 350 SC against sucking insect-pests in chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

B. S. Rana, K. C. Ahir, M. M. Sonkamble* and S. D. Desai

Department of Entomology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: milind.sonkambleento@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: June 7, 2016; Accepted: October 14, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in a RBD at Horticulture farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur to evaluate the bioefficacy of Imidacloprid 350 SC at 100, 125 and 150 ml/ha against sucking pests of chilli during Kharif, 2013 and 2014. The highest reduction in the population of aphid, jassids and thrips in chilli was re-corded in case of two spray of Imidacloprid 350 SC at 150 ml/ha and also recorded highest marketable yield of 161.25 and 164.88 q/ha during 2013 and 2014, respectively. It was found at par to Imidacloprid 350 SC at 125 ml/ha.

Keywords: Aphid, Chilli, Imidacloprid 350 SC, Jassids, Sucking pests, Thrips


Popularization of organic chilli cultivation in the Eastern Ghat high land zone of Odisha, India

P. Sial1, R. K. Tarai 2* and B. K. Sethy2

1High Altitude Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Pottangi, Koraput -764039, (Odisha), INDIA

2College of Horticulture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima, Sambalpur-768026 (Odisha), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranjanouat@gmail.com

Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: June 17, 2016; Accepted: October 14, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted in the Koraput district of Odisha in India during 2012-13 and 2013-14 under National Horticulture Mission for popularization of organic chilli cultivation through frontline demonstrations .The green chilli yield of hybrid Guntur Hope varied from 5.0 t/ha to 6.67 t/ha in different FLD organic plots, where as it varied from 5.75 t/ha to 6.83t/ha in inorganic plots (Farmers Practice). The average yield in organic plots was 6.29 t/ha in comparison with average yield 6.52 t/ha of inorganic plots in farmers practice. The average cost of cultivation per ha of chilli on FLD plots was Rs.46, 100/- as against Rs. 43,400/- on inorganic plots (Farmers Practice). The cost of chilli cultivation in organic farming was comparatively higher than the conventional practice be-cause of use of bio inputs in the field. However, the averages net return of Organic chilli in different FLD plots was Rs. 58,167/- in contrast to Rs. 43,107/- in inorganic chilli. The organic farming recorded higher net return than that of the Farmers Practice. The B:C ratio was found to be 1: 2.28 in Organic chilli and 1: 2.00 in Inorganic chilli. Organic chilli growers were highly satisfied with their organic production and economic return. Chilli farmers were advised to switch over to organic farming which can give high return and minimize environmental degradation.

Keywords: B:C ratio, Chilli, Cost of production, Gross return, Net return, Organic cultivation, Yield


Distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in different parts of tomato plants: A serological perspective

Anil Kumar1*, Anil Handa1 and Santosh Watpade2

1Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2IARI Regional Station, Shimla-171004 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anildogra078@gmail.com

Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: July 1, 2016; Accepted: October 15, 2016

Abstract: Serological detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in different parts of tomato through DAS-ELISA revealed that its branches have highest virus concentration followed by twigs, mature leaves and middle leaves. The samples derived from the branches gave highest mean OD value 0.517 whereas, the recorded mean OD values in case of twigs, mature leaves and middle leaves were 0.470, 0.444 and 0.419, at A405 nm, respectively. The virus was not found to be present in flowers and fruits as indicated by lower mean OD values, i.e. 0.215 and 0.159, respectively. On the basis of findings of the our experiment, the branches, twigs, mature leaves and middle leaves had high concentration of the virus and hence these parts could be used in the detection of TYLCV, whereas, flowers and fruits had very low titer of virus, thus, not recommended to be used for serological detection.

Keywords: Optical density, Serology, Tomato, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus


Evaluation and comparative performance of six loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) varieties under Punjab conditions

Harsimrat K. Bons*, K. S. Gill and J. S. Sarabha

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: harsimratpau@pau.edu

Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: July 26, 2016; Accepted: October 16, 2016

Abstract: Evaluation and comparative performance of six loquat Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cultivars viz. selections, pathankot, tanaka, golden yellow, pale yellow and improved golden yellow was studied under Punjab conditions in 2012-13 and 2013-14. The main objective of the study was to evaluate and recommend the loquat variety with higher yield potential and better fruit quality for the growers of Punjab. Among the six varieties of loquat, cv. Tanaka was found most promising on the basis of the maximum fruit weight (23.5g), fruits per cluster (12), fruit length (4.5cm) fruit breadth (3.64 cm) Pulp weight (29.52g) fruit yield (34.0g),TSS (11.03%.) with minimum acidity (1.12%), seed weight and seed number. Moreover ‘Tanaka’ fruits had higher consumer acceptance (7.83 out of 9) as compared to other loquat varieties under comparison. These varieties were compared with recommended varieties as standard check. The study indicate that cv Tanaka has the potential to excel under Punjab conditions as compared with the prior existing cultivation.

Keywords: Cultivars, Loquat, Punjab, Quality, Tanaka, Yield

Effect of inter-fruit competition on development of physiological disorder “Aril browning” in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Hemlata Singh1*, Nidhi Singh2 and Subhrojit Dolui1

1Department of Agricultural Biochemistry, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya , Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya , Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hemlata.singh9243@gmail.com

Received: February 4, 2016; Revised received: July 26, 2016; Accepted: October 17, 2016

Abstract: The quality of fruits is a major factor limiting the export of fruit. One of the important causes of quality deterioration of fruits is their physiological disorder. Present study was conducted to study the effect of inter-fruit competition on physiological disorder of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) “Aril Browning (AB)”, incidence was higher in panicles with more number of fruits, i.e. panicles with two fruits had high intensity of both medium intensity (13%) and high intensity (2%) of AB incidence in comparison to panicle with one fruit, which had 7 % of medium intensity (MI) and 1% of high intensity (HI) of incidence. Competition among fruits was further accelerated by treating the fruits with growth regulators viz GA3 and PBZ. The GA3 treated fruit was showing fewer incidences (7 % of MI of browning affected aril and zero percentage of HI of incidence) over the control (15% of MI and 2 % of HI) in contrast to PBZ treatment, which was showing higher incidence (21 % of MI and 3 % of HI). Analysis of result suggests that inter fruit competition among the fruits growing at the same time leads to development of sinks of different strength. Such differences results in unequal distribution of nutrients to developing fruits which disturbs the physiology of fruit development leading to biochemical changes which ultimately leads to initiation of aril browning. Thus, this study provides evidence for the role of interfruit competition on development of the disorder.

Keywords: Aril browning, GA3, Incidence, PBZ, Pomegranate

Identification and description of Indian parasitic bee genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804, (Halictidae: Hymenoptera)

M. Balaji Rajkumar1* and Debjani Dey2

1&2Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

1Current address: Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow- 226101-(Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: balaento.ento@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2015; Revised received: July 20, 2016; Accepted: October 19, 2016

Abstract: The present study provides an updated knowledge on taxonomy of three important species of Sphecodes Latreille, 1804 which were collected from different parts of India. Three species viz., Sphecodes iridipennis Smith 1879, S. gibbus Smith 1853, S. crassicornis Smith 1879 are redescribed with illustrations, genitalic features and measurements of their morphological features. An annotated checklist of species Sphecodes from India also provided.

Keywords: Cuckoo bee, Halictidae, Hymenoptera Sphecodes, Parasitic bee


Agroforestry systems practiced in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh, India

Pratap Toppo, Abhishek Raj and M. K. Jhariya1*

Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur- 492012 (C.G.), INDIA

1Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001 (C.G.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manu9589@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2016; Revised received: July 21, 2016 Accepted: October 20, 2016

Abstract: Chhattisgarh state has very diverse forest ecosystem and long history of traditional agroforestry. An agroforestry practice is location specific and depends on nature of agro-climatic zone. In Chhattisgarh, farmers are doing this farming practices based on fulfilling their diverse need and improvement of socioeconomic condition but still data is insufficient to explore more agroforestry practices in the state. In this context, assessment of different agro-forestry models gives not only sufficient data but also open a door for conservation of biological diversity. Different models like’s Boundary plantations, Agri-silviculture system, Horti silvicuture, Silvipasture, Kitchen garden and Block plantation are used by farmers in Dhamtari. All models are dependent on location characteristic, land use type, soil type, climate and market requirement. This paper highlights the different models of Agroforestry, specific model for the specific sites, lacuna in models faced by farmers and role of agroforestry models in socioeconomic upliftment.

Keywords: Agroforestry system, Farming practices, Model, Land use


Combined effect of land preparation methods and planting geometry on the performance of machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)

R. B. Negalur1, A. S. Halepyati2, and B. G. Masthanaredy3

Agricultural Research Station, Gangavathi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-583227 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tushberkipilli@rediffmail.com

Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: July 29, 2016; Accepted: October 21, 2016

Abstract: Field experiment on effect of land preparation methods and planting geometry on growth and yield of machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Gangavathi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka during kharif, 2012 and 2013 in clay soil under irrigated condition. Pooled mean indicated that, among the different land preparation methods and planting geometry puddling with rotovator fb levelling with spike tooth harrow and planting geometry of 30 x 21 cm recorded significantly higher growth parameters viz., Leaf area index ( 2.87 and 1.56, respectively) , dry matter accumulation in leaves (13.44 and 14.43 g plant-1, respectively), dry matter accumulation in stem (26.25 and 29.31 g plant-1 , respectively), dry matter accumulation in panicles ( 37.21 and 41.38 g plant-1 , respectively), total dry matter accumulation in plant (73.82 and 85.12 g plant-1, respectively), thousand grain weight (18.17 and 18.71,g respectively), grain yield (4906 and 5192 kg ha-1 , respectively), straw yield (6247 and 6508 kg ha-1, respectively), gross returns (Rs. 87,733 and 92779 ha-1, respectively), net returns (Rs. 46329 and 50007 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.14 and 2.20 ). Puddling with rotovator fb levelling with spike tooth harrow and 30 x 21 cm spacing were found better for transplanting of rice by self propelled mechanical transplanter. Land preparation would be helpful as one of the important pre requirement in machine transplanting of rice, which in turn will decide the time (time required for settling of soil particle) and type of machine to be used for transplanting of rice.

Keywords: Dry matter accumulation, Economics, Land preparation methods, Machine transplanting, Manual planting, Planting geometry


Impact of different tillage methods on growth, development and productivity of maize (Zea mays)-wheat (Tritcum aestivum) cropping system

Ramesh1*, S. S. Rana2, Suresh Kumar3 and R. S. Rana1

1Centre for Geo-informatics Research and Training, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur – 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur – 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

3Directorate of Extension Education, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur – 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rameshhpkv@gmail.com

Received: February 4, 2016; Revised received: July 1, 2016; Accepted: October 22, 2016

Abstract: An experiment was conducted on a silty clay loam soil of Palampur during 2009–2011, to study the effect of different tillage methods in maize (Zea mays L.) wheat {Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.} cropping system. Results revealed that in maize crop, tillage methods in kharif season resulted in significantly highest emergence count (27.1 plant/m2) under manual seed drill. While, multi-crop planter recorded in significantly taller plants (55.4 cm) at 30 DAS; higher dry matter accumulation 81.0, 990.0 and 4184.4 g/m2 at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respective-ly and CGR (30.3 g/day/m2) at 30-60 DAS. Tillage methods in rabi season resulted in higher emergence count (17.6 plant/m2) under zero tillage. This treatment also recorded advanced emergence by 1.2 to 1.5 days. In wheat crop, tillage methods in kharif season resulted in significantly highest emergence count (307.6 plant/m2), taller plants (13.1 cm) at 30 DAS, dry matter accumulation (625.3 g/m2) at 120 DAS and CGR (14.4 g/day/m2) at 90-120 DAS under conventional tillage. While, tillage methods in rabi season resulted in significantly highest emergence count (369.5 plants/m2), tallest plants (17.7, 92.6 and 101.0 cm at 60, 120 and at harvest, respectively) with multi-crop planter. While, zero tillage recorded significantly higher CGR (15.8 g/day/m2) and RGR (0.027 g/g/day) during 120-harvest stage. Zero tillage produced statistically at par crop yield and rainwater-use efficiency of both crops with other tillage treatments. Hence, zero tillage can be as good as other intensive tillage system besides lower input cost and envi-ronmental security.

Keywords: CGR, Maize-wheat, Rainwater use efficiency, RGR, Zero tillage


Irrigation application efficiency and uniformity of water distribution using multi-outlet pipe and resource conservation technologies

Gajanan B. Rajurkar1, Neelam Patel2, N. Rajmohan3, T. B. S. Rajput2, S. A. Prathapar4 and Cini Varghese5

1Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2Water technology center, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

3International Water Management Institute, NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi, 110012, INDIA

4Groundwater Modelling Unit, NSW Office of Water, Level 10 Macquarie Tower, 10 Valentine10 Av, PO Box 3720, Parramatta NSW 2150, AUSTRALIA

5Division of Agricultural Statistics, Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rajurkargb@gmail.com

Received: February 4, 2016, Revised received: July 7, 2016; Accepted: October 23, 2016

Abstract: Irrigation experiments were conducted during November to April under wheat crop in the winter season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 in the farmer’s field at Galibkhedi village located in Karnal District, Haryana State, India. In the study, collapsible multi-outlet pipe (MOP) along with single outlets pipe (SOP) was tested in farmer’s field under wheat cultivation. Irrigation was carried out in five treatments including tillage (T) with SOP and MOP; zero-tillage (ZT) with SOP and MOP, and furrow irrigation with raised bed (FIRB). Iso-time profile of waterfront spreading and advance indicated that irrigation water distribution was uniform under the plot irrigated using MOP as compared to plot irrigated using SOP. In addition, water distribution was uniform under zero tilled plots as compared to tilled plot. Results implied that MOP has several advantages over SOP in terms of application efficiency (AE) and uniformity of water distribution. Average application efficiency for the first study year was found to be in the order of ZT-MOP (82.41%) > FIRB (76.79%) > ZT-SOP (75.25%) > T-MOP (74.85%) > T-SOP (69.79%). Average application efficiency for the second study year was found to be in the same order as first year with some deviation in values. In the second year values of mean application efficiencies were ZT-MOP (82.58%) > FIRB (77.13%) > ZT-SOP (73.04%) > T-MOP (69.65%) > T-SOP (66.13%). Overall, this study concludes that irrigation under wheat crop using collapsible multi-outlet pipe (MOP) with zero tillage practices is a suitable option for surface irrigation that accomplishes uniform distribution of water with higher application efficiency.

Keywords: Application efficiency, Multi-outlets pipe, Water advance front, Zero-tillage


Evaluation of the effects of FYM and gypsum on onion (Allium cepa L.) production under sodic water irrigation

Amit Kumar, A. C. Yadav, Ansul, Vinod Kumar and Avtar Singh

Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aluhach007@gmail.com

Received: February 9, 2016; Revised received: July 12, 2016; Accepted: October 24, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the effect of FYM and gypsum on onion (Allium cepa L.) production under sodic water irrigation. Treatments comprised of three levels of farmyard manure (FYM) (F0- no FYM, F1- 10 t/ha and F2- 20 t/ha FYM) and three levels of gypsum (G0- no gypsum, G1- 50% neutralization of RSC and G2- 100% neutralization of RSC) in addition to control (irrigation with sodic water and no FYM and no gypsum F0G0). Results of the study showed that the seedling mortality was maximum (77.50 %) in control (F0G0) treatment, while minimum number of seedlings mortality (18.17 %) was observed in (F2G2) treatment followed by (25.17 %) (F2G1) treatment. There was significant increase in growth and yield of onion with application of FYM and gypsum. Moreover, maximum bulb yield (180.83 q/ha) was recorded in (F2G2) followed by F2G1 (152.22 q/ha) where 100% sodicity of water was neutralized by the application of gypsum and 20 t/ha FYM. Under sodic water conditions, increasing level of gypsum and FYM help in reducing the sodicity of irrigation water and thereby, increasing the yield of onion. The study concluded that in present situation of scarcity of good quality water for agricultural purposes, use of amendments like FYM and gypsum were best alternative for the best possible use of poor quality ground water and simultaneously sustain the yield of vegetable crops like onion which are sensitive to sodic water.

