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Volume 9, Year 2017- Issue 4

Contents

  1. 1 Cell membrane stability- an important criterion for selection of heat tolerant genotypes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
  2. 2 Occurrence and distribution of black pod rot of Cocoa (Theobromae cocoa L.) in southern transition zone of Karnataka
  3. 3 Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on wheat production under sub temperate climate in north western Himalayas, India
  4. 4 Effect of paper industry effluent on enzyme activity and protein profiling of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
  5. 5 Efficacy of botanicals and fungicides against Rhizoctonia solani inciting sheath blight disease on Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  6. 6 Nanotechnological innovation for the production of daughter less Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  7. 7 Studies on variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and yield contributing characters in french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm under tarai region of Uttarakhand
  8. 8 Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using floating rafts a promising phyto-remedial approach: A review
  9. 9 Development of stripper harvester for paddy
  10. 10 Genetic divergence analysis in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.]
  11. 11 Morphological characterization of Ampelomyces spp., a hyperparasite of Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) powdery mildew
  12. 12 Influence of different transplanting date and weed management practices on yield and quality of basmati rice (Pusa Basmati-1509)
  13. 13 Land characterization and soil-site suitability- evaluation of banana growing areas of South Gujarat, India
  14. 14 Long-term application of fertilizers on chemical and biological properties of an Alfisol
  15. 15 Population dynamics of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) on maize as influenced by weather conditions
  16. 16 Effect of organic source of nutrients and biofertilizers on growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)
  17. 17 Cone and seed maturity indices in Pinus wallichiana under temperate conditions of Kashmir Himalayas, India
  18. 18 Biology of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) on maize, Zea mays
  19. 19 Long-term effect of inorganic fertilizers and amendments on productivity and root dynamics under maize-wheat intensive cropping in an acid Alfisol
  20. 20 Identification of heterotic cross combinations for various agromorphological and some quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
  21. 21 Estimation of combining ability analysis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for yield, nutritional and processing quality improvement
  22. 22 Physico-chemical changes during fruit growth and developmental stages in yellow type passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener) accessions
  23. 23 Nutritional evaluation of products prepared from fresh beans
  24. 24 State space modelling and forecasting of sugarcane yield in Haryana, India
  25. 25 Effect of rice husk biochar, carpet waste, farm yard manure and plant growth promoting rhizobium on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa)
  26. 26 Choice of parents for developing two line hybrids in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  27. 27 Studies on the effect of post harvest treatments on shelf life and quality of mango [Mangifera indica l.] cv. Amrapali
  28. 28 Optimization of biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
  29. 29 Effect of pinching and spacing on growth, flowering and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under semi-arid conditions of Haryana
  30. 30 Osmolytes: Proline metabolism in plants as sensors of abiotic stress
  31. 31 Effect of growth and yield parameters on Indian-mustard genotypes under varying environmental conditions in western Haryana
  32. 32 Studies on pyrolytic conversion of waste plastic carry bags into plastic crude oil
  33. 33 Suppression of soil borne fungal pathogens associated with apple replant disease by cyclic application of native strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  34. 34 Efficacy of traditional products on the biochemical aspects of stored mungbean infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius)
  35. 35 Chemistry and analytical techniques for ent-kaurene-glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni - A review
  36. 36 Effect of microencapsulated plant extracts on mosquito repellency
  37. 37 Biointensive integrated management of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica spp.
  38. 38 Preparation of Myrica nagi (Box myrtle) drink and effect of storage temperature on its quality
  39. 39 Integrated nutrition management in pigeon pea intercropping systems for enhancing production and productivity in sustainable manner– A review
  40. 40 Advances in role of organic acids in poultry nutrition: A review
  41. 41 A study on farmer’s perception on ill effects of agro chemicals in north eastern part of Karnataka
  42. 42 Effect of proline and salicylic acid on germination and antioxidant enzymes at different temperatures in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds
  43. 43 Biological relationship of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) infecting cowpea with leguminous plant species
  44. 44 N. Manjunatha1, K. T. Rangaswamy2, N. Nagaraju2, M. Krishna Reddy3, H. A. Prameela2 and S. H. Manjunath2
  45. 45 Effect of chitosan and acetic acid on the shelf life of sea bass fillets stored at refrigerated temperature
  46. 46 Effect of dormancy breaking chemicals on microtuber production potential under in vivo conditions of central India
  47. 47 Evaluation of bupirimate against rose powdery mildew
  48. 48 Role of trichomes on leaves and pods for imparting resistance in chickpea [Cicer arientinum (L.)] genotypes against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
  49. 49 Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) genotypes based on physio-chemical quality attributes
