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Volume 9, Year 2017- Issue 3

Contents

  1. 1 Effect of growth stages and fertility levels on growth, yield and quality of fodder oats (Avena sativa L.)
  2. 2 Effect of pre-harvest spray of calcium nitrate, boric acid and zinc sulphate on storability of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)
  3. 3 An improved foolproof device for eggs’ sterilization of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton)
  4. 4 Screening a set of tomato parental lines and their hybrids for resistance to early blight (Alternaria solani) by detached leaf method
  5. 5 Exploitation of endophytic Pseudomonas sp. for plant growth promotion and colonization in rice
  6. 6 Scanning Electron Microscopy study of root tissue of muskmelon: Transferring Fusarium wilt resistance from snapmelon to muskmelon
  7. 7 Performance of sequential herbicides to control weeds in direct seeded rice
  8. 8 Risk of cardiovascular diseases and gastrointestinal tract disorders in relation to the impact of shift work among male workers of textile mills in Pali district of Rajasthan, India
  9. 9 Variance components of combining ability for different morpho-physiological traits for heat tolerance in bread wheat
  10. 10 Genetic variability, characters association and path analysis for yield and fruit quality components in Brinjal
  11. 11 Yield and quality attributes with seasonal variation in Napier Bajra hybrid (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum glaucum) under different nitrogen environments
  12. 12 Inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuss L.)
  13. 13 Effect of bending of shoots on flowering, yield and quality of guava cv. Khaja
  14. 14 Effect of humic acid and nutrients mixture on quality parameter of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under polyhouse condition
  15. 15 Comparative evaluation of water budgeting parameters under different rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation methods
  16. 16 Mushroom diversity in the Biligiri rangana hills of Karnataka (India)
  17. 17 Study the effect of scouring time on Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) fibres properties
  18. 18 Carbon storage potential of shelter belt agroforestry system in northern transitional zone of Karnataka, India
  19. 19 Insecticidal effects of aqueous extracts of wild pomegranate peel and seed (Punica granatum L.) against rose aphids, Macrosiphum rosaeformis
  20. 20 Effect of different spawn rates and substrate supplementation on yield of Indian Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel.
  21. 21 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, productivity, quality and nutrient uptake of irrigated yellow sarson (Brassica campestris L var. yellow sarson) in older alluvial soil of West Bengal
  22. 22 Egg parameters of the Red Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus) in agricultural ecosystem of Punjab
  23. 23 Effect of Mesorhizobium, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and phosphorus on plant biometery and growth indices of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
  24. 24 Determination of economic threshold level for the timely management of cotton jassid Amrasca bigutulla (Ishida) on okra vegetable crop
  25. 25 Efficacy of botanical formulations and fungicides against Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing white rot in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)
  26. 26 Land-site suitability evaluation for tea, cardamom and rubber using Geo-spatial technology in Wayanad district, Kerala
  27. 27 Effect of packaging material and storage conditions on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtuber storability
  28. 28 System of wheat intensification (SWI) – A new approach for increasing wheat yield in small holder farming system
  29. 29 Soil moisture depletion and ground water use by bed planted barley as influenced by cultivars, crop geometry and moisture regimes
  30. 30 Estimation of genetic diversity among sugarcane (Saccharum species complex) clones
  31. 31 Avian diversity and their status in and around Bhindawas bird sanctuary, Haryana (India)
  32. 32 Evaluation of saturated hydraulic conductivity from soil properties in an Inceptisol using different land cover and depths
  33. 33 Evolution in Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea Commers.) - A review
  34. 34 Combining ability, gene action and heritability analysis for early blight resistance, yield and quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
  35. 35 Entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar
  36. 36 Studies on plasma treatment and priming of seeds of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
  37. 37 Compatibility of biocontrol agents and N fixing organisms with post emergence pre-mix herbicide-bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14 % SE
  38. 38 Qualitative ultrastructural changes and morphometry of deccani sheep spermatozoa preserved with egg yolk citrate extender
  39. 39 Additions to the thrips (Thysanoptera) fauna of Odisha, India
  40. 40 Comparative evaluation of different pretreatment methods on biogas production from paddy straw
  41. 41 Effect of planting techniques and weed control treatments on growth and yield of wheat
  42. 42 Comparison of wheat yield and soil properties under open and poplar based agroforestry system
  43. 43 Dynamics of Sclerotium rolfsii as influenced by different crop rhizosphere and microbial community
  44. 44 Genetic diversity and character association analysis based on pomological traits in olive (Olea europaea L.)
  45. 45 Gene action and combining ability estimates of newly developed CMS based heterotic rice hybrids (Oryza sativa L.)
  46. 46 Integrated nutrient management for high productivity and net returns in lentil (Lens culinaris)
  47. 47 Quantification of surface runoff in Patiala-Ki-Rao watersheds using modified NRCS model: a case study
  48. 48 Jute seed production as influenced by dates of sowing and topping in red and laterite zone of West Bengal
  49. 49 Spatial distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) in Cabbage in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India
  50. 50 Genetic variability for grain yield and water use efficiency in blackgram genotypes
  51. 51 Chlorophyll and carotenoid content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under heat stress as affected by trehalose application
  52. 52 Foraging behavior of major insect pollinators on Pumpkin, Cucurbitamoschata (Duch.ex Lam)
  53. 53 Vermiwash: An effective nutritive boon to foliage and crops
  54. 54 RNA interference- a novel approach for plant disease management
  55. 55 Effect of ethrel spray on the ripening behaviour of mango (Mangifera indica L.) variety 'Dashehari'
  56. 56 Character association and path analysis for yield and its related traits in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) genotypes
  57. 57 Evaluation of periphyton quantity on different natural substrates in Earthen lined pond
  58. 58 Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) as a tool to monitor pollution and green belt development: A review
  59. 59 Effect of Bacillus spp. on Gerbera plant growth and control of Meloidogyne incognita
  60. 60 Investigation on effect of time of planting in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under polyhouse conditions in Manipur, India
  61. 61 Comparative evaluation of Doolittle, Cupkit and Karl Jenter techniques for rearing Apis mellifera Linnaeus queen bees during breeding season
  62. 62 Morphological and cultural characterization of Phyllosticta zingiberi (Ramkr.) causing leaf spot disease of ginger
  63. 63 Estimation of population mean in two– stage sampling under a deterministic response mechanism in the presence of non-response
  64. 64 Effect of plant growth regulators on growth, yield and fruit quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) under protected conditions
  65. 65 Effect of seed treatment, soil application and foliar spray of some insecticides on seed quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
  66. 66 Impact of laptop usage on symptoms leading to musculoskeletal disorders
  67. 67 Haematological alterations due to lung diseases in sheep and goats of Jammu region
  68. 68 Effect of boron and zinc application on growth, seed yield and seed quality of water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) under terai region of West Bengal
  69. 69 Use of crop condition based dummy regressor and weather input for parameter estimation of mustard yield forecast models
  70. 70 Isolation, virulence gene profiling with molecular cloning of ibeA gene and antibiogram of Escherichia coli from respiratory tract infections of broiler chicken in Kashmir, India
  71. 71 Statistical investigation through stratified random sampling for apple production in Himachal Pradesh
  72. 72 Influence of weather parameters on progress of rust disease severity in pea (Pisum sativum L.)
  73. 73 Optimization of cultural conditions for submerged state fermentation of di-gested biogas slurry for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Phanaerochaete chrysosporium MTCC 787
  74. 74 Assessment of genetic variability among different genotypes of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in India
  75. 75 Seed quality enhancement through biopriming in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. L)
  76. 76 Genetic variability studies in response to drought under different water regimes in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)
  77. 77 Assessment of genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using RAPD markers
  78. 78 Comparative economics of different soybean based cropping systems in North-Eastern Karnataka
  79. 79 Combining ability analysis for yield and quality traits in single cross hybrids of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) using diallel mating design
  80. 80 Morphological and germination physiognomies of Carissa carandas seedlings influenced by seed storage at ambient conditions
  81. 81 Rhizosphere competence of native Rhizobium rhizogenes strain and its use in management of crown gall
  82. 82 Character association studies in grape accessions selected from Leh district of Jammu and Kashmir
  83. 83 Screening for pod shattering in mutant population of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)
  84. 84 Hydropriming -a useful technique for seed invigoration in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum)
  85. 85 Performance studies on millet processing machinery for tribal livelihood promotion
  86. 86 Effect of long - term integrated nutrient management on crop yield, nutrition and soil fertility under rice-wheat system
  87. 87 Development of mobile phone based agro-advisory system through ICT mediated extension approach in North-eastern himalayan region of India
  88. 88 Studies on development and storage stability of dehydrated pumpkin based instant soup mix
  89. 89 Integrated management of late blight of potato
  90. 90 Assessment of genetic variability and character association in okra genotypes for yield and contributing characters
  91. 91 Molecular detection and characterization of phytoplasma associated with China aster (Callistephus chinensis) phyllody in India
  92. 92 Light interception and yield response of cotton varieties to high density planting and fertilizers in sub-tropical India
  93. 93 Evaluation of new genotypes of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under tarai condition of Uttarakhand
  94. 94 Bio-efficacy of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10% wp against weeds in transplanted rice
  95. 95 Weed flora dynamics and growth response of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) under varied agri-horti system and weed management practices
  96. 96 Genetic variability in CMS backcross generations and their maintainers in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)
  97. 97 Induction of systemic resistance (ISR) against sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn using biological seed treatment with Trichoderma
  98. 98 Herbicide sequence for weed management in direct seeded rice
  99. 99 Effect of biovita granules and liquid on growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
  100. 100 Assessment of heavy metals in brands of canned fishes stored in vegetable oil marketed in Benin city, Nigeria
  101. 101 Effect of storage periods and packaging materials on the proximate and chemical properties of frozen blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) at different exposure time

Effect of growth stages and fertility levels on growth, yield and quality of fodder oats (Avena sativa L.)

Gurjeet Kaur1* and Meenakshi Goyal2

1 Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sidhugurjeet15@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: March 25, 2017; Accepted: June 6, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality parameters of oats (Avena sativa L.) at forage research farm in Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four different nitrogen levels viz. 0 (control), 50, 75 (recommended) and 100 Kg N/ha were applied in the form of urea. Samples were collected at three different growth stages i.e. 30, 45 and 60 DAS. As the growth of plant continued decrease in total nitrogen (45%), non protein nitro-gen (37%), ether extract (13%), ash content (24%) and digestibility (23%) was observed. But increase in free amino acids (48%) and cell wall constituents i.e. ADF (19%), NDF (31%) and CF (34%)with plant’s growth was reported. The interactive effect of varying levels of inorganic fertilizer application on the chemical composition of the plant at various growth stages revealed an increase in total nitrogen (18%), non protein nitrogen (26%), ether extract (18%), free amino acids (32%), ash content (13%) and digestibility (7%) with increase in fertilizer level however ADF (7%), NDF (2%) and CF (3%)content decreased with increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Correlation studies showed that significant negative correlation was present forin vitro dry matter digestibility with acid detergent fiber (r= -.861**), neutral detergent fiber (r= -.891**) and crude fiber (r= -.740**) at recommended dose of N fertilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilization at different growth stages on quality components in oats fodder.

Keywords: Chemical composition, Growth stages, Nitrogen levels, Oats, Yield


Effect of pre-harvest spray of calcium nitrate, boric acid and zinc sulphate on storability of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

Manish Kumar Meena1*, M. C. Jain1 and Pravin Singh2

1Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture & Forestry, (Agriculture University, Kota) Jhalarapatan city, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture & Forestry, (Agriculture University, Kota) Jhalarapatan city, Jhalawar-326023 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manishkhamrya@gmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: February 14, 2017; Accepted: June 25, 2017

Abstract: An investigation was carried out at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015 to study the individual effect of Pre-harvest spray of Calcium nitrate, Zinc sulphate and Boric acid as well as their interaction on Storability of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) after fruit set stage. Among different pre-harvest treatments, T27 treatment (Ca 3.0% + B 0.6% + Zn 0.6%) treated fruits had the longest shelf-life of 15 days at ambient conditions with lowest PLW (9.27 %), decay per cent (15.23 %) and better organoleptic ratting (8.41/10) and higher retention of juice percent (39.12 %) till end of storage period.

Keywords: Boric acid, Calcium nitrate, Pre-harvest spray, Storability, Zinc sulphate


An improved foolproof device for eggs’ sterilization of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton)

Surender Kumar Singh* and P. Kumar

National Research Centre for Integrated Pest Management, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sk_ncipm@yahoo.com

Received: August 8, 2016; Revised received: February 19, 2017; Accepted: June 28, 2017

Abstract: Mass rearing of numerous biological control agents depends on large amounts of eggs of factitious hosts like rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). Corcyra eggs sterilization is required before they are used for parasitisation by Trichogrammatids. To meet the requirement of eggs sterilization of this insect, a new innovative device was invented, fabricated and studied. It consisted of an enclosed structure having semi-circular shaped drawer. An ultra violet (UV) tube of 30 W is fixed on the centre of its ceiling to maintain a uniform distance of 35 cm from the eggs to be sterilized. An exposure of 10 minutes to eggs of C. cephalonica was required to get optimum sterilization. As whole body of the device was an enclosed structure, hence, there was no exposure of UV rays to the laboratory workers. The different sized-models (150,100, 50 of “egg cards” required for Trichogrammatids) can be fabricated to meet the diverse requirements. Irradiated eggs were found having no any adverse effects on the abilities of Trichogrammatids parasitisation and its emergence. It can also used for UV sterilization of laboratory materials like glassware, plastic ware, clothes, cotton etc. The period of exposure to the UV light was set using timer. This innovative UV chamber had numerous advantages i.e., the UV rays used had damaged the host embryo. The damaged embryo could not develop into next stage, at the same time damaged embryo found suitable for parasitization of Trichogrammatids. The whole body of the device was made-up of an enclosed struc-ture; hence, there was no exposure of UV rays to the laboratory workers. The different sized-models (150,100, 50 of “egg cards” required for Trichogrammatids) can be fabricated to meet the diverse requirements of clients. As the UV chamber was made up of metal and ply boards, hence, it was durable. The longitudinal flanges provided in the drawer of the device prevented the host egg bearing cards to glide one over other from curved surface. The device was found safe and effective for sterilization of Corcyra eggs and easy to operate.

Keywords: Corcyra cephalonica, Egg sterilization, Mass rearing of Trichogrammatids, UV sterilization chamber


Screening a set of tomato parental lines and their hybrids for resistance to early blight (Alternaria solani) by detached leaf method

Bharathkumar M. V.1*, Sadashiva A. T.2, Anjanappa M.3 and Amarananjundeshwara3

1Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University , Hisar 125 004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru 560 089 (Karnataka), INDIA

3University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot 587 104 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: bharathkumarmv809@gmail.com

Received: September 25, 2016; Revised received: February 11, 2017; Accepted: June 28, 2017

Abstract: Nine parental lines and 18 hybrids derived by crossing them in Line × Tester fashion were screened against the early blight pathogen Alternaria solani along with a resistant, susceptible and a commercial check in the form of Arka Rakshak, IIHR2202 and Abhinava respectively. Parental lines and the resistant and susceptible checks were screened over two seasons and results obtained were almost similar with the line IIHR1816 exhibiting resistance with the disease severity of 25 % in both the trials, while the line IIHR977 was found to be resistant in the first season with PDI of 25 % and moderately resistant in the second season with the slightest increase in the disease severity up to 25.6 %. None of the hybrids were found to be resistant except, whereas about eight hybrids were found to be moderately resistant. IIHR2892 x IIHR2853 was found to be highly susceptible with severity of 68.75 %, which is on par with the susceptible check IIHR2202 (70.50 %). The results obtained from the detached leaf method of screening should be confirmed by the field or greenhouse screening methods before using them in further breeding programmes.

Keywords: Early blight, Alternaria solani, Artificial/Detached leaf, Screening, Tomato


Exploitation of endophytic Pseudomonas sp. for plant growth promotion and colonization in rice

Gurjot Kaur1*, Poonam Sharma2, Deepika Chhabra1, Kailash Chand1 and Gurjit Singh Mangat2

1Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gurjotkaur-cobsmb@pau.edu

Received: September 27, 2016; Revised received: February 27, 2017; Accepted: June 28, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to exploit bacterial endophytes associated with root and leaf tissue of rice plant for plant growth promotion (PGP) and colonization study in vitro. Total 10 endophytic bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluate for PGP traits like P solubilization, production of Indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, ACC deaminase, protease, cellulase, fluorescent pigment, urease and denitrification activity. Out of 10 endophytic bacteria 30 %, 60 %, 20 %, 70 %, 10 % and 10 % were positive for siderophore, protease, cellulase, fluorescent pigment, urease and denitrification respectively. Maximum IAA production was recorded with isolate LRBLE7 (18.8 μgml-1) followed by LRBRE4 (16.0 μgml-1) and maximum P-solubilization was recorded with isolate LRBRE4 (5.8 mg 100 ml-1) followed by LRBLE7 (4.4 mg 100 ml-1). ACC deaminase production was recorded with isolate LRBLE6 (O.D=0.352 nm) followed by LRBRE5 (O.D=0.324nm). Three potential isolates (LRBRE4, LRBRE6 and LRBLE7) were selected on the basis of multiple PGP traits and were subjected to colonization study of rice seedling in vitro. Potential bacterial isolates can be exploited for improving growth and productivity in rice under

sustainable management system.

Keywords: Colonization, Endophytic bacteria, Plant growth promotion, Pseudomonas, Rice


Scanning Electron Microscopy study of root tissue of muskmelon: Transferring Fusarium wilt resistance from snapmelon to muskmelon

Anu Kalia1*, Sat Pal Sharma2 and Vinod Kumar Vashisht2

1Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kaliaanu@pau.edu

Received: October 5, 2016; Revised received: February 23, 2017; Accepted: June 28, 2017

Abstract: The overall aim of this study was to investigate the level of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Melonis (F.o.m.) infection by studying the Scanning electron micrographs of transverse sections of parent inbred lines and developed F1 hybrid. The current study involved KP4HM-15 (Fusarium wilt resistant inbred line) in a crossing program with well adapted muskmelon cv. Punjab Sunehri (PS) to develop FW resistant hybrid possessing high yield and quality traits. Fom infects melon root and trails through the cortical and endodermal cells to reach xylem vessels by penetrating through pits. This is the first SEM appraisal of the whole tap root of field grown melon accessions, KP4HM-15, PS and PSxKP4HM-15 (MH-41) (F1 hybrid) aimed to discern the role of the root morphometric characters for imparting FW resistance. The trend for root epidermo-cortical thickness was KP4HM-15>PS>MH-41 while for the xylem diameter was MH-41> KP4HM-15>PS. The F1 hybrid exhibited FW resistance intermediate among the two parents i.e. absence or presence of less mycelia as compared to the susceptible parent (PS). However, the extent of infection was higher than the resistant parent KP4HM-15, which shows that partial resistance was transferred from KP4HM-15 to MH-41. This study accentuates the resistance gene mining and use of wild melon accessions to introgress FW resistance in commercial melon cultivars.

Keywords: Electron microscopy, Fusarium, Resistance genes, Snap melon, Xylem vessel


Performance of sequential herbicides to control weeds in direct seeded rice

Ajay Singh*, D. P. Nandal and S. S. Punia

Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ajayyadavhau@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: February 28, 2017; Accepted: June 29, 2017

Abstract: Direct seeded rice is an emerging production technology in India due to less requirement of water, labour and capital input initially. But direct seeded rice face severe infestation of weeds. A field experiment was conducted during the kharif 2012 at Students’ Farm of College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University; Kaul campus (Kaithal) to study the performance of sequential application of herbicides on weed flora in direct seeded rice. The herbicidal treatments included two pre emergence herbicides i.e. pendimethalin 1000 g/ha and oxadiargyl 100 g/ ha and four post emergence herbicides (bispyribac sodium 25 g/ha, fenoxaprop 67 g/ha, ethoxysulfuron 18.75 g/ha and metsulfuron methyl 10% + chlorimuron ethyl 10% WP ready mix (Almix) 4 g/ha). Weed free and weedy check were also included. The results showed that grasses were the dominant weed flora (49 %) followed by sedges (34%) and broad leaf weeds (17%).Sequential application of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha fb bispyribac sodium 25 g/ha and metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl RM (Almix) 4 g/ha gave significantly lower weed density (p=0.05) and higher weed control efficiency which resulted in more number of effective tillers (209.3), filled grains/panicle (83.7) and grain yield (3.97 t/ha).

Keywords: Direct seeded rice, Effective tillers, Filled grains, Grain yield, Herbicides, Grain yield, Straw yield


Risk of cardiovascular diseases and gastrointestinal tract disorders in relation to the impact of shift work among male workers of textile mills in Pali district of Rajasthan, India

R. Ranawat* and R. Srivastava

Department of Home Science, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: raginiranawat20@gmail.com

Received: November 5, 2016; Revised received: March 18, 2017; Accepted: June 30, 2017

Abstract: The present study was conducted in textile mill of Pali city with the objective to study the risk of cardiac and gastric problems in relation to shift work among male workers. The results showed significant difference between Body Mass Index (χ2=14.2, p=0.0008) and waist hip ratio (χ2=5.2, p=0.0226) of shift and non shift workers. Results on food intake showed comparatively more deficient daily intake of nutrients like fiber (7.21 g), β carotene (1842.89 μg), and folic acid (99.03 μg) in shift workers with respect to recommended dietary allowances and an overconsumption of fats (37.72 g). Alcoholism (χ2=17.3, p=0.0001) and smoking habit (χ2=14, p=0.0029) was found to be significantly higher among shift workers. Comparatively higher segment of shift workers suffered from hypertension (56.0%), disturbed appetite (87.50%), stomach upsets (90.0%), nausea (88.50%), heartburn (85.0%) and breathlessness (34.0%). Shift workers also had higher mean levels of lipid profile fractions and relatively more subjects fell into the category of high risk (20.50%) of CVD. Longer duration of involvement in shift work also influenced the occurrence of gastric and cardiac problems like disturbed appetite (χ2=9.96, p=0.0411), stomach upsets (χ2=9.73, p=0.0452), stomach ache (χ2=10.1, p=0.0389), constipation (χ2=9.88, p=0.0424), dizziness (47.37%), breathlessness (50.0%) and swollen feet (44.74%). The study concludes that shift work affects food intake, BMI, WHR, BP, alcohol intake, smoking habits and lipid profile of the subjects, thus increasing the risk of health problems like cardiovascular and gastric diseases.