Keywords: Farm yard manure, Gypsum, Onion yield, Sodic water


Study on genetic diversity in chilli (Capsicum annuum) based on multivariate analysis and isozyme analysis

Chandan Kumar Mondal1,2*, Pinaki Acharyya1 and Uttam Saha1,3

1Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata – 700019 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Present Address: Ramkrishna Ashram KVK, Nimpith, South 24 Parganas -743338 (W.B), INDIA

3Present Address: Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Tripura, Amarendranagar- 799103 (Tripura), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drchandanmondal@gmail.com

Received: February 10, 2016; Revised received: July 28, 2016; Accepted: October 24, 2016

Abstract: Thirty seven diverse chilli (Capsicum annuum) genotypes were studied for 22 growth, yield and fruit quality traits. Multivariate analysis grouped the genotypes into 7 clusters. Cluster IV was largest containing 14 genotypes. Inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster V and VII (248.09), and minimum between cluster I and II (57.80). Cluster VII was most heterogeneous (intra-cluster divergence value 191.25) and Cluster II was most homogeneous (30.25). Genotypes were also analyzed for peroxidase enzyme polymorphism using gel electrophoresis which resulted seven electrophoretic bands (Rf 0.19 to 0.59) and grouped the genotypes into 6 zymotypes. Zymotype P4 included maximum (13) number of genotypes. Number of clusters in peroxidase and multivariate analysis were almost same but distribution of genotypes varied. 73% of total genotypes showed similar pattern of grouping suggesting that the two methods are complementary to each other and should be carried out simultaneously to determine genetic diversity more effectively. Considering variability and diversity analysis of the genotypes, CUCH-4 from Cluster-II (& Zymotype-P2) and CUCH-31, CUCH-34 and CUCH-35 from Cluster-VII (& Zymotype-P4) were identified as promising genotypes which can be used in further crop improvement programme.

Keywords: Capsicum, Chilli, Diversity, Multivariate analysis, Peroxidase analysis


Impact of foliar application of potassium and its spray schedule on yield and quality of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Jaffa

Vijay*, R. P. S. Dalal, B. S. Beniwal and Hemant Saini

Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shotreturns@gmail.com

Received: February 19, 2016; Revised received: July 21, 2016 Accepted: October 25, 2016

Abstract: A field study was undertaken to extrapolate the impact of foliar application of potash and its spray schedule on yield and physical and chemical parameters of sweet orange cv. Jaffa at experimental orchard, Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The results revealed that foliar application of KNO₃ at both the doses (2 and 4%) was found significantly or marginally better than K₂SO₄ (1.5 and 3.0%) and control (water spray) in increasing the juice content. Peel content, peel thickness and rag content was found to be influenced significantly due to different treatments on K and its spray schedule. Minimum rag content (38.11%) was recorded with foliar application of KNO₃ at the rate of 4% and maximum with control. Ascorbic acid and acidity were found maximum with two foliar applications of KNO₃ at the rate of 4% in the last week of April and August. Foliar application of KNO₃ at the rate of 4% was found most effective in increasing yield of sweet orange over control and other K treatments. Spray of K in the last week of April, May and August was found superior in increasing yield closely followed by two sprays in the last week of April and August. The findings signify the importance of K spray in enhancing yield and quality of sweet orange under semi-arid north western conditions of India.

Keywords: Chemical parameters, Foliar application, Potash, Sweet orange, Yield

Inside the plant: Bacterial endophytes and abiotic stress alleviation

Pramod Kumar Pandey1, 2*, Siddhartha Singh2, Amit Kumar Singh2, Ramkrishna Samanta3, Raj Narain Singh Yadav3 and M. Chandrakumar Singh 2

1Centre for Studies in Biotechnology, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786004 (Assam), INDIA

2Department of Basic Sciences & Humanities, College of Horticulture & Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791102 (Arunachal Pradesh), INDIA

3Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786004 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pramod.pandey84@gmail.com

Received: March 6, 2016; Revised received: July 30, 2016; Accepted: October 26, 2016

Abstract: Bacterial endophytes are the microbes internally associated with the plant, nourished in an isolated environment which is free from the external harsh and changeable ecological condition. They entered into the plant tissues and alleviate the biotic and abiotic stresses by producing numerous secondary metabolites. They are engaged with the de novo synthesis of structural compounds and stimulation of plant immunity. They are also involved in the process of exclusion of the pathogen by niche competition and actively take part in phenylpropanoid metabolism. Abiotic stresses in particular salinity problem, low pH, heavy metal toxicity and accumulation of recalcitrant complex compounds in the soil affecting the plant health are a major threat to the agriculture sector in crop production and stability of ecosystems. To cope with these problems agriculture productivity has been intensified by using synthetic chemicals and pesticides causes numerous problems worldwide. Endophytic bacteria are thus being utilized as a substitute to reduce the use of toxic chemicals and pesticides. They may be employed as a biological agent in the plant growth promotion and for the management of the global environment. There is a tremendous scope for the isolation and identification of new endophytic bacteria with excellent potential.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Bioremediation, Endophyte, Endophytic bacteria, Salt stress


Role of agronomic manipulations in modification of wheat microclimate under central Punjab

Sarabjot Kaur Sandhu* and L. K. Dhaliwal

School of Climate Change & Agricultural Meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: skchahal@pau.edu

Received: March 6, 2016; Revised received: July 30, 2016; Accepted: October 28, 2016

Abstract: Wheat crop is influenced by different microclimatic parameters like solar radiation, canopy temperature etc. Agronomic manipulation like change in row spacing and row direction can be used as a strategy to modify the microclimate of crop. Keeping these facts in view, field trials were conducted during rabi 2012-13 and 2013-14 under two experiments in first experiment wheat varieties HD 2967, PBW 550 and PBW 343 were sown under three row spacing viz. 15 cm, 22.5 cm and 30 cm. In second experiment, wheat varieties HD 2967, PBW 550 and PBW 343 were sown under two row direction viz. North-South (N-S) and East-West (E-W). Short wave radiation interception and canopy temperature was recorded under different treatments at 15 days interval. Among different row spacing, short wave radiation interception and canopy temperature was maximum at 30 cm row spacing (77.7% and 25.1oC) followed by 22.5 cm (75.7% and 24.2oC) and 15 cm row spacing (73.9% and 23.2oC), whereas under row directions short wave radiation interception and canopy temperature was more (76.5% and 23.9oC) in E-W row direction as compared to N-S row direction (75% and 23.2oC). Relationships were developed between dry matter accumulation and canopy temperature. Polynomial relationships gave significant R2 value (0.66 & 0.69) under different treatments. This two year study indicated that agronomic manipulations play an important role in microclimate modification and canopy temperature significantly influence dry matter accumulation under different crop geometry.

Keywords: Canopy temperature, Microclimate, Short wave radiation, Wheat

Effect of bio-composts on soil fertility status and productivity of organic farm: An approach to promote sustainable agriculture

Dipika Rana1*and Haseeb U. R. Masoodi2

1Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla- 171013 (H.P), INDIA

2Forest Research Institute, Dehradun- 248006 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dipikahfri@gmail.com

Received: July 22, 2015; Revised received: July 14, 2016; Accepted: October 28, 2016

Abstract: The findings of this research provide information on various approaches to manage and maintain soil fertility for organic crop production through composting. The initial recorded data pertaining to various conventional farming practices showed very low soil fertility status, low productivity before the initiation of organic farming. In the year prior to 2006 pH was low (4.10) and it increased to 5.40 by 2006-07. Organic carbon percentage increased to 1.35 in 2006-07 and the value of phosphorus was very low in the previous year but increased in the year 2006-07(6.00 Kg/ha) while Potassium value increased in the year 2006-07 (395.00 Kg/ha). Input use pattern of various composts was also evaluated and it was observed that higher rates of FYM was used in case of maize-wheat+gram (614.31q/ha) in 2006-07 while higher rates of vermicompost was used in case of soybean-pea system i.e 111.11 q/ha for the year 2006-07. It was found that in the year 2006-07, among the cereals, yield of wheat was the highest (15.56 q/ha), among pulses soybean dominated (13.04 q/ha). The yield of potato (74.88 q/ha) was the highest among vegetable crops. For the year 2007-08, the yield of wheat+ lentil was the highest (10.86 q/ha). Among the pulses again yield of soybean was the highest (6.14 q/ha) and potato showed the highest yield among vegetables (73.88 q/ha). It showed that the application of compost had direct effect on productivity as the application of compost in the year 2007-08 decreased the productivity decreased subsequently as compared to initial year i.e 2006-07.

Keywords: Composting, Conventional, Organic, Vermicompost

Growth and productivity of Tectona grandis Linn. f. in plantations and farmlands in coastal zone of Karnataka (India)

Girish Shahapurmath1*, M. Hanumatha1, Rajesh Gunaga2, V. Rashmi3, and A. G. Koppad1

1College of Forestry, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Sirsi–581401, Uttara Kannada (Karnataka), INDIA

2College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari –396445 (Gujarat), INDIA

4Raita Samparka Kendra, Sirsi–581401, Uttara Kannada (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: girishbshahpur@gmail.com

Received: July 22, 2015; Revised received: July 4, 2016; Accepted: October 30, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted to understand the growth performance and productivity potential of Tectona grandis grown in plantation as well as in the farmlands at coastal zone of Karnataka. The growth of teak tree grown in farmland was significantly higher than tree grown in pure plantation. For instance, the overall height (11.95 m), diameter (23.69 cm), clear bole height (6.20 m), tree volume (0.61 m3) and timber volume (0.33 m3) was higher in farmland than trees grown in pure plantation (11.60 m, 20.33 cm, 4.90 m, 0.42 m3 and 0.18 m3, respectively). However, crown parameters did not show significant difference among trees grown in pure plantations and farmlands. There was a strong influence of age on growth of teak trees grown in both farmland and pure plantation. For instance, tree height (14.72 m) and diameter (30.52 cm) of higher age class (A4: 21-25 years) was maximum as compared lower age class (A1: 5-10 years) with values of 8.29 m and 17.14 cm, respectively. Similar trend was also recorded for volume, clear bole height, crown height, crown length and crown diameter in teak. It was concluded that teak grown in farmland may produce higher growth and volume as compared to pure plantation.

Keywords: Farmland, Pure plantation, Silvicultural management, Tree growth


Studies on genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under protected conditions

Manisha Thakur1*, Ramesh Kumar1 and Sandeep Kumar2

1Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Indian Agricultural research Institute, Regional Research Station, Katrain, Kullu Valley-175101 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mnshthakur4@gmail.com

Received: November 20, 2015; Revised received: June 28, 2016; Accepted: October 30, 2016

Abstract: Twenty-eight genotypes of lettuce including check cultivars viz., Simpson Black Seeded and Great Lakes were grown in a RCBD with three replications during Rabi 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Vegetable Experimental Research Farm, Nauni, Solan H.P. to estimate the parameters of genetic variability, correlation and path analysis under naturally ventilated polyhouse. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among genotypes for all the characters under study. Variability revealed that phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) in general were higher than the corresponding genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) for all the characters. High coefficient of variability were found for heading percentage (37.00% and 36.01%), incidence of sclerotinia rot (63.49% and 61.475%), gray mould (90.13% and 88.08%) and yield per plot (39.55% and 33.09%) indicated wider range of variation and offer better scope for improvement through selection. High heritability estimates coupled with moderate genetic gain were observed for yield and other horticultural traits. Correlation study indicated that yield per plot was positively correlated with gross and net head weight, seed germination, seed vigour index-I & II, 1000-seeds weight and also showed maximum direct effects towards yield per plot. The path co-efficient analysis revealed that net head weight has maximum positive direct effect on yield per plot followed by gross head weight, days to marketable maturity, seed germination, 1000-seeds weight, head shape index and incidence of sclerotinia rot. While, negative direct effect of number of non-wrapper leaves and incidence of gray mould was observed on yield. The new multi coloured cultivars indigenous and exotic mostly procured from CGN, Netherlands , identified for commercial cultivation under protected conditions in the mid hills of North Western Himalayas, may act as a substitute to the old cultivars with good quality and higher yielding potential.

Keywords: Correlation, Genetic variability, Heritability, Lactuca sativa, Path analysis


Effect of soybean plant phenols and flavonoid on the mean leaf area consumed by Spodopteralitura and Spilosoma obliqua larvae

Anchala Nautiyal, Neeta Gaur, Kamendra Singh and Preeti Sharma

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,

Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar -263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Anchala.nautiyal@gmail.com

Received: December 31, 2015; Revised received: July 4, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of soybean plant phenols and flavonoid content on the mean leaf area consumed by Spodopteralitura and Spilosoma obliqua larva. Phenols and flavonoid content in methanolic leaf extract of thirty three genotypes of soybean were determined by spectrophotometrically. The highest and lowest phenolic content were found in genotypes JS-20-41(2.2±0.073 mg/g) and CSB 904 (0.45 ±0.11 mg/g), respectively. While the highest and lowest flavonoid content was found in genotypes SL 979 4.686± 0.062 mg QE/ g, respectively. In correlation study a highly significant negative correlation was observed between mean leaf area consumed (cm2) by S. litura, phenol content (-0.741 ) and flavonoid content (-0.737) similarly a highly significant negative correlation was observed between mean leaf area consumed by S. obliqua, phenol content (-0.728) and flavonoid content (-0.736) in leaves. Hence it can be concluded that, the genotypes which were having higher phenol and flavonoid content in their leaves offered resistance against S. litura and S. obliqua in soybean.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenols, Soybean, Spodopteralitura, Spilosoma obliqua

Priming with potassium solutions improves seedling growth and vigor in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)

Priyamvada Chauhan1*, Geeta Pandey1, and Pradeep Kumar Pandey2

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: priyam09chauhan@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: July 1, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016

Abstract: In this study a laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different potassium priming sources on seedling growth and vigor of sorghum genotypes. Priming with KH2PO4 gave best results for SOG (23.052), RL (19.667) and VI (2,291.9). KCl found to be better at lower concentration (150mM) for all the characters i.e., FGP (73.11), MGT (3.90), SOG (21.776), RL (18.444) and VI (2,272.6). However, KNO3 gave better results at higher concentration (300mM) for MGT (3.11), SOG (16.779), RL (18.056) and VI (1471.0). KMnO4 was found to be better than KCl (300 mM) and KNO3 (150 mM and 300 mM) for FGP (60.0), SOG (19.187), RL (19.256) and VI (1,998.3). Among genotypes, CSV15 gave the best results for all the vigor indices. The interaction between genotypes and treatments was recorded to be non-significant for all the characters except FGP at 0.05 level of significance. It can be concluded that seed priming with different potassium sources showed better results over control for all the characters in different sorghum genotypes. So, it may serve as appropriate treatment for accelerating the seed vigor of sorghum.

Keywords: Potassium solutions,Potassium priming sources, Seedling growth, Seed vigor, Sorghum


Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on growth parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop

Meena Kumari1*, S. C. Verma2, S. K. Bhardwaj1, Ashok K. Thakur3, Rakesh Kumar Gupta4, and Rajnish Sharma5

1Department of Environmental Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

3Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

4Department of Basic Sciences, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

5Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: meena.sankhyan@gmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: June 24, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016

Abstract: Global warming is predicted to have negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperature on plant development. The field experiment was conducted during 2014-15 to study effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on growth parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop in order to check the effect of climate change on vegetable crops. Effect was studied under four conditions i.e. Open Top Chambers, T1: OTC - elevated CO2550±10 ppm; T2: OTC -elevated CO2 550±10 ppm and temperature 1°C; T3: OTC - ambient CO2 and temperature (reference) and T4: natural condition. Maximum plant height at 50 % flowering was recorded in T1 (84.29cm) at elevated CO2 which differed significantly with T2 (79.47cm) at elevated CO2 and temperature, T3 (73.60cm) at ambient CO2 and temperature and natural condition (70.73cm). Minimum days to 50 per cent flowering were recorded in plants growing under T2 (68.56 days). Maximum pollen viability was recorded in T1 (77.42%) followed by T3 (76.36%), T4 (74.65%) and T2 (69.97%). Internode length of plants grown under T1 was maximum (7.01cm) followed by T2 (6.68cm), T3 (6.00cm) and T4 (5.05cm). Elevated temperature and CO2 had significant effects on growth and development in vegetables. Overall, growth parameters of pea crop were affected positively by elevated CO2 whereas under interaction effect of elevated CO2 and temperature these positive effects of CO2 were offset by elevated temperature effect and hampered the growth of pea crop which interns can affect the yield and quality of crop under changing climate scenario.

Keywords: CO2, Open top chamber, Pea, Temperature, Vegetables


Weed control efficiency and weed index as influenced by weed management practices in machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)

R. B. Negalur1* and A. S. Halepyati2

Agricultural Research Station, Gangavati, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-583227 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tushberkipilli@rediffmail.com

Received: January 27, 2016; Revised received: July 20, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016

Abstract: Field experiment on effect of different weed management practices in machine transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) was conducted at ARS, Gangavathi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka during kharif, 2012 and 2013 under irrigated condition in clay soil. Pooled mean indicated that, application of butachlor 50 EC fb passing of power operated low land rice weeder twice at 20 and 30 DAT with hand weeding in intra row space recorded significantly lower grassy weed population and dry weight at 40, 60 DAT and at harvest (1.98, 2.47, 2.97/ 0.25 m2 and 1.00, 1.20, 1.47 g /0.25 m2, respectively), sedge weed population and dry weight (2.61, 3.21, 3.52 / 0.25 m2 and 1.19, 1.48, 1.71 g /0.25 m2, respectively) and broad leaved weed population and dry weight (1.68, 2.10, 2.52 / 0.25 m2 and 0.91, 1.06, 1.28 g /0.25 m2, respectively). Significantly higher WCE (87.53%), lower weed index (3.11 %), grain and straw yield (5160 and 6482 kg ha-1, respectively), gross and net returns (Rs. 92,212 and 50,410 ha-1, respectively), and B:C of 2.22 over unweeded check. Hence, application of butachlor 50 EC fb passing of power operated low land rice weeder at 20 and 30 DAT with hand weeding in intra row space was found to be the best weed control method as it recorded higher B:C. Present conventional manual weeding is which is not advantageous as it is costlier, time consuming and labour may trample and damage rice seedlings. Mechanical weeder and sequential application can overcome the same.