  50. 50 Effect of Homa organic farming on growth, yield and quality parameters of Okra
  51. 51 Effect of wheat seed dressing fungicides, botanicals and bio-control agent on Karnal bunt incidence in natural condition
  52. 52 Mycotoxin management through transformations – A review
  53. 53 Influence of knolkhol on quality characteristics of chicken meat balls
  54. 54 Effect of altitude and seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on soil properties in dry temperate region of Himachal Pradesh
  55. 55 Development of appetizer (spiced squash) from mulberry (Morus alba L.) and its quality evaluation during storage
  56. 56 The morphological and phenological performance of different cotton genotypes under different plant density
  57. 57 Investigation of optimum conditions for the growth of Fusarium solani EGY1 causing root rot of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)
  58. 58 Studies on biochemical constituents of sapota (Manilkara zapota L.) at different stages of ripening during storage
  59. 59 A field study on hydraulic performance of drip irrigation system for optimization of operating pressure
  60. 60 Wasteland reclamation strategy for household timber security of tribes in Jharkhand, India
  61. 61 Organic farming: Present status, scope and prospects in northern India
  62. 62 Sequential extraction of different pools of phosphorus in alluvial and acid soils of Uttarakhand
  63. 63 A comparative analysis of phytoplankton diversity and abundance during monsoon season in selected beels (wetlands) of Assam, India
  64. 64 Larvicidal action of Nux-vomica (Strychnus nux-vomica L.) against Diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella L.)
  65. 65 Performance of garden pea varieties for their growth and yield characteristics in Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India
  66. 66 Study of physico-chemical parameters of orange (Citrus reticulate Blanco) for the development of orange wine
  67. 67 Applications of molecular markers for bacterial blight resistant varieties in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  68. 68 Nutrient uptake and soil fertility status after harvest of Bt cotton as influenced by graded levels of NPK fertilizers in Alfisol
  69. 69 Bio-efficacy of Trichoderma species against Pigeonpea wilt pathogen
  70. 70 Non parametric measures to estimate GxE interaction of dual purpose barley genotypes for grain yield under multi-location trials
  71. 71 Effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulators on seed yield per plant and seed quality parameters in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)
  72. 72 Study on genetic variability in some agro-morphological traits of Brassica rapa L. (Brown sarson) germplasm characterized under rainfed conditions of Kashmir, India
  73. 73 Efficacy of various pesticides against Red ant (Dorylus orientalis, Westwood) of potato
  74. 74 Nutritional attributes, bioactive components and overall acceptability of pineapple grown under different farming system
  75. 75 Population dynamics of natural enemies on bt / non bt cotton and their correlation with weather parameters
  76. 76 Regional analysis of maximum rainfall using L-moment and TL-moment: a comparative case study for the north East India
  77. 77 Assessment of physiological indices and energetics under different system of rice intensification in north western Himalayas
  78. 78 Thermal requirements, growth and yield of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] genotypes under different agroclimatic zones of Punjab
  79. 79 Economic analysis of trout feed production in Jammu and Kashmir, India
  80. 80 Enrichment of Lassi by incorporation of peptides from whey protein concentrate
  81. 81 Boron availability in relation to some important soil chemical properties in acid soils of Cooch Behar district, West Bengal
  82. 82 Response of growth regulators and micronutrients on yield and physico-chemical quality of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk) cv. BAU Kul-1
  83. 83 Comparative analysis of changes in leaf area index in different wheat genotypes exposed to high temperature stress by late sown condition
  84. 84 Growth, yield and nutrient uptake of hybrid rice as influenced by nutrient management modules and its impact on economic of the treatments
  85. 85 Determination of genetic divergence in pointed gourd by principal component and non-hierarchical euclidean cluster analysis
  86. 86 Analysis of genetic diversity among tropical and subtropical maize inbred lines using SSR markers
  87. 87 Effect of potash and sulphur on yield and quality parameters under different planting methods in onion
  88. 88 Herbicidal effect on the bio-indicators of soil health- A review
  89. 89 Development and sensory evaluation of gluten free bakery products using quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa) flour
  90. 90 Impact assessment of frontline demonstrations on green gram: Experience from rainfed condition of Rajasthan
  91. 91 Design, development and demonstration of a Shallow solar tunnel dryer for non-electrified areas
  92. 92 Influence of crop geometry and cultivars on growth, yield and production efficiency of dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  93. 93 Occurrence of functional single-lobed ovary in Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton,1822) brood fish from Assam, India
  94. 94 Performance of direct seeded rice in Tungabhadra command area of Karnataka
  95. 95 Evaluation and diversity analysis in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] germplasm accessions on the basis of principal component analysis
  96. 96 Ecology and conservation of golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan
  97. 97 Detection of epistasis through triple test cross (TTC) analysis in maize (Zea mays L.)
  98. 98 Combining ability and heterosis analysis for fibre yield and quality parameters in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)
  99. 99 Comparative development of sorghum, redgram and rice breeding population of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) feeding on cereals and split redgram dhal