Keywords: CVD, Food Intake, Gastric Problems, Lipid Profile, Shift Work


Variance components of combining ability for different morpho-physiological traits for heat tolerance in bread wheat

Amarjeet Kumar*, Swati, N. K. Singh, Birendra Prasad and Anil Kumar

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145,Udham Singh Nagar, (Uttarakhand) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amarjeetagriculture@gmail.com.

Received: November 5, 2016; Revised received: February 16, 2017; Accepted: July 2, 2017

Abstract: To estimate the level of heat tolerance for different genotypes of bread wheat with respect to morphological characters under studied grains/ spike, grain weight/spike, grain filling duration (duration between the anthesis stage and the physiological maturity), 1000-kernel weight and grain yield/plant for yield. Physiological traits like relative injury (RI %), chlorophyll content, canopy temperature depression (CTD), were used in present investigation to contribute toward capability of plants to tolerate heat stress of the yield contributing traits during heat stress.The findings of present investigation had clearly explained that influences of environments on morpho physiological characters i.e. grain yield per plant (14886.15) and its attributing traits i.e. spike length (459.7), tillers per plant (622.34), spikelets per spike (278.1), 1000 kernel weight (13262.39), grain weight per spike (177.89) and number of grains per spike (2898.44) in wheat were highly significant and positive. Among the parent and their crosses had handsome amount of variations across the environment. The results of interaction for environments with parents, lines, testers and their crosses with respect to morpho physiological characters in wheat was found significant for some characters while variation was absent for other characters studied. Physiological traits like relative injury per cent, chlorophyll content and CTD were vital parameters to quantify the degree of heat stress to develop tolerant genotypes which is urgent and present need under changing climate scenario.

Keywords: Bread wheat, Combining ability, Heat tolerance, Morpho- physiological traits, Variance


Genetic variability, characters association and path analysis for yield and fruit quality components in Brinjal

A.V.V. Koundinya1*, A. Das, S. Layek, R. Chowdhury and M. K. Pandit

1Division of Crop Improvement, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, (Kerela), INDIA

Department of Vegetable Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: koundi.hortico@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: March 19. 2017; Accepted: July 2, 2017

Abstract: The experiment was done at AB District Seed Farm, BCKV, Kalyani Simanta, West-Bengal, India during autumn-winter 2013-14 and 2014-15. The characters that exhibited higher Phenotypic and Genotypic Co-efficient of variation values were number of fruits per plant (76.86, 75.63%), fruit weight (43.88, 41.34%), harvest index (23.57, 22.29%), fruit yield per plant (53.61, 51.17%), anthocyanin in peel, total phenols and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging (FRS) capacity indicating that a greater amount of genetic variability was present for these characters which provide greater scope for selection. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for the characters like plant height, days to 1st flowering, days to 50% flowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, harvest index, fruit yield per plant, total sugar, anthocyanin in peel, total

phenols and DPPH FRS capacity depicting that these traits were under the strong influence of additive gene action and hence simple selection based on phenotypic performance of these traits would be more effective. Fruit yield per plant showed highly positive significant correlation with number of primary branches per plant, number of fruits per plant, harvest index, vitamin-A and total phenols and significant negative correlation with days to 1st flowering, TSS, total sugars and total protein. Number of fruits per plant imparted the highest positive direct effect on yield followed by harvest index, fruit weight, days to 50% flowering and anthocyanin in peel. Number of fruits per plant and days to flowering were emerged as the main casual factors for positive or negative association of several characters with fruit yield per plant. Therefore, selection for fruit yield per plant based on these characters would be reliable.

Keywords: Brinjal, Correlation, Heritability, Path analysis, Variation


Yield and quality attributes with seasonal variation in Napier Bajra hybrid (Pennisetum purpureum × Pennisetum glaucum) under different nitrogen environments

Rupinder Kaur1, Meenakshi Goyal2 and U. S. Tiwana2

1Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

Corresponding author email: meenakshigoyal@pau.edu

Received: April 7, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: July 5, 2017

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2013 in randomized block design using three nitrogen doses (50, 75 and 100 kgN/ha) with three replications for Napier Bajra hybrid. Three nitrogen fertilizers, potassium nitrate (KNO3), urea [CO(NH2)2] and ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4] were used in divided doses. The crop was harvested four times in different seasons. Growth attributes viz. plant height (72.6cm), number of tillers per plant (20.1) and leaf length (91.2) found highest at 100 kgN/ha doses and maximum values were recorded in

monsoon season. Green fodder yield (321.0 q/ha) and dry fodder yield (79.6 q/ha) were recorded highest with KNO3 fertilization and found maximum in monsoon season. Among all the harvest seasons, crude protein yield (19.1 q/ha) was observed maximum in summer season. Quality attributes viz. ether extract (2.6%), ash content (12.9%) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (62.6%) were observed highest in summer season. Crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre decreased with increased level of nitrogen doses and observed maximum in monsoon season.

Keywords: Growth attributes, Harvest seasons, Napier Bajra hybrid, Nitrogen fertilization, Yield


Inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuss L.)

*S. M. Supriya1 , Vikas V. Kulkarni2 , P. G. Suresha1 and C. N. Ranganatha1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University Of Agricultural Science, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

2 AICRP on Sunflower, MARS, University Of Agricultural Science, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: suppriyasm@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: March 25, 2017; Accepted: July 5, 2017

Abstract: Powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum is the most important disease on sunflower worldwide. The investigation was undertaken to determine the mode of genetic inheritance of powdery mildew resistance in five F1 and F2 populations of sunflower. The four hybrids were derived by crossing resistant with

susceptible genotype and one hybrid between resistant and highly susceptible genotype. Out of 23 hybrids, five crosses viz., PM-22x PM-36, PM-14xPM-36, PM-16xPM-38, PM-17xPM-35 and PM-34x PM-23 were resistant under natural as well as artificial epiphytotic screening conditions and the same five resistant hybrids segregated in 9R:7S ratio in F2 population indicating involvement of two independent loci controlling powdery mildew resistance in sunflower.

Keywords: Helianthus annuss, Inheritance, Mildew, Sunflower

Effect of bending of shoots on flowering, yield and quality of guava cv. Khaja

P. Nandi*, D. Roy, B. Ghosh and S. Kundu

Department of Fruits and Orchard Management, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: paromitanandi20@gmail.com

Received: May 31, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: July 5, 2017

Abstract: The study of the effect of bending of shoots in different months in guava cv. Khaja was carried out at

Horticulture Research Station, Mondouri of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya to find out suitable bending time for improving flowering, yield and quality of guava. The experiment consists of seven treatments with three replications in a randomised block design. The different treatments were bending in October (T1), November (T2), March (T3), April (T4), May (T5), June (T6) and untreated control (T7). Bending in June (T6) resulted early emergency of new shootlet (15.0 days), flower initiation (40.33 days) and fruit set (48.33 days) from the date of bending as well as the same treatment showed maximum fruit weight (197.67 gm), fruit length (8.00 cm), fruit diameter (7.16 cm) and pulp thickness (2.20 cm). Higher fruit quality in terms of total soluble solids (11.04 0brix), total sugar (7.0 %) and ascorbic acid content (197.96 mg/100g pulp) was noted when bending was done in May (T5) and June (T6). Bending in the month of October (T1) resulted in maximum C: N ratio of leaf with maximum flowering shootlets in a branch and yield (63.67 kg/plant). So, time of bending may be standardized in the month of October or June for higher profit.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Bending time, Flowering shootlet, Fruit yield, Leaf C: N ratio


Effect of humic acid and nutrients mixture on quality parameter of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under polyhouse condition

Hareram Kumar1*, R. A. Kaushik1, K. D. Ameta1, Arjun Lal Regar1, Kuldeep Singh, Rajawat1 and Pinki Kumari2

1Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur (Rajasthan), INDIA

2Department of Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Bangalore (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:hareram061@gmail.com

Received: August 21, 2016; Revised received: March 26, 2017; Accepted: July 6, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was conducted on Effect of humic acid and nutrients mixture on growth and yield

parameter of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under polyhouse condition at Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Raj.). The data was analyzed statistically following completely randomized design. The results revealed that treatment T7 [(RDF + humic acid 10 kg/ha soil application + humic acid 0.1% foliar spray + nutrient mixture foliar spray (0.2% Ca + 0.5% Mg + 0.2% B + 0.5% Zn)] was recorded superior to enhance leaf nutrients analysis Ca (1.656%), Mg (0.763%), Zn (25.07ppm) and B (61.94ppm), fruit nutrient analysisCa (1.904%), Mg (0.877%), Zn (58.98ppm) and B (61.84ppm), total Soluble Solids (TSS) (6.020%), ascorbic acid content (39.85mg/100g), lycopene content (3.75 mg/100g) and cost benefit ratio (4.81).

Keywords: Humic acid, Nutrients Mixture, Quality, Tomato


Comparative evaluation of water budgeting parameters under different rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation methods

Sagar Dattatraya Vibhute1*, A. Sarangi2, D. K. Singh2, K. K. Bandhyopadhyay3, S. S. Parihar2 and Dinesh Kumar4

1*Division of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Council of Agricultural Research –IndianAgricultural Research Insti-tute (ICAR-IARI), New Delhi- 110012, INDIA

2Water Technology Centre, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA

3Division of Agricultural Physics, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA

4Division of Agronomy, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi - 110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vibhutesagar5@gmail.com

Received: August 31, 2016; Revised received: February 17, 2017; Accepted: July 7, 2017

Abstract: Water budgeting studies under different rice cultivation methods provides an insight into the amount of water used by the plant and percolated below the root zone for judicious water management. To undertake this study, a field experiment was conducted to estimate different soil water balance parameters under three rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation methods viz. Direct Seeded Rice (DSR), System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Conventional Puddled Rice (CPR). The experiment was conducted during kharif 2013 and kharif 2014 season at research farm of Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. In this study, the rainfall and irrigation depth, Crop Evapotranspiration (ETc), percolation beyond root zone of the crop and surface runoff during the crop growth period were accounted in water budgeting. It was observed that the percolation be-yond root zone of the crop was the highest under CPR method amounting 963 mm and 831 mm, which was about 55% and 58% of total water applied during 2013 and 2014, respectively. However, the percolation beyond root zone of the crop was the lowest under DSR method of rice cultivation amounting 367 mm and 332 mm which was 43% and 39% of total water applied during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Water loss through Etc was around 30% of total water applied in all three cultivation methods for year 2013. However, it was 59%, 46% and 43% of total water ap-plied for DSR, SRI and CPR, respectively in the year 2014.This indicates more effective utilization of total applied water in the year 2014.The study highlighted that water loss through deep percolation beyond root zone is the major factor contributing to the high water requirement in CPR and SRI methods compare to DSR method. Moreover, different soil water balance components computed in this study will be helpful for estimation of irrigation water requirement in the rice growing areas of the agro-climatic region VI (Trans-gangetic Plains) of India. .

Keywords: Direct seeded rice, Conventional puddled rice, System of rice intensification, Water budgeting


Mushroom diversity in the Biligiri rangana hills of Karnataka (India)

D. Akash, N. Earanna* and S. Subramanya1

Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

1Department of Post Harvest Technology,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E -mail. earanna7@gmail.com

Received: August 31, 2016; Revised received: February 19, 2017; Accepted: July 8, 2017

Abstract: Evergreen forests of Biligiri rangana hills (BR hills) spread over an area of 540 sq. KM over eastern most edge of Western Ghats in Karnataka. Climatic conditions are more favorable for establishment of mushrooms and complete their life cycle. In this study, fourteen mushroom species were collected from BR hills region during

monsoon (June through September 2013) with the help of Solega tribe inhabited the region since many years. Of the fourteen mushrooms, two mushrooms were identified as Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporous flabelliformis based on their phenotypic characters. The other 12 mushrooms were identified by ITS (Internal Transcribed spacer)region sequence homology as Termitomyces sp. (BRM-3)., Auricularia delicate (BRM-4), Termitomyces microcarpus (BRM-5), Amanita sp. (BRM-6), Podoscypha petalodes (BRM-7), Agaricaceae sp. (BRM-8), Macrolepiota sp.(BRM-9), Calvatia holothurioides (BRM-10), Gymnopillus crociphyllus (BRM-11), Coprinus comatus (BRM-12), Gyrodontium sacchari (BRM-13) and Clitocybeafffellea (BRM-14). Among the fourteen mushrooms, three species viz., Termito-myces species, Auricularia delicate and Termitomyces microcarpus were edible. The others were non edible/poisonous species. This study reports the diverse mushroom species as addition to biodiversity at BR hills.

Keywords: Biligiri rangana hills, Documentation, ITS region, Mushroom diversity


Study the effect of scouring time on Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) fibres properties

Monika Upreti* and Shahnaz Jahan

Department of Clothing and Textiles, College of Home Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: monika.upreti04@gmail.com

Received: September 12, 2016; Revised received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: July 8, 2017

Abstract: This research work was carried out to investigate the influence of treatment time period on physical

properties of water retted Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) fibres. The extracted fibres were subjected to chemical scouring with sodium hydroxide (20g/l) and ammonium oxalate (5g/l) at 100º C for 30 mins. and 60 mins. and their effect on tensile strength, elongation and fibres fineness was studied. It was found that as the time period for scouring increased from 30 mins. to 60 mins. elongation and fineness improved, whereas in case of tenacity for 30 mins. treatment, tenacity improved but 60 mins. scouring decreased the tenacity of the fibres.

Keywords: Grewiaasiatica, Physical properties, Scouring, Sodium hydroxide, Water retting


Carbon storage potential of shelter belt agroforestry system in northern transitional zone of Karnataka, India

*K. R. Swamy1, D. Shivaprasad2, Shivaputra Bammanahalli3, Noorandappa Lamani4 and H. Shivanna5

1Department of Farm Forestry, UAS, Dharwad -580005 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Environmental science, Bangalore University, Bangalore -560056 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan 173230 (H. P.), INDIA

4Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, College of Forestry, Sirsi-581401 (Karnataka), INDIA

5 Department of Forest biology and Tree improvement, College of Forestry, Sirsi-581401 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: scamykrs@gmail.com

Received: September 19, 2016; Revised received: February 9, 2017; Accepted: July 8, 2017

Abstract: Carbon sequestration has been suggested as a means to mitigate the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As agrisilviculture systems is one of the better options for stocking of carbon in plants and in soil. In the present study, carbon sequestration was quantified both biomass as well as in soil of agrisilviculture sys-tem six different tree species were selected such as, Pongamia pinnata, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia auriculiformis, Tectona grandis, Casuarina equisitifolia, Azadirachta indica in shelterbelt of agroforestry system in arid region of Karnataka. Among six different tree species planted under shelterbelt, the growth performance with respect to gbh, height, clear bole height and basal area was highest in A. auriculiformis and A. indica. While maximum above ground biomass was observed in A. auriculiformis (59.75 t ha-1) followed by T.grandis (56.62 t ha-1), respectively. Whereas, below ground biomass was highest in T. grandis (20.25t ha-1) followed by A. auriculiformis (14.75t ha-1). Above ground carbon sequestration was highest in A. auriculiformis (13.30 t ha-1) followed by T. grandis (12.20 t ha-1), respectively. Whereas, below ground carbon sequestration was more in T. grandis (4.35 t ha-1) followed by A. auriculiformis (3.95 t ha-1). The Shelterbelt system sequestered 0.43 to 1.34% soil organic carbon stock in different depth. The carbon sequestered in different tree species was varying from 3.48 tons to 17.25 t ha-1.Growing tree crops in shelterbelts, bunds in the agroforestry systems will enhance accumulation of carbon stocking and provide additional benefits to the farmer’s income. It also regulates microclimate and increases the tree cover in agricultural field.

Keywords: Agroforestry system, Biomass, Carbon sequestration, Shelter belt, Soil organic carbon

Insecticidal effects of aqueous extracts of wild pomegranate peel and seed (Punica granatum L.) against rose aphids, Macrosiphum rosaeformis

Garima Gupta1*, Kriti Dharma and Neelima R. Kumar*

*Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (Chandigarh), INDIA

Corresponding author. E-mail: gari_g79@yahoo.com

Received: September 22, 2016; Revised received: February 24, 2017; Accepted: July 11, 2017

Abstract: Efficacy of wild pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit peel and seeds aqueous extract was evaluated for the control of common insect pests aphids (Macrosiphum rosaeformis) and for its influence on useful non-target predators viz., Coccinella septempunctata. Lethal doses of daru peel and seed suggested these became more toxic to aphids after 24 hr of exposure. A significant difference was obtained in percentage aphids reached to untreated leaves over peel extract treated leaves (23:57 and 23:77) and seed extract treated leaves (7:80 and 17:80) at 90 and 180 min time intervals in food choice assays. No significant effect was observed against Coccinella. LC50 values of daru peel and seed extracts along with mixture of three flavonoids (Kaempferol, Quercetin and Myricetin) were assessed at 48 hr values were 34.9, 4.7 and 0.6 mg/ml and at 72 hr these were 16.1, 0.000001 and 0.00001 mg/ml, respectively. In both the cases field bioassays showed affectivity till 7 DAT. Field data indicated that only X1(1 mg/ml) and X2 (0.1 mg/ml) concentrations of mixture were effective till 11 days after treatment. These are the first reports of the toxic effect of wild pomegranate (daru) fruit peel aqueous extract against M. rosaeformis, hence the study suggests possible usage of Punica granatum peel for the control of rose aphids.

Key words: Botanical insecticides, Eco-friendly agriculture, Plant extracts, Punica granatum


Effect of different spawn rates and substrate supplementation on yield of Indian Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel.

Joginder Pal1, Ranjna Sharma2, Manohar Lal3 and B. C. Suman1

1,2Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

3Department of Seed Science and Technology,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, So-lan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jpal15889@gmail.com

Received: September 30, 2016; Revised received: February 20, 2017; Accepted: July 11, 2017

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different spawn rates and substrate supplementation on yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. Among six spawn rates viz., 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%, respectively tried on wheat straw substrate, the spawn run was fastest (10.50 days) when spawn dose was 8%, followed by 6%, 4%, 2%, 1% and 0.5%, respectively. The pinheads appeared in 12.27 days by using spawn @ 8%, which proved to be the best spawn dose followed by 6%, 4%, 2%, 1% and 0.5%, respectively. Highest yield of 168.7 per 200g dry substrate was achieved @ 8% spawn rate. Lesser yields were recorded when spawn rate was reduced. The results also reveals the significantly highest biological efficiency of 84.33% at 8% spawn rate followed by 6%, 4%, 2%, 1% and 0.5%, respectively. It was concluded that spawn run was rapid at higher spawn rate but there was not much difference in yield when spawn dose was increased from 4 to 8%. Considering spawn cost and performance shown by different doses, 2-4% was found optimum dose for its cultivation.In case of substrate supplementation, wheat straw supplemented with cotton seed meal supported maximum mycelial growth (10.50 days of inoculation) and took mini-mum time for pinheads initiation (13.67 days). Similarly, maximum yield (155.3g) with biological efficiency of 77.65% was recorded on wheat straw supplemented with cotton seed meal followed by supplementation of saw dust, wheat straw (control), calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), ammonium nitrateand urea, respectively. These studies will help to mushroom growers for selecting the most suitable spawn rate and also opens viable option of supplementation as wheat straw + cotton seed meal for better growth behaviour and optimum yield potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius as well as other oyster mushrooms cultivation.

Keywords: Biological efficiency, Spawn rates, Supplementation, Wheat straw


Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, productivity, quality and nutrient uptake of irrigated yellow sarson (Brassica campestris L var. yellow sarson) in older alluvial soil of West Bengal

Amrit Raj* and R. B Mallick

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, 51/2 Hazra Road, Kolkata - 700019 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: amritagnm@rediffmail.com

Received: August 10, 2016; Revised received: February 23, 2017; Accepted: July 11, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi (winter) seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield, oil content and nutrient uptake of yellow sarson (Brassica cam-pestris L var. yellow sarson) in older alluvial soil of West Bengal. Significantly higher leaf area index (1.75 at 40 days after sowing; DAS), dry matter accumulation (1366.9 g/m2 at 80 DAS) and highest number of siliquae/plant (118.3), number of seeds/siliqua (21.8), seed yield (1.90 t/ha), stover yield (3.86 t/ha) were recorded significantly (at 5% lev-el) higher with poultry manure (PM) @2.5t/ha +50%RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer i.e. 80-40-40 of N-P2O5-K2O kg/ha) + PSB (phosphate solubilising bacteria) + AZ (Azotobacter) during both the years and on pooled basis. An average of 30.5% and 233% increase in seed yield by this treatment was recorded over sole application of RDF and control respectively. Integrated application of PM (2.5 t/ha) + 50% RDF + PSB + AZ recorded highest oil content (43.16%) and positive effect on soil fertility status. The highest benefit: cost ratios (2.26 and 2.4 in 2007-'08 and 2008-'09 respectively) were achieved from the use of 50% RDF + PM (2.5 t/ha) +PSB+AZ.