Keywords: Conoweeder, Hand weeding, Low land power operated paddy weeder, Post emergent, Pre-emergent

Dynamics of steviol glycosides (stevioside and rebaudioside-A) with growth and development of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

Neena Kumari1*, R. C. Rana1, Y. P. Sharma1 and Suresh Kumar2

1Department of Forest Products, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan--173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl - 796004 (Mizoram), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: neenak.kashyap@gmail.com

Received: March 12, 2016; Revised received: July 12, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016

Abstract: In the present investigation, the dynamics of steviol glycosides (stevioside and rebaudioside-A) of Stevia rebaudiana with their growth stages were studied. The study aimed to examine the best stage of harvesting (month of the year) the crop with respect to maximum accumulation of stevioside and rebaudioside-A content in different plant parts (leaves, green stem and woody stem). The results showed that the maximum stevioside content in leaves (8.55%) was found in June month (vegetative stage). Rebaudioside-A content in leaves (7.00%) was at its peak in August (vegetative stage). Whereas, higher stevioside and rebaudioside-A content was found for green stem (0.93%) and woody stem (0.18%) during September month (flowering stage). Leaves showed maximum yields of stevioside (17.60g) and rebaudioside-A (13.75g) per plant in July month. The study indicated that it is economical to harvest the leaves of S. rebaudiana rather than harvesting whole aerial biomass in vegetative phase (July month).

Keywords: Fresh and dry weights, Plant growth, Stevia rebaudiana, Stevioside and rebaudioside-A


Development and integration of soil moisture sensor with drip system for precise irrigation scheduling through mobile phone

Jitendra Kumar1*, Neelam Patel2 and T. B. S. Rajput3

1Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2&3Water Technology Centre, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jkagric@yahoo.com

Received: February 11, 2016; Revised received: August 2, 2016; Accepted: November 1, 2016

Abstract: Soil moisture sensor is an instrument for quick measurements of soil moisture content in the crop root zone on real time basis. The main objective of this research was development and evaluation of an indigenous sensor for precise irrigation scheduling. The various parts of sensor developed were ceramic cup, acrylic pipe, level sensor, tee, reducer, gland, cork, and end cap. The designed system was successfully tested on okra crop and calibrated with frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) by three methods of irrigation, i.e. check basin, furrow and drip, respectively. The average depth of water depletion in modified tensiometer by these methods was 27 to 35 cm at 50% management allowable depletion (MAD) of field capacity. This depth was useful for the level sensor to be installed inside modified tensiometer for real time irrigation scheduling. The correlation coefficient (R2) between soil moisture content obtained from the developed sensor and FDR was 0.963. Sensor network was integrated with global system for mobile communication (GSM), short message service (SMS) and drip head work to develop an automated irrigation system. This would enable farmers to effectively monitor and control water application in the field by sending command through SMS and receiving pumping status through the mobile phone.

Keywords: GSM, Irrigation, Mobile phone, Soil moisture sensor, SMS


Phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of Elettaria cardamom (Cardamom)

Shabana Bano, Nashrah Ahmad and A. K. Sharma

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226007 (U. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shabana700@gmail.com

Received: April 29, 2016; Revised received: July 11, 2016; Accepted: November 1, 2016

Abstract: The present study deals with the phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities from the crude methanol extract of the seeds of cardamom, Elettaria cardamom. Crude methanol extract was investigated for their antibacterial activity against Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus pumilus and Escherichia coli. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition (20.3 mm) against EPEC, however, the antibacterial potential of the extract was slightly lesser against normal E. coli (19 mm). It showed moderate anti-bacterial activity against L. monocytogenes and B. pumilus. Dose-dependent increase in antioxidant activity was also noticed in crude extract as measured by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Thus, our study reports various phytochemicals in the seeds of cardamom with antioxidant and antibacterial potential.

Keywords: Anti-microbial activity, Anti-oxidant activity, Cardamom, DPPH


A note on natural population levels of Phthirapteran species on sheep at district Rampur (U. P.), India

Archna Rashmi and A. K. Saxena*

Department of Zoology, Govt. Raza P.G. College, Rampur -244901 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: akscsir@rediffmail.com

Received: November 29, 2015; Revised received: June 22, 2016; Accepted: November 1, 2016

Abstract: A look on the available literature indicated that population characteristics of Phthiraptera on Indian sheep deserved investigation. Two hundred sheep were sampled to reveal the population levels of phthirapteran species on sheep in the district Rampur (U.P.). Three phthirapteran species were recovered (Bovicola ovis Schrank, the face louse, Linognathus ovillus Neumann and the foot louse of sheep, Linognathus pedalis Osborn). The prevalence to Phthiraptera on sheep was 26.5%, (n= 200) during 2007. The difference in the prevalence of Phthiraptera on two sexes of sheep was not found significant at 5% level. Likewise, the difference in the prevalence of phthirapteran species on young, adult and older sheep was also insignificant at 5% level. The prevalence and intensity of infestation of Phthiraptera were found significantly correlated (at 5% level) to mean monthly temperature. The correlation between prevalence and relative humidity was not found significant at 5% level. The present report provides first information on the population characteristics of phthirapteran ectoparasites infesting Indian sheep.

Keywords: Bovicola ovis, Lice, Linognathus ovillus, Linognathus pedalis, Phthiraptera


Effect of chelating agents on phytoextraction of Ni from contaminated Soil by Zea mays

S. K. Singh1, Ram Prakash1*, Sachin Kumari 2 and Anoop Singh

1Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Chemistry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ramsansanwal@gmail.com

Received: January 1, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016 Accepted: November 1, 2016

Abstract: The effects of application of CDTA, (CA), DTPA, NTA and FYM on the growth of Zea mays and its Ni uptake and accumulation were investigated using the pot-culture experiments. Application of chelating agents decreased the dry matter yield of roots of Zea mays while, higher values of dry matter yield (11.35 g pot-1) was observed in case of FYM sewage sludge amended soil at 80 days after sowing. FYM addition was found beneficial as compared to control (Ni90). Dry matter yield of shoots of Zea mays increased over control due to application of CDTA and FYM. The highest value of dry matter yield of shoot (86.05 g pot-1) was observed in case of CDTA with sewage sludge amended soil at 80 days after sowing. Whereas reverse trend was observed in NTA, CA and DTPA treated soils. Chelating agents enhanced the Ni uptake by both roots and shoots, higher values of Ni uptake by roots (3415.44 μg pot-1 ) and shoots (10104.98 μg pot-1 ) Was observed in NTA and CDTA treated soil after 80 days of sowing in amended as compared to sewage sludge unamended soil. Application of CDTA followed by NTA was found more effective in enhancing the Ni uptake by Zea mays roots and shoots than any other chelating agents at both the growth stages. The chelating agents are found useful in enhancing phytoextractability of Ni by Zea mays. Hence, marginally Ni contaminated soil may be remediated by adding chelating agents.

Keywords: Chelating agents, Nickel, Phytoextraction, Zea mays


Extractability and availability index of sulphur in selected soils of Odisha

Dhaneshwar Padhan1*, Arup Sen1 and Pragyan Paramita Rout2

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741235 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (T.N), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dhaneshwar.padhan@rediffmail.com

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: July 20, 2016; Accepted: November 2, 2016

Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the extractability of two reagents viz.0.15% CaCl2 & 0.01M Ca (H2PO4) for sulphur along with the sulphur availability index of mixed red and black soils. For this 86 soil samples were collected from mixed red and black soil regions and extracted with these solutions. Results showed that both these solutions extracted nearly similar amount of sulphur in black soils while the Ca phosphate solution extracted higher amount (13.9mgkg-1) compared to Ca chloride solution (11.5mgkg-1) in red soil regions. Considering all the 86 soil samples tested, there was an excellent correlation between the extractable sulphur, the highest correlation being reported from black soils (R2= 0.97). Sulphur availability index was found to be higher in black soils (mean 6.6) compared to red soils (mean 5.1). Also the content of adsorbed sulphur was found to be high in red soils (2.4mgkg-1) compared to black soils (1.5mgkg-1). Correlation matrix and regression equations (Ca phosphate S= 5.00+ 0.77 Ca chloride S) were worked out between the extractable sulphur and soil properties to justify the results.

Keywords: Adsorbed sulphur, Ca chloride, Ca phosphate, Extractable sulphur, Regression equation, Sulphur Availability index


Heterosis for post harvest and nutritional quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Rakesh Kumar1*, H. R. Sharma1 and Manish Kumar

1Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan-173230 ( Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rakeshuhfsolan@gmail.com

Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: June 4, 2016; Accepted: November 2, 2016

Abstract: A study was conducted in tomato using an 6 x 6 diallel crossing design excluding reciprocals to quantify the magnitude of heterosis and to identify the best heterotic combinations for post-harvest and nutritional quality attributes viz. pericarp thickness (mm), fruit firmness (g/0.503 cm2), shelf life (days), total soluble solids (oBrix), lycopene content (mg/100g) and ascorbic acid (mg/100g) which are considered essential in present day hybrid varieties of tomato from consumer point of view. All the 22 entries (6 parents, 15 F1 hybrids and 1 standard check) were field evaluated using randomized complete block design with three replications during Kharif 2015-16. Highly significant heterosis (5% level of significance) of positive nature was found for pericarp thickness (22.90%, 32.20% and 5.62%), fruit firmness (17.32%, 56.72% and 9.21%), shelf life (17.54%, 24.87% and 9.57%), total soluble solids (24.44%, 51.44% and 34.20%), lycopene content (28.75%, 35.05% and 25.63%) and ascorbic acid (19.07%, 30.00% and 17.85%) over the better, mid and standard check, respectively. Three promising crosses viz., Solan Lalima x EC1055, Solan Lalima x EC-1057 and Solan Lalima x EC-1058 were identified as high yielding F1 combi-nations having superiority to post harvest and nutritional quality traits in tomato and can be promoted for release and commercial cultivation.

Keywords: Diallel, Heterosis, Nutritional quality, Solanum lycopersicum L


Fine mapping of rice drought QTL and study on combined effect of QTL for their physiological parameters under moisture stress condition

K. Baghyalakshmi1*, P. Jeyaprakash1, S. Ramchander1, M. Raveendran2 and S. Robin1

1Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu),

INDIA

2Department of Plant Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu

Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kauverik@gmail.com

Received: February 4, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 3, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different yield QTL (DTY2.2, DTY3.1 and DTY8.1) under drought and their physiological response to drought stress. Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) of IR64 (CB -193 and CB-229) along with IR64, APO and the traditional rice variety Norungan were raised in green house condition under water stress and control to evaluate the effect of the QTL on grain yield. The BIL CB-193 recorded higher photosynthetic rate (22.051), transpiration rate (7.152) and Ci/Ca ratio (0.597) whereas the BIL CB-229 recorded high relative water content (80.76%). It was found that the combination of three QTL (CB-229) performed better than the susceptible parent and the line with two QTL (CB-193 Fine-mapping of two QTLs viz., qDTY2.2 and qDTY8.1, for grain yield (GY) were conducted using backcross derived lines. Composite interval mapping analyses resolved the originally identified qDTY2.2 region of 6.7 cM into a segment of 2.1 cM and two sub QTLs at region between RM23132 and RM1578 (75.75 cM- 77.66 cM), RM515 and RM1578 (75.11 cM-77.66 cM) were identified in qDTY8.1 region. However this study provides a unique opportunity to breeders to introgress such regions together as a unit into high-yielding drought-susceptible varieties through MAS.

Keywords: Backcross inbred lines, Drought QTL, Fine mapping, Photosynthetic efficiency, Rice


Effect of different factors on in vitro growth and shoot proliferation of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Allahabad Safeda

Smita Kadam1, R. M. Patel1 and Pushpraj Singh2*

1Department of Biotechnology, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University,

Navsari-396450 (Gujarat ), INDIA

2International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics , Patancheru, Hyderabad -502324 (Telangana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Pushprajsngh9@gmail.com

Received: February, 19, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 3, 2016

Abstract: In the present experiment an attempt has been made to optimize the effect of different medium, levels of sucrose, pH, adenine sulphate and light intensity for culture establishment and shoot proliferation in guava using nodal segment explants. Culture establishment was greatly influenced by media types. Maximum establishment of explants (74.57%) was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 0.2 mg/l IBA. In proliferation study, the maximum shoot proliferation was observed in MS + 1 mg/l BAP + 0.25 mg/l GA3. Sucrose 3% was found to be more favorable for maximum proliferation and growth of shoots moreover, it was reduced gradually as increased or decreased levels of sucrose from 30 g/l. among the various pH levels tested, pH 5.5 recorded maximum number of shoots (8.08) and maximum length of shoots (3.75 cm).In proliferation medium the length of shoot, numbers of shoots and growth rate were increased as increased the adenine sulphate level in the medium. Maximum proliferation was observed on 160 mg/l adenine sulphate in the medium. High light intensity 3000 lux was found to be most suitable for proper growth of regenerated shoots. Low light intensity (1000 lux) resulted in stunted growth. All the above factors significantly influenced shoot multiplication and growth. Thus, optimization of these factors showed significantly increased number of shoots and rapid multiplication. This could be useful for the in vitro production of cost effective healthy planting material of guava

Keywords: Adenine sulphate, Light intensity, Multiplication, pH, Shoots
Generating cadastral base for Kolathupalayam village in Tamil Nadu from high resolution LISS IV sensor data

A. Poornima, R. Jagadeeswaran*, Balaji Kannan and R. Sivasamy

Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: jagawaran@tnau.ac.in

Received: February 24, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 3, 2016

Abstract: In the present study an attempt was made to generate cadastral base from high resolution satellite image (LISS IV) and to integrate with land use land cover information. The digital cadastral map with survey number for Kolathupalayam village in Erode district of Tamil Nadu was scanned, digitized and parcels were extracted. Similarly parcels or field boundaries were digitized and extracted from satellite image and were statistically compared by area. The area obtained from both the source through digitization correlated well with a pearson correlation of 0.87 and it was significant at 5 per cent. Thus, the area comparisons from both methods are significant indicating boundaries of individual fields generated from satellite image matched well with the one generated from cadastral map. The cadastral base generated from satellite image was overlaid on the classified image (level III output) to identify and generate land cover information against each survey number. Thus, the LISS IV data can be used for the identification and extraction of cadastral boundaries with good accuracy.

Keywords: Cadastral base, High resolution data, Integration of LULC with cadastral base

Gene action and component of genetic variance analysis in the thermo sensitive genetic male sterile (TGMS) line in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Pardeep Kumar*, M. K. Nautiyal and Pankaj Kumar

Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pardeepkumar656@gmail.com

Received: February 28, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 4, 2016

Abstract: The field experiment conducted with eighteen TGMS lines, seventy two F1’s and four checks in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar during Kharif 2013 and Kharif 2014. Estimates of variance of general combining ability were lower than those of variance of specific combining ability for all the traits e.g panicle number per plant (0.54), 1000 grain weight (1.50), harvest index (3.83) and grain yield per plant (17.09) showing preponderance of non-additive gene action except panicle length (1.28) and spikelet number per panicle (522.70) which showed high gca and indicated additive gene action. High estimates of broad sense heritability coupled with high genetic advance in mean percentage for Spikelet number per panicle (98 and 27.23 respectively). For grain yield per plant (98 and 14.38) and grain number per panicle (97 and 19.93) high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance (98 and 14.38) indicated the scope of getting better recombinants. Selection will be more effective for the traits those have high heritability and high genetic advance.

Keywords: Combing ability, Genetic advance, Heritability, Line×Tester, TGMS


Inter-relationship and path analysis of different traits of two line hybrid in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Pardeep Kumar*, M. K. Nautiyal and Kuldeep Kumar

Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pardeepkumar656@gmail.com

Received: February 28, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 4, 2016

Abstract: The present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the nature and magnitude of variability, degree of association between yield and it`s component characters and their direct and indirect effects on grain yield in rice. The experiment was conducted on rice in year 2013-14 at Borlaug Crop Research Center of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. All the traits had positive correlation to seed yield per plant of rice except days to flowering at genotypic level and at the phenotypic level. At phenotypic level panicle length (0.2145) and harvest index (0.4713) had highly significant level and positive correlation to seed yield per plant. Grain number per panicle (0.1550) and panicle number per plant (0.1398) showed positive and level of significant correlation with seed yield per plant. The days to flowering (-0.1879) have highly significant level with negative correlation to seed yield per plant. Path analysis showed the positive and direct effect on seed yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic level for panicle number per plant (0.393 and 0.380 respectively), panicle length (0.236 and 0.198), grain number per panicle (0.646 and 0.112) and harvest index (0.443 and 0.448). While days to flowering (-0.175 and -0.167) and plant height (-0.037 and -0.008) had negative direct effect. The traits which showed positive correlation and positive direct effect on seed yield per plant can be used to increase seed yield for further breeding programs and may be given due importance in selection during rice breeding programme.

Keywords: Correlation, Line X tester, Negative, Positive, Path analysis, Rice


Household dynamics and small timber consumption in rural Kashmir (J&K), India

M. Y. Baba*, M. A. Islam and P. A. Sofi

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Benhama, Ganderbal-191201 (J & K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:babayaseen2@gmail.com

Received: December 4, 2015; Revised received: August 27, 2016; Accepted: November 5, 2016

Abstract: The study examined the extraction and consumption pattern of small timber and its socioeconomic and forest resource determinants among the rural people in district Ganderbal of Kashmir. The results showed that the total extraction of small timber from different sources in the sample villages was 39.46 tons annum-1, which is mostly consumed in housing and roofing (39.63%) followed by cattle shed/ store house (15.25%), rural furniture/ packing cases (14.75%), agricultural implements (13.25%), fencing (12.50%) and others (4.62%). The total small timber de-mand was 47.88 m3 annum-1, which is mostly procured from agroforestry (42.57%) followed by forests (26.09%), homestead forestry (17.05%) and social/ community forestry (14.29%). The people were destitute with respect to socioeconomic attributes while they are well-off regarding forest resource characteristics. Correlation and multiple regression analysis established a robust relationship between small timber consumption and socioeconomic and forest resource parameters. The small timber flow from forests to the sample villages is excessive as compared to the national estimates, creating threats to the biodiversity conservation and ecological stability of the adjoining forests. The over-utilization of forest biomass by the local people is leading to degradation of forest resources and diminished biomass productivity, which in turn induce socioeconomic and livelihood stress. Therefore, some alternative interventions are essential to be implemented efficiently to keep pace with current development and future challenges.

Keywords: Consumption, Extraction, Forest resource, Kashmir, Small timber, Socioeconomic


Maximum rainfall probability distributions pattern in Haryana –A case study

Manoj Kumar1*, Chander Shekhar2 and Veena Manocha3

1College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Kaul (Kaithal)- 136021 (Haryana), INDIA

2Rice Research Station, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Kaul (Kaithal)- 136021 (Haryana), INDIA

3Directorate Human Resource Management, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar– 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: m25424553@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: July 20, 2016; Accepted: November 5, 2016

Abstract: The present study has been undertaken to fit best probability distribution of rainfall in Ambala District of Haryana State. The analysis showed that the maximum daily rainfall among the years ranged between 41mm (1980) to 307.9mm (2009) indicating a very large variation during the period of study. The mean of maximum daily rainfall of all years annually is 112.13mm. The means of monthly and weekly values ranged from 33.10-88.92mm and 8.77- 46.28 mm, respectively. The maximum daily rainfall in a year/monsoon season was307.9 mm and monthly maxi-mum daily rainfall in monsoon season ranged from 105 -307.9mm. The weekly maximum daily rainfall ranged from 48 mm-307.9 mm. It was also observed that the minimum among the maximum daily rainfall was 41mm for annual, 34mm for season and 0 in all the months and weeks. The maximum value of coefficient of variation was observed in the first week which indicated a large fluctuation in the rainfall data set and minimum value of coefficient of variation 0.464 was observed for the whole year which shows that fluctuation was minimum for the whole year. Generalized extreme value distribution was found to be best fit probability distribution for most of the periods.

Keywords: Goodness-of-fit tests, Maximum rainfall, Probability distributions


Repellant effect of neem formulation and aqeuous extract of Melia azedarach on greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Arvind Kumar*, Rajpal Singh and K. C. Sharma

Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Department of Entomology, Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aru.thakur21@gmail.com

Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 5, 2016

Abstract: The present study assessed the repellence activities of two biopesticides viz. a formulation of neem, neem baan and aqueous extract of Melia azedarach (Dharek) kernels against crawlers of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The maximum repellency (22.07%) was recorded at 10 % concentration of dharek extract followed by Neem Baan at 0.0025 % concentration (18.33%). The minimum repellency (4.71%) was observed at 0.0005 % concentration of Neem baan. These results indicate a potential use of neem baan and aqueous dharek kernel extracts in management of greenhouse whitefly.

Keywords: Biopesticide, Greenhouse whitefly, Melia azedarach extracts, Neem Baan, Repellency


Genotype × Environment Interaction and Phenotypic Stability analysis of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Mid-Hills of North-West Himalayas

Devender Sharma* and Satish Paul

Department of Crop Improvement, College of Agriculture, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 (H. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: devenderyspuhf@gmail.com

Received: February 4, 2016; Revised received: August 7, 2016; Accepted: November 6, 2016

Abstract: Stability performance of 30 linseed genotypes including commercial cultivars and elite lines (indigenous and exotic) was compared by using regression on environmental means for grain yield and its components under 5 different environments during rabi 2013-2014. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the traits studied over all 5 individual environments. Genotype × environment interactions were highly significant for all the characters studied. E + (G × E) was significant for all the characters except the number of seeds per capsule. Mean sum of squares for environment (linear) showed significance for all the characters. Significant differences for G × E (linear) were observed for 5 traits viz., primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, aerial bio- mass yield per plant, seed yield per plant and 1000-seed weight. Based on mean performance, regression coeffi- cient (bi) and deviation from regression (S2di) the genotype Him Alsi-2, KL-241 and Nagarkot was highly stable for seed yield (g) and number of capsules per plant was found most adaptive to overall environments. These promising genotypes may be utilized as donors in linseed improvement program for target ecosystems.

Keywords: G × E interaction, Linum usitatissimum, Selection, Stability, Varieties

Chemistry and insecticidal potential of bay leaf essential oil against stored grain pest of wheat

K. K. Chahal*, Ritima Bansal and Ramandeep Kaur

Department of Chemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drkkchahal@pau.edu

Received: February 4, 2016; Revised received: July 1, 2016; Accepted: November 6, 2016

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted to study chemistry and insecticidal activity of bay leaf oil, its fractions and isolated compounds against stored grain pest of wheat i.e.Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Bay leaf essential oil extracted from dried and powdered bay leaves was subjected to column chromatography to have its fractions. Extensive column chromatography of polar fraction yielded Eugenol and 7, 7 Dimethyl-3-methylene bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-4-ol which were identified by spectroscopic techniques. Bay leaf oil was tested for its insecticidal activity at five different concentrations in the range 4-12 mg g-1respectively against F1 generation of red rust flour beetle adults. Maximum inhibition was observed at 12 mg g-1concentration. The activity was both time and concentration depend-ent.The fractions of bay leaf essential oil and the compounds isolated were tested at 4mg g-1 concentration. Polar fraction was found to be more active as compared to nonpolar fraction as 100 and 53.1% mortality was obtained on 30th day for polar and nonpolar fractions, respectively. Comparison of eugenol and 7, 7 Dimethyl-3-methylene bicy-clo [2.2.1] heptan-4-ol showed complete mortality on 33rd and 35thday respectively , which revealed that adults of T. castaneum were more susceptible to eugenol. The results indicated that bay leaf essential oil may have potential to control stored grain pest, T. castaneum.

Keywords: Essential oil, Laurus nobilis, Stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum

Field evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for microbial activities and yield of maize under alluvial soil

Mahendra Singh*, Rajiv Rakshit, Kasturikasen Beura and Manohar Lal

Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mahendra_saini_soil@yahoo.com

Received: February, 9, 2016; Revised received: July 30, 2016; Accepted: November 7, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of AMF species with different phosphorus (P) levels for root colonization, microbial population under maize in an alluvial soil. Of all the species of mycorrhizae taken under consideration, G. mosseae along with 75% RDF of P was found to perform better in terms of root colonization, number of spores and grain yield. Application of G. mosseae @ 10 kg ha-1 + 50% P + 100% NK produced significantly higher root colonization by 177.32, 55.20, 37.75 and 101.95 per cent over the treatments 100% RDF, G. mosseae @ 10 kg ha-1 + 75% P + 100% NK, G. coronatum @ 10 kg ha-1 + 75% P + 100% NK, G. decipien @ 10 kg ha-1 + 75% P + 100% NK and control, respectively. The similar trend was observed for number of spore count. The maximum number of bacteria (40×10-5 cfu g-1 soil) was found with the inoculation of G. mosseae @ 10 kg ha-1 + 75% P + 100% NK at flowering stage. The maximum grain yield (7656.61 kg ha-1) was recorded with the application of G. mosseae @ 10 kg ha-1 + 75% P + 100% NK, which was 111.92 per cent significantly higher the control treatment. G. mosseae along with 75% RDF of phosphorus inoculation proved to be effective in modifying the soil microbe population and community structure and also in enhancing the grain yield.

Keywords: AMF, Grain yield, Maize, Microbial population, Root colonization, Spore


Feeding behaviour and pugmark analysis of elephants in Sarguja, Chhattisgarh

A. K. Thakur, D. K. Yadav and M. K. Jhariya*

Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001 (C.G.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manu9589@gmail.com

Received: February 22, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 7, 2016

Abstract: The pugmark analysis of the elephants offers basic information to track the wild elephant migratory route, identification and census. For its study, four blocks viz, Sitapur, Lundra, Batouli (Sarguja district) and Farsabahar (Jashpur district) of northern Chhattisgarh were selected because these blocks are commonly visited by elephants and a major path route of movement of heard in inter/intra state. The most commonly consumed species belongs to family poaceae (22.58%) followed by fabaceae (19.35%) but their diet was mainly dependent on availability of sea-sonal food round the year and on their migration. Elephants extensively fed on Artocarpus heterophyllus, Syzygium cumini, Acacia nilotica, A. catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Zizyphus mauritiana, Aegle marmelos and Ficus species, be-sides these elephants also utilized various grasses and shrubs as their food, which mainly included Dendrocalamus strictus, Cynodon dactylon etc. Elephants sometimes spent long time to feed on some particular plant species like D. strictus and Ficus species. Crop raiding, which was sporadic during the rainy season, gradually increased with more area being cultivated with the onset of monsoon. Analysis of pugmark revealed that the circumference varied from 63.80 cm to 172.70 cm whereas length x width varied from 22x20 cm to 60x55 cm, which reflects a substantial variation/differentiation of individual in heard in respect of their age, sex, size etc Therefore, management implications are needed to conserve the corridors for their long term survival and reduction of HEC. The study will be helpful to provide key information and facilitate better understating of the scenario to the forest department, policy maker and conservationist to plan, manage and improve the habitat towards the restoration and afforestation of suitable palatable species preferred by elephants of northern corridors of Chhattisgarh.

Keywords: Asian elephant, Corridor, Feeding behavior, Habitat, Pugmark analysis


Clonal evaluation for early growth performance of Eucalyptus in South Gujarat, India

L. K. Behera*, D. P. Patel, R. P. Gunaga, A. A. Mehta and D.B. Jadeja

Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lkbehera@nau.in

Received: February 28, 2016; Revised received: July 21, 2016 Accepted: November 8, 2016

Abstract: This study was carried out in College of Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. Total 20 clones having age of 5 ½ years were selected for early growth evaluation at field condition. There was a significant variation (P < 0.05) among 20 clones of Eucalyptus for growth parameters viz., tree height, DBH, mid-diameter, form quotient and volume of standing tree. Tree height varied from 18.5 to 23.6 m with DBH range of 11.47 to 16.07 cm. Mid-diameter indirectly helps to assess the tapering of tree and it ranged from 6.99 to 10.57 cm among 20 clones. The form quotient was used while calculation of volume of Eucalyptus clones. The form quotient varied be-tween 0.58 and 0.71 with overall mean of 0.63 at studied site. Volume of standing tree ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 m3. The overall results showed that clones such as C12 (P2045), C17 (B2253), C4 (P413), C8 (P526), C7 (P498), C16 (SRO16) and C11 (P3020) performed superior for early growth attribute and stem form and these clones suggested for large scale plantation in South Gujarat region.

Keywords: Clone, DBH, Eucalyptus, Form quotient, Growth, Height, Volume


Modified planting geometry and fertilizer rate on productivity of corn (Zea mays L.) in Vertisols

M. R. Umesh1*, Y. M. Ramesh2, Manjunatha Banuvally2, M. Y. Ajayakumar1 and Sangu Angadi3

1Division of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584101 (Karnataka), INDIA

2ARS, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584101 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Agriculture Science Center, Clovis, New Mexico State University, NM, USA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mrumeshagri@gmail.com

Received: March 7, 2016; Revised received: August 8, 2016; Accepted: November 9, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Raichur, Karnataka with an objective to find out production potential of grain corn planted in clumps and rate of fertilizer application. Design followed was split plot and repeated thrice with rate of fertilizer application as main factor and planting geometry as sub factor. Treatments consists of planting corn at 2, 3, 4 seeds/hill compared with single seeds/hill (60 cm x 20 cm) and farmers practice uneven spacing. In clumped plants inter row spacing is similar (60 cm) and intra row distance is differ to maintain uniform plant density (83,333 plants/ha) in each treatment. Recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) was applied in 2 splits and 150% RDF in 3 splits. Results revealed that planting 2 seeds /hill at 60 cm x 40 cm recorded significantly higher yield, economics of corn as compared to 3 and 4 seeds/hill and farmers practice. As increased plant population per hill maintains higher soil moisture at 75 days after planting (7.5-9.4%) and lower dry matter per plant at harvest (236.3 to 185.5 g) as compared to conventional planting. Application of higher (150%) fertilizers in 3 splits recorded higher dry matter production, grain yield, and economic returns over RDF. This may be useful strategy for corn productivity enhance ment by clump planting with higher fertilizer rate.

Keywords: Clump planting, Corn, Planting geometry, Soil moisture

Fertility map and horizontal soil potassium status of north-eastern region of Haryana

Koustav Mondal1* and Ramkala2

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: koustavmondal2007@gmail.com

Received: April 1, 2016 Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 10, 2016

Abstract: Considering soil fertility evaluation of any area for sustainable production, an experiment was conducted to investigate the horizontal soil potassium status (K) of the soil surface of north-eastern region of Haryana. The study indicated that available K of surface soil samples ranged from 44 to 867 kg/ha with a mean value of 148 kg/ha in Ambala district. In panchkula district it ranged from 44 to 865 kg/ha with a mean value of 138 kg/ha where as in Yamunanagar district K content varied from 62 to 441 kg/ha with a mean value of 147 kg/ha. Maximum K deficient samples were observed at Panchkula district that is 60.5 % followed by Yamunanagar and Ambala, 36.3 and 30.2 % respectively with an overall 41.3% K deficient samples. In case of Ambala 62.8% soil samples were medium in K fertility and in case of Yamunanagar 52% soil samples were medium in K fertility. Nutrient index value for K was found 1.77, 1.76 and 1.47 in Ambala, Yamunanagar and Panchkula districts, respectively. On the basis of available surface soil K status a horizontal fertility map was prepared using GPS data. K fertilization is strongly suggested with recommended dose to check further depletion of soil available K of the surface layer.

Keywords: Fertility map, K status, Nutrient index value, Soil


Growth, fruit set and yield of Santa Rosa plum as affected by nitrogen and boron under rainfed conditions of Kashmir Valley

G. A. Dar1, F. A. Misger2, Amit Kumar3*and J. A. Rather4

Division of Fruit Science, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar-190025 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: khokherak@rediffmail.com

Received: November 26, 2015; Revised received: July30, 2016; Accepted: November 10, 2016

Abstract: Present experiment was carried out in a seven year old private plum orchard near SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar Campus, Srinagar during 2012 and 2013, to examine the response to nitrogenous fertilizer and boron on growth, fruit set and yield of plum var. Santa Rosa. Urea @ 500 g (N1), CaNO3 @ 1450 g (N2), N1 + 50 g boron (N3) and N2 + 50 g boron (N4) were applied at T1 = Full dose in spring, T2 = Full dose after harvest and T3 = 3/4 dose in spring and 1/4 dose after harvest. Observations were recorded on parameters viz. incremental tree girth, shoot ex-tension growth, plant height, plant spread, leaf area, fruit set, fruit drop, yield, yield efficiency. All the growth parame-ters were high in treatment combination N1T1. Maximum fruit set (19.68 % and 20.90 %) was recorded in N3T2, yield (20.60 kg/tree and 22.88 kg/tree) was recorded in N4T2, yield efficiency (0.45 and 0.46 kg/cm2) was recorded in N4T2 and minimum fruit drop (4.25 % and 4.55 %) were recorded under the treatment combination N4T2 and N4T3, respec-tively in the both the years. Both sources of nitrogen and boron can be considered as best fertilizer in plum orchards for improving the growth, fruit set, fruit yield, yield efficiency.