Keywords: Biofertilizer, Nutrient balance, Poultry manure, Vermicompost ,Yellow sarson


Egg parameters of the Red Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus) in agricultural ecosystem of Punjab

Manpreet Kaur* and K. S. Khera

Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author’s email: binner_manpreet@yahoo.com

Received: September 10, 2016; Revised received: April 6, 2017; Accepted: July 11, 2017

Abstract: The Red Wattled Lapwing is an important bird of the agro-ecosystem of the Punjab state, feeding on

insects, seeds and nectar. The present study was carried out to gather information on the egg parameters (morphometry and its components), which is lacking for this species. The eggs were observed in the nest construct-ed in the agricultural fields of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, Punjab. Egg length, width and weight were measured using vernier caliper and portable weighing balance, respectively, in laboratory. The egg parameters like egg volume, specific gravity and shape index were also calculated. Weight of egg components (yolk, albumen and shell) were also measured using weighing balance. Results revealed that average values of egg breadth, length and shape index were: 30.05±0.331 (mm), 41.29±0.573 (mm) and 72.83±0.930, respectively. Whereas whole egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, shell weight, albumen percentage, yolk percentage, shell percentage, egg

volume and specific gravity were 17.49±0.634(gm),7.17±0.374 (gm), 9.05±0.233 (gm), 1.26±0.070 (gm), 40.84±0.941 (%), 51.92±0.830 (%), 7.22±0.280 (%), 17.07±0.531(cm3) and 1.02±0.009 (gm/cm3), respectively. This study pro-vides important information that can help the avian taxonomists in species classification, as bird’s egg diverges widely in shape, volume, weight and percentage of albumen, yolk and shell. Therefore, we can use the egg parameters as additional information in bird systematic.

Keywords: Egg Component, Egg Parameters, Red Wattled Lapwing, Specific gravity, Shape index


Effect of Mesorhizobium, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and phosphorus on plant biometery and growth indices of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Zorawar Singh*1, Guriqbal Singh2 and Navneet Aggarwal2

1Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail. zs.dhillon@gmail.com

Received: September 10, 2016; Revised received: February 18, 2017; Accepted: July 13, 2017

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted during 2015-16 to study the effect of biofetilizer inoculation [control, Mesorhizobium only, Mesorhizobium + RB-1 (Pseudomonas argentinensis) and Mesorhizobium + RB-2 (Bacillus aryabhattai)] and four levels of phosphorus (0, 15, 20 and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1) on chickpea growth. RB-1 and RB-2 were the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Biofertilizers could play a crucial role in reducing the dependence on chemical fertilizers by fixing the atmospheric nitrogen for crop and/or by increasing the availability of phosphorus and phytohormones to the crop. The 16 treatment combinations were laid out in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. In biofertilizer treatments, Mesorhizobium + RB-1 proved superior over control and sole inoculation of Mesorhizobium and at par with Mesorhizobium + RB-2 with respect to plant height (cm), number of branches (plant-1), shoot and root dry matter (kg ha-1) which were recorded at 30, 60 90, 120 days after sowing (DAS) and at harvest. Application of 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave the highest values of all the growth at-tributes viz. plant height (60 cm), number of primary (5.3) and secondary (27.2) branches per plant, shoot dry matter (4000 kg ha-1) and root dry matter (354 kg ha-1) which were significantly higher than that of 0 and 15 kg P2O5 ha-1 and at par with 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Similar results were observed in case of crop growth rate (CGR) whereas relative growth rate (RGR) was not influenced significantly by various biofertilizer and phosphorus treatments. The dual inoc-ulation with PGPR strains along with phosphorus application have a supplementary effect on the growth of chickpea.

Keywords: Chickpea, growth indices, Mesorhizobium, phosphorus, shoot dry matter


Determination of economic threshold level for the timely management of cotton jassid Amrasca bigutulla (Ishida) on okra vegetable crop

Sandeep Kaur1, Amandeep Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur and A.K. Dhawan

1Department of Vegetable Sciene, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

Department of Entomology, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

Corresponding author. Email: amankaur17@pau.edu.

Received: September 11, 2016; Revised received: April 6, 2017; Accepted: July 14, 2017

Abstract: A field study was carried out at Vegetable Research Farm PAU, Ludhiana to determine the economic threshold level for the timely management of cotton jassid Amrasca bigutulla (Ishida) on okra vegetable crop. It was

observed that significantly lowest jassid nymphal count per leaf in the pooled data (0.96 nymphs/leaf) were registered

in the treatment where spray against jassid were given at 2 nymphs/leaf stage and first injury grade that is curling and yellowing of leaf margin as compared to others spray stages (1.54-1.72 nymphs/leaf) and unsprayed control (1.75 nymphs/leaf) significantly lowest jassid injury grade was also observed when spray stared at 2 nymphs/ leaf (0.58) and second spray stage curling and yellowing of leaf margin (0.65 nymphs/leaf) as against other spray stages (1.13 – 1.60 nymphs/leaf) and unsprayed control (1.63 nymphs/leaf). Maximum plant (110.33-110.44 cm) was also recorded as against other treatment (90.80 – 108.46 cm) and control (90.13cm). Total highest fruit yield (120.40-120.75) quintal /ha was also registered in these two treatments. Economic threshold level estimated for the management of cotton jassid on okra crop will help to develop an ecologically safe pest management practices against this pest.

Keywords: Amrasca bigutulla, Economic threshold level, Confidor, Okra

Efficacy of botanical formulations and fungicides against Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing white rot in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

Kishor Sharma* and Harender Raj

Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ks414173@gmail.com

Received: September 12, 2016; Revised received: March 5, 2017; Accepted: July 14, 2017

Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine inhibitory effect of plant extracts, their botanical formula-tions (BF1 and BF2) and safer fungicides against Botryosphaeria dothidea cause white rot of apple (Malus × domes-tica) during storage. Poisoned food technique was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different plant extracts, their botanical formulations and safer fungicides. Out of twelve botanicals evaluated under in vitro conditions against the white rot pathogen, leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was found most effective among all the treatments with 54.07 per cent average inhibition in mycelial growth. Out of twelve plants evaluated for their efficacy, six effective plants Karu (Roylea elegans), Artemisia (Artemisia roxburghiana), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Bana (Vitex negundo), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Darek (Melia azedarach) were selected for making two botanical formulations (BF1 and BF2). While, BF1 was water based formulation and BF2 was cow urine based formulation. Among these botanical formulations, BF2 inhibited mycelial growth of white rot pathogen by 72.70 per cent and BF1 66.37 per cent at 100 % concentration. Whereas, among the tested fungicides, Score at 100 ppm concentration was found to be most effective with 75.01 % average inhibition in mycelial growth of the white rot pathogen.

Keywords: Apple, Botanical formulation, Cow urine, Plant extracts, White rot

Land-site suitability evaluation for tea, cardamom and rubber using Geo-spatial technology in Wayanad district, Kerala

N. S. Gahlod, Sonam Binjola, Ravi and V. S. Arya

Soil and Land Use Survey of India, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers' Welfare, Ministry of

Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, INDIA

*Corresponding author Email: csso-slusi@nic.in

Received: September 27, 2016; Revised received: April 11, 2017; Accepted: July 16, 2017

Abstract: Kerala is one of the important states contributing to the production of plantation crops and spices in the country. Soil and Land evaluation in various land utilization types has been carried out to assess the land suitability for tea, cardamom and rubber in Wayanad district of Kerala. Different soil physico-chemical parameters like, pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and physical attributes database of soil mapping units developed in inventorying of soil resources at 1:50K scale using LISS-III satellite data on soil series and its association used to evaluate soil site suitability for tea, cardamom and rubber. The results indicated that for tea around 55.79% area is suitable for cultivation of which 14.62 %, 25.51 % and 15.66 % found highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2) and marginally suitable (S3), respectively. About 26.92 % and 12.10 % found moderately suitable (S2) and marginally suitable (S3) for cardamom and about 32.48 % area marginally suitable (S3) for rubber. The area unsuitable for cultivation (N) of tea, cardamom and rubber were found to be 11.69 %, 28.46 % and 34.99 %, respectively, due to constraints like relief, topography, soil physico-chemical attributes such as base saturation, pH and soil moisture regime etc. The study proposed an integrated methodology for mapping and assessing suitability of land using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

Keywords: Base saturation, GIS, Land suitability, Satellite data, Soil pH


Effect of packaging material and storage conditions on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtuber storability

Murlidhar Sadawarti*, R. K. Samadhiya, K. K. Pandey, R. K. Singh, S. P. Singh, S. Roy and Y. P. Singh
ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Gwalior -474020(MP), INDIA
ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla- 171001(HP), INDIA
ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi -221305(UP) , INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: murlidharsada@gmail.com
Received: October 3, 2016; Revised received: March 26, 2017; Accepted: July 17, 2017
Abstract: An experiment was conducted at the ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Gwalior (MP) during 2012-13 to study best packaging material and storage conditions for short term storage of potato microtubers of important varieties. Ten Micro tubers each of three popular varieties viz Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Lauvkar and Kufri Chandramukhi (KCM) were packed in 5 packaging materials/ storage containers viz polythene without ventilation, polythene with ventilation, conical flask with cotton plug, conical flask with plastic cap and petri plates and kept in three storage condition viz ambient temperature, refrigerator (40C) and plant growth chamber (30C). After 45 days of storage of potato microtubers, at 5 per cent level of significance both percent overall weight loss and driage/ rottage was significantly low in polythene without ventilation (13.19 and 10.37 respectively) among packaging material and among storage conditions, at 5 per cent level of significance both percent overall weight loss and driage/ rottage was signifi-cantly low in growth chamber condition of 40C (12.77 and 12.44 respectively) over other two storage conditions. Kufri Sindhuri recorded significantly lowest overall percent weight loss (17.95) and driage/ rottage (8.00) at 5 percent level of significance over KCM and Kufri Lauvkar. Kufri Sindhuri has better storability under growth chamber condition at 30C in polythene without ventilation packaging up to 45 days.
Keywords: Microtuber, Packaging material, Potato weight loss, Storage


System of wheat intensification (SWI) – A new approach for increasing wheat yield in small holder farming system

Lalita Rana1, Hirak Banerjee2, Krishnendu Ray3 and Sukamal Sarkar1*

1Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Regional Research Station (CSZ), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kakdwip-743347, (West Bengal), INDIA

3Sasya Shyamala Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Narendrapur-700103 (Kolkata), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sukamalsarkarc@yahoo.com

Received: October 18, 2016; Revised received: February 27, 2017; Accepted: July 22, 2017

Abstract: Given the confluence of water scarcity, declining area under wheat and continuing increase in population, raising wheat productivity has become a serious concern to the wheat scientists. Yield contribution from irrigation is more significant in wheat. Increase in the irrigation management levels for wheat is probably more relevant and

easier to improve water productivity. But transplanted wheat seems high water requiring and economically less feasible. Seedlings have usually poor survival rate, and are often more fragile than rice seedlings at the two leaves stage. Besides plants do not grow quickly and vigorously, and show a delay in development compared to the direct seeding treatment. All yield parameters are often lower compared to the direct seeding treatment due to transplanting of aged seedlings, greater shock of transplantation, high plant density, improper amount and timing of water deliveries. Therefore, applying SRI (system of rice intensification) practices is expected to have a positive impact on the wheat plants, similar to the impact on rice. SWI is a new concept and goes with the SRI principle. It can reduce weeding time to one-third and to one-half of the time needed for current weeding practice. Herbicide use is effective with SWI, but farmers are inventing or modifying tools that reduce the labour time required for weeding. Thus, SWI is a methodology aimed at increasing the yield of wheat, where all agronomic principles are put into practices to provide high wheat yield per drop of water and per kg of agricultural inputs like fertilizer, seed etc.

Keywords: Nutrient, System of intensification, Water, Wheat, Yield


Soil moisture depletion and ground water use by bed planted barley as influenced by cultivars, crop geometry and moisture regimes

Naveen Kumar*, Suresh Kumar, Parveen Kumar and Meena Sewhag

Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nknaveenroyal@gmail.com

Received: October 23, 2016; Revised received: February 28, 2017; Accepted: July 22, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi season 2011-2012 at Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agri-cultural University, Hisar, Haryana (India) to study the periodic soil moisture depletion and ground water use by bed planted barley as influenced by cultivars, crop geometry and moisture regimes under shallow water table conditions. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications keeping combinations of three cultivars viz., BH 393, BH 902 and BH 885 and two crop geometries viz 2 rows per bed and 3 rows per bed (70 cm wide with 40 cm top and 30 cm furrow) in main plots and three moisture regimes (irrigation at IW/CPE 0.3, 0.4 & 0.5) in sub plots. The results revealed that maximum soil moisture depletion (105 mm) and ground water contribution (62 mm) were recorded in BH 902, followed by BH 393 and BH 885. Among crop geometries, soil moisture depletion (96.6 mm) and ground water contribution (61 mm) were recorded higher in 3 rows per bed than 2 rows per bed. Among three moisture regimes, the soil moisture depletion (108 mm) and ground water contribution (65 mm) decreased with increase in moisture regime from irrigation at IW/CPE 0.3 to irrigation at IW/CPE 0.4 or 0.5.

Keywords: Barley, Bed planting, Ground water use, Moisture regimes, Soil moisture depletion


Estimation of genetic diversity among sugarcane (Saccharum species complex) clones

Rashmi Bisht, A. S. Jeena*, Deepak Koujalagi, S. P. Singh and K. A. Khan

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E- mail: dr.asjeena@gmail.com

Received: November 11, 2016; Revised received: March 15, 2017; Accepted: July 25, 2017

Abstract: The experimental materials consisted of 36 sugarcane clones including two checks (Co Pant 97222 and Co Pant 3220). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all the clones for all the traits under study namely no. of millable canes, cane height, single cane weight, juice sucrose percent , purity percent , cane yield and CCS yield except cane thickness, juice brix and juice extraction percent. The divergence studies through Mahalanobis D2 statistics grouped the 36 genotypes into eleven clusters. The maximum numbers of genotypes (21) were grouped in clusterI and the lowest (1) in cluster VI,VII,VIII,IX,X and XI. Members of cluster VII and XI (46.48) were found to be genetically most diverse on the basis of their inter cluster difference as opposite to clusters I and II (10.77) which are closely related. Cane height contributed maximum (15.397%) towards genetic divergence followed by Single cane weight (14.762%) and no. of millable cane (13.016%). These characters were considered to be most important for the genetic diversity. Lowest contribution was made by juice purity percent (4.286%) followed by Cane thickness(7.301%),Juice extraction percent (7.619%). Genetic diversity is important for sustainable production since greater losses of characteristics in any population limits its chances of survival. Little to no genetic diversity makes crops extremely susceptible to widespread biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic diversity can be assessed by Mahalanobis D2 statistic, which is a morphometric method and a powerful tool in quantifying the degree of divergence at genotypic level.

Keywords: Characterization, Clusters, Diversity, D2 statistics


Avian diversity and their status in and around Bhindawas bird sanctuary, Haryana (India)

Girish Chopra, Deepak Rai and Jyoti*

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jyotiikukz@gmail.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: December 12, 2016; Accepted: July 25, 2017

Abstract: One year survey conducted in and around Bhindawas bird sanctuary in district Jhajjar, Haryana (India) from January, 2015 to December, 2015; revealed a total of 104 bird species belonging to 15 orders and 39 families. Of these, 67 bird species were resident, 32 species were winter migrants and only 5 species were summer migrants. Based on their frequency of sighting, 33 bird species were categorized as Abundant, 27 species as Common, 32 species as Uncommon and 12 species as Rare. Maximum number of species belonged to order Passeriformes and least number of species belonged to order Podicipediformes and Strigiformes. Among the recorded birds, 4 species namely, Darter, Anhinga melanogaster; Black-necked Stork, Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus; Oriental White Ibis, Threskiornis melanocephalus; and Alexandrine Parakeet, Psittacula eupatria were near threatened and 2 species namely, Common, Pochard, Aythya ferina and Sarus Crane, Grus antigone were vulnerable. In early 1990s, a study was conducted on Bhindawas bird sanctuary and thereafter, a great deal of infrastructure, development and urbani-zation has occurred. However, scanty information is available on the avian diversity periodic monitoring of Bhinda-was bird sanctuary, Haryana. Therefore, present study was planned to monitor and document the avian species.

Keywords: Abundant, Bhindawas bird sanctuary, Diversity, Migrants, Resident


Evaluation of saturated hydraulic conductivity from soil properties in an Inceptisol using different land cover and depths

Tapan Kumar Kisku1*, Ashim Datta2, Nirmalendu Basak2, Sunil Mandi3, Sandip Hembram4, Ratneswar Roy1

1Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal-741 252, INDIA

2Division of Soil and Crop Management, ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

3ICAR-Central Tobacco Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Dinhata, Cooch Behar-736135 (West Bengal), INDIA

4Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal-741252, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tapan.kalyani@gmail.com

Received: September 15, 2016; Revised received: February 26, 2017; Accepted: July 25, 2017

Abstract: Three soil profiles from Regional Research Station of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Gayeshpur situated in New Alluvial zone of Nadia district, West Bengal were studied to assess the predictability of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil as influenced by different physical and chemical and properties of cultivated and forest land. The various statistical procedures were employed on the measured laboratory based data for comprehensive agree-ment of dependent hydraulic conductivity of soils as a model function of independent soil variables that is likely to be useful for different land cover systems. Soils are neutral in reaction, silty clay to silty clay loam in nature. Forest soil contained greater organic carbon (OC) (5.9 ± 0.16 g kg-1) compared to cultivated soil (4.4 ± 0.34 g kg-1). Jhau plan-tation recorded the highest value (6.8 g kg-1) of OC due to soil texture and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Soil hydraulic conductivity was greater in soil for cabbage and Sagun tree among the cultivated and forest soil studied with values 2.80 and 1.10 cmh -1. Correlation study showed a positive and negative relation with hydraulic conductiv-ity for sand (r= 0.68; P > 0.05) and clay (r= - 0.71; P > 0.05) respectively. Further, principal component analysis con-cluded that addition of bulk density with clay and sand can predict the hydraulic conductivity for different land uses.

Keywords: Forest land, Hydraulic conductivity, Land cover, Principal component analysis


Evolution in Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea Commers.) - A review

Priyadarshini Salam1, Veluru Bhargav2*, Y. C. Gupta1 and P. K. Nimbolkar3

1Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru (Karnataka), INDIA

3Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail. bhargavhorti12@gmail.com

Received: September 29, 2016; Revised received: March 10, 2017; Accepted: July 25, 2017

Abstract: Bougainvillea is a popular ornamental, mostly valued for its multi coloured bracts. It can be used in the garden as a shrub, climber, pot  plant or as a specimen plant. By keeping the view of its multiple uses there is always demand for the new coloured and forms of bracts in bougainvillea. All the present day colourful bracted bougainvilleas are developed through bud sports, mutations and inter and intra specific hybridization. There is no record of varieties evolved in bougainvillea through classical breeding in different countries. Present article will provide maximum information generated in India by different re-search institutes on classical and mutation breeding on bougainvillea.

Keywords: Bougainvillea, Breeding, Mutation, Ornamental plants


Combining ability, gene action and heritability analysis for early blight resistance, yield and quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Bharathkumar, M. V.1*, Sadashiva, A. T.2 and Punith kumar, R.2

1Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru-560089, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bharathkumarmv809@gmail.com

Received: September 29, 2016; Revised received: March 10, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017

Abstract: Nine tomato genotypes were crossed in Line ×Tester fashion to develop 18 hybrids, which, along with their parents and checks were evaluated for early blight resistance, fruit yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lyco-persicum) to know extent of combining ability for the same. IIHR1816 was found to be the best general combiner with significant highest GCA (General Combining Ability) in desirable direction for per cent disease index (-15.71), carotenoids (3.46), lycopene (2.43) and yield (13.13); while, for plant height (3.94), average fruit weight (25.93), fruit length (0.54), fruit breadth (0.63) and pericarp thickness (1.71), the line IIHR2848 was best general combiner. The tester IIHR2852 was a best general combiner for traits like days to 50% flowering (-0.83) and fruit firmness (0.51).The crosses viz., IIHR2891 × IIHR2853 (11.61), IIHR2850 × IIHR2852 (11.40) and IIHR2892 × IIHR2890 (11.19) were found to be superior specific combiners for yield. IIHR2892 × IIHR2852 was a superior specific combin-er for fruit quality traits like fruit firmness (0.98), total carotenoids (6.95) and lycopene (4.52).Best specific combiners for early blight resistance were IIHR2850 × IIHR2852 (-9.58), IIHR2891 × IIHR2890 (-9.58) and IIHR2892 × IIH-R2890 (-6.82). The experiment helped in identifying these superior general combiners and specific combiners for early blight resistance, coupled with good yield and quality of the crop, which can be used in further breeding under-takings.