Keywords: Fertilizers, Fruit drop, Fruit set, Growth, Yield, Yield efficiency

Bacterial flora associated with the selected life stages and organs of farmed giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

Laxmi Prasad1* B. B. Nayak2 and A. K. Reddy2

1College of Fisheries, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad- 224229 (U.P.), INDIA

2Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai- 400061 (MH), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vermalp@yahoo.com

Received: November 29, 2015 Revised received: August 22, 2016; Accepted: November 12, 2016

Abstract: Bacteria associated with different life stages of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) were analyzed. The gill, hepatopancreas, haemolymph of brood and juveniles as well as the egg, larvae and larval rearing water were sampled to understand the quantity and the quality of bacteria associated with the animals. A total number of 93 representative isolates were identified. The identified bacterial isolates could be distributed in to 14 genera. A mean bacterial total plate count (TPC) of 4.5x105 colony forming units (cfu) g-1 in eggs, 6.0x106 cfu g-1 in larvae and 4.6x105 cfu ml-1 in water were observed. Among all the organs highest TPC of 3.5x107 cfu g-1 were observed in juvenile’s gills. The brood haemolymph was found to be devoid of any bacteria. Identification of isolates representing different colony morphotype indicated that 89.77% of the bacterial population was gram negative domi-nated by Aeromonas hydrophilla (16.74%), Enterobacter aerogenes (12.09%) and Citrobacter frundii (10.16%). Among Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus, Streptococcus and Micrococcus were identified. Study of quantitative and qualitative aspects of bacterial prevalence with the different life stages of M. rosenbergii would be helpful in identification of disease causing bacteria and therefore in better management of M.rosenbergii culture.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Bacteria, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Total bacterial counts

Effect of deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation on soil moisture content and frequency of irrigation in kiwifruit cultivar Allison

Preet Pratima1*, N. Sharma1 and Rajesh Kaushal2

1Department of Fruit Science, Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan -173230 (H.P.), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Water Management, Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan -173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: preetepitome@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2016; Revised received: August 5, 2016; Accepted: November 12, 2016

Abstract: The effect of deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation in kiwifruit cv. Allison vines was studied during the years 2011 and 2012 in the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP, India. Soil moisture content and frequency of irrigation were investigated in kiwifruit in response to deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation techniques. Seven treatments viz., irrigation at 80 per cent Field Capacity (T1), 60 per cent Field Capacity (T2) and 40 per cent Field Capacity (T3), 60 per cent Field Capacity (FC) plus grass mulch (T4) or black polythene (T5) and 40 per cent FC plus grass mulch (T6) or black polythene (T7) were applied from March to October with three replications in Randomized Block Design (RBD). During the year 2011, the soil moisture content under kiwifruit vines was highest under the treatment T1 (15.3, 16.9) , followed by T5 (15.2, 16.8) and T4 (14.9, 16.6) at 30 cm and at 60 cm soil depth, respectively. Whereas, during the year 2012, the soil moisture content under kiwifruit vines was highest under the treatment T1 (14.9, 16.4), followed by T5 (15.0, 16.3) and T4 (14.6, 16.1) at 30 cm and at 60 cm soil depth, respectively. However,the least soil moisture content was, however, observed under T3 (11.0, 12.8) at 30 cm and 60 cm soil depth , respectively, during the year 2011, similar-ly, during the year 2012, the least soil moisture content was also observed under T3 (10.6, 12.7) at 30 cm and 60 cm soil depth, respectively. The frequency of irrigation was highest under T1 (16 irrigations) followed T2 (10 irrigations) while the least was recorded under T6 and T7 (7irrigations). Total numbers of irrigations applied were reduced from 16 (under T1) to 8 (under T5). The use of black plastic mulch may be beneficial as it helped to conserve moisture under DI regime which is comparable to those in well irrigated vines. It may also reduce the high irrigation require-ment of kiwifruit in areas where sufficient water is not available.

Keywords: Black plastic mulch, Deficit irrigation, Irrigation frequency, Kiwifruit, Soil moisture content


Morphological and Biochemical Analysis of Cicer arietinum L. under Paper Industrial Effluent Stress conditions

Rajat Chaudhary1*, Sonam Arya2, Shweta Tyagi1, Anurag Mishra2 and Vaishali2

1Department of Biosciences, D.A.V. (P.G. collage), Muzaffarnagar-251001 (U. P.), INDIA

2Department of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut- 250110 (U. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rajatbio007@gmail.com.

Received: January 22, 2016; Revised received: August 12, 2016; Accepted: November 12, 2016

Abstract: To study the effect of paper industrial effluent on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) along with different con-centration (10%, 20% 40%, 60% 80% and 100%) and pure tape water as a control to compare the effect of paper industrial effluent for 7 days. Physico-chemical characteristics of paper effluent were analyzed in terms of pH, colour, order temperature, DO, BOD, COD, Total hardness, carbonated hardness. All the parameters were found to be higher than the WHO prescribed discharge limits for effluent. The amount of carbohydrate, protein and reducing sugar were comparable with control, their amount were increased at 40% in effluent treated seeds. The chlorophyll content was increased simultaneously with effluent concentration. From this study it is clear that the industrial effluent rich in organic matter and plant nutrients are finding their use in agriculture as cheaper way of disposal.

Keywords: Paper industrial effluent, Physico-chemical characteristics, C. arietinum

Socio-economic status of human-elephant conflict: Its assessment and solutions

A. K. Thakur, D. K. Yadav and M. K. Jhariya*

Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001 (C.G.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manu9589@gmail.com

Received: February 22, 2016; Revised received: August 25, 2016; Accepted: November 14, 2016

Abstract: The study was made to examine the effect of human-elephant conflict (HEC) on socio-economic vulnerability in corridors of northern Chhattisgarh. Incidents relating to conflicts were observed and analyzed to understand the socio-economic status of the people, their attitudes towards elephant, the way people and elephants were affected along with different aspects of conflicts. The records whatsoever available on HEC of forest department were also took into consideration during analysis. It was found that majority of respondents involved in farming besides other sources like livestock (63.0%), NTFPs collection (42.50%) etc. Paddy (57.50%) and sugarcane (40.0%) constitute major crops which likely favours the incidence of HEC in the region. Nearly 112 houses and 939.02 acre of crops were damaged along with 06 human deaths. It was found that 46% of the respondents respected the animal as a religious figure while 30% fear them and most of the respondents (77.50%) were in favour of compensation. This necessitated a detailed assessment of habitat suitability and dispersal corridor for elephants in the area. There-fore, an attempt has been made to present various aspects of HEC along with management implications.

Keywords: Conflicts, Corridor, Crop damage, Habitat, HEC

Seed yield and quality as influenced by growing conditions in hybrid seed production of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) cv. Pusa Hybrid-1

G. S. Jat1*, Balraj Singh2, B. S. Tomar1, Jogendra Singh1, Hanuman Ram1 and Mukul Kumar3

1Division of Vegetable Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2Agriculture University, Jodhpur-342001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raisen-464551 (M.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: singhgograj@gmail.com

Received: February 22, 2016; Revised received: August 25, 2016; Accepted: November 14, 2016

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out under insect proof net house (IPN) and open field condition (OFC) at Centre for Protected Cultivation Technology and Seed Testing Laboratory of Division of Seed Science &Technology, IARI, New Delhi in bitter gourd cv. Pusa Hybrid-1 during summer season because under open field condition the seed yield and seed quality of bitter gourd drastically reduced due to viral diseases and fruit fly in kharif and early onset of high temperature, unseasonal rains during summer, which restricts the hybrid seed production of bitter gourd under north Indian condition. The observations on seed yield & quality characters and physical properties of seed were recorded. The quality attributes were evaluated immediately after harvest and after 8 months of ambient storage and their results were compared. The experimental results revealed that total number of seed per fruit (46.7), number of filled seed per fruit (45.3), seed yield per fruit (9.41g), seed yield per plant (27.28g), and seed yield per hectare (232kg) were significantly higher under IPN in comparison to OFC. Among the physical parameters of seed, seed width (0.81cm) & seed coat (0.79g) weight recorded significantly higher in IPN. The seed quality attributes immediately after harvest was also significantly superior under IPN compared to OFC except for germination %. The hybrid seed produced under IPN conditions could maintain their superiority for quality traits even after 8 months of its ambient storage. The seed yield and seed quality attributes were comparatively superior under IPN conditions. The seed crop grown under IPN overcomes the threat of insect vectors, viral diseases and unfavourable climatic conditions and helps in attaining the better seed yield and quality.

Keywords: Insect proof net house, Open field, Seed Quality, Seed yield

Physico-chemical and enzymatic changes in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit in response to sodium salts during low temperature storage

S. K. Jawandha*, P. P. S. Gill, Annu Verma and Navdeep Kaur

Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: skjawandha@pau.edu

Received: March 13, 2016; Revised received: August 26, 2016; Accepted: November 15, 2016

Abstract: ‘Shan-i-Punjab’ is a leading cultivar of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) in Punjab. After harvesting peach fruits cannot be stored for a longer period under ambient conditions. To prolong the post-harvest life of fruits, an experiment was conducted during the year 2014. Physiological mature fruits of peach cv. Shan-i-Punjab were harvested and subjected to various post-harvest dip treatments viz. sodium bicarbonate (@ 0.5 and 1%), sodium benzoate (@ 0.5 and 1%) for 5 mins. Treated and untreated (control) fruits were packed in Corrugated fibre board CFB boxes and kept under low temperature storage conditions (0-10 C and 90-95% RH) for 6 weeks. Stored fruits were analyzed for various physico-chemical characteristics after 2, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of storage. Fruits treated with 0.5% sodium bicarbonate showed better results in terms low PLW (5.05%), high palatability rating (7.66), TSS (11.26%), acidity (0.70%) and PME activity (1.28 ml of 0.02N NaOH used) upto 4 weeks of storage as compared to control. It can be concluded that peach fruits of the cultivar Shan-i-Punjab treated with sodium bicarbonate @ 0.5% can be safely stored upto 4 weeks with acceptable quality under low temperature conditions.

Keywords: Peach, PME, Sodium benzoate, Sodium bicarbonate, Storage

Effect of processing on physico-chemical and functional properties of flours from cluster or guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) varieties

Priyanka Sharma1*, Amarjeet Kaur1 and M. S. Alam2

Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: priyankasharma859@gmail.com

Received: March 23, 2016; Revised received: August 27, 2016; Accepted: November 15, 2016

Abstract: Guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) offers a potential source of vegetable protein and fibre, however, its utilization in food is yet to be explored. Along with the nutritional value, its effect on other properties of food is inevitable. Thus, the present study was carried to study the physicochemical and functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil absoption capacity and gelling strength) of flours from different varieties of guar bean ( i.e. G 80, Ageta 112 and HG 365) and related to each other using Pearson correlation. Significant variations were observed in the chemical composition of flour from varieties of guar bean on processing. Germination of seeds increased the protein significantly and highest levels of increased protein content were observed in G 80 (+21.6%). Dehusking significantly increased (upto 5.9%) and extrusion processing reduced (upto 23.6%) the L* value significantly in flours from guar bean varieties. Germination increased while extru-sion processing reduced the WAI and WSI. Dehusking, autoclaving and germination were observed to increase the foaming capacity significantly; however, extrusion processing markedly reduced the foaming properties of guar flours. Extrusion processing immensely affected the gelling properties of flour from guar bean varieties and lead to loss of gel formation properties. Pearson’s correlation determined a significant correlation between processing treatments and functional properties.

Keywords: Autoclaving, Extrusion, Functional properties, Germination, Guar bean

Effect of nutriseed pack placement on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under drip irrigation

Surabhi Hota1* and K. Arulmozhiselvan2

1 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur-492012 (Chhatisgarh), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail: surabhi.hota@gmail.com

Received: February 22, 2016; Revised received: August 29, 2016; Accepted: November 11, 2016

Abstract: A method of crop production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was attempted in field using Nutriseed Packs with drip irrigation. Nutriseed Pack is a tubular assembly composed of degradable polymer paper encapsulated fertilizer and manure pellet, designed for placing in the root zone soil of seedling at the time of transplanting. Urea/Diammonium phosphate (DAP) as source of N, single superphosphate (SSP)/ DAP as source of P, and muriate of potash (MOP) as source of K were used. The effect of paper wrap and addition of maida flour as a natural gel to fertilizer pel-let was tested. The highest values for growth parameters such as plant height, number of main branches per plant and number of lateral branches per main branch were recorded for Nutriseed Pack with 50% NP(SSP)K with Wrap + Gel in all stages. Total fruit yield was highest in Nutriseed Pack with 50%NP(SSP)K with Wrap + Gel (43.1 t ha-1), which was 4.6 t ha-1 (11.9 %) higher than yield obtained in surface broadcast as 100%NP(SSP+DAP)K (38.5 t ha- 1).The highest uptake of N(112.4 kg ha-1) and P (13.32 kg ha-1) was recorded for Nutriseed Pack with 50% NP(SSP) K with Wrap + Gel, while the highest K uptake (105.6 kg ha-1) was recorded in surface broadcast at 100%NP (SSP+DAP)K. The promising effect of placement of Nutriseed Pack has been brought out in the present study as an alternative means of crop production in terms of increase in fertilizer use efficiency upto 50% in place of surface application of fertilizers.

Keywords: NPK, Nutriseed pack, Surface application, Tomato

Prediction of agroforestry adoption among farming communities of Kashmir valley, India: A logistic regression approach

M. A. Islam*, P. A. Sofi, G. M. Bhat, A. A. Wani, A. A. Gatoo, Amerjeet Singh and A. R. Malik

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Wadura, So-pore-193201 (J&K), INDIA.

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ajaz_jsr@yahoo.co.in

Received: February 28, 2016; Revised received: August 25, 2016; Accepted: November 16, 2016

Abstract: The study investigated the socioeconomic and psychological variables that influence the agroforestry adoption in farming communities of Kashmir. The data were collected from 142 households of 5 villages selected in Baramulla and Kupwara districts utilizing multi-stage random sampling. The results revealed that regarding agroforestry adoption majority (52.11%) of the respondents belonged to medium category followed by low (27.47%) and high (20.42%) categories. The socioeconomic variables specified that the rural people are in underprivileged condition while they are in prosperous condition regarding psychological variables. The correlation analysis (r) indicated that among explanatory variables, education, social participation, family composition, size of land holding, main occupation, housing status, farm power, farm implements, livestock possession, wealth status, gross annual income, knowledge about agrforestry, attitude towards agroforestry and level of aspiration had shown positively significant correlation with the agroforestry adoption, while, the age had a non-significant correlation. All the explanatory variables jointly accounted 90.80 % (R2= 0.908) variation on the agroforestry adoption and among these, nine variables viz., education, size of land holding, main occupation, farm power, livestock possession, wealth status, knowledge about agrforestry, attitude towards agroforestry and level of aspiration were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in influencing the agroforestry adoption. The study recommends that recognition and exploitation of explanatory variables that predict agroforestry adoption, needs due consideration among policy makers, researchers and extension providers as prominent strategy for agroforestry promotion and development.

Keywords: Adoption, Agroforestry, India, Kashmir, Prediction, Psychological, Socioeconomic

Combined effect of biopriming and polymer coating on chemical constituents of root exudation in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. K 2 seedlings

S. Sathya*, S. Lakshmi and S. Nakkeeran

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641001 (T.N.), INDIA

Department of Plant pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore Coimbatore-641001 (T.N.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sathya.agri03@gmail.com

Received: March 7, 2016; Revised received: August 16, 2016; Accepted: November 16, 2016

Abstract: A study was carried out to analyze the different volatile compounds in bioprimed chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings of 15 and 30 day old. A common compound found in two stages of chilli seedlings was hydroxylamine, dimethoxydimethyl silane, hexadecanoic acid, 15-methyl- methyl ester. Majority of the compounds in bacterized seedlings had antimicrobial activity. The results on GCMS analysis revealed that, root exudates collected from 15 and 30 days old bacterized seedlings with B. amyloliquefaciens VB7 and polymer coating released more number of volatile compounds (65 and 20 compounds respectively) than control (5 and 15 compounds respectively). The root exudates of 15 day old seedling released more volatile compounds (65 nos) than 30 days (20 nos) old seedling.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, B. amyloliquefaciens VB7, Polymer coating, Volatile compounds

Rarity of Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. var. lushii and protocol for its ex-situ conservation in the Indian desert

Suresh Kumar1, Chandan Singh Purohit2 and R. N. Kulloli1*

1Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Botanical Survey of India, AZRC, Jodhpur -342008 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: r.kulloli@gmail.com

Received: March 13, 2016; Revised received: August 26, 2016; Accepted: November 17, 2016

Abstract: Over expolitation of tubers of Ceropegia bulbosa var. lushii which is a narrow endemic in the Indian Desert has drastically declined its populations and made it threatened. This was confirmed by its absence at its previously reported sites in Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Jhunjhunun and Jaisalmer. Its occurance in Jhalawar, a previously reported site and at another unreported site at Jalore with density of only 4-12 plants/ha confirmed that it has become rarer. Reasons for declining populations in terms of density and occurrence of C. bulbosa var. lushii due to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors (= threats) have been investigated in this paper. Extrinsic factors include overexploitation of tubers, habitat loss and fragmentation due to mining. Six tubers brought from its native sites regenerat-ed successfully at Desert Botanical Garden , CAZRI, Jodhpur. Intrinsic threats were experimentally assessed by studying its life cycle for three years. Seeds produced by these plants under captivity showed 30-35% germination. Germination, phenology and growth of plants both, from seeds for one year and tubers for three years revealed many sensitive, risk prone stages which indicated potential threat to its regeneration in its native places. These in-cluded failure to seed set due to lack of pollinator, falling of immature follicles, exposure of seeds to open sun, sap-ling damage by wild animals and digging out of perenating tubers by wild ungulates and human being. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors are responsible for its rarity in the wild. It emerged that for success in its ex-situ conservation, mature seeds, availability of partial shade and safety from wild animals are essential requirements.

Keywords: Ceropegia bulbosa var. lushii, ex-situ conservation, Phenology, Population density, Rarity, Threats


Grain yield of aerobic rice as influenced by seed rate and row spacing in aerobic situation under changed climate

K. Jana1*, S. K. Das1, G. Moinuddin1, G. K. Mallick2 and B. Biswas1

1Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, Kalyani- 741235 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Rice Research Station, Bankura – 722101 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kjanarrs@gmail.com

Received: March 23, 2016; Revised received: August 17, 2016; Accepted: November 18, 2016

Abstract: Aerobic rice system is the method of cultivation, where the rice crop is established by direct seeding in un-puddle field. The grain yield of aerobic rice in aerobic situation realized by the farmers is still lower. Among many factors, seed rate and row spacing influence the grain yield of aerobic rice crop. The present investigation was car-ried out to study the influence of seed rates and row spacing on grain yield of aerobic rice in aerobic situation, and field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal, India during kharif season of 2011 and 2012. The experimental results exhibited that the highest grain yield (3.40, 3.49 and 3.42 t ha-1 during kharif 2011, kharif 2012 and in pooled value, respectively) was recorded from treatment S2, where seed rate was 30 kg ha- 1. Among the different row spacing, the maximum grain yield of 3.47, 3.45 and 3.46 t ha-1 during kharif season of 2011 and 2012 and on pooled basis was obtained with the treatment R1 i.e. 20 cm row spacing. The treatment com-bination of S2 (seed rate @ 30 kg ha-1) and R1 (20 cm row spacing) recorded the highest grain yield (4.01 t ha-1) of aerobic rice. It was established that the seed rate @ 30 kg ha-1 and 20 cm row spacing was promising for realizing best grain yield of aerobic rice in aerobic condition. It is an important eco-safety tool for tackling the climate change scenario.

Keywords: Aerobic rice, Changed climate, Food security, Row spacing, Seed rate


Identification of insect community inhabiting Kaas plateau, Western ghats through cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene

Rakshit Ojha1,2, S. K. Jalali1*, T. M. Shivalingaswamy1, T. Venkatesan1, J. Poorani3 and S. M. Galande4

1Division of Molecular Entomology, ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, H. A. Farm Post,

Hebbal, Bengaluru- 560024 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Biotechnology, Center for Post Graduate Studies, Jain University, Jayanagar, Bengaluru- 560011 (Karnataka), INDIA

3National Research Centre for Banana, Thogamalai Road, Thayanur Post, Tiruchirapalli- 620102 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

4Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Shivaji Nagar, Pune- 411005 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jalalisk1910@yahoo.co.in

Received: April 1, 2016; Revised received: August 26, 2016; Accepted: November 19, 2016

Abstract: Kaas Plateau is located in Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. The region is one of its kinds being a biodiversity hot spot declared by UNESCO representing rich biodiversity of Western Ghats in India. However, insect biodiversity of this region has not been studied in detail so far. Thus, the present study was aimed at identification of insect community based on mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (MT-CO1), for quick and reliable identification. During a collection trip, several insect specimens were collected, which belonged to seven insect orders, viz., Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera and Thysanoptera. Based on their morphological characteristics, specimens collected were delineated in to various orders and families. This resulted in determination of possible 15 different insect species, of which 7 could be identified up to species level. Remaining 8 sequences were matched with existing GenBank database that was > 96%, therefore, were considered as puta-tive species. One specimen could be identified up to genus level, viz., Cicindela sp. and one up to family level Pentatomidae and six up to order level only, i.e., Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and Thysanoptera (2 specimens). The results suggested that 50% of the community could be identified to species level with MT-CO1 gene and at least about 8 specimens could possibly be new species for India. The insects thus collected from Kaas plateau were molecularly identified and at least 50% of collections were delineated to species level on the basis of their DNA barcodes for the first time.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, Insects, Kaas plateau, MT-CO1gene, Western-Ghats


A study on geospatial technology for detecting and mapping of Solenopsis mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in cotton crop

S. K. Singh1*, Sujay Dutta2 and Nishith Dharaiya1

1Department of Life Science, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan-384265 (Gujarat), INDIA

2 Department of Life Science, Space Application Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad– 380001 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sksingh0215@gmail.com

Received: April 1, 2016; Revised received: August 20, 2016; Accepted: November 22, 2016

Abstract: Detection of crop stress is one of the major applications of remote sensing in agriculture. Many researchers have confirmed the ability of remote sensing techniques for detection of pest/disease on cotton. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the mealybug severity and remote sensing indices and development of a model for mapping of mealybug damage using remote sensing indices. The mealybug infested cot-ton crop had a significantly lower reflectance (33%) in the near infrared region and higher (14%) in the visible range of the spectrum when compared with the non-infested cotton crop having near infrared and visible region reflectance of 48 % and 9% respectively. Multiple Linear regression analysis showed that there were varying relationships be-tween mealybug severity and spectral vegetation indices, with coefficients of determination (r2) ranging from 0.63 to 0.31. Model developed in this study for the mealybug damage assessment in cotton crop yielded significant relation-ship (r2=0.863) and was applied on satellite data of 21st September 2009 which revealed high severity of mealybug and it was low on 24th September 2010 which confirmed the significance of the model and can be used in the identi-fication of mealybug infested cotton zones. These results indicate that remote sensing data have the potential to distinguish damage by mealybug and quantify its abundance in cotton.

Keywords: LST, Mealybug, MPSI-2, MPSI-8, Remote sensing, Severity index, TVDI


Oxidative stability and storage quality analysis of Ocimum sanctum L. extracts incorporated chicken nuggets

Tanuj Tanwar, Arvind Kumar* and Nrip Kishore Pankaj

Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Division of Livestock Products Technology Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Jammu, Jammu-180009 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drarvindlpt@gmail.com

Received: April. 7, 2016; Revised received: September 17, 2016; Accepted: November 22, 2016

Abstract: The present study was done to explore the antioxidant potential of locally available herb holy basil viz. Ocimum sanctum L.. in enhancing the shelf-life of emulsion based chicken nuggets. Chicken nuggets are widely cherished meat cuisine but it is vulnerable to spoilage due to excessive fats and protein content. Thus, chicken nugget fortified with 1, 2, and 3% of itsethanolic-aqueous extracts of O. sanctum and along with control was studied to explore the potency of holy basil on oxidative stability and storage quality of chicken nuggets on 0,7,14 and 21 days at refrigeration temperature. 80% ethanolic aqueous extracts of O. sanctum were prepared, standardized, optimized and incorporated in chicken nuggets. Chicken nuggets prepared with fortification of 3% O. sanctum extract were adjudged best among all with overall acceptability of 7.16±0.071 value in sensory analysis. The O. sanctum extract treated chicken nugget’s pH, FFA, TBA, Total plate count, Pychrophilic count, Yeast and Mold count were found to be in acceptable range of 4.49±0.008, 0.320±0.0005, 0.979 ±0.0012,<4,<2,<2 log10cfu/g respectively on 21days of refrigeration storage. Extracts of O. sanctum fortified chicken nuggets were safe for human consumption even 21 days of refrigerated storage (4±1˚C) on the basis of pH, FFA, TBA value, microbiological profile and sensory evaluation. The results proved the antioxidant potential of holy basil O. sanctumand chicken nuggets fortified with (3%) Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for a period of 21 days in refrigerated (4±10C) storage without any marked loss of physico-chemical, microbial and sensory quality.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Chicken nuggets, Ocimum sanctum, Oxidative stability, Storage quality

Evaluation of phytochemicals and antibacterial activity of leaf and leaf derived callus extracts of Artemisia annua L. and Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.

Manasa Govindaraju, Mahendra Chikkamadaiah*, Murali Mahadevamurthy, Mahesh Holenarsipura Mylari and Sudarshana Mysore Shankar Singh

Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru- 570006 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mahendra.c149@gmail.com

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: September 2, 2016; Accepted: November 23, 2016

Abstract: The present study focuses on the use of salicylic acid as a plant growth hormone for the induction of callus in Sauropus androgynus and Artemisia annua plants. Higher induction of callus of 72% in S. androgynus (NAA+BAP+SA at +2.5+2.5 mg/ l concentration) and 64% in A. annua (NAA+Kn+SA at 1.0+2.5+2.5 mg/ l concentration) were observed when compared to 52% and 51%, respectively in individual supplementation of plant growth regulators. The phytochemical analysis also revealed the presence of maximum phytochemicals in callus extract compared to leaf extracts of S. androgynus and A. annua there by corroborating with the results of callus induction. The methanol extracts of both callus and leaf extracts of S. androgynus and A. annua exhibited antibacterial activity against all the test pathogens viz., S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. typhi and E. coli. A maximum inhibition zone of 20 mm was observed against S. typhi in methanol callus extract of S. androgynus followed by 18 mm inhibition zone against S. aureus with same extract. It was evident from the results both callus and leaf extracts of the selected plants pos-sessed potential antibacterial activity against all the test pathogens with one or the other solvent extracts. The find-ings provide a new facelift for callus induction using salicylic acid in selected plants and also pave way for identifica-tion of novel compounds for drug development from S. androgynus and A. annua.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Artemisia annua, Callus extract, Phytochemicals, Salicylic acid, Sauropus androgynous

Preparation of Erosion Susceptibility Map of Dhaman Khadi Sub-Watershed in Eastern Gujarat Using ArcGIS Interface

A. P. Lakkad1* , Dhiraji P. Patel2, Dileswar Nayak2 and P. K. Shrivastava2

1Department of Soil & Water Engineering, College of Agril. Engg. & Technology, Navsari Agricultural University, Dediapada-393040 (Gujarat), INDIA

2ASPEE College of Horticultural & Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari– 396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: larunp@nau.in

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: October 4, 2016; Accepted: November 25, 2016

Abstract: An attempt has been made to model land degradation in term of water erosion of selected Dhaman Khadi sub-watershed (7710.64 ha.) in Eastern Gujarat, India through Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation using ArcGIS interface. The average erosivity of 30 years (1986-2015) annual rainfall using standard formula was estimated to be 480.63 MJ mm ha−1 hr−1 per year. The erodibility factor K was computed as 0.236 and 0.177 mt∙hr MJ−1 mm−1 per unit R respectively for clay loam and clay soils using modified formula.. 20 m Digital Elevation Model was prepared from Toposheet No. F43N10 by using ‘Topo to Raster’ interpolation method. The slope length factor L was derived from DEM using Unit Stream Power Erosion and Deposition (USPED) Model. The raster layers of slope steepness factor for slope having < 9 % and ≥ 9 % was prepared separately to form final slope steepness factor map. Cover management factor map was derived based on cropping pattern for the various land cover categories of the study area. The standard conservation practice factor values for cross-sloped agricultural lands were assigned to the attribute table of the intersected map of LU/LC and slope maps to prepare the P factor map. Average gross soil erosion was minimum for evergreen forest while maximum for wasteland without scrub. Highest area covered by agricultural land (i. e. 41.54) of Dhaman Khadi sub-watershed having 33.28 tons/ha/yr gross soil erosion needs immediate treatment to prevent land degradation. Soil loss tolerance limit of study area was used to derive erosion susceptibility map in order to identify the priority of conservation programs. As all the factors of RUSLE was estimated precisely at sub-watershed level, the study could help for rapid and reliable planning of watershed development pro-grams in combination with the use of RS and GIS technology.

Keywords: Eerosion risk area, GIS, Gross erosion, RUSLE, Sub-watershed


Effect of different planting geometry and herbicides for controlling the weeds in direct seeded rice

Neeshu Joshi*, V. Pratap Singh and V. C. Dhyani

Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar

-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: neeshu.joshi@gmail.com

Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: September 2, 2016; Accepted: November 25, 2016

Abstract: The efficacy of selected herbicides along with the planting geometry for weed control in direct seeded rice was evaluated under tropical conditions of Pantnagar during rainy season of 2013. Pendimethalin (1kg active ingredient (a.i.) ha-1 3 days after sowing) + bispyribac-Na (25g a.i. ha-1 28 days after sowing) + one hand weeding at 45 days after sowing and bispyribac-Na (25g a. i. ha-1 28 days after sowing) + one hand weeding at 45days after  owing had a mean grain yield of 47.95 and 37.68 while continuous drilling at 20cm and 20 x 10cm had a mean grain yield 34.72 and 34.14 qha-1 , respectively which is significantly superior than wider (25 x 25cm) spacing. Wider spacing (25 x 25cm) among planting geometry and weedy check among the weed control treatments resulted in higher uptake of nitrogen. Among the spacing, continuous drilling at 20cm and Pendimethalin (1kg a.i. ha-1) + bispyribac Na (25g a.i. ha-1) + one hand weeding at 45 days after sowing among weed control practices proved most

profitable with net returns of ` 40576 ha-1 and ` 40633 ha-1 and benefit: cost ratio of 1.7 and 1.8, respectively. It was

revealed that all the weed control treatments were superior to weedy conditions.

Keywords: Direct seeded rice, Herbicides, Net returns, Planting geometry, Weed control efficiency


In vivo evaluation of ziram induced acute toxicity on pathomorphology of broiler chicken

Majid Shafi1*, Shayaib A. Kamil1, Masood S. Mir1, S. Adil2, Showkat A. Shah1 and Mir Manzoor1

1Division of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shuhama-190006 (J&K), INDIA

2Division of Livestock Production & Management, Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shuhama-190006 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: majidvetpatho@gmail.com

Received: March 10, 2016; Revised received: October 6, 2016; Accepted: November 25, 2016

Abstract: Fungicides are usually used in agriculture and often find their way in poultry feed. Therefore, a study was undertaken to study the in vivo effect of one such fungicide (ziram) induced intoxication on pathomorphology of broiler chicken. After 2 weeks of age the birds were given fungicide (Ziram) in feed as a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Out of 10 birds, 3 died due to ziram intoxication (30% mortality rate). Birds that died rapidly showed pronounced neurological signs like convulsions. The carcasses of ziram intoxicated birds appeared dehydrated and their mucous membrane was pale in colour. Marked vascular congestion was observed in brain on gross examination. The livers showed congestion and haemorrhages with necrotic foci. Kidneys and lungs had ecchymotic haemorrhages and heart revealed gelatinization of pericardium, distention and pericarditis. Atrophy of bursa of Fabricius and thymus; hypertrophy of thyroid was found. Histopathological examination revealed neuronal degeneration and necrosis associated with mild gliosis in brain. Lungs, pericardium and epicardium had severe congestion and there was degeneration with separation of myofibers. Glomeruli were congested and frequently revealed hypercellularity. There were sinusoidal congestion and varying degrees of hepatocellular degeneration. Bursa revealed mild depletion of lymphoid cells in few lobules while as thymus showed hypoplasia with depletion of lymphocytes. Thyroid had mild mononuclear cell infiltration and caecum showed marked necrosis and denudation of the mucosa. In conclusion, the depletion of lymphoid tissue from lymphoid organs was suggestive of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory effects of ziram toxicity in broiler chicken.