Keywords: Combining ability, Early blight, Gene action, Heritability, Tomato


Entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar

Amita Yadav* and S.K. Kashyap

Department of Agricultural Communication, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amitayadavgbpuat@gmail.com

Received: October 7, 2016; Revised received: March 18, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017

Abstract: Entrepreneurship can positively impact human resource market by creating employment and economic opportunity, something that is of urgent need. Agriculture sector has immense untapped potential and huge busi-ness prospects for young entrepreneurs. Thus, to have an insight into these issues present study was undertaken to find out the socioeconomic, personal and psychological characteristics of undergraduate students along with their entrepreneurial intention. The study was conducted at College of Agriculture, G.B.P.U.A. and T. Pantnagar. Fifty five students from each, third year and final year of B.Sc. Agriculture were selected as respondents through simple random sampling technique using chit method. Analytical research design was used for the present study. Detailed pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 110 respondents for collection of data. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents (60.91 %) belonged to middle age group and were female (55.55 %), belonged to general caste (60.91 %) and had received their basic education in English (72.73 %). Regarding the entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students of agriculture, it was found that majority of the respondents (59.09 %) had mod-erate level of entrepreneurial intention, while 23.64 % of the respondents had low entrepreneurial intention and only 17.27 % students had high entrepreneurial intention. The findings of this study may help all stakeholders (policy makers, researchers, private institutions, entrepreneurship educators and youth development practitioners) who are concerned with developing youth entrepreneurship in the country.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economic, Entrepreneurial Intention, Entrepreneurship, Human resource


Studies on plasma treatment and priming of seeds of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Cherry Nalwa1*, Ashok K. Thakur1, Amit Vikram2, R. Rane3 and A. Vaid3

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr Y. S. Parmar university of horticulture and Forestry, Solan - 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Vegetable Science, Dr Y. S. Parmar university of horticulture and Forestry, Solan-173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

3FCIPT Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar- 382044, (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: cherrynalwa.123.cn@gmail.com

Received: November 8, 2016; Revised received: March 7, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan during the year 2014 -2015 to study the “Effect of cold plasma treatment and priming on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivar California Wonder) for seed germination and seedling vigour. The seeds were ex-posed to various durations of oxygen plasma treatment using glow discharge technique at FCIPT, Institute for Plas-ma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Seeds were pre-treated with power of 100 W for treatment durations of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 minutes for 0, 4, 8 and 12 month durations. The changes in surface morphology of plasma treated seeds were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Contact Angle Goniometer. Along with plasma treatment, seeds were also treated with standard priming method i.e osmoprimng for comparison. Results showed that plasma treatment alone as well as in combination with osmoprimng up to 6 minutes duration had positive effects on seed germination and seedling vigour. Germination and vigour indices significantly increased by 21.75% and 90.71% respectively. Characteristics of germination percentage, speed of germination, seedling vigour index-I & II, significantly increased by 13.92%, 1.39 cm, 0.38 mg, 322.07 respectively, compared with control. And it was found that immediately after plasma exposure the germination (84.41%) and vigour (228.50) was highest and it was reduced to (73.54%) and (174.27) after 12 months of storage. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth and modify the speed of germination i.e. higher speed of germination was observed in seeds exposed to plasma treat-ment for 6 minutes (59.82%), whereas, lowest germination speed (40.76%) was observed in untreated control.

Keywords: Bell pepper, Plasma treatment, Priming, SEM, Seed germination, Vigour


Compatibility of biocontrol agents and N fixing organisms with post emergence pre-mix herbicide-bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14 % SE

Sheeja K Raj1*, Elizabeth K Syriac2, K. N. Anith3 and K. S. Meenakumari3

1Coconut Research Station, Balaramapuram, Kerala Agricultural University, Thiruvananthapuram-695501 (Kerela), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, Thiruvananthapuram-695522 (Kerela), INDIA

3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, Thiruvananthapuram-695522 (Kerela), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sheejakraj70@gmail.com

Received: November 11, 2016; Revised received: February 19, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017

Abstract: The experiments were conducted in vitro in the Agricultural Microbiology laboratory at College of Agricul-ture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India to evaluate the compatibility of biocontrol agents Pseudomonas fluorescens and Tricoderma viride and N fixing organisms Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chroococcum to bispyribac sodium + metamifop 14 % SE, a new broad spectrum post emergence pre-mix herbicide mixture used for weed control in rice. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized block design with seven different concentrations of herbicide viz., 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 and 220 μL L-1 corresponding to field doses of 50, 60, 70, 80 90, 100 and 110 g ha-1 and a control (0 μL L-1). All the tested concentrations of the herbicide mixture were highly compatible with P. fluorescens, A. lipoferum and A. chroococcum. The radial colony diameter of T. viride was significantly influenced by different concentrations of the herbicide. The field dose of bisspyribac sodium + met-amifop up to 90 g ha-1 (180 μL L-1) is harmless to T. viride, since it recorded a growth inhibition of only 22.96 per cent but higher doses (100 and 110 g ha-1) which recorded a growth inhibition of 31.48 and 37.04 per cent respectively were slightly harmful to the antagonistic fungus. The compatibility results revealed the possibility of using bispyribac sodium + metamifop for weed control at recommended doses (70, 80 or 90 g ha-1) under bio intensive disease management programme involving P. fluorescens / T. viride and nutrient management programme involving A. liopferum / A chroococcum.

Keywords: Bio control agents, Bispyribac sodium + metamifop, Compatibility, Herbicide mixture, N fixing organisms


Qualitative ultrastructural changes and morphometry of deccani sheep spermatozoa preserved with egg yolk citrate extender

Madishetti Rajashri*1, Komati Ramchandra Reddy1, Gangineni Aruna Kumari1, Nagireddy Nalini Kumari2, Surabhi Kesharwani1, Gandham Srinivas1

1Department of Veterinary Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Veterinary Science, P.V. Narsimha Rao Telangana Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (Telangana), INDIA

2Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, P.V. Narsimha Rao Telangana Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (Telangana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rsri0835@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: April 5, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was aimed to study the sequential changes in the sperm cell deterioration dur-ing liquid storage of Deccani sheep breed semen from dilution to 48 h of storage along with its seminal characteris-tics and sperm morphometric measurement. Thus the two Deccani adult rams (aged 2 years), were selected (six ejaculates/each ram) and the collected semen was diluted with Egg yolk citrate extender (EYC) (final concentration - 400 million spermatozoa/0.2 ml semen).Seminal characteristics were assessed along with sperm morphologi-cal changes by Electron microscopy immediately after dilution, at 24 and 48 h of storage, respectively. Sperm morphometry was analysed by Image analysis.The percentage of Individual motility, Live spermatozoa, Acrosomal integrity and Hos-test reactive sperm decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 80.41 to 49.16%, 82.75 to 51.25%, 94.16 to 83% and 76 to 48.58%, respectively during liquid storage of semen from initial dilution to 48 h of storage. The sperm head length (μm), Head width, sperm head area (μm2), sperm head perimeter (μm), mid piece length (μm), proximal mid piece width (μm), distal midpiece width (μm), volume of mid piece (μm3) and acrosomal cap length (μm) were 7.80, 4.33, 26.84, 20.63, 14.03, 0.74, 0.51, 4.54 and 5.24, respectively. Electron microscopic qualitative evaluation revealed that the main site of injury is the apical ridge of ram spermatozoa when stored at 5ºC. The electron density of the mitochondria reduced indicating concomittant depletion of ATP and loss of motility resulting in reduction of fertility.

Keywords: Liquid preservation, Sperm cell deterioration, Sperm morphometry, Electron microscopy, Mitochondria


Additions to the thrips (Thysanoptera) fauna of Odisha, India

R. R. Rachana1* and R. Varatharajan2

1Division of Insect Systematics, National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bengaluru-560024 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Centre of Advanced Study in Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal-795003 (Manipur), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vavarachana@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: February 21, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017

Abstract: Ten thrips species in ten genera of two families (Phlaeothripidae and Thripidae) of suborders Tubulifera and Terebrantia (Order Thysanoptera) are newly added to the fauna of Odisha, India. These species collected from various host plants are being reported for the first time from Odisha; three species in Phlaeothripidae and seven in Thripidae. Three species, Panchaetothrips stepheni, Scirtothrips bispinosus and Elaphrothrips greeni are recorded as new distribution reports from North India whereas, Crotonothrips polyalthiae has been newly reported from India. This survey reports newly added nine genera viz.,Astrothrips, Panchaetothrips, Selenothrips, Neohydatothrips, Den-drothripoides, Megalurothrips, Elaphrothrips, Crotonothrips and Karnyothrips and two subfamilies Panchaetothripi-nae and Idolothripinae to the fauna of Odisha. Diagnostic features, distribution and data on material studied for the-se species are given. The number of known species of thrips in Odisha is thus increased to 23.

Keywords: New state records, Odisha, Thrips, Thysanoptera


Comparative evaluation of different pretreatment methods on biogas production from paddy straw

Vishwas Garg1*, Rouf Ahmad Dar1 and Urmila Gupta Phutela2

1Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: garg.vishwas11@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: March 29, 2017; Accepted: July 29, 2017

Abstract: The present investigations observed the effect of chemical, enzymatic, biological and micro-wave pretreatment on paddy straw for enhancement of biogas production. Chopped and soaked paddy straw was subjected to chemicals Na2CO3 (1%) and NaOH (2%) concentrations, microwave irradiation (720 watt, 30 min), fungal (spawn impregnated, 7 days) and crude silicase (24 hrs) pretreatment. The proximate and chemical analysis showed 16.0% and 12.1% reduction in lignin and silica content in the case of Na2CO3 pretreated paddy straw whereas 23.0% and 46.8% reduction was observed in enzymatic pretreatment with 43.7% and 31.1% enhancement in biogas production respectively. This clearly indi-cates that Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 142 is silicolytic as well as ligninolytic in nature. Enzymatic pre-treatment was also compared with, microwave (30 min) and fungal pretreatment which showed 31.2% and 32.8% reduction in silica content enhancing biogas production by 19.7% and 42.6% respectively. NaOH pretreatment showed a maximum increase in biogas production i.e. 49.7% as compared to 1% pretreated sample which showed 28.5% enhancement. The results indicated that the NaOH pretreatment was one of the potential methods to increase biogas production of paddy straw.

Keywords: Biogas production, Ligninolytic, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pretreatment, Silicolytic


Effect of planting techniques and weed control treatments on growth and yield of wheat

Sudesh Devi1, V.S. Hooda1*, Jagdev Singh1 and Anil Kumar2

1Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of FM&PE, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vshooda79@gmail.com

Received: October 5, 2016; Revised received: March 4, 2017; Accepted: July 31, 2017

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different planting techniques (conventional drill sowing at 16, 18 and 20 cm row spacing and bed planting with two and three rows in main plots) and weed control treatments (pinoxaden 50 g/ha, ready-mix (RM) of carfentrazone and metsulfuron 25 g/ha and pinoxaden 50 g/ha + RM of carfentrazone and metsulfuron 25 g/ha in subplots) on growth and productivity of wheat. The grain yield under row spacing 18 cm (53.30 q/ha), and 20 cm (52.02 q/ha), and three rows bed planting (51.96 q/ha) were recorded statistically at par with each other and significantly higher than 16 cm (49.37 q/ha) row spacing and two row bed planting (48.53 q/ha). Gross returns (Rs. 95637/ha) and net returns (Rs. 43929/ha) and B:C ratio (1.85) were record-ed higher under 18 cm row spacing compared to other planting techniques. Tank mixed application of pinoxaden 50 g/ha + RM of carfentrazone and metsulfuron 25 g/ha applied at 35 days after sowing (DAS) controlled both grassy and broad leaved weeds effectively with lower values of weed dry matter accumulation (7.67 g/ha) and produced growth parameters, yield attributes and yield (53.16 q/ha) at par with weed free treatment. In light of the results to maximise productivity, 18 cm row spacing may be practiced and tank mix application of pinoxaden (50 g/ha) + RM of carfentrazone and metsulfuron (25 g/ha) is recommended to reduce losses due to complex weed flora in wheat.

Keywords: Growth, Planting techniques, Weed control, Wheat, Yield


Comparison of wheat yield and soil properties under open and poplar based agroforestry system

Neema Bisht*, V. K. Sah, Kavita Satyawali and Salil Tiwari

Department of Agroforestry, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand),INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: neemabishtagri@gmail.com

Received: October 6, 2016; Revised received: March 6, 2017; Accepted: July 31, 2017

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2013-14 on an established plantation at old site of Agroforestry Research Centre, Patharchatta of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantna-gar, District Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India to evaluate the effect of poplar based agroforestry system and open system (without poplar) on yield of different wheat varieties and soil physico-chemical properties.The experi-ment was laid out in randomized block design with 4 treatments and each replicated thrice under both the growing conditions. The crop treatments are wheat varieties viz. UP-2572, PBW-550, DBW-711 and PBW-373. The highest grain yield of all the wheat varieties was obtained under open farming system. Highest grain yield of wheat was rec-orded in UP-2572 (45.3 q/ha) under open farming system. Agroforestry is proven land use system for vertically en-hancing soil health against unsuitable weather condition. The distribution of soil properties was detected from the depth 0-15 cm in poplar based agroforestry system and as well as in open system. During the experiment it was found that agroforestry add more nutrients to the soil compared to open system i.e. highest pH (7.9), EC (0.43 dSm-1), available soil nitrogen (253.48 kg/ha), potassium (219.63 kg/ha) were achieved with UP-2572 while organic car-bon (1.07%) and available soil phosphorus (22.72 kg/ha) were attained with DBW-711.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Correlation, Nutrient, Variety, Yield


Dynamics of Sclerotium rolfsii as influenced by different crop rhizosphere and microbial community

K. Ray1, K. Sen1, P.P. Ghosh2, A. Roy Barman1, R. Mandal1, M. De Roy3 and S. Dutta1*

1Department of Plant Pathology, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia (West Bengal), INDIA

2Rice Research Station, Bankura, (West Bengal), INDIA

3Soil Testing Laboratry, Berhampore (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: subratadutta1972@gmail.com

Received: October 30, 2016; Revised received: March 5, 2017; Accepted: July 31, 2017

Abstract: This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating pathogenicity of Sclerotium rolfsii to different crops influenced by different crop rhizosphere microbes and their population dynamics. Napier was found to be non-preferred host against S. rolfsii pathogen. Among the seven tested crops in micro-plot study, highest level of induction of sclerotial population was observed in groundnut and cow peas (21.81 and 20.06 numbers of sclerotia /100 g of soil, respectively), whereas, reduction in sclerotial number was observed in napier, maize and sorghum plots. S. rolfsii induced damping off was found to be significantly positively correlated with average sclerotial population irrespective of plant cover even at 1% level of significance (r = 0.985) and among the microbiological parameters, FDA was found to be significantly negatively correlated with damping off disease percentage at 5% level of significance (r = - 0.830). Therefore, Napier may be the potential crop to be incorporated in the sequence of rice/vegetable based cropping system in West Bengal for management of this dreaded pathogen.

Keywords: Conducive soils, Crop rhizosphere, FDA, Soil borne pathogens, Suppressive soils


Genetic diversity and character association analysis based on pomological traits in olive (Olea europaea L.)

S. Lal*, O. C. Sharma and D. B. Singh

ICAR- Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Old Airport, P.O., Rangreth, Srinagar-190 007 (J & K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shivcith@gmail.com

Received: October 30, 2016; Revised received: February 23, 2017; Accepted: August 2, 2017

Abstract: Thirteen exotic genotypes of olive (Olea europaea L.) were studied for the genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for fruit quality, yield and yield contributing traits at experimental farm of ICAR-CITH, Srinagar during 2009-2013. Maximum variability was recorded for fruit yield and oil content, however, low differ-ences between the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations indicated low environmental influences on the expression of these characters. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was obtained with fruit yield per plant, acidity, fruit pulp weight, fruit weight and stone weight. Fruit weight (r=0.329), stone weight (r=0.405) and oil content (r=0.841) were the most important traits, which possessed significant positive association with fruit yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis revealed that among the different yield contributing characters oil content (0.875), fruit weight (0.797) followed by acidity (0.501), peroxides value ( 0.199) and fruit length (0.054) influenced fruit yield per plant directly. The direct effects of these characters on fruit yield were found positive and considerably very high.The selection based on fruit weight, stone weight oil content and yield per plant will be effective for enhancing the fruit and oil yieldand making future olive breeding strategies.

Keywords: Character association, Genetic diversity, Olive, Path analysis, Temperate, Yield


Gene action and combining ability estimates of newly developed CMS based heterotic rice hybrids (Oryza sativa L.)

R. Madhuri1*, N. Shivakumar2, K. G. Bindhu3, H. C. Lohithaswa4, and R. Pavan5

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga -577 204 (Karnataka), INDIA

4&5Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya- 571 405 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Hybrid Rice Section, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya- 571 405 (Karnataka), INDIA

3Department of Plant Pathology, University for Agricultural Sciences, Raichur -584 104(Karnataka), INDIA

*Correspondence Email: madhu13madhuri@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: April 5, 2017; Accepted: August 2, 2017

Abstract: An insight knowledge nature and relative magnitude of gene actions involved and combining ability is useful for a breeder to assess nicking ability in self-pollinated crops. In this connection, an attempt was made to esti- mate the gene action and combining ability of 70 newly developed CMS based heterotic rice hybrids developed from ten newly developed CMS lines and seven testers were evaluated for grain yield and its components at Hybrid rice scheme, ZARS, V. C. Farm, Mandya. Among the lines, CMS 2 had significant gca effects at 1% level of significance in desired direction for four traits viz., panicle weight, pollen fertility, spikelet fertility and number of spikelets per pan- icle. Out of seven testers, KMR 3 found to be good general combiner for five traits viz., days to 50 per cent flower- ing, plant height, number of tillers per plant, number of panicles per plant and grain L/B ratio. Among the 70 hybrids, CMS1 × KMR3 was good specific combiner for grain yield per plant and grain L/B ratio. It further revealed that SCA variances were higher than the GCA variances for all the characters which indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action. Hence, CMS 2 and KMR 3 are identified as promising lines which can be used in further breeding pro- gramme.

Keywords: CMS lines, Combining ability, Gene action, GCA, SCA


Integrated nutrient management for high productivity and net returns in lentil (Lens culinaris)

Guriqbal Singh*, Harpreet Kaur Virk and Veena Khanna

Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: singhguriqbal@pau.edu

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: March 6, 2017; Accepted: August 2, 2017

Abstract: The experiment was conducted to study the integrated nutrient management for high productivity and net returns in lentil. Results revealed that nodulation was significantly (P≥0.01) enhanced in treatments comprising of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) along with recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), farmyard manure (FYM) and vermicompost. Treatments comprising of Rhizobium + PSB along with RDF, 50% RDF, FYM and vermicompost showed higher nodule dry weight as compared to the treatments without biofertilizers. Pods plant-1 was highest in RDF + Rhizobium + PSB. Combination of different organic sources with RDF resulted in significantly (P≥0.001) higher grain yield than RDF only. RDF + 5 t ha-1 FYM resulted in 26.3 and 6.7 per cent higher grain yield over control and RDF alone, respectively. RDF + Rhizobium + PSB recorded the highest net returns (Rs 40321 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.78). It can be concluded that supplementing the recommended dose of nutrients (12.5 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 ha-1) with 5 t ha-1 FYM or 2 t ha-1 vermicompost or Rhizobium + PSB inoculation help in obtaining high grain yields and net returns in lentil.

Keywords: Grain yield, Lentil, Net returns, Nodulation, Rhizobium


Quantification of surface runoff in Patiala-Ki-Rao watersheds using modified NRCS model: a case study

Sumita Chandel* and M. S. Hadda

Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author: sumi.chandel@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: February 25, 2017; Accepted: August 5, 2017

Abstract: Quantification of the surface runoff in a watershed is of vital importance for solution of many water resource problems. It can be quantified by employing large number of estimation approaches. Of these, SCS-CN approach is quite simple effective and requires less number of parameters. Thus, the objective of the study was to employ soil conservation service-curve number (SCS-CN) approach and their modifications to estimate surface runoff for Patiala-Ki-Rao watershed, district SAS, Nagar, Punjab and to choose the best model of the 8-different employed models. Soil moisture retention parameter was characterised and optimised by using the descriptive statistics and later used in the models. The mean and median valueof soil moisture retention parameter was 47.2 mm and 35.9 mm for June to September months and 35.4 to 30.8 mm for October to March months. The models were evaluated on the basis of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Nash- Scutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Per cent Bias (PB). Of the evaluated and tested models, NRCS model (M5) performed best with the highest score of 32 and 31 by employing mean andmedian values of soil moisture retention parameter in Patiala-Ki-Rao watersheds over the other models. Further, the results of the study suggested in evaluating the performance of NRCS model (M5) in other treated micro-watersheds at Patiala-Ki-Rao, Punjab, over the control.

Keywords: Model, Nash Scutclifee Efficiency, Punjab, Root mean square error, Watershed


Jute seed production as influenced by dates of sowing and topping in red and laterite zone of West Bengal

Bikas Chandra Patra*, Nirmal Kumar Dinda, Korla Aditya Chowdary and Milan KantiKundu

Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author’s e-mail: bikascpatra@gmail.com

Received: December 16, 2016; Revised received: March 22, 2017; Accepted: August 5, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was carried out during thekharif season of two consecutive years 2014 and 2015 at Regional Research Sub-station, Raghunathpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Purulia, West Bengal with the view to maximise the jute seed yield by manipulating certain non-monetary techniques like dates of sowing and topping associated with crop production. The Capsularis variety Bidhan pat-3 was sown in three different dates (1st-25th June, 2nd-15th July and 3rd-5th August) with 3 topping (clipping of apical portion) practices at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) as separate treatment with no topping as control. These different agronomic practices significantly (at 5 % probability level) influenced the performance of the crop in various aspects. The 1st date of sowing showed its supremacy in terms of expression of the crop in the field in all the aspects achieving a seed yield of 709.50 kg ha-1 and 737.85 kg ha-1 during first and second year respectively, whereas, the last date of sowing showed its inferiority obtaining a seed yield of 590.10 kg ha-1 and 647.13 kg ha-1all through the first and second year respectively.1stdate of sowing also recorded higher net return(Rs. 33721.50 ha-1& Rs.35989.50 ha-1 during first and second year) and benefit: cost ratio (1.46 and 1.56 in first and second year) over the other two date of sowing. How-ever, maximum seed yield was achieved when the crop was topped on 45 DAS (728.80 kg ha-1 and 773.57 kg ha-1 during first and second year) irrespective of the date of sowing.