Keywords: Broiler chicken, Immunosuppression, Lymphoid Depletion, Toxicity, Ziram

Effect of wheat straw and FYM on growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting

Shilpa Panjgotra*, G. K. Sangha1, Sandeep Sharma2 and J. K. Kondal3

*1,3Department of Zoology, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, Punjab Agriculture University (PAU), Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: shilpapau@gmail.com

Received: March 18, 2016; Revised received: August 12, 2016; Accepted: November 27, 2016

Abstract: Rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization has led to generation of large quantities of wastes. Major portion of organic waste is burned or dumped, creating huge amount of pollutants. The best possible alternative to reduce these pollutants is through vermicomposting. This experiment was done to investigate the effect of wheat straw and FYM (farm yard manure) in different combinations of 1:1, 1:1/2 and control on biological parameters viz., mean initial weight (mg/worm), maximum weight achieved (mg/worm), net weight gain (mg/worm), growth rate (mg/ worm/day), duration of life cycle (in days), initiation of cocoon production (in days), total number of cocoons pro-duced (in days), initiation of hatching (in days), hatching per cocoon, cocoons produced per worm, cocoons pro-duced per day and period for vermicomposting along with physico-chemical parameters of vermicompost viz., pH, EC (dS m-1), nitrogen (kg/ha), phosphorous (kg/ha), potassium (kg/ha) and organic carbon (%). The study revealed that maximum period required for Eisenia fetida to complete its life cycle was 59.33±0.39 days in 1:1 combination (wheat straw: FYM), 62.33± 0.29 days in 1:1/2 combination (wheat straw: FYM) and 66±0.77days in control. Net weight gain and growth rate was higher in 1:1 combination. Initiation of cocoon production (23.66±0.14 ) and hatching (21±0.25) was recorded to be early in 1:1 combination. Total number of cocoons produced, cocoons produced per day and cocoons produced per worm was also higher in 1:1 combination. At the end, ready vermicompost showed decreased level of pH, EC, OC and increased level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. The maximum significant results were obtained in 1:1 combination. In 1:1 combination decrease in pH, EC and OC was 11.09 %, 41.45 % and 59.55 %, respectively and increase in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was 250.84 %, 216.12 % and 168.75 %, respectively. Results indicate that E. fetida in 1:1 combination is more suitable for biocon-version of organic residues into useful manure due to its high growth, reproduction and nutritive potential.

Keywords: Cow dung, Earthworms, Organic waste, Vermiculture, Waste management

Effect of organic manures on growth and yield attributes of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) based Agroforestry system

N. Khare, D. Kumar and S. Rout*

School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad- 211007 (Uttar Pradesh) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: srout.forestry@gmail.com

Received: March 30, 2016; Revised received: September 19, 2016 Accepted: November 28, 2016

Abstract: A field trail was carried out at the research farm of the School of Forestry and Environment, SHIATS, Allahabad. The experimental research site is situated at an altitude of 90 m above the sea level at 25.570 N latitude and 81.510 E longitudes. The experiment comprised seven treatments replicated thrice. The maximum germination % (96.67%), plant height (83.73cm), number of branches/ plant (11.93), fresh weight (185.28g), dry weight (45.73g), at 110 days after sowing (DAS), number of pods/plant (91.67), number of seeds/pod (3.93), pod length (6.93 cm),test weight (90.73g), seed yield (23.87q/ha), straw yield (40.73 q/ha) and harvest index (36.94%) recorded in treatment T5. The result showed that the applications of organic manure (50% Farmyard Manure + 50% Vermicompost) maximized the soybean growth and yield under subabul trees. Therefore, it may be concluded that 50% Farm-yard Manure + 50% Vermicompost can be recommended for growing soybean under subabul based Agroforestry system for obtaining better growth and yield.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Organic manure, Soybean, Subabul, Vermicompost

Evaluation of seeding rates of rice nursery on seedling vigour and its effect on crop productivity under system of rice intensification

Ranu Pathania*, J. Shekhar, S. S. Rana and Saurav Sharma

Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management, Chaudhary Sarvan Kumar Krishi Vishvavidhalaya, Palampur-176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranu44raone@gmail.com

Received: April 1, 2016; Revised received: September 19, 2016; Accepted: November 28, 2016

Abstract: Four seeding rates (25, 30, 35 and 40 g/m2) of rice in nursery were tested for seedling vigour recorded at 10, 17 and 24 DAS at Malan during 2013 and 2014. The seedling vigour so obtained in nursery was subsequently evaluated in field during kharif 2013. Thus twenty four treatments comprised of combinations of three seedling ages (10, 17 and 24 days) and two spacings (20 × 20 cm and 20 × 15 cm) in main plots and four seedling vigour from four seeding rates (25, 30, 35 and 40 g/m2) in sub plots were evaluated in split plot design. Seedling shoot length under all seeding rates (25-35 g/m2) was significantly higher compared to check (40 g/m2) during 2013. In the next year, shoot and root length (30-35 g/m2), tiller per seedling and leaves per seedling (25-30 g/m2) of 24 days nursery was significantly higher over check (40 g/m2). Plant height, tillers, leaves and dry matter accumulation were significantly higher when younger seedlings aged 10 and 17 days were used. The crop raised using 10 days old seedlings ma-tured 3-5 days earlier than 24 days old seedlings. Wider spacing resulted in more plant height, tillers, leaves and dry matter accumulation. Seedlings from 25, 30 and 35 g seed/m2 resulted in significantly taller plants than 40 g/m2. The seeding rate, seedling age and plant spacing did not significantly influence rice productivity thereby permitting flexi-bility to the rice farmers in the adoption of these factors.

Keywords: Seeding rates, Seeding ages, Seedling vigour, Spacing, System of rice intensification


Bio-efficacy of tank mixed herbicides for control of complex weed flora in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril)

Mahender Singh1*, I. S. Tomar1, J. Morya1, Arjun K. Verma2 and R. K. Tripati1

1Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Jhabua, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior – 474003 (M.P.), INDIA

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhalawar, Agriculture University, Kota –324007 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: msjadon2000@rediffmail.com

Received: April 1, 2016; Revised received: September 2, 2016; Accepted: November 30, 2016

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at ZARS, Jhabua (M.P.) during kharif 2014 to find out most suitable and efficient method of weed control in soybean. The experiment consisted of nine treatments laid out in randomized block design with three replications. All the weed management practices led to significant reduction in density and dry matter of weeds as compared to weedy check. Two hand weeding (20 & 40 DAS) recorded lowest weed density (4.9/ m2), weed dry matter (22.35 g/m2) with highest weed control efficiency of 59.67% and found at par with the application of Chlorimuron Ethyl @ 9gm /ha + Quizalofop-p-ethyl @ 50 g /ha (density 5.48/ m2, dry matter 26.62 g/m2 and WCE of 51.97%) and Imazethapyr @ 35 g /ha + Imazamox @ 35 g/ha (density 6.13/ m2, dry matter 26.00 g/m2 and WCE of 53.08%). Maximum yield of 1782 kg/ha was recorded in two hand weeding (20 & 40 DAS) closely followed by Chlorimuron Ethyl @ 9gm /ha + Quizalofop-p-ethyl @ 50 g /ha (1723 kg/ha) and Imazethapyr @ 35 g / ha + Imazamox @ 35 g/ha (1697 kg/ha). Reduction in soybean yield in weedy check to be recorded is 38.78 per cent when compared to weed free and 36.68 per cent in comparison to Chlorimuron Ethyl @ 9gm /ha + Quizalofop-p-ethyl @ 50 g /ha. However, highest Benefit to Cost ratio is recorded in Chlorimuron Ethyl +Quizalofop-p-ethyl (3.26) closely followed by Imazethapyr + Imazamox (3.22) and Weed free (3.21).

Keywords: Imazethapry, Pendimethalin, Quizalofop-p-ethyl, Soybean, Weed control


Economic impact of zero tillage on wheat cultivation in Ambala (Haryana), India

Vinay Mehala1*, Umesh Kumar Sharma1, Joginder Singh Malik2, Satbir Singh3 and Pramendra4

1Department of Agricultural Economics, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Extension Education, Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

3Haryana Business School, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

4Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur –313001 (Rajsthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vinaymehala@hotmail.com

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: September 29, 2016; Accepted: November 30, 2016

Abstract: The present study was conducted with the specific objective i.e. to analyze the economic impact of recourse conservation technology (zero tillage) as compare to conventional tillage practices on wheat cultivation in Ambala district of Haryana. The study revealed that there was significant impact of conservation practices, 22% human labour, 37% machine labour, 25% seed cost and 33% irrigation water was saved under zero tillage compared to conventional tillage (CT) method of wheat production. B: C ratio under zero tillage was 2.86 while under conventional method it was reduced to 2.56. Therefore, zero tillage was economically feasible. It was observed that through the zero tillage farmers can get 3% more yield. The net returns in ZT of wheat production were higher by 4% as compared to CT method. In case of zero tillage, economic efficiency measure was 0.61 as compared to 0.34 in conventional system of wheat cultivation. The research work conducted was holistic in nature combining various elements of technology, resource conservation and economics.

Keywords: Analysis, Conventional, Economic, Zero tillage


Effect of foliar spray of elicitors on status of defense proteins in relation to mustard aphid infestation in crop Brassica cultivars

Taruna Thakur1, M. K. Sangha1*, Ramesh Arora2, M. Javed3

1Department of Biochemistry, Statistics and Physcics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (P.B.), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, Statistics and Physcics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (P.B.), INDIA

3Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physcics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001 (P.B.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manjeet_kaursangha@yahoo.com

Received: April 15, 2016; Revised received: August 28, 2016; Accepted: December 1, 2016

Abstract: Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt., is the key insect pest of crop Brassicas causing significant reduction in crop yield. In the present study, widely grown Brassica cultivars RLC-1 (Brassica juncea) and GSC-6 (Brassica napus) were treated with elicitors salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) at 0.5mM and 1mM concentration via foliar spray (given at 40 and 60 days after planting (DAP). Their effect was evaluated in terms of total soluble protein content and activities of defense proteins (peroxidase, protease inhibitor, polyphenol oxidase, amylase inhibitor and lectins) in relation to aphid infestation in leaf tissue. SA and JA application caused significant increase in activities of defense proteins as well as total soluble proteins. JA at 1mM concentration was most effective in both Brassica cultivars. The 2nd foliar spray gave a booster response. The aphid population/plant reduced significantly in both the cultivars with JA as well as SA. POD and PPO registered negative correlation with aphid population count. SA and JA foliar applications seemed effective against mustard aphid through positive modulation in activities of defense proteins.

Keywords: Brassica, Defense proteins, Jasmonic acid, Lipaphis erysimi, Salicylic acid


Farmer led gross root level entrepreneurial initiatives for sustainable sugarcane production system in Tamil Nadu, India

C. Karpagam*, D. Puthira Prathap and P. Moovendan

Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore–641 003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: karpsicar@gmail.com

Received: April 19, 2016; Revised received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: December 1, 2016

Abstract: The major objective of the study was to explore the rural entrepreneurial initiatives and its socio- economic impact among the sugarcane farmers across Tamil Nadu. Exploratory surveys, Focused Group Discussions (FDGs) and case study methods have been adopted. A total of seven successful entrepreneurial activities initiated by cane farmers, across different districts of Tamil Nadu were selected, purposively. The study revealed that entrepreneurial initiatives accomplished the needs of farmers and these either were developed by farmers themselves or with collaboration of sugar factories. Among seven entrepreneurial initiatives; ‘two wheeler sprayer’, ‘tractor mounted sprayer’, ‘trichogramma production’ and ‘Agricultural Service Provider (ASP)’ were initiated by the sugar factories under the Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) in participatory mode. The other initiatives viz., organic jaggery powder and trash based vermi-compost production were initiated by farmers themselves. Budchip settling production was practiced by individual farmers as well as promoted by factories in participatory mode. It is also found that all seven entrepreneurial initiatives are profitable and sustainable. Further, the study found that the production cost for 1 cc trichogramma is Rs. 16 and selling cost is Rs. 23/cc, thus farmer getting a net profit of Rs. 7/cc of Trico card. In case of budchip settling production, total cost incurred for production of one settling is around 60-85 paisa. Selling cost of one-month old settling is Rs. 1.25. Thus, a farmer gains a net profit of 40 paisa per settling.

Keywords: Profitability, Social benefits, Social entrepreneurial initiatives, Sugarcane production system, Sustainability


Studies on diversity and abundance of parasitoids of Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) (Agromyzidae: Diptera) in north-western Himalayas, India

Rajender Kumar1 and P. L. Sharma2*

1Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College Fatehgarh Sahib– 147203 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sharma.pl@rediffmail.com

Received: April 26, 2016; Revised received: August 21, 2016; Accepted: December 3, 2016

Abstract: Pea leafminer, Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau) is an important pest of many vegetable and ornamental crops. The present investigation was carried out to study the parasitoid diversity of this pest in different agroclimatic conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Sixteen species of parasitoids viz. Diglyphus horticola Khan, Diglyphus isaea (Walker), Zagrammosoma sp., Pnigalio sp., Quadrastichus plaquoi Reina and LaSalle, Asecodes erxias (Walker), Closterocerus sp., Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood), Chrysocharis sp, Chrysocharis indicus Khan, Pediobius indicus Khan (Eulophidae), Opius exiguus (Wesmael), Dacnusa sp. (Braconidae), Cyrtogaster sp., Sphegigaster sp. (Pteromalidae), and Gronotoma sp. (Figitidae) were recorded parasitizing C. horticola in different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh. Agro-climatic zone II (sub-temperate mid-hills) was the richest in parasitoid diversity (14 species) followed by zone I (11 species), zone III (7 species) and zone IV (4 species) which are characterized by sub-tropical sub-montane, wet temperate high hills and dry temperate high hills, respectively. Shannon diversity index, species richness, species evenness and species dominance varied from 0.69-1.71, 1.39-2.64, 0.50-0.71 and 0.29-0.50, respectively. D. isaea and D. horticola were the dominant parasitoids of C. horticola contributing 41.46- 80.15 and 9.16-50.65 per cent of the total parasitization, respectively, in different agro climatic zones. The study highlights the role of different parasitoids in natural control of the leaf miner and will be useful for designing the IPM strategies for the pest.

Keywords: Braconidae, Chromatomyia horticola, Diversity, Eulophidae, Pea leafminer

Weather parameters vulnerability on tea production in north western Himalaya, India

Parmod Verma1, Ranbir Singh Rana2, Ramesh2 and Ranu Pathania3

1Department of Tea Husbandry and Technology, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur- 176062 (H.P.), INDIA

2 Centre for Geo-informatics Research and Training, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agriculture University, Palampur- 176062 (H.P.), INDIA

3 Department of Agronomy, FGM, CSKHPKV, Palampur– 176062 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rameshhpkv@gmail.com

Received: October 20, 2016; Revised received: September 3, 2016; Accepted: December, 2016

Abstract: The study assessed the sensitivity of weather parameters with respect to total green leaf and two leaves and bud (T & B) productivity of tea crop {Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze}. The maximum temperature ranging from 20.0 to 29.0 oC during March, May, August and September showed positive relationship with values ranging from 0.26 to 3.38 and 0.22 to 3.22 for green leaf and T & B yield, respectively. Similarly, minimum temperature ranging from 9.1 to 20.0 oC during March and July to October found positive 0.001 to 2.93 and 0.28 to 2.91 for green leaf and T & B productivity, respectively. The mean monthly rainfall amounting 52.7 to 664.7 mm during March, May, July to October and 52.7 to 488.4 mm during June, July, September and October also showed positive sensitivity with values ranging from 0.03 to 0.33 and 0.007 to 0.35 for green leaf and T & B yield, respectively. The relative humidity ranging between 41.2 to 77.3% during April to May for green leaf yield (0.32 to 1.71) and during April to May and October for two leaf and bud yield (0.00 to 1.70) showed positive relationship. So, maximum and minimum temperature between 20.0 to 29.0 oC and 9.1 to 20.0 oC, respectively with rainfall of 52.7 to 488.4 mm and relative humidity 41.2 to 77.3% are the most beneficial weather parameters for tea cultivation at Palampur conditions.

Keywords: Climate change, Productivity, Rainfall, Tea, Temperature


In vitro evaluation of fungicides against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc. causing anthracnose of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Devanshu Dev1 and T. Narendrappa

1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of AgriculturalSciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra , Bengaluru- 560065, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dev9105@gmail.com

Received: January 21, 2016; Revised received: October 11, 2016; Accepted: December 4, 2016

Abstract: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a widely grown fruit in many regions of the world. Anthracnose of pomegranate is one of the limiting factor for low productivity and also the low market price. Therefore, the management of anthracnose disease is necessary. In this study new fungicide molecules are evaluated under in vitro condi-tion against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In vitro screening of fungicides against C. gloeo-sporioides showed two combination product Hexaconazole + Zineb, Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole and a nonsystemic fungicide Captan showed cent percent inhibition at 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentration. Similarly, systemic fungicides Hexaconazole, Propiconazole, Penconazole, Tebuconazole and Carbendazim showed cent percent mycelial inhibition at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations.

Keyword: Anthracnose, Colletotrichum, Fungicides, Pomegranate

Genetic variability and divergence analysis for yield and yield contributing traits in released varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under partially reclaimed saline sodic soil

Arun Kumar3*, Baudh Bharti4, Jaydev Kumar2, P. N. Verma2, J. P. Jaiswal3, G. P. Singh5 and S. R. Vishwakarma1

1Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad- 224229 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208002 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

3Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

4Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313001 (Rajasthan), INDIA

5ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: arungangwar0581@gmail.com

Received: February 14, 2016; Revised received: September 8, 2016; Accepted: December 5, 2016

Abstract: Genetic variability is the back bone of crop improvement programme, effectiveness of selection depends upon nature and magnitude of genetic variability present in the genetic material. The aim of the present study was that to identify the potential genotypes performing well under partially reclaimed saline- sodic soil (pH 8.6-8.9, EC = 44.2 dSm-1, ESP = > 15). Sixty four released varieties of barley collected from Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal were grown during rabi season 2010-11, showing wide spectrum of variation for various characters. The characters studied were yield and yield contributing traits; namely plant height, days to maturity, fertile tillers / plant, length of main spike, grains per main spike, 1000-grains weight, grain yield per plant. The data on 7 characters was utilized for estimation of mean, range and least significant differences. The varieties RD-2552(8.52), HBL-276(8.35), RD- 2592(8.17), PL-419(8.15), Kedar(8.11), PL-751(8.10), JB-58(8.06), K-508(7.96) produced higher grain yield per plant and showed high to very high mean performance for several other yield component also. These selected varie-ties can be used in breeding program and can be recommended direct cultivation under partially reclaimed saline-sodic soil.

Keywords: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Genetic diversity, Quantitative characters

Comparative evaluation of happy seeder technology versus normal sowing in wheat ( Triticum aestivum) in adopted village Killi Nihal Singh of Bathinda district of Punjab

Gurmeet Singh Dhillon

Punjab Agricultural University, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dabwali road, Bathinda – 151001 (Punjab), INDIA

E-mail: kvkdhillon@gmail.com

Received: February 28, 2016; Revised received: October 12, 2016; Accepted: December 7, 2016

Abstract: Paddy- wheat crop rotation is dominant in the Punjab state covering about 28.40 lakh hectares of cultivable land. This paddy–wheat rotation also assesses the potential of new technology i.e. happy seeder technology to address the problem. The straw management system should be necessary for all the combine harvesters. The total 28 field demonstrations on happy seeder technology were conducted in village Killi Nihal Singh of district Bathinda of Punjab state during the years 2013-14 & 2014-15.The results showed that by using this technology, the nutrients i.e Urea, DAP and Potash fertilizer were saved worth Rs. 424.15, Rs.366.25 and Rs.1989 respectively totaling the amount to Rs.2779.40 per hectare besides improving the physical properties over longer period of time. The highest incremental B: C ratio of happy seeder plots were 4.36 during the year 2013-14. Apart from saving the burning of the paddy straw, the happy seeder technology was able to save Rs.2311.25 per hectare over the normal sown wheat during the field preparation, sowing and management operations of the crop. In the context of burning of paddy straw, this happy seeder technology is a new initiative under taken by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Bathinda for checking of environmental pollution which will be beneficial for the society as a whole because. Bathinda district lies in the south-western region of Punjab which is not much mechanized in agriculture as compared to other districts of the state.

Keywords: Demonstrations, Happy seeder, Normal sowing, Paddy straw, Technology, Weedicides


Soil quality assessment in difference vegetation structures of Surajpur lake: An urban wetland of Upper Gangetic plain, Northern India

Nasim Ahmad Ansari1* and Jeet Ram2

1Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box # 18 Chandrabani, Dehradun– 248008 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Forestry & Environmental Science, Kumaun University, Nainital-263129 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dr.ansari.nasim@gmail.com

Received: March 6, 2016; Revised received: September 6, 2016; Accepted: December 7, 2012

Abstract: Surajpur Lake is the prominent wetland site in National Capital Region, India known for its rich avifaunal and other aquatic biodiversity. Present study was carried out to assess the soil quality in different vegetation structures in Surajpur wetland from March 2010 to February 2013. Soil Sampling was conducted in five different vegetation habitats in the study area by applying standard sampling protocols. A total of 9 Physical and 16 chemical pa-rameters were selected for analysis. The overall means of physical parameters of soil sample includes soil moisture content 11.17 ± 3.03 %, bulk density 1.19 ± 0.01 gm/ml, porosity 35.00 ± 5.10 %, water holding capacity 35.00 ± 3.86 %, soil organic carbon 0.09 ± 0.05 %, electrical conductivity 276.42 ± 112.83 ds/m, pH value 9.98 ± 0.42 was recorded. The means of chemical parameters of soil sample includes total Kjeldahl nitrogen 286.76 ± 42.41 mg/kg, available phosphorus 338.50 ± 32.75 mg/kg, potassium 2.85 ± 0.39 mg/kg, calcium level 10.86 ± 6 73 mg/kg, mag-nesium 10.56 ± 4.43 mg/kg, iron 14.90 ± 1.99 mg/kg, manganese 289.13 ± 42.89 mg/kg, zinc 4.20 ± 0.45 mg/kg, chloride 223.73 ± 62.64 mg/kg, sulphate 150.21 ± 27.99 mg/kg and silica oxide 7.97 ± 1.45 mg/kg. Boron, Copper and Molybdenum nutrients recorded less than one mg/kg in the soil sample. The viable count of bacteria recorded an overall mean of 16,56,000.00 ± 11,06,157.31 cfu/g. The results indicated that the essential mineral nutrients are widely distributed in the soil and are pollution free and also no any organic waste is coming to the site. Soil is good enough to support rich biodiversity to form a complete food web in the Surajpur wetland ecosystem.

Keywords: Habitats, Soil, Surajpur wetland, Vegetation

Isolation and characterization of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from Salmonella Gallinarum in chicken and antibiogram of the isolates

Asma Ul Husna1, Shabir Ahmad Mir2, Rusheeba Manzoor1, Farhat Pandit1, Shakil Ah-mad Wani1, Syed Alamgir1

1Veterinary Microbiology And Immunology, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar- 190006 (J&K), INDIA

2Veterinary Public Health, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: asma705@gmail.com

Received: April 8, 2016; Revised received: September 9, 2016; Accepted: December 7, 2016

Abstract: Salmonella isolates should be distinguished as it may assist in tracing the source of an outbreak and monitoring trends in antimicrobial resistance associated with a particular type. The specific detection of these Salmonella serotypes is therefore extremely important in order to attribute an isolate to a previously known epidemic outbreak. The present investigation was to isolate and identify S. Gallinarum, to study variation in the profile of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and to determine in vitro antibiogram of S. Gallinarum in poultry. A total of 228 faecal samples and 22 visceral samples suspected for Salmonellosis were collected, of these 15 samples (6.0%) were found positive for S. Gallinarum. In the present study, rfbS gene sequence was helpful in the serotype-specific de-tection of S. Gallinarum giving a 187 bp product. Salmonella Gallinarum crude protein extracts determined by SDS-PAGE showed migration of OMPs as several bands at approximate moleculer weights of appx. 45 kDa, 55 kDa, 64 kDa, 65 kDa, 74 kDa, 110 kDa, 120 kDa, 135 kDa, 150 kDa,155 kDa, 200 kDa and above 200 kDa. The study indicated a definite variation in the profile of OMPs of various Salmonella Gallinarum strains with major OMPs in the range of appx 80-100 kDa which could be the target for vaccine production. All the isolates tested against 14 antimi-crobial agents showed variable susceptibility pattern with highest resistance to nalidixic acid, ampicillin and sulphadiazine and sensitivity to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and enrofloxacin.

Keywords: Antibiogram, Outer membrane protein (OMP), PCR, Salmonella Gallinarum, SDS-PAGE


Combining ability for yield and different quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

J. Menaka* and S. M. Ibrahim

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625104 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: menakrishnan@gmail.com

Received: April 19, 2016; Revised received: October 10, 2016; Accepted: December 7, 2016

Abstract: Gene action and combining ability for yields and quality traits were analyzed by line x tester analysis in 48 crosses along with 8 lines and 6 testers to find out their usefulness in improvement of quality traits. Analysis of variance revealed that ASD 16 line and Pusa Basmati 1 and Basmati 370 testers were the good combiners for both yield and quality traits. The crosses ADT 36 / GEB 24, ASD 16 / Pusa Basmati 1, ADT 43 / Jeeragasamba, MDU 2 / Pusa Basmati 1 and MDU 5 / Improved White Ponni were identified as the good specific combiners for grain yield and some other quality characters. Dominance gene action was found to be predominant for most of the quality characters along with yield giving way for exploitation of heterosis breeding for meeting out the increasing quality preference of the consumers.

Keywords: Gene action, Gca effect, Per se, Sca effect


Influence of pre-harvest application of gibberellin and brassinosteroid on fruit growth and quality characteristics of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai) cv. Gola

Vinod Singh Thapliyal1, P. N. Rai1 and Lokesh Bora*2

1Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College & Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lokeshbora36099@gmail.com

Received: April 26, 2016; Revised received: September 30, 2016; Accepted: December 8, 2016

Abstract: Quality of fruit crop is an important parameter to decide the acceptability of the product. The present study consists of seventeen year old pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai) trees subjected to seven treatments viz., GA3 (50 ppm,100 ppm), BR (0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm), and GA3 + BR (50 ppm + 0.5 ppm and 100 ppm + 1 ppm) and water as control, sprayed thrice at 15 days intervals starting from petal fall stage. Each treatment was replicated thrice with one tree served as a treatment unit. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design. The fruits treat-ed with GA3 @ 50 ppm (T1) showed the highest fruit length (6.98 cm), breadth (6.81 cm), weight (175.9 g) and volume (171.16 cc). An improvement in terms of fruit quality was observed either alone or in combined application of GA3 and BR. The application of BR @ 1 ppm (T4) recorded the highest TSS (12.91°Brix) and lowest titrable acidity (0.42%) while the highest ascorbic acid content (6.95 mg / 100 g) and non-reducing sugar (0.44%) was estimated under GA3 @ 100 ppm + BR @ 1 ppm (T6). Total sugar (7.88%) and reducing sugar (7.45%) was observed highest in GA3 @ 50 ppm + BR @ 0.5 ppm (T5). Based on this research combined application of GA3 + BR had a positive effect and therefore can be recommended for spray on pear in order to obtain higher yield and better quality.

Keywords: Brassinosteroids, Gibberellin, Pear, Physio-biochemical, Quality characteristics


Influence of packaging material, storage condition and duration on quality attributes of osmo-cum-microwave dehydrated mushroom flakes

Ramya H.G.1*, Satish Kumar1 and Vidisha Tomer2

1Department of Processing and Food Engineering, COAE&T, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana-141004

(Punjab) INDIA

2Department of Food and Nutrition, COHSc, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ramyarinda@gmail.com

Received: October10, 2015; Revised received: April 22, 2016; Accepted: December 8, 2016

Abstract: The present article investigates influence of packaging material, storage condition and duration on quality attributes of osmo-cum-microwave dehydrated Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom flakes during storage. Oyster mushrooms were dried by microwave drying technique to a moisture content of 6 % (w.b.) succeeding osmosis. The ultimate superior quality dried product obtained through optimization was stored in different packaging material for confined duration of three months at different storage conditions. Various quality attributes that assist in bestowal of overall consumer acceptability were studied during storage period. The present research study revealed that mushroom flakes were highly acceptable upto two months of storage that was packed in high density polyethylene by retaining much of the quality attributes. The outcome of the present investigation perhaps supportive for those involved in the post-harvest processing and value addition of oyster mushrooms.

Keywords: Microwave dehydration, Osmosis, Oyster mushrooms, Quality attributes, Storage


A review on potato microtuber storability and dormancy

Murlidhar J. Sadawarti1*, K. K. Pandey2 B. P. Singh3 and R. K. Samadiya1

1ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Gwalior- 474006 (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA

2ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research- Varanasi- 221305 (U.P.), INDIA

3ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla- 171001 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: murlidharsada@gmail.com

Received: January 21, 2016; Revised received: August 4, 2016; Accepted: November 6, 2016

Abstract: Potato microtubers plays important role in seed potato production technology as it has great advantage of storage, transport and mechanization due to their little size and reduced weight. Dormancy in potato microtubers is very important and storage conditions as well as size of microtubers influences the dormancy in microtubers. Increasing size of the micro-tuber resulted in significant increase in the viability and sprouting ability of microtubers with reduced durations of dormancy and weight loss at the end of storage. Small microtubers are more vulnerable to storage damage. The larger microtubers lost moisture content more slowly and retained firmness longer when stored at 40C. Development of dormancy during storage strongly affected by the storage condition especially the temperature regime, the presence of light and the relative humidity. The dormancy duration was linearly and inversely correlated with the length of storage. Storage containers and conditions are also important for microtuber storage. Endogenous hormones ABA, ethylene, cyokinin and gibberllic acid play a significant role in tuber dormancy regulation.Microtubers with thick diameter which have passed more times in dormancy and have better functionality than small microtubers with less time in dormancy. Growth regulators like gibberellic acid, thiourea, gibberllic acid + thiourea, randite and carbon disulphide plays significant role in dormancy breaking of microtubers.

Keywords: Dormancy, Microtuber, Potato, Seed and storability

Sclerotinia rot of rapeseed mustard: A comprehensive review

Rakesh1*, A. S. Rathi1, Pawan Kumar2, Anil Kumar1 and Pavitra Kumari1

1Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalandhar –144039 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: punia.rakesh98@gmail.com

Received: January 27, 2016; Revised received: August 8, 2016; Accepted: November 20, 2016

Abstract: Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] is one of the major oilseed crops cultivated in India and around the world. It is extensively grown traditionally as a pure crop as well as intercrop (mixed crop) in marginal and sub-marginal soils in the eastern, northern and north western states of India. Cool and moist climate of winter months is the major factor for luxuriant growth and productivity of mustard in these states. Despite considerable increase in productivity and production, a wide gap exists between yield potential and yield realized at farmer’s field, which is largely due to biotic and abiotic stresses. The destructive diseases of rapeseed-mustard include those caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and phytoplasma. Among them, Sclerotinia stem rot is the most serious fungal disease that causes maximum damage in Indian mustard. This paper reviews the research and development of Sclerotinia rot in rapeseed-mustard during the past years in relation to pathogen taxonomy, biology, epidemiology, disease cycle and management. The paper also attempts to present future outlook and strategy for Sclerotinia rot of rapeseed mustard research.

Keywords: Management, Rapeseed-mustard, Sclerotinia rot, Survival


Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) approach on Nu tritional Diagnosis in Fruit crops- A Review

Savita1*, Krishnappa2, Bidyapati Ngangom2, M. Thoithoi Devi2, Gaurav Mishra3, Deepa Rawat1 and P. C. Srivastava1

1Department of Soil Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam- 793103 (Meghalaya), INDIA

3Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat-785001 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: savitaiihr@gmail.com

Received: March 18, 2016; Revised received: August 7, 2016; Accepted: November 22, 2016

Abstract: Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) is widely used statistical approach for inter pretation of the plant tissue analysis data and to diagnose the plant nutreint needs much earlier than the reduction of crop yield with greater accuracy. It helps in simultaneous identifying imbalances, deficiencies and excesses of crop nutrients and ranks them in the order of their importance for their remedial steps. The DRIS norms based on foliar composition can developed in any crop and at any stage of its development. It provides a mathematical means of ordering large number of nutrient ratios into nutrient indices that can be easily interpreted. The nutrient ranges been established as deficient, low, optimum, high and excessive based on the mean of nutrient concentration and stan dard deviation from high yielding population to serve as a guide for a quick and routine diagnostic and advisory purpose. The major advantage of DRIS lies in its ability to minimize the effect of variation in tissue age on diagnosis, which allows a choice of wider range of tissues than permissible under the conventional critical value approach. Thus, DRIS is holistic in nature for identification of nutrient imbalance in crops and formulation of nutrient manage-ment strategies for achieving higher yields.

Keywords: DRIS indices, DRIS ratio norms, Fruit crops, Nutrient diagnosis


A review on diversity, conservation and nutrition of wild edible fruits

Sumit Chakravarty, Karma D. Bhutia1, C. P. Suresh2, Gopal Shukla and Nazir A. Pala

Department of Forestry, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar- 736101 (W.B.) INDIA

1Department of Horticulture, Sikkim Central University, Tadong, Gangtok-737101 (Sikkim), INDIA

2Department of Horticulture, North-Eastern Hill University, Tura Campus, Tura -794002 (Meghalaya), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: c_drsumit@yahoo.com

Received: January 1, 2016; Revised received: September 30, 2016; Accepted: November 28, 2016

Abstract: The United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration of September 2009 to improve the global living conditions through reducing poverty and hunger. However, considerable numbers of people are still living in utter penury and are deprived of a dignified living. In such tough circumstances nature’s free gift in the form of wild edible foods are benefiting the vulnerable and dependent communities. Wild edible plants (WEPs) are the species those are neither cultivated nor domesticated however are available in their wild natural habitat and used as sources of these plants have played a significant role in the development and civilization of human history throughout the ages and globe. These wild edible plants have played a significant role in supplying food and nutritional requirements of poor communities in many rural parts of the world. These wild edibles can be popularized only when they are compared for their nutritional and health benefits with major or widely used cultivated plants. The social, cultural, religious, and belief system of the rural communities are incomplete without these wild edible plants. Domestication of these wild edible plants can increase their use and their conservation as well. The present review paper has described the wild edible plants in context of their diversity, traditional knowledge, conservation practices and nutritional composition from the available secondary literature. Authors feel there is still scope to incorporate more contextual variables for explaining more variations embedded with local people’s perception on values and usage of these wild edible fruits.

Keywords: Climate, Development, Domestication, Hunger, Nutrition, Poor