Keywords: Date of sowing, Economics, Jute, Seed yield, Topping


Spatial distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) in Cabbage in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

S. C. Verma*, P. L. Sharma and R. K. Bhardwaj**

Department of Entomology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

**Department of Vegetable Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: scvermaento@gmail.com

Received: December 18, 2016; Revised received: March 11, 2017; Accepted: August 5, 2017

Abstract: Investigations were carried out during two consecutive Rabi seasons of 2014 and2015 at the Experi-mental Farm of the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and For-estry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India to study the spatial distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae in cabbage. One month old cabbage seedlings were planted in the field in the month of November during both the years. Distri-bution pattern of any insect population is an important aspect as it represents the interaction between individuals of the species and their habitat. Spatial distribution is useful for designing efficient sampling programmes for population estimation and development of population models. Spatial distribution is also important to understand the bioecology of the pest and to determine the sampling protocol for that species. In the present study variance to mean ratio (s2/X),mean crowding (X*), ratio of mean crowding to mean (X*/X), ‘k’ of negative binomial, Taylor’s power equation(s2 = 0.9099X1.55 during 2014 and s2 = 2.9861X1.1949 during 2015), Iwao’s patchiness regression and optimum number of samples (Nopt) required to achieve the desired precision were calculated for different densities. Cabbage aphid, B. brassicae appeared in the fourth standard week i.e last week of January( 26.2 aphids/ plant during 2014 and 0.30 aphids/ plant during 2015) and persisted upto thirteenth standard week i.e last week of April ( 18.4 aphids/ plant during 2014 and 18.2 aphids/ plant during 2015) and followed a negative binomial distribution during both years. Optimum number of samples (Nopt) required varied with mean density as well as precision level. The present study will serve as basic information to develop a sampling plan of B. Brassicae in cabbage for its monitoring and management.

Keywords: Brevicoryne brassicae, Cabbage aphid, Cole crops, Dispersion, Sampling


Genetic variability for grain yield and water use efficiency in blackgram genotypes

N. Jyothi Lakshmi*, M. Vanaja, S. K. Yadav, Amol Patil, Ch. Ram Prasad, P. Sathish, Vijay Kumar, Vagheera, K. Salini and M. Maheswari

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad (Telangana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lakshmi.jyothi70@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2016; Revised received: April 8, 2017; Accepted: August 5, 2017

Abstract: Transpiration efficiency (TE, g biomass kg-1 water transpired) is the preferred measure for examining po- tential genetic variation in crop water use efficiency (WUE). TE was assessed gravimetrically from sowing to grain harvest in fifteen blackgram accessions, two checks and two local varieties under well-watered conditions during kharif season. TEbiomass varied from 2.87 - 5.27 g kg-1 and TEseed varied from 1.10 - 2.03 g kg-1 among genotypes. High coefficient of variability was observed for seed yield and TEseed.Total biomass, TEbiomass, HI and water transpired recorded medium coefficient of variability. High heritability in broad sense was observed for seed yield, TEseed and total biomass. High genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for seed yield, TEseed, total biomass and TEbiomass. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for seed yield, total biomass and TEseed.TEseed is significantly positively correlated with TEbiomass (0.883**), seed yield/ plant (0.805**), HI (0.757**) and biomass (0.572*). TEbiomass, seed yield per plant, total biomass and HI were the important components of TEseed as revealed by correlation studies.D2 analysis partitioned the nineteen genotypes in to five clusters. The maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster II and V (24.94) and III and IV (22.6). Genotypes IC436665, IC343952 and Local II (Cluster III) had high mean values for TEbiomass and TEseed along with total biomass and seed yield. These genotypes should be useful in future breeding programs for higher water use efficiency.

Keywords: Blackgram, Cluster analysis, Heritability, Water use efficiency


Chlorophyll and carotenoid content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under heat stress as affected by trehalose application

Aparjot Kaur* and S. K. Thind

Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aparjotranu@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: October 24, 2016; Accepted: August 5, 2017

Abstract: Presently, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were evaluated under control (25±2°C), heat stress (35±2°C and 40±2°C) and interactive effect of heat stress and trehalose in six wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes (HD2967, PBW175, C306, PBW343, PBW621 and PBW590). Trehalose an osmoprotectant, at concen-tration of 1mM and 1.5mM was applied at 7 days after sowing (DAS) followed by heat stress of 35±2°C (moderate) and 40±2°C (severe) on 8DAS for 4 and8 hours. As chloroplast thylakoid membranes, are highly vulnerable to heat stress, the chlorophyll content decreased with increased temperature stress in all selected genotypes. Heat stress significantly reduced (P< 0.05) the carotenoid content in all genotypes. Severe heat stress (8 hours) more adversely affected these mentioned parameters. The application of Trehalose @ 1.5mM as compared with 1mM concentration was found more effective to ameliorate the adverse effect of heat stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents to sustain photosynthetic process.

Keywords: Heat stress, Photosynthetic pigments, Trehalose, Wheat


Foraging behavior of major insect pollinators on Pumpkin, Cucurbitamoschata (Duch.ex Lam)

Lalita* and Yogesh Kumar

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email- lalitapanwar17@gmail.com

Received: July 19, 2016; Revised received: February 19, 2017; Accepted: August 6, 2017

Abstract: Foraging activity period of different honey bee species on C. moschata (C-1076) flowers at different day hours during August-September (2013) revealed that A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea initiated their activity early in the morning at 0530, 0615, 0625 and 0630 h, respectively and stopped their activity at 1030, 1020, 1025 and 1030 h of the day, respectively while on C. moschata (C-1106, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea initiated their activity early in the morning at 0535, 0615, 0620 and 0625 h, respectively and ceased their activity at 1045, 1025, 1015 and 1040 h of the day, respectively. The mean foraging speed (time spent per flower) in

seconds on flowers of pumpkin (C-1106) was maximum of A. florea (181.72), followed by A. mellifera (7.15), A. cerana (6.05) and A. dorsata spent least time (5.83) and in pumpkin (C-1076), foraging speed was maximum in case of A. florea (178.71), followed by A. mellifera (7.63), A. cerana (6.24) and A. dorsata spent least time (6.06). The mean foraging rate (flowers visited per minute) on flowers of pumpkin (C-1106) was maximum in case of A. dorsata (5.13), followed by A. cerana (4.30), A. mellifera (4.16) and A. florea visited least flower (0.32) and in pumpkin (C-1076), foraging rate was maximum in case of A. dorsata (4.96), followed by A. cerana (4.19), A. mellifera (4.02) and A. florea visited least flower (0.33). Present study advises the farmers that they should not apply the pesticide when the activity of honey bee is on the peak period because pesticides application at the time of bee activity in the field crop causes mortality of bees.

Keywords: Foraging rate, Foraging speed, Honey bee species, Pumpkin

Vermiwash: An effective nutritive boon to foliage and crops

Manpreet Kaur* and Devinder Pal Kaur

Department of Zoology, Khalsa College for Women, Civil Lines, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

Corresponding author. E-mail: manpritsaini00088@gmail.com

Received: August 2, 2016; Revised received: February 18, 2017; Accepted: August 6, 2017

Abstract: Earthworms are often known as soil scientist. They are the main driving force that helps in sustainable production of food. They maintain the soil’s physical, chemical and biological health and act as a bio fertiliser. Their excreta and body fluids (vermiwash) has a significant effect in promoting the growth of the agricultural plants. The shoot length, root length, number of twigs, flowers, fruit, grains and biomass, were increased significantly in all the plants that were treated with this biofertilizer. The analysis of the wash showed the high content of various macro and micro nutrients like Ca, K, P, S, organic carbon, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe etc. It also helps the plants for attainment of maturity and reproduction at faster rate, thus reducing the ‘life-cycle’ of crops and shortening their ‘harvesting time’. So, it can be concluded there is significant increase in vermicompost treated plants as there is reduction in the incidence of ‘pest and disease attack’, and we can now control pests without pesticides’ and ‘now we can have a better taste of chemical-free organic food products.

Keywords: Agricultural plants, Bio-fertilizer, Soil micronutrients, Vermiwash


RNA interference- a novel approach for plant disease management

Anita Puyam1, Shikha Sharma1 and Prem Lal Kashyap2*

1Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat & Barley Research (IIWBR), Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anitapau6243@gmail.com

Received: October 6, 2016; Revised received: February 19, 2017; Accepted: August 8, 2017

Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is an incredible revolution in the field of functional genomics, a breakthrough in plant molecular genetics. This technology will generate enormous potential for engineering control of gene expres-sion. The success of managing biotic stress using RNAi technology will prove to be biologically and environmentally safe. It is therapeutic in approach as the resistance induced by RNAi is triggered by ds RNA that results in silencing of specific genes before being translated in a homology dependent manner. Over the time, RNAi is significantly proving it as one of the most promiscent management strategy which eliminates certain risks associated with the development of transgenic plants. This review gives an insight into the probability of management of plant diseases caused by various biotic agents viz. fungi, bacteria and viruses using RNA interference technique and host-pathogen related targeted sites.

Keywords: Diseases, Functional genomics, Gene Expression, Management, RNAi

Effect of ethrel spray on the ripening behaviour of mango (Mangifera indica L.) variety 'Dashehari'

P. S. Gurjar*, A.K. Verma, Abhay Dikshit and D. K. Shukla

Division of Post Harvest Management, ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow-226101 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pawan09996@gmail.com

Received: November 5, 2016; Revised received: February 27, 2017; Accepted: August 8, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of post harvest spray of different concentrations (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm) of ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) on ripening and colour development in ‘Dashehari’ mango fruits harvested in second week of June, 2015. The treated fruits were assessed for physico-chemical parameters such as physiological loss in weight (%), firmness (Kg/cm2), TSS (°Brix), titrable acidity (%), total carotenoids (mg/100g) and peel chlorophyll (mg/100g) and observations were recorded at 2 days interval during 8 days storage at ambient temperature. Changes in total soluble solids (8.5 to 23.23° Brix), total carotenoids (0.807 to 7.12 mg/100g) and PLW (14.58%) showed increasing trends up to 8 days during storage whereas fruit firmness (8.5 to 0.68 Kg/cm2), titrable acidity (1.26 to 0.08%) and total peel chlorophyll (5.2 to 0.14 mg/100g) showed decreasing trends. At the end of the storage period for 8 days, Ethrel spray at 600 ppm induced uniform ripening with attractive yellow colour within 4 days while untreated control fruits failed to ripen uniformly and remain light green even after 8 days of storage. Ripening advances by 4 days in fruits sprayed with 600 ppm ethrel com-pared to unsprayed control fruits.

Keywords: ‘Dashehari’ mango, Ethrel Spray, Ripening, Uniform colour


Character association and path analysis for yield and its related traits in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) genotypes

Shivangi Negi1*, Arun Bhatt2 and Vineet Kumar2

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, VCSG University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

2Department of Crop Improvement, VCSG Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shivanginegi002@gmail.com

Received: November 11, 2016; Revised received: March 7, 2017; Accepted: August 8, 2017

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted during Kharif, 2014 at Research Block, Department of Crop Improvement, College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry. The thirty-five diverse genotypes of finger millet, Eleusine coracana (L.) including three checks viz., PRM-1, PRM-2 and VL-149 laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with replication. The data on 14 quantitative traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), flag leaf area (cm2), peduncle length (cm), number of leaves on main culm, number of productive tillers per plant, number of fingers per ear, finger length (cm), ear length (cm), biological yield per plant (g), harvest index (%), 1000 seed weight, grain yield per plant (g) were collect-ed randomly from 5 plants form each genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among all thirty five genotypes with a wide range of mean values for different characters. Grain yield per plant exhibited very strong positive association with biological yield per plant (0.6196, 0.6805), harvest index (0.4370, 0.3624), number of productive tillers per plant (0.3950, 0.4477), 1000 seed weight (0.3697, 0.3972) and peduncle length (0.2473, 0.2694) at phenotypic and genotypic level. Path-coefficient analysis indentified biological yield per plant (0.8983, 1.1590) and harvest index (0.7390, 0.9162) as major direct contributors towards grain yield per plant at phenotypic and genotypic level. The characters identified above merit due consideration in formulating effective selection strategy in finger millet for developing high yielding varieties.

Keywords: Character association, Finger millet, Path-coefficient, Quantitative traits

Evaluation of periphyton quantity on different natural substrates in Earthen lined pond

A. Anix Vivek Santhiya*, S. Athithan, B. Ahilan, J. Stephen Sampath kumar and A. Srinivasan

Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Tharuvaikulam-628105, (Thoothukudi) INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: santhiyafcri@gmail.com

Received: November 11, 2016; Revised received: February 22, 2017; Accepted: August 8, 2017

Abstract: Experiments were conducted in outdoor earthen lined pond to study periphyton quantity on three types of natural substrates such as split bamboo pole, coconut coir and coconut shell, which was placed inside the earthen lined pond filled with seawater for duration of 45 days. Observations were made in every 15th day for growth of periphyton both qualitatively and quantitatively on the three natural substrates and physico-chemical properties of selected pond water such as transparency, water temperature, salinity, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Ammonia (NH3-N), Nitrite (NO2-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), BOD and Chlorophyll ‘a’ were recorded during periphyton samplings. The periphy-ton quantity (34562 ± 671 cells / cm2) observed for coconut coir was higher than the split bamboo pole (33104 ± 810 cells / cm2), and coconut shell (21194 ± 872 cells / cm2) in the final day of the experiment. One way ANOVA of the data collected clearly affirmed that significant differences were observed (P < 0.05) in periphyton quantity among the three substrates tested. A total 16 phyto-periphytic microalgae (Bacillariophyceae – 10 types, Dinophyceae – 4 types and Cyanophyceae – 2 types) and 10 Zoo-periphyton (Copepod- 4 types, Meroplankton – 4 types and Tintin-nidae – 2 types) were recorded from these three substrates. Among the different phyto-periphytic microalgae, Bacil-lariophyceae group were found to be more (Split bamboo pole – 72%, Coconut coir – 73% and Coconut shell – 71%) on three substrates studied. Further, coconut coir was found to be best substrate than split bamboo pole and coconut shell, which can be utilized by fin and shellfishes as natural food.

Keywords: Earthern lined pond, Natural food, Natural substrates, Periphyton quantity and quality

Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) as a tool to monitor pollution and green belt development: A review

Bhavika Sharma1, Sandeep Sharma1, S. K. Bhardwaj2, Lakhvinder Kaur3 and Abhay Sharma2

1Silviculture and Tree Improvement Division, Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla (H.P.), INDIA

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (H.P.), INDIA

3Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ahaanasharma@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: March 16, 2017; Accepted: August 8, 2017

Abstracts: Air pollution is a global phenomenon arising out of the unsustainable, unplanned and rapid develop-ment. The quality of air is deteriorating day by day because of rising concentrations of various gases in the atmos-phere. Presently, no such system has been developed ever that completely eliminates air pollutants, but nature has created many systems to deal with the harmful results of different anthropogenic activities up to a certain limit. Some plants can survive well with higher pollutant concentrations and act as pollution scavenger. Green plants act as a sink and filter to minimize air pollution by absorption, adsorption, detoxification, accumulation and/or metabolization without sustaining serious decline in growth, thus improving air quality by providing oxygen to the atmosphere. The plants which can withstand higher pollutant concentrations can serve as tolerant species and may be suggested to act as pollution scavengers. In the present study the air pollution tolerance index of some plants has been reviewed which are widely distributed throughout India and may prove helpful for the abatement of elevated air pollution levels such as Mangifera indica, Azardirachta indica, Saraca indica, Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Shorea robusta and Bougainvillea spp. The wild indigenous species are superior performers in air pollution reduction as compared to the cultivated non indigenous species. The screening out of tolerant plant species from the sensitive ones can provide a database which may help landscapers to design green belts around industries and National Highways.

Keywords: Air pollution tolerance index, Anthropogenic activities, Gaseous exchange, Green belts, Physiological adaptation


Effect of Bacillus spp. on Gerbera plant growth and control of Meloidogyne incognita

P. Manju* and S. Subramanian

Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: agrimanju@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: March 31, 2017; Accepted: August 9, 2017

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus spp. against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood infesting gerbera plants (Var. Valletta). Investigations were undertaken in pots filled with 5 kg of sterilized potting mixture consisting of red soil:sand:FYM (2:1:1 v/v) to assess the effect of liquid and talc formulations of Bacillus spp. viz., B. subtilis strain BG42, B. subtilis strain BG37 and B. amyloliquefaciens strain B4. The results indicated that Soil drenching of liquid formulation of B. subtilis strain BG42 @ 1%/m2 (1x108 colony forming units/g) gave maximum reduc-tion of juveniles per 250g soil (67.40%), number of adult females/5g root (73.46%), number of eggmass/5g root (69.44%), gall index (1.67) and increased flower yield/m2 (127.03%). Soil drenching of liquid formulation of B. subtilis strain BG 37 were next in line in efficacy. Further liquid formulation of B. subtilis strain BG42 had a positive influence on growth parameters viz., shoot length, root length, shoot and root weight, number of leaves / plant and flower yield/m2 and quality parameters viz., flower diameter, colour of the flower, length of flower stalk and vase life . The endophytic colonization potential of the Bacillus spp. introduced into the soil was confirmed by reisolating them from gerbera roots.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Biocontrol, Gerbera jamesonii, Meloidogyne incognita

Investigation on effect of time of planting in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under polyhouse conditions in Manipur, India

Mrinalini Longjam* and Ak. Bijaya Devi

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal-795004 (Manipur), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mrinalongjam@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 1016; Revised received: February 28, 2017; Accepted: August 9, 2017

Abstract: An experiment on the standardization of time of planting for growing cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) inside polyhouse was conducted during 2010-11 at the Horticutural Experimental Field, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal (Manipur), India. The experiment comprised of four dates of planting (September, October, November and December) and two cucumber varieties viz.Alamgir CT 280 and Alamgir CT 380, in Factori-al Randomised Block Design with three replications and eight treatments.Impact of time of planting was established on vegetative characters; flowering and fruiting characters; yield and yielding attributes. Effect of different time of planting and variety on growth of cucumber was found to produce significant effect (at 5% level of probability) on main vine length, numbers of leaves per plant and leaf area. For both the varieties, September planting gave maxi-mum values of main vine length (221.93 cm and 240.51 cm, respectively), number of leaves per plant (21.21 and 21.92, respectively) and leaf area (393.26 cm2 and 413.76 cm2, respectively). The treatment combination of Septem-ber planting with Alamgir CT 280 gave shorter number of days (12.6) from fruit set to maturity. The different time of planting and varieties and their interactions showed significant effect on number of fruits per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm), single fruit weight (g), fruit yield/plant (kg) and fruit yield/ha (t). The results revealed that the treatment combination of September planting with Alamgir CT 380 gave the highest yield (47.31t/ha), as compared with October, November and December plantings. However, the maximum cost- benefit ratio (1: 2.24) was found in October planting. The present study suggests that cucumber can be grown successfully during winter months under polyhouse in Manipur, India condition.

Keywords: Cost-benefit ratio, Cucumber, Time of planting, Polyhouse, Yield


Comparative evaluation of Doolittle, Cupkit and Karl Jenter techniques for rearing Apis mellifera Linnaeus queen bees during breeding season

Navneet Kaur Dhaliwal, Jaspal Singh* and Pardeep K. Chhuneja

Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jaspal_bee@pau.edu

Received: March 13, 2016; Revised received: April 13, 2017; Accepted: August 5, 2017

Abstract: Comparative evaluation of Doolittle, Karl Jenter and Cupkit techniques of Apis mellifera Linnaeus queen bee rearing was done during spring (mid February- mid April 2013) breeding season. The highest acceptance of cell cups (66.00 %), queen cells raising (64.00 %), their sealing (60.67 %) and emergence of gynes (54.67 %) was recorded in Cupkit apparatus. Maximum weight of newly emerged gyne was recorded in Doolittle method in plastic cell cups (212.36 mg), while the mean weight was 184.96 mg in case of Cupkit apparatus. Overall, Cupkit proved to be the best option for queen bee rearing because of its better performance in terms of acceptance of larvae (66.00 %) and the number of successfully produced gynes i.e. 16 queens/colony/cycle of 12 days.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, Cupkit, Doolittle grafting method, Karl Jenter, Queen cell cups


Morphological and cultural characterization of Phyllosticta zingiberi (Ramkr.) causing leaf spot disease of ginger

Barun Rai, Sekhar Bandyopadhyay*, Avisak Thapa, Adeetya Rai and Deewakar Baral

Department of Plant Pathology, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Coochbehar, 736165 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sekhar29@gmail.com

Received: May 22, 2016; Revised received: April 7, 2017; Accepted: August 9, 2017

Abstract: Isolation of ginger (Zingiber officinale) leaf spot pathogen form the UBKV farm field was done in the laboratory. The isolated pathogen was identified as Phyllosticta zingiberi on the basis of morphological characters as documented in taxonomic keys. The microscopic observation revealed that the pycnidia were globose to subglobose with dark brown colour measuring 124.16 μm × 2.35 μm in average. The pycnidio spores were hyaline, oval to bullet shaped, monoguttulate measuring 4.02 μm × 2.35 μm in average. Among the different media tested for growth highest growth was recorded in Oat meal agar (26.44 cm2) followed by malt extract agar (24.04 cm2) which was statistically at par. The temperature of 25˚C favoured maximum growth (24.20 cm2). However, higher sporulation was observed in 30˚C. Among the different carbon source tested, mannitol supported the highest growth of the pathogen (27.67 cm2).

Keywords: Ginger, Leaf spot, Mannitol, Phyllosticta zingiberi, Pycnidia


Estimation of population mean in two– stage sampling under a deterministic response mechanism in the presence of non-response

Monika Devi* and B. V. S. Sisodia

Department of Agriculture Statistics, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad, (UP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mscagstats@gmail.com

Received: June 24, 2016; Revised received: April 17, 2017; Accepted: August 9, 2017

Abstract: In the present paper, we have considered the problem of estimation of population mean in the presence of non-response under two-stage sampling. Two different models of non-response with deterministic response mechanism have been discussed in the paper. The estimators under two non-response models have been developed

by using Hansen and Hurwitz (1946) technique. The expressions for the variances and estimates of variance of these estimators have been derived. The optimum values of sample sizes have been obtained by considering a suitable cost function for a fixed variance. A limited simulation study has been carried out to examine the magnitude of percent relative loss (% RL) in standard error due to non-response. An empirical study with the real populations has also been carried out to assess the % RL in standard error due to non-response.

Keywords: Population mean, Two-stage sampling, Non-response, Percent relative loss

Effect of plant growth regulators on growth, yield and fruit quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) under protected conditions

Yash Thakur1*, J. S. Chandel1 and Pramod Verma1

Department of Fruit Science, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni,

Solan – 173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: thakuryash0211@gmail.com

Received: July 24, 2016; Revised received: April 29, 2016; Accepted: August 10, 2017

Abstract: A field trial was conducted during 2015 and 2016, to study the effect ofgrowth regulators on growth, flowering, yield and fruit quality of strawberry cv. Chandler. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with 16 treatments viz.CPPU at 1, 2 and 4 ppm, GA3 at 25, 50 and 75 ppm, Promalin at 2, 4 and 6 ppm, GA4+7 at 5, 10 and15 ppm, NAA at 10, 20 and 30 ppm and control (water spray) and each treatment was replicated thrice. The results revealed that the plants sprayed with 15 ppm GA4+7 two weeks before flowering significantly reported highest plant height (33.43 cm), leaf area (239.70 cm2), number of flowers (31.94), fruit set (87.45 %), number of fruits per plant (29.02), yield (540.01 g/plant), fruit length (53.63 mm) and fruit diameter (37.19 mm) and fruit weight (23.70 g) as compared to control. This treatment resulted in 196.36 % increase in yield and 56.22 %in fruit weight over control. Plants sprayed with 6 ppm promalin also showed significant improvement in vegetative growth, fruit size, yield and fruit quality, which resulted in 137.92 % increase in yield and 51.81 % increase in fruit weight over control. Hence, it is concluded that foliar spray of 15 ppm GA4+7 applied 2 weeks before flowering is beneficial in improving growth, yield and fruit quality of strawberry plants.

Keywords: CPPU, GA3, GA4+7, NAA, Promalin, Strawberry


Effect of seed treatment, soil application and foliar spray of some insecticides on seed quality of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Har Lal Meena1, Kiran Rana2*, HS Kanwar3, Manohar Lal1

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan – 173230 (H.P.), INDIA

2Department of Entomology, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan – 173230 (H.P.), INDIA

3Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni, Solan – 173230 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kiranuhf@gmail.com

Received: July 28, 2016; Revised received: December 26, 2016; Accepted: August 10, 2017

Abstract: Studies were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of some insecticides as seed treatment, soil application and foliar sprays on seed quality characters of bell pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) cultivar Solan Bharpur during Kha-rif season 2013. The treatments comprised of seed application of imidacloprid (Gaucho 600FS) and thiamethox-am (Cruiser 70WS), soil application of neem cake@ 2 q/acre and carbofuran @ 6 kg/acre and foliar sprays of im-idacloprid (Confidor 200 SL), thiamethoxam (Actara 25 WS), indoxacarb14.5 SC @ 0.5ml/l, NSKE (neem seed ker-nel extract) @ 5%, Neem Raj 500ppm @ 2.5ml/l and control. The observations regarding quality parameters record-ed were germination percentage, seedling length, seeding dry weight, seed vigour index-I, seed vigour index-II and electrical conductivity. The results revealed that treatment combination viz., seed treatment and foliar spray with thiamethoxam (S2F2) recorded significantly higher germination percentage (96.33%), seed vigour index-I (934.10), seed vigour index-II (245.02) and minimum electrical conductivity (216.67dSm-1) at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, seed treatment and foliar spray of thiamethoxam may be recommended for quality seed production of bell pepper.

Keywords: Capsicum, Cultivar, Electrical conductivity, Germination, Seed vigour

Impact of laptop usage on symptoms leading to musculoskeletal disorders

Diksha Gautam* and Nisha Chacko

Department of Home Science, Family Resource Management, Ethelind School of Home Science, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: shiats.diksha@gmail.com

Received: August 27, 2016; Revised received: April 8, 2017; Accepted: August 12, 2017

Abstract: Due to inherent portability of laptops, users frequently assume inconvenient postures while using them that may lead to discomfort or injury. The study was conducted to evaluate the postures and identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in girls using laptops for which 100 college going female students between 18 - 25 years age group were selected through random sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire was used to assess the laptop usage among adolescents and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) was used to assess the posture of students while working with laptop. Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (SMSQ) was used to assess the nature and severity of self-rated musculoskeletal symptoms. Results revealed that the maximum respondent’s (74%) posture came under Action level 3 and 26% respondents comes under Action level 2 which indicated that the posture needed “further investigation and may need change” or “changes needed soon”. There was a positive correlation in Normal (0.50), Mild (0.31), Moderate (0.56) and Severe users (0.60) between the posture adopted by the respondents and the incidence of pain in last 12 months and in Normal (0.76), Mild (0.52), Moderate (0.56) and Severe user (0.65) respectively in last 7 days. The Musculoskeletal Symptoms was prominent in various anatomic regions like Neck, Shoulders, Upper back and Lower back, respectively. These symptoms if not addressed at an earlier stage might lead to Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Keywords: Laptops, Musculoskeletal symptoms, Posture, Rapid upper limb assessment, Students


Haematological alterations due to lung diseases in sheep and goats of Jammu region

Nishchal Dutta, Shafiqur Rahman, Shagufta Azmi and Muneer Ahmad Dar1*

Divison of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and Animal Husbandry (FVSc & AH), SKUAST Jammu-181102 (J&K), INDIA

1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Khalsa College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Amritsar-143001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding Author: E-mail: drmuneer30@gmail.com

Received: September 12, 2016; Revised received: April 7, 2017; Accepted: August 12, 2017

Abstract: The present study was conducted for evaluation of haematological parameters in sheep (330) and goat (230) having various lung affections that were slaughtered routinely as a source of food in Jammu region (Gujjar Nagar, Dogra Hall, Bishnah and Nagrota). About 25.75% (85) and 21.30% (49)of lungs examined in sheep and goats respectively were found to have parasitic infestation of Hydatidosis, Myiasis and Mulleriuscapillaris. Furthermore about 31.81% (105) and 29.13% (67) of selected lungs had pathological conditions of pneumonia, abscess and haemorrhage in sheep and goats respectively. Diseased sheep and goats reflected significant decrease in haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocytes (RBC) in parasitic infestation of Myiasis as compared to control while non significant alteration in these parameters was observed in conditions of Hydatidosis, M. capillaris, pneumonia, abscess and haemorrhage. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) decreased significantly in Myiasis of sheep and haemorrhagic lungs of goats while no significant change was observed in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values. Significant increase in leucocytes (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils were observed in both sheep and goats affected with various parasitic and pathological lung disesases with no significant change in basophilic count. Lymphocytic count decreased in all these adversed lung conditions as compared to healthy ones. Parasitic infection though not mixed one especially that of Myiasis comparatively has significant affected on blood parameters. The present study signifies the complementary importance of ante -mortem examination with that of post-mortem inspection in various parasitic and pathological affections of lungs.

Keywords: Diseases, Goat, Haematology, Lung, Sheep


Effect of boron and zinc application on growth, seed yield and seed quality of water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) under terai region of West Bengal

R. K. Sarkar*, J. C. Jana1 and S. Datta1

Regional Research Sub-Station (Terai Zone), Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kharibari, Darjeeling – 734427, (West Bengal), INDIA

1Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar – 736165, (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sarkar_ram@rediffmail.com

Received: September 30, 2016; Revised received: March 18, 2017; Accepted: August 12, 2017

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to study the effect of boron and zinc application on growth, seed yield and its quality of water spinach (Ipomoea reptans Poir.). The study consisted of borax @ 0 (B0), 25 kg/ha through soil (B1) and 1.5 g/litre twice through foliar sprays at 15 days interval (B2) and ZnSO4 @ 0 (Zn0), 15 kg/ha through soil (Zn1) and 1.5 g/litre twice foliar sprays at 15 days interval (Zn2) and their nine treatment combinations (viz. B0 Zn0, B1 Zn0, B2 Zn0, B0Zn1, B1 Zn1, B2 Zn1, B0Zn2, B1 Zn2 and B2 Zn2. The results revealed that application of boron and zinc at all rates alone and as combinations markedly influenced all growth, seed yield and its quality parameters as compared with the control. Soil application of borax @ 25 kg/ha and ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha alone and as combination recorded maximum number of flowers/hill (282.6, 275.1 & 311.5), number of capsules/hill (238.2, 220.7 & 257.8), seed yield (1.22 t/ha, 1.21 t/ha & 1.32 t/ha), shelling percentage (67.14%, 67.06% & 68.76%), 1000 seed weight (38.05 g, 38.25 g & 41.16 g), germination percentage (86.6%, 86.3% & 90.0%), seedling vigour index (6.20, 6.26 & 6.63) and seedling growth rate (0.123, 0.123 and 0.127 g/plant/day), respectively over control. Maximum vine length, number of nodes per plant, average internode length and chlorophyll content of leaf were found in twice foliar sprays of bo-rax @ 1.5 g/litre (B2) and twice foliar sprays of ZnSO4 @ 1.5 g/litre (Zn2) individually as well as their combination (B2Zn2). Considering the benefit : cost ratio (B: C ratio), combination of both soil application of borax @ 25 kg/ha and ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha (B1Zn1) was found most economical (2.60).

Keywords: Growth, Lpomoea reptans, Boron, Zinc, Seed yield, Seed quality, Water spinach

Use of crop condition based dummy regressor and weather input for parameter estimation of mustard yield forecast models

Ravita* and Urmil Verma

Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, INDIA

Corresponding author. E-mail: vermas21@hotmail.com

Received: October 6, 2016; Revised received: April 9, 2017; Accepted: August 13, 2017

Abstract: Parameter estimation in statistical modelling plays a crucial role in the real world phenomena. Several alternative analyses may be required for the purpose. In this paper, standard linear regression and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out to achieve the district-level rapeseed-mustard yield estimation in Haryana State (India). The study revealed that the zonal weather models incorporating crop condition term as dummy regressor(s) had the desired predictive accuracy. The model based mustard yield(s) indicated good agreement with State Department of Agriculture (DOA) yield estimates by showing 5-10 percent deviations in most of the mustard growing districts however for two-three districts, it gave 12-13 percent deviations possibly due to the smaller set of data available for those districts. The crop yield estimates on the basis of developed models may be obtained 4-5 weeks in advance of the harvest time.

Keywords: Clustering, Dummy variables, Linear time trend, Multiple linear regression, Principal component scores

Isolation, virulence gene profiling with molecular cloning of ibeA gene and antibiogram of Escherichia coli from respiratory tract infections of broiler chicken in Kashmir, India

Qazi Nyrah*, Shakil Ahmed Wani, Nazima Nazir, Mir Nadeem Hassan, Shaheen Farooq, Zahid Kashooand Shoiab Kamil**

Division of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir Shuhama Campus, Srinagar- 190006, INDIA

**Division of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir Shuhama Campus, Srinagar- 190006, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: qazinyrah@gmail.com

Received: November 5, 2016; Revised received: April 5, 2017; Accepted: August 13, 2017

Abstract: The present study has determined prevalence, serological diversity, virulence gene profileand in vitro antibiogram of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from respiratory tract of broiler chicken in Kashmir valley along with molecular cloning of ibeA gene, an important zoonotic among invasion-associated genes responsible for neonatal meningitis in humans. A total of 224 broilerchickens with a history of respiratory tract infections, in a flock size of 2692 birds from organised and unorganised poultry farms of Kashmir valley, were screened for E. coli isolation. The prevalence of E. coli in birds with respiratory tract infection was found to be 6.38 per cent. Serogrouping revealed that the E. coli isolates were typeable into 10 serogroups with prevalence rate of 8.8% for serogroup O2, along with few isolates rough or untypeable. The screening of E. coli isolates for virulence gene profile revealed the presence of iss in (89.53%), iucDin (85.46 %), tsh in (51.74 %), cva/cvi in (33.14 %), irp2in (55.23 %), papCin (33.72 %), vat in (31.39 %), astAin (38.95 %), fimCin (93.60 %) and ibeAin (1.16 %) isolates. The antibiogram screening of E. coli isolates revealed majority of isolates to be resistant to tetracycline (94.71%), ampicillin (92.67%) and cephalaxin (79.67%).However, most of the isolates were sensitive to amikacin (74.41%) followed by amoxacillin-sulbactam (68.60%) and gentamicin (67.44%). The study thus, suggests that the E. coli isolates from respiratory tract infection of poultry harbour differential virulence genes along with the genes of zoonotic interest and variable antimicrobial resistance, thus, opening the areas for devising dynamic, emergent and effective treatment line.

Keywords: Antibiogram, Escherichia coli, Prevalence, Virulence genes

Statistical investigation through stratified random sampling for apple production in Himachal Pradesh

Anju Sharma1*, P. K. Mahajan1 and O. K. Belwal2

1Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), INDIA

2 H. N. B. Garhwal University, Srinagar-Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. Email: anjusharma_uhf@yahoo.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: February 7, 2017; Accepted: August 14, 2017

Abstract: The present study focuses on standardization of sampling technique and comparison of different types of sample allocation methods in combination with various stratification tools (optimum strata boundaries, number of strata and optimum sample size etc.) for obtaining efficient estimators of area and production of apple in Himachal Pradesh. Forth is purpose, various aspects involved in optimum stratification with reference todata collected from the selected or chardists in district Shimla, during the year 2011-12 have been analyzed. The variable "Area under Apple" was chosen as the stratification variable as it had high correlation(r=0.96) with the estimation variable "Production of Apple". Four methods of construction of strata viz., equalization of strata total, equalization of cumulative of √f(y) , equalization of cumulative of  ½{r(y)+f(y)} and equalization of cumulative of    were used and their relative efficiencies for estimating total production of apple in the study district of the state have been analyzed. The critical examination of the result revealed that with the increase in number of strata from 2 to 4 and sample size from 10 to 40, equalization of cumulative of method along with Neyman allocation resulted in least variance (0.89) and maximum percentage gain in efficiency (20418.16). Thus, equalization of cumulative of  method with L>2 can profitably be applied for the estimation of apple production in the study district of the state Himachal Pradesh, India.  

Keywords: Gain in efficiency, Multi-stage sampling, Neyman allocation, Relative efficiency

Influence of weather parameters on progress of rust disease severity in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

Vinod Upadhyay*, K. P. S. Kushwaha and Puja Pandey

Department of Plant Pathology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-236145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Regional Agricultural Research Station, Assam Agricultural University, Gossaigaon- 783360 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vinodupadhyay148@gmail.com

Received: June 29, 2016; Revised received: April 21, 2017; Accepted: August 16, 2017

Abstract: Decision to apply one or more fungicide spray will depend on the risk of rust epidemic in a particular year. Rust epidemic is determined by interaction of three important factors namely, susceptible host, virulent pathogen and the most important i.e. favourable environment for a particular period of time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the correlation between different meteorological parameters and rust severity. Present study revealed that rust dis-ease generally appeared 60 days after sowing and was subsequently increased with a period of time till harvest (4.17 to 64.17 per cent). Disease was observed at a maximum temperature of 16.85 to 24.79ᵒC, 8.09 to 12.27ᵒC minimum temperature, 90.30 to 95.70 percent morning Relative Humidity (RH), 54.80 to 78.40 percent afternoons RH, 0.10 to 5.45mm rainfall and wind velocity of 3.93 to 4.23 km/hr. The correlation between different meteorological parameters and rust severity revealed that per cent disease severity showed highly positive correlation with maxi-mum temperature (r = 0.977), minimum temperature (r = 0.704), rainfall (r = 0.039) and wind velocity(r = 0.093) whereas disease severity show negative correlation with morning(r=-0.925) and afternoon RH (r = -0.926). It was observed that the rust severity is highly influenced by the different weather parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind velocity. This information will help the researchers in formulating the forecasting model for the rust disease in pea and will also supports farmers in decision making regarding time of occurrence of rust epi-demic and thereby, allow timely scheduling and need based utilization of fungicides accordingly for the management of pea rust.

Keywords: Rainfall, Relative humidity, Rust, Temperature


Optimization of cultural conditions for submerged state fermentation of di-gested biogas slurry for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Phanaerochaete chrysosporium MTCC 787

Ajit Kaur1* and Urmila Gupta Phutela2

1Department of Microbiology, 2School of Energy Studies for Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: jtkaur89@gmail.com

Received: September 10, 2016; Revised received: February 7, 2017; Accepted: August 16, 2017

Abstract: Growing environmental concerns and increasing demands from end-use sectors have increased the glob-al market for microbial products. Optimizations of production parameters hold great importance for the industry. The present study was aimed at optimization of submerged state fermentation conditions for production of lignocelluloly-tic enzymes from digested biogas slurry by Phanaerochaete chrysosporium MTCC 787. Enzyme activities for differ-ent enzymes i.e. endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase; xylanase and mannanase; laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidise, using P. chrysosporium MTCC 787 were maximum at 50% concentration of digested slur-ry and showed maximum value of xylanase i.e. 187.41U/ml. Effect of temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) on lignocellu-losic bioconversion showed that at 30°C, maximum value of manganese peroxidise (167.5 U/ml) was obtained. High-est enzyme activites were obtained at selected inoculum size i.e. 10spores/ml, e.g. 85.29 U/ml xylanase was ob-tained. Incubation period of 8 days and pH of 7.0 came out to be best conditions for P. chrysosporium MTCC787 to produce maximum enzyme activity e.g. xylanase 95.47U/ml at pH 7.0 and xylanase 144.96U/ml at 8 day incu-bation.This work presents a novel concept in optimization of fermentation process to produce lignocellulolytic en-zymes as this work is focussed on utilization of digested biogas slurry as a substrate for enzyme production and enhancement of the production with microbial source, which is environment friendly.

Keywords: Cultural conditions, Digested biogas slurry, Enzymes, Fungi, Lignocelluloses, Optimization


Assessment of genetic variability among different genotypes of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in India

Vikash Kumar1*, Sanjay Sahay1, Vishal Nirgude1, Amrita Kumari2, Ravi S. Singh3,

Hidayatullah Mir1, Shiv S. Mahesh1, Vinod Kumar2

1Department of Horticulture (Fruit & Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur- 813210

(Bihar), INDIA

2Department of Horticulture (Vegetables and Floriculture), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour- 813210 (Bihar),

INDIA

3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Bihar Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour,

Bhagalpur- 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: contact2vikash0089@gmail.com

Received: September 25, 2016; Revised received: March 20. 2017; Accepted: August 16, 2017

Abstract: The field experiment was carried out at the research farm of Horticulture Garden, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur during 2014-15 for assessment of genetic variability among different genotypes of cape

gooseberry in India. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications having twelve genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studies which suggesting sufficient variability for yield and quality parameters. The overall values of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were higher than those of genetic coefficient of variation (GCV). Higher magnitude of GCV and PCV were recorded for fruit per plant percent (33.30 and 36.61) followed by fruit diameter, fruit weight and flowers per branch. The maximum GCV (33.30) and PCV (36.61) were recorded in fruits/plant respectively. The high values of GCV are the indication of excess variability among the genotypes and thus the scope for crop improvement depends on the selection of superior parents for crossing to get better parents for hybridization. In present study, the magnitude of heritability ranged from 37% to 98% indicating that these traits are controlled by additive gene action which is very useful in selection. The traits like plant girth, plant height, inter nodal length, appearance of 50% of flowering, bud break to full bloom, number of flowers per branch, number of fruits set per branch, duration of fruit set to maturity, fruit weight, fruit diameter and number of fruits per plant with high GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance as percentage of mean, indicating that these characters are under additive gene effects and more reliable for effective selection.

Keywords: Cape gooseberry, GCV, Genetic advance, Heritability, PCA

Seed quality enhancement through biopriming in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. L)

S. P. Monalisa1, J. K. Beura2, R. K. Tarai3*, and M. Naik2

1 Department of Seed Science and Technology, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003 (Orissa ), INDIA

2 Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima -768025 (Orissa), INDIA

* Corresponding Authors’ E-mail : ranjanouat@gmail.com

Received: October 2, 2016; Revised received: April 9, 2017; Accepted: August 16, 2017

Abstract: An experiment on seed quality enhancement of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) var. S 9 (local) was conducted at the department of seed science and technology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar during 2013-14 by use of three biocontrol agents viz. Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence. Seeds were bi-oprimed with the biocontrol agents at 40, 50 and 60 % concentration for 4,8,12 and 16 hours of soaking. Seeds were also hydro primed for 4,8,12 and 16 hours. Unprimed dry seed resulted in germination (69 %), shoot length (27.5 cm), root length (14 cm), seedling dry weight (1.71g), SVI-I (2859.2), SVI-II (118.0) and speed of germination (5.8) while hydro primed seeds resulted in germination (72%), shoot length (31.9 cm), root length (15 cm), seedling dry weight (1.80 g), SVI-1 (3375.9) SVI-II (129.8) and speed of germination (6.7). Trichoderma harzianum at 40% con-centration and for 4 hours of soaking resulted enhancement of above quality parameter like 13.0 % in germination, 21.1 % in shoot length, 20.7 % in root length, 31.6 % in seedling dry weight, 36 % in seedling vigour index-I, 48.1 % in seedling vigour index-II and 58.6 % in speed of germination over unprimed seeds. Bio priming with P. fluorescence ( at 40% concentration and for 4 hour) closely followed and at par with best treatment with 11.6 %, 18.2 %, 16.4 %, 30.4 %, 30.7 % and 56.9 % enhancement of above mentioned quality parameters, respectively.

Keywords: Biopriming, Trichoderma harzianum Trichoderma viride, ,Pseudomonas fluorescence, Unprimed seed

Genetic variability studies in response to drought under different water regimes in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

Sheshnath Mishra1, A. K. Sharma2 and Vishwanath Sharma3

1*Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University (SKRAU), Bikaner-334006 (Rajasthan), INDIA

3Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, INDIA

*Corresponding Email: cool_ajm_121@yahoo.co.in

Received: October 10, 2016; Revised received: April 7, 2017; Accepted: August 20, 2017

Abstract: A set of 40 genotypes of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications under different water regimes during summer 2012 at the agriculture research station Bee-chwal, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India to study genetic variability among the traits to determine selection criteria for breed-ing programmes for fruit yield and related characters. The results reported that drought stress caused reduction in fruit yield and most of the characters studied. Significant variations for all the characters were found under different water regimes (non-stress, 50% and 25%). High genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficient of variations were observed for fruit yield per plant, fruit weight per plant, vine length and proline content in non-stress, 50% and 25% water stress conditions respectively. High estimates of heritability along with high genetic advance as percent-age of mean over the characters was recorded for fruit weight (128.79, 164.05, and 161.15), proline content (42.50, 72.86 and 69.26) and fruit yield per plant (149.61, 186.91 and 184.12) in both the non-stress and stress conditions. This shows that these traits were under the control of additive genetic effects. Therefore, it was concluded that se-lection for these traits should lead rapid genetic improvement of the material.

Keywords: Genetic advance, Heritability, Muskmelon, Variability, Water regimes


Assessment of genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using RAPD markers

Amit Kumar1, R. S. Sengar2, 1Vivekanand Pratap Rao, 1Gyanika Shukla, Rekha Dixit1 Raj Singh3

1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut-250005 (UP), INDIA

2Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technolo-gyMeerut-250110(U.P) , INDIA

3Department of Botany, Faculty of science, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut-250005 (UP) , INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: amit.agbiotech1581@gmail.com

Received: November 11, 2016; Revised received: March 30, 2017; Accepted: August 20, 2017

Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 10 wheat cultivars by Random Amplified Pol-ymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. The genomic DNA of 10 wheat genotypes were amplified with 10 RAPD primers that produced 53 amplified band, out of which 23 band were polymorphic (43.39%). The number of fragment amplified per primer ranged from 4 to 9. Primer A01 generated maximum number of amplified band, out of which 5 band were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of wheat genotypes were based on UPGMA method. Cluster analysis of 10 wheat genotypes were classified in to two main group; single variety AKW 1071 was placed in first group and rest 9 variety were placed in second group. The pair wise similarity values ranged from 0.58% to 100% and showed that cultivars Raj-3765 and K-7903 were the closest with highest similarity value (100%), while genotypes AKW 1071 and K9006 showed minimum similarity value (62%). The present study indicated the presence of high genetic diversity among wheat cultivars, which could be used for the developing core collection of wheat germplasm for breeding purpose.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, RAPD marker, UPGMA method, Wheat genotypes


Comparative economics of different soybean based cropping systems in North-Eastern Karnataka

Vijaykumar N.1*, Suresh S. Patil2, B. S. Reddy3, S. B. Goudappa4

1Department of Agricultural Economics, ARS, College of Agriculture, B’Gudi (Karnataka), INDIA

2 Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, B’Gudi (Karnataka), INDIA

3 Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Kalaburagi (Karnataka), INDIA

4 Department of Agriculture Extension, UAS, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vijaykumarecon@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: March 15, 2017; Accepted: August 20, 2017

Abstract: The research study was conducted in Bidar and Kalaburagi Districts of Karnataka. To study the comparative economics of different soybean cropping systems. A sample size of 160 farmers was selected using multistage random sampling method. Field level data were elicited for the agricultural year 2013-14 through personal

interview method. Soybean + Redgram, Soybean + Jowar, Soybean + Bajra, and sole Soybean were the major cropping systems identified. Study revealed that, the average age of the sample respondents was 43, 45, 41, 44 and

43 years, respectively in CS-I, CS-II, CS-III, CS-IV and overall cropping system. The literacy percentage was highest

in CS-I followed by CS-IV, CS-II and CS-III respectively. The net returns realized in these major cropping systems were ` 54443.20, ` 34108.18, ` 21047.27 and ` 13503.06 respectively. The gross returns realized in CS-I was highest,

as compared CS-II, CS-III and CS-IV respectively. Similarly, the net returns obtained in CS-I was found to be the highest followed by CS-II, CS-III and CS-IV respectively. Returns per rupee spent was found to be the highest in CS-I. Among the studied soybean based cropping systems, CS-I (soybean + redgram) and CS-II (soybean + jowar) were found to be the most profitable system under rainfed condition in the study area.

Keywords: Costs and returns, Cropping System, North-Eastern Karnataka, Soybean


Combining ability analysis for yield and quality traits in single cross hybrids of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) using diallel mating design

Prashant Bisen*, Amit Dadheech, Namrata, Avinash Kumar Gurudatt Solanki and Tulsi Ram Dhakar

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur- 313001, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:prashant.bgt@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: February 17, 2017; Accepted: August 20, 2017

Abstract: Forty-five single-cross hybrids developed (in rabi 2014) from ten inbred lines of quality protein maize through diallel mating design along with four checks viz., Pratap QPM Hybrid- 1, Vivek QPM- 9, HQPM- 1 and HQPM-5 were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications for yield and quality traits during kharif-2014, to estimate the gca (general combining ability) of the parents and sca (specific combining ability) of hybrids considered for the development of high yielding varieties. The analysis of variance for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares due to gca and sca for all the traits, except mean sum of square due to gca for num-ber of grain rows per ear. Ratio of σ2 sca / σ 2 gca was greater than one for all the traits, thereby indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene effects in the expression of these traits. Inbred line P8 and P5 has been found good general combiner with highest magnitude of gca effects 10.46 and 8.89, respectively and high per se i.e. 52.33 g and 44.67 g, respectively for grain yield per plant and majority of traits. Hybrids P6xP8, P5xP8, P3xP5, P5xP7 and P1xP8 showed higher significant positive sca effects ranged from 25.66 to 34.59 along with good per se ranged from 98.00 to 107.67 g for grain yield per plant. These hybrids also exhibited significant positive sca effects for most of the yield and quality traits under study, indicating potential and may be used for exploiting hybrid vigour in in QPM hybrid breeding programmes.

Keywords: Quality protein maize, GCA, SCA, Grain yield, Lysine, Tryptophan

Morphological and germination physiognomies of Carissa carandas seedlings influenced by seed storage at ambient conditions

Deepika*1 and K. Vanajalatha2

*1Department of Fruit science, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan -173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Deparmtent of Fruit Science, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Hyderbad-500030, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:deepi.mystery@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: April 17, 2017; Accepted: August 28, 2017

Abstract: The present study was taken up to know the morphological and germination physiognomies of karonda (Carissa carandas) seeds influenced by seed storage period at ambient conditions (26 C temperature and 55 % RH). Seeds were subjected to store at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days at room temperature (26C). Germination percentage and various morphological characteristics viz., vigour index, fresh weight of shoot and root, dry weight of shoot and root, root to shoot ratio were recorded. Among stored seeds 10 days old seeds recorded highest germina-tion percentage (57 %) and 60 days old seeds recorded lowest germination (20.33 %). At the end (90 days after sowing) 10 days old seeds again possessed higher fresh weight of root (0.300 g) and shoot (1.240 g), dry weight of root (0.103 g) and shoot (0.487 g), root to shoot ratio (0.212) and vigour index (1772.70 cm) among stored seeds. These physiological observations were quite similar with the freshly harvested seed which found maximum values for all the parameters owing to higher moisture content. Karonda seeds showed good viability upto10 days thereafter its value declined and it reached minimum after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: Germination, Stored Seed, Root to Shoot Ratio, Vigour Index, Karonda

Rhizosphere competence of native Rhizobium rhizogenes strain and its use in management of crown gall

Randeep Singh1, Aditi Sharma1* and A. K. Gupta1

1Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan- 173 230,

(Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aditi.bhardwaj650@gmail.com

Received: September 8, 2016; Revised received: April 8, 2017; Accepted: August 20, 2017

Abstract: Native Rhizobium rhizogenes strain UHFBA-212 [141/1A (NCBI: KC488174)]was isolated from rhizosphere soil of peach nursery plant of wild peach collected from Himachal Pradesh. In addition to this,159 isolates were also collected and were screened in vitro for their biocontrol potential against Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Out of these strain, UHFBA-212 showed maximum zone of inhibition i.e. 4.16 and 3.57cm without and after exposure to chloroform against C58.Sequence analysis (16SrDNA) of the strain showed nucleotide homology similar to Rhizobium sp. Amplification of total genomic DNA of the strain with Vir D2 andipt primers didn’t showed amplification

with these virulence genes suggesting the absence of tumorigenic factors. In the field conditions, maximum population (329.33x106 cfu/g of soil) was observed in antibiotic resistant mutant of R. rhizogenes strain K84 applied on cherry rootstock Colt followed by 285.33 (x 106 ) cfu/g of soil in UHFBA-212 after 9 months at the time of uprooting of plants when applied alone as root dip. Minimum incidence of crown gall (2.00%) was observed in strain UHFBA- 212 co inoculated with strain C58 as seed treatment on behmi seeds. The data on population indices in rhizosphere and incidence of crown gall further suggested that for better management of disease R. Rhizogenes isolates should be either equal or more in population than that of A. tumefaciens isolates. Strain UHFBA-212 controls crown gall as effectively as strain K84 and can be exploited against tumorigenic isolates under field conditions.

Keywords: Colonization, Disease incidence, Resistant, Rhizobium rhizogenes


Character association studies in grape accessions selected from Leh district of Jammu and Kashmir

Tsering Dolkar, M. K. Sharma and Amit Kumar*

Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: khokherak@rediffmail.com

Received: October 5, 2016; Revised received: March 18, 2017; Accepted: August 22, 2017

Abstract: Characters association and path analysis was studied in fifty genotypically diverse grape (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions for 20 important quantitative characters. The genotypic and phenotypic association of yield was signifi-cantly positive with most of the studied characters except yield efficiency, berry weight and chemical characters. Yield was positively and significantly correlated (r) with bunch length (0.652), bunch breadth (0.584), bunch weight (0.946), number of bunches per vine (0.289), number of berries per bunch (0.672), berry length (0.337), berry breadth (0.363) and number of seeds per berry (0.612). Direct and positive effect was observed between yield and bunch and berry characters. Bunch breadth (1.538), number of bunches per vine (0.708), berry weight (1.112) ex-hibited a good amount of direct effect on yield and its correlation with yield was also positive. Hence it is clear from the present study that for selection of any accession in the crop due emphasis must be given on the yield and the associated characters which have direct and positive effect on the yield.

Keywords: Accessions, Character, Correlation, Grape, Path coefficient, Variability


Screening for pod shattering in mutant population of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

N. Vairam*, S. Anandhi Lavanya and C. Vanniarajan

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625104 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vairamagri@gmail.com

Received: October 17, 2016; Revised received: April 13, 2017; Accepted: August 22, 2017

Abstract: Mungbean, (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) occupies a unique position in Indian agriculture and has been grown under various agro-ecological conditions. It is cultivated in 1.61mha with production of 3.38MT and productivi-ty of 474kg/ha in India. Mungbean pods are thin and brittle when dry, so shattering is a major problem. The loss of seeds by pod dehiscence is one of the major reasons for low yield in mungbean; thus, reducing the frequency of pod dehiscence is an important objective in mungbean breeding. Induced mutations, have offered a single and short alternative to conventional breeding including isolation, screening, selection and testing generation after generation. In this study, variability was induced by gamma rays and Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) in two greengram geno-types viz., CO (Gg) 7 and NM 65. Screening for pod shattering was carried out in M2 and M3 populations of green-gram. The scoring for shattering was recorded at physiological maturity of the pod. The shattering percentage ranged from 14.56 (400 Gy) to 93.45 per cent (20 mM). A total of 100 shattering tolerant mutants were selected from field based on visual observation. These mutants were again scored under laboratory condition as per IITA method. A total of 12 mutants of CO (Gg) 7 and 10 mutants of NM 65 which were tolerant to pod shattering were identified in M2 generation and forwarded to M3 generation. These mutants were scored for pod shattering under laboratory con-dition and nine mutants viz., M26, M44, M46, M58, M70, M71, M84, M92 and M98 were found to be tolerant in M3 generation. This study on identification and screening of the mutants tolerant to pod shattering with high yielding potential will help to increase the production of the pods to a greater extent.

Keywords: Induced mutation, Mungbean, Pod shattering, Scoring, Elite mutants

Hydropriming -a useful technique for seed invigoration in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

F. A. Khan1*, S. Narayan2, S. A. Bhat1, I. Murtuza1 and K Hussain2

1Division of Post Harvest Technology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar (J&K), INDIA

2Division of Vegetable Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E- mail: drkhan_387@skuastkashmir.ac.in

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: April 21, 2017; Accepted: August 22, 2017

Abstract: Seed germinating ability and stand establishment determine the management options in crop production system. Physiological advancement of seeds through priming is a simple and cost-effective method to improve the germinability and stand of any crop. Studies were performed on seed invigoration through hydropriming at the division of PHT, SKUAST-Kashmir during the year 2016 to optimize the hydropriming duration for improved germi-nation and seedling vigour of okra (Pusa sawani) and parsley (curly type). Freshly harvested seeds were soaked in normal water for varying durations (okra- 12, 18 and 24 h; parsley- 24, 48 and 72 h) at (25±2°C) and re-dried to original moisture content at room temperature. Fifty seeds of each treatment were cultured in 14.0 cm Petri dishes lined with 5 layers of moist blotting paper. Observations on various germination parameters were recorded at (25±2°C). Priming of okra seeds for 18 h resulted in highest FGP (85.7%), GE (66.5%), GI (36.7), SDB (29.1mg) and SVI (2.49) coupled with minimum values of T50 (2.75 day) as well as MGT (2.38 day). However, the highest FGP (78.7%), GE (48.7%), SDB (3.13 mg), GI (12.8) and SVI (0.25) together with minimum T50 (7.2 day) and MGT (6.5 day) in parsley was recorded with 24 h priming duration. As such priming duration of 18 and 24 hours at 25±2°C were found optimal for enhanced and rapid seed germination with vigourous seedlings.

Keywords: Hydropriming, Okra, Parsley, Seed germination, Seedling vigour


Performance studies on millet processing machinery for tribal livelihood promotion

Dawn C. P. Ambrose1*, S. J. K. Annamalai1, Ravindra Naik1, Anurag Kumar Dubey2 and

Subir Chakraborthy2

1Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Regional Centre, Coimbatore- 641 007 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dawncp@yahoo.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: March 20, 2017; Accepted: August 22, 2017

Abstract: A Millet Processing Centre for processing of minor millets in a tribal village in Tamil Nadu, has been established with the following millet processing machinery viz., Destoner, Millet Mill, Grain Polisher, Pulveriser, Flour

Sifter and Packaging Machinery for enhancement of tribal livelihood. Performance studies on the machinery for processing minor millets viz., little millet, foxtail millet and finger millet grown in the tribal area were carried out. Based on the performance evaluation, the output capacity of destoner cum cleaner was found to be 230 kg/h and 233 kg/h for little and foxtail millet respectively with a cleaning efficiency of 89 and 90% respectively for the above millets. The performance of millet mill revealed that the output capacity was 90-92 kg/h for little and foxtail millet with a dehulling efficiency of 86 and 87% respectively with small percentage of brokens (< 5 %). The capacity of grain polisher was 60-61 kg/h with a polishing efficiency of 85% & 86% respectively for little and foxtail millet. The pulveriser was evaluated for finger millet flour making whereby the output capacity of the machine was 75 kg/h with a milling efficiency of 90% respectively. The cost economics revealed that the tribal farmers could save 85% of the processing

cost. The benefit cost ratio was found to be 2.05.The total profit to the tribal Society through Millet Processing Centre was Rs. 21,000/- during the first harvesting season of millets. The above studies have paved way for satisfactory

functioning of the Millet Processing Centre in the tribal area.

Keywords: Cost economics, Millet processing machineries, Minor millets, Performance evaluation, Tribal farmers

Effect of long - term integrated nutrient management on crop yield, nutrition and soil fertility under rice-wheat system

Richa Kumari1, Sunil Kumar1, Rajkishore Kumar1*, Anupam Das1, Ragini Kumari1, C. D. Choudhary1 and R.P. Sharma2

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210 (Bihar), INDIA [B.A.U. Communication No. 176/2016]

2Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210 (Bihar), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kishoreraj1333@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: March 16, 2017; Accepted: August 23, 2017

Abstract: Long-term effect of nitrogen substitution (25 to 50%) through different organics, viz., FYM (farm yard ma-nure), GM (green manure) and WS (wheat straw) on crop yield, nutrition and physico-chemical properties of soil was studied under rice-wheat system. The data of long term experiment revealed that maximum grain yield of 46.83 qha-1 in wheat was obtained when 100% RDF applied through mineral fertilizers after 50% N of RDF being substituted with FYM in rice. Grain yield of wheat declined under control and sub-optimal fertilizer inputs (50% or 75% recommended fertilizer NPK), whereas positive yield increment was observed under treatments receiving organic supplements. The analysis of soil samples showed that soil pH reduced from initial value of 7.40 to 7.22, organic carbon build-up from 0.46% to 0.76%, available N from 194.00 to 225.95 kgha-1 available P2O5 from 23.60 to 49.54 kgha-1 and available K2O from 155.00 to 189.95 kgha-1 However, available Sulphur and DTPA-Zn increased from 7.74 to 14.41 kg ha-1 and 0.75 to 1.37 mg kg-1 respectively due to long-term (29 years) integrated nutrient management practices under rice-wheat system in alluvial soil. In conclusion, substitution of 50% and 25% N of RDF to rice through organics either FYM / Green manure / Wheat straw significantly increased the crop yield and nutrient uptake of wheat as well as build up the organic carbon, available N, P2O5, K2O, Sulphur, DTPA extractable Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn of post harvest soil after 29 years of the experiment.

Keywords: Chemical fertilizers, Crop yield, Chemical properties, Nutrient uptake, Organics


Development of mobile phone based agro-advisory system through ICT mediated extension approach in North-eastern himalayan region of India

Biswajit Lahiri1*, Swapnali Borah2, Natasha R. Marak3 and Thiruchirapalli Sudarshan Anurag4

1Department of Extension and Communication Management, College of Home Science, Central Agricultural

University, Sangsanggre, PO- Dobasipara, Town-Tura, Dist-West Garo Hills- 794005 (Meghalaya), INDIA

2Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, Central Agricultural University,

Tura, West Garo Hills- 794005 (Meghalaya), INDIA

3Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, Central Agricultural University, Tura, West Garo

Hills- 794005 (Meghalaya), INDIA

4Media Lab Asia, Devika Towers, 6 Nehru Place, New Delhi, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: biswajit.lahiri@gmail.com

Received: December 6, 2016; Revised received: March 22, 2017; Accepted: August 23, 2017

Abstract: To achieve gainful development in agriculture to ensure food security in the north-eastern Himalayan region of India, an initiative was taken to develop mobile phone based agro-advisory system with the objective to empower the farmers by providing right information at right time through Information and Communication Technology

mediated extension approach. 2000 farmers and farm women were selected as beneficiaries through snowball sampling method based on certain criteria. The major features of the system to deliver the farm advices (Pull Based)

and information services (Push Based) through toll free Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS), Smart Phone Application, Mobile phone and Web based agriculture advisory system. It was found that on an average almost 200

advisories were provided every month, which even shoot up to almost 300 calls per month in the peak Kharif seasons as bulk of the advisories were provided during the months of May to November as most number of calls from the farmers came during the period. Majority of the advisories were provided on fishery management practices (17.32%), source of seed (9.95%), livestock management (9.18%), disease and pest management of crops (8.75%), training information (9.35%), rural development schemes (7.76%) etc. Moreover, the inclusion of need based training component and convergence with different extension functionaries helped to develop an ICT based Stakeholder Interface (Experts-Line Departments-Agripreneurs-Farmers) in the field of agriculture in the region. This alternate extension system also helped to develop better rapport with the farmers and can be replicated in other hilly region of

the world.

Keywords: Agricultural information, Agro-advisory system, Interactive information dissemination system, Mobile

extension, North-eastern himalayan region


Studies on development and storage stability of dehydrated pumpkin based instant soup mix

Anju K. Dhiman, Negi Vidiya, Attri Surekha, Ramachandran Preethi*

Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-173230 (HP), INDIA

*Corresponding authors. E-mail: preethir615@gmail.com

Received: December 10, 2016; Revised received: April 19, 2017; Accepted: August 23, 2017

Abstract: The study was carried out to develop and standardize Instant Soup Mix (ISM) from dehydrated pumpkin powder and to evaluate nutritional (moisture, sugars, protein, β-carotene, fat, fibre and water activity) and sensory qualities (colour, texture, flavour and overall acceptability) for determining its shelf-life during a period of six month. It was packed in aluminium laminated pouches and was analyzed periodically for changes in quality. Among various recipes optimized for the development of soup mix, soup mix containing 20g pumpkin powder, 5g moong dhal, 15g tomato powder, 11.4g spices (salt and black pepper) and condiments (onion, garlic and ginger powder), 2g dried pea, 2g dried spinach, and 2g dried carrot was selected as base recipe for addition of different starch source viz. rice, corn and potato @ 10 g. From the nutritional analysis, it was observed that corn based Instant Soup Mix had higher β-carotene (7.01 mg/100 g) and protein (12.65 %) content, while fibre (2.09 %) was higher in soup mix containing rice starch. It was observed that on the basis of sensory evaluation corn based soup mix was more acceptable. Therefore, results of nutrition and sensory evaluation indicated that a good quality ISM can be prepared by using corn starch. During the six month of storage, there was about 5.49 per cent increase in moisture, 3.16 and 5.27 per cent decrease in protein and β-carotene, respectively, along with slight losses in total sugars, fat and sensory quality. Further, the product was stable for 6 months under ambient condition.

Keywords: β-carotene, Dehydration, Fibre, Pumpkin powder, Protein, Instant soup mix

Integrated management of late blight of potato

Mehi Lal1*, Saurabh Yadav1, Sanjeev Sharma2, B. P. Singh1 and S. K. Kaushik3

1ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Campus Modipuram, Meerut- 250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2ICAR- Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla -170001 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

3ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi – 110012, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mehilalonline@gmail.com

Received: December 10, 2016; Revised received: March 19, 2017; Accepted: August 25, 2017

Abstract: Late blight of potato is the major biotic constraint responsible for reduction in yield and quality of the pota-to crop. Globally, late blight is managed through application of multiple fungicidal chemical sprays affecting both human health and environment. Now a days, methods of biological control are gaining importance as these are non-toxic and also environment friendly. However, Phytophthora infestans multiplies very fast; therefore, biological con-trol method alone is not a viable option to manage late blight. Hence, integration of both methods is essential. Eleven treatments consisting of biocontrol agents and fungicides were evaluated against the late bight in three consecu-tive seasons (2011-12, 2012-13, 2013-14) at ICAR-CPRIC, Modipuram. Meerut. The results revealed that the treat-ments ( T1 to T10) are effective for managing the disease up to certain level; however, lowest average disease se-verity (27.89%) was recorded in treatment when Bacillus subtilis (B5-0.25%) + Trichoderma viride (TV-0.7%) was applied before disease appearance followed by cymoxanil8+mancozeb 64%WP (0.3%) at onset of late blight and one more spray of B5+ TV after seven days. The next best treatment was application of B5+ TV before appearance of disease followed by metalaxyl 8+mancozeb 64%WP (0.25%) at onset of late blight and one more spray of B5+ TV against control (average disease severity 91.94%) with higher yield also except the treatment of three spray of mancozeb 75% WP (0.2%). These treatments could be integrated in farmer practices.

Keywords: Bacillus, Fungicides, Late blight, Potato, Trichoderma



Assessment of genetic variability and character association in okra genotypes for yield and contributing characters

Meenakshi Kumari1, S. S. Solankey1*, Shirin Akhtar1and Pallavi Neha2

1Department of Horticulture (Vegetable and Floriculture), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour – 813210 (Bihar), INDIA

2Department of Division of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore – 560089 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: shashank.hort@gmail.com

Received: December 16, 2016; Revised received: April 10, 2017; Accepted: August 25, 2017

Abstract: A study of genetic diversity in 20 okra genotypes for 22 morphological and agronomic traits (13 quantita- tive and 9 qualitative) was laid out in randomized block design with three replications during 2015-16. The phenotyp- ic and genotypic variances, phenotypic (PCV) and genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV), heritability, genetic ad- vance of the characters were studied. The genotypes demonstrated wide range of variability for all characters. In this study PCV was higher than its corresponding GCV thus revealing the role of environmental factors. High heritability (h2b) was recorded for all characters except for days to first flowering (27.76%) and days to 50% flowering (34.67%) which have moderate values. Genetic advance in per cent of mean was high for all the characters ex- cept moderate for first flowering node (12.88%), fruit length (17.59%), fruit diameter (13.99%) as well as low for days to first flowering (1.69%) and days to 50% flowering (2.28%). The higher value of genetic advance indicates that selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters is desirable. Fruit yield showed positive and highly significant (at 1% level of significance) genotypic association with fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight and number of seeds per pod. The genotypes, viz. Kashi Kranti, Kashi Satdhari, VROB-159, Punjab-8 and Kashi Mohini were found promising for most of the yield contributing traits. These genotypes could be used further in hybrid breeding programme.

Keywords: Character association, Genotypes, Heritability, Okra, Variability, Yield


Molecular detection and characterization of phytoplasma associated with China aster (Callistephus chinensis) phyllody in India

Shweta Kumari*, H. A. Prameela, Manjunath, S. Hurakadli and K. T. Rangaswamy

University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru -560065(Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sweta.aau@gmail.com

Received: July 23, 2016; Revised received: March 17, 2017; Accepted: August 25, 2017

Abstract: China aster (Callistephus chinensis L.) is one of the most popular annual flowering plant grown through-out the world. Phyllody disease of China aster is a phytoplasma associated disease that induces severe economic losses. Phytoplasmal disease in China aster was assessed for phytoplasma by direct polymerase chain reaction primed by using phytoplasma universal primer pairs PI/P7. A 1.8 Kb DNA fragments encoding the portion of phyto-plasma 16SrDNA amplified by PCR was cloned and sequenced. Sequencing of the PCR product and BLAST analy-sis indicated that China aster phyllody phytoplasma strain shared maximum sequence identity (99%) with strains of Peanut Witches’ broom (16SrII) phytoplasma group. Phylogenetic relationship of 16SrDNA sequence of China aster phyllody phytoplasma strain in the present study confirmed association of Peanut Witches’ broom (16SrII) group of phytoplasmas with China aster phyllody disease in India.

Keywords: Callistephus chinensis, Phytoplasma, Phylogenetic analysis, 16SrII


Light interception and yield response of cotton varieties to high density planting and fertilizers in sub-tropical India

M. Y. Ajayakumar, M. R. Umesh*, Shivaleela and J.M. Nidagundi

All India Coordinated Research Project on Cotton, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584104 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mrumeshagri@gmail.com

Received: September 11, 2016; Revised received: February 17, 2017; Accepted: August 25, 2017

Abstract: Plant density and optimum fertilization are two important agronomic practices to enhance productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high density planting (HDPS) and fertilization rate, especially their interactions, on yield, yield components of cotton varieties in sub-tropical India. Split-split plot design was adopted and replicated thrice. The main plots were assigned to low, medium and high plant densities (16.7, 13.3 and 11.1 plants/m2). Pre released cotton varieties TCH-1705 and LH-2298 were tested in low, moderate and high rates of fertilizers recommended for the region (100, 125 and 150 %) in sub-sub plots. Significantly higher seed cotton yield (1148 kg/ha) was achieved in narrow inter row spaced at 60 cm over normal plant row spacing of 90 cm (1025 kg/ha). Compact genotype TCH-1705 was out yielded (1146 kg/ha) over LH 2298(1044 kg/ha). Application of fertilizers at higher rate improved seed cotton yield (1232 kg/ha) Leaf area index (3.8) and light interception (0.98) over blanket recommendation. The results of the study inferred that seed cotton yield improvement was possible under HDPS production system with compact varieties grown at narrow spacing and higher fertilizer dose.

Keywords: Cotton, Leaf area index, Light interception, Plant density

Evaluation of new genotypes of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under tarai condition of Uttarakhand

Arun Singh Chaudhary, S.P. Uniyal and Pooja Pandey

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 U. S. Nagar, (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: aschaudhari87@gmail.com

Received: September 19, 2016; Revised received: April 8, 2017; Accepted: August 25, 2017

Abstract: In order to assess the performance of some new genotypes of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under tarai condition of Uttarakhand, an investigation was carried out at Vegetable Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, during autumn-winter cropping season of 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replications and 9 treatments viz. PB-300, PB-301, PB-302, PB-303, PB-304, PB-305, Kashi Tarun, Punjab Sadabahar and Pant Samrat. To have comparative study, growth characters, per cent fruit infested by fruit borer, fruit yield and finally economics were also worked out. The findings revealed that none of the new genotypes in this study could supersede the local checks in respect to yield related attributes, per cent infested fruit by borer and economics. Amongst 6 genotypes and 3 commercial cultivars, variety Kashi Tarun proved the best with respect to fruit yield (490.73 q/ha) and B:C (2.43). It is also less infested by fruit borer. The per cent infested fruit by borer was 7.16 %. Variety pant samrat and pant bahar were also considered promising with 385.70 and 369.33 q/ha marketable fruit yield.

Keywords: B-C ratio, Solanum melongena L., Marketable yield, Net return

Bio-efficacy of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10% wp against weeds in transplanted rice

Y. M. Ramesha1*, M.Y. Ajay Kumar1, Manjunath Bhanuvally2 and Ashok Kumar Gaddi2

1Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, Univeristy of Agriculture Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural chemistry, Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agriculture Sciences, Raichur ( Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rameshaym@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: March 16, 2017; Accepted: August 25, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 at Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesu-gur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India, to evaluate the phytotoxicity and bio efficacy of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP (wettable Powder) @ 5, 10, 15 and 20 g a.i./ha against the weeds in transplanted rice. Sprays of Saathi (Market Sample) @ 15 g a.i./ha (gram active ingredient/hectare), Pretilachlor 50% EC @ 500 ml a. i/ha, hand weeding at 15 and 40 days after planting (weed free check) and a weedy check (untreated check) were also maintained. The dominant weeds were Echinochloacolona, Panicum repens, Cynodondoctylon, Lud-wigiaparviflora, Leptochloachinensis and Cyperus sp. Application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP @ 20 g a.i./ha was recorded significantly higher grain yield (6266 kg/ha) by controlling the associated weeds in transplanted rice without any phytotoxic effect.

Keywords: Bio-efficacy, Dry weight, Grain yield, Phytotoxicity, Weeds

Weed flora dynamics and growth response of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) under varied agri-horti system and weed management practices

Om Prakash Shivran, Manoj Kumar Singh* and Nikhil Kumar Singh

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manoj.agro@bhu.ac.in

Received: December 27, 2016; Revised received: April 11, 2017; Accepted: August 26, 2017

Abstract: Horizontal expansion of pulse production can be achieved by introduction of short duration pulse crop like, green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) under agri-horti system. Response of green gram under different agri-horti system and weed management practices is lacking. Therefore, an agronomic trial was conducted during monsoon season of 2011 at Agricultural Research Farm, Rajeev Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha, Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, in split plot design, consisting of three agri-horti systems [guava, custard apple and open field] in main plots and six weed management practices [pendimethalin 1000 g/ha (PE), imazethapyr 125 and 200 g/ha (PoE), 1-HW (20 DAS), 2-HW (15 and 30 DAS) and weedy check] were assigned to sub plots and replicated thrice. Green gram variety ‘Samrat’ was sown as per standard agronomic package of practices on August 5, 2011 in open field as well as within the alleys of, 5-year old, guava and custard apple agri-horti system. Agri-horti systems, did not significantly (P<0.05) affect the growth, yield attributes, yield and nutrient content in green gram. The weed management practices significantly affected the CGR, RGR and yield of green gram. Application of imazethapyr 200 g/ha recorded 79.08% reduction in weed biomass and 11.38% lower seed yield as compared to weedy check and 2-HW (15 and 30 DAS), respectively. 2-hand weeding effectively reduced weed biomass (88.07%) and showed highest yield (888.79 kg/ha), and CGR (13.61 g/day) followed by imazethapyr 200g/ha yield (787.66 kg/ha) and CGR (13.14 g/day).

Keywords: Agroforestry, Crop growth rate, Relative growth rate, Weed management


Genetic variability in CMS backcross generations and their maintainers in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Karmvir S. Garcha, A. S. Dhatt* and M. K. Sidhu

Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ajmerdhatt@gmail.com

Received: December 20, 2016; Revised received: March 26, 2017; Accepted: August 27, 2017

Abstract: Twelve genotypes of eggplant in BC3, BC4 and BC5 generations of CMS-lines derived from Solanum ae-thiopicum × Solanum melongena cross along with their maintainers were evaluated for eighteen quantitative charac-ters at Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana. Analysis of variance depicted significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) for all the characters in all generations. High PCV and GCV values were observed for fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, number of fruits plant-1 and yield plant-1 in all generations indicating high variability in the germplasm. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was found for peduncle length, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, number of fruits plant-1 and yield plant-1 in all generations indicating the predominance of additive gene action for these traits. Thus, selections can be made from present germplasm for the development of improved CMS inbred lines with varying fruit traits.

Keywords: CMS, Eggplant, GCV, Heritability, PCV, Percent GA

Induction of systemic resistance (ISR) against sheath blight of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn using biological seed treatment with Trichoderma

K. K. Sharma

Regional Research Station (PAU), Ballowal Saunkhari, Balachaur, S.B.S. Nagar -144521(Punjab), INDIA

E-mail: kksharma@pau.edu

Received: December 21, 2016; Revised received: April 13, 2017; Accepted: August 27, 2017

Abstract: Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn has recently noticed one of the most important diseases of rice on almost all the high yielding varieties in major rice growing area. In our study morphologically and molecu-larly characterized thirty rhizospheric isolates of Trichoderma (T. harzianum and T. virens) from different locations of Uttarakhand were evaluated for their mycoparasitic ability, disease (sheath blight) suppressing potential and inducing systemic resistance against Rhizoctonia solani. Maximum inhibition in hyphal growth (58.9 %) against R. solani was recorded with isolate PB 2 followed by PB 3 (53.4 %) in confrontation assay. Under glass house con-dition, minimum disease severity (13.6%) was recorded in the treatment where seeds were treated with PB 22 and this treatment also exhibited highest total phenol content (394 μl/g) 168 hours after pathogen inoculation. Total phenol content was also increased maximally (466 μl/g) before pathogen inoculation in the treatment where seeds were treated with PB 22. Moreover, high quality ISR activity was recorded with isolates PB 21, 3, 1, 4, 23, 2 and 16 as they reduced more than 34 percent disease and total phenol contents 456 μl/g, 449 μl/g, 442 μl/g, 440 μl/g and 440 μl/g, 438 μl/g and 431 μl/g were recorded for respective isolates indicated induction of resistance in paddy against sheath blight disease caused by R. solani.

Keywords: ISR, Mycoparasitism, Rice, Sheath blight, Total phenol content, Trichoderma


Herbicide sequence for weed management in direct seeded rice

Y. M. Ramesha1*, M.R. Umesh1, S. R. Anand1, Manjunatha Bhanuvally2 and Ashok Kumar Gaddi2

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rameshaym@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2016; Revised received: March 16, 2017; Accepted: August 27, 2017

Abstract: An experiment was conducted during Kharif 2014 and 2015 at Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesu-gur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India, to know the herbicide sequence for weed man-agement in direct seeded rice. The dominant weeds in direct seeded rice were Echinochloa sp, Panicum repens, Cynodon doctylon, Leptochloa chinensis, Bracharia sp. Ludwigia parviflora, Commelena sp. and Cyperus sp. Pooled data revealed that, application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP at 20 g a.i./ha as pre-emergent herbicide followed by the application of Bispyribac sodium 10 % SC @ 250 ml/ha at 20 to 25 days after sowing as post-emergent herbi-cide in direct seeded rice was most effective in controlling of grasses, broad leaf weeds and sedges and increased the rice grain yield (5583 kg/ha) without any phytotoxic effect and which was onpar with the application of Pendime-thalin 30 EC @ 1 kg a.i. /ha as pre-emergent herbicide followed by one hand weeding at 30 days after sowing and weed free check .Therefore, the application of pre emergent herbicides followed by the post emergent herbicide application can reduce the weed problem in direct seeded rice. .

Keywords: Grain yield, Weed control efficiency, Weed dry weight, Weeds

Effect of biovita granules and liquid on growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Y. M. Ramesha1*, Bhanuvally Manjunatha2, Ashok Kumar Gaddi2 and D. Krishna Murthy1

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rameshaym@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2016; Revised received: March 17, 2017; Accepted: August 27, 2017

Abstract: A study was conducted on effect of biovita granules and liquid on growth and yield of cotton during Kharif 2014 and 2015 in deep black soil at ARS, Dhadesugr, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka. Pooled data revealed that, cotton yield and green biomass yield were significantly (p=0.05) higher in the treatment with the application of biovita granule at 12.5 kg per hectare at one month after sowing followed by first spray of biovita liquid at 500 ml per hectare at square formation followed by second spray of biovita liquid at 750 ml per hectare at flowering and followed by third spray of biovita liquid at 750 ml per hectare at boll formation (1450 kg/ha and 1463 g/plant, respectively) and which was on par with the application of biovita granule at 10.0 kg per hectare at one month after sowing followed by first spray of biovita liquid at 500 ml per hectare at square formation followed by second spray of biovita liquid at 750 ml per hectare at flowering and followed by third spray of biovita liquid at 750 ml per hectare at boll formation (1377 kg/ha and 1439 g/plant, respectively). Whereas, application of only recommend-ed dose of fertilizer recorded significantly less cotton and green biomass yield compared to other treatments. The average per cent of increase in yield in biovita applied treatments (T1 to T8) over the no application of biovita treat-ment (T9) was 7.13 %.

Keywords: Biovita, Bolls, Boll retention, Cotton yield, Economics

Assessment of heavy metals in brands of canned fishes stored in vegetable oil marketed in Benin city, Nigeria

Andress Edowaye Odiko

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Benin, Edo state, NIGERIA

E-mail: andress.odiko@uniben.edu

Received: May 17, 2017; Revised received: July 16, 2017; Accepted: August 28, 2017

Abstract: This study was undertaken to ascertain the safety level of consuming canned fish as it relates to metals. Seven commonly consumed canned fish brands stored in vegetable oil sold in Benin-City were bought from super stores and in the open markets and stored at ambient temperature between January to September, 2015. A total of 106 samples were collected and analysed in triplicates for iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V); which were detected in all the canned fish samples but V had an average of 0.024mg/kg value during

the study which was just a detection level. The heavy metal variation ranged between 2.21-21.38mgFe/kg, 5.41- 52.35mgZn/kg, 0.05-0.72mgMn/kg, 0.42-7.00mgNi/kg and 0.02-0.16mgV/kg respectively during the period of study. Generally, heavy metal concentration increased with increasing storage time especially Fe and Zn. There was significant difference in the mean concentration of the heavy metal levels evaluated during the period of study in the

different brands ((p>0.05). The Laser, Soil and Titus sardines were significantly higher. However, all the metal concentrations were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the permissible set limits by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU) legislation for fish except for nickel. Effort must therefore be made to comprehensively and intermittently monitor metal levels on arrival and during long time storage of canned fish. As this will not only help to safeguard the health of the citizenry but the point at which metal contamination occurs can be effectively deduced and appropriate measures could then be taken to prevent metal contamination.

Keywords: Assessment, Canned fish, Metals, Nigeria, Vegetable oil


Effect of storage periods and packaging materials on the proximate and chemical properties of frozen blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) at different exposure time

A. E. Odiko* and E. Joseph

Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City. NIGERIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: andress.odiko@uniben.edu

Received: May 17, 2017; Revised received: July 16, 2017; Accepted: August 28, 2017

Abstract: This research seeks to determine the effect of storage periods and packaging materials on the proximate and chemical properties of frozen blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) at different exposure time – 0 hour, 2 hours and 4 hours, on arrival at the laboratory. Frozen M. poutassou were bought and stored in a commercial cold room for 12 weeks at -10oC and packed in different packaging materials (Ziploc bag, foil paper and carton) with un-wrapped samples for analysis which lasted 90 days and was conducted every 14 days to measure the moisture, protein, fat, ash, fibre and nitrogen free extract (NFA) content of the fish sample as well as iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, acid value, free fatty acid and hydroxyl value of fish oil. The result clearly reveals that during storage, the different packaging materials showed significantly (p<0.05) decreasing trend in protein, lipid, ash, fibre and NFA content with increasing storage period and time of analysis except for the moisture content that showed opposite trend. For the chemical properties, the saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acid, acid value and hydroxyl value showed significantly (p<0.05) increasing trend in the different packaging materials with increasing storage period and time of analysis. While the iodine value decreased with increasing period of storage and time of analysis; the iodine, saponification, peroxide and hydroxyl values were not within the acceptable limits.

Keywords: Chemical properties, Frozen storage, Micromesistius poutassou, Proximate composition