Cell membrane stability- an important criterion for selection of heat tolerant genotypes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Anzer Ul Islam*, Ashok K. Chhabra, Satyaveer S. Dhanda and Renu Munjal

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: anzer.gene@gmail.com

Received: August 22, 2016; Revised received: April 8, 2017; Accepted: September 5, 2017


Abstract: Cell membrane stability, grain filling rate, grain filling duration, canopy temperature and grain yield were used to evaluate performance of 100 diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under timely sown and late sown heat stress conditions for two cropping season. The genotypes differed significantly for all the traits show-ing considerable variation for improvement of characters. The genotypes WH1165 had significant high grain yield (14.6* g and 11.4g) and (11.3* g and 11.4* g) followed by cell membrane stability under timely sown and heat stress conditions, respectively indicating potential tolerance against heat stress. Correlation coefficients revealed that cell membrane stability (0.451**) and (0.639**) in timely sown and in late sown conditions, respectively were the most important trait followed by grain filling rate (0.882** and 0.744**) under timely sown and late sown conditions respec-tively. Results revealed that bread wheat genotypes which had high value of cell membrane stability had high grain yield showed potential photorespiration and high grain filling rate under heat stress condition. Twenty two genotypes WH1021, WH1155, VL803, WH787, NW1014, Raj3765, HD1869, 2042, WH1124, HD2285, WH1133, HUW234, 4066, Sonak, UP2425, UP2473, PBW503, PBW373, PBW533, SGP13, HD2643 and WH789 were identified as heat tolerant genotypes based on their relative performance in yield components, grain yield and heat susceptibility indi-ces. These genotypes were found to be ideal candidates to be used in developing heat tolerant wheat varieties. Canopy temperature, membrane thermostability and grain filling rate have also shown strong correlation with grain yield. Because of this association, these traits constitute the best available ‘tool’ for genetic improvement of wheat suitable for cultivation under heat stressed environments. Thus, these could be used as indirect selection criteria for developing heat tolerant wheat genotypes that would provide sufficient yields to meet the ever increasing wheat demand.

Keywords: Cell membrane stability, Canopy temperature, Grain filling rate, Heat tolerance, Heat susceptibility index


Occurrence and distribution of black pod rot of Cocoa (Theobromae cocoa L.) in southern transition zone of Karnataka

K. Jayalakshmi, Adivappar, Nagarajappa, J. Raju, H. B. Narasimhamurthy, P. Narayanaswamy, S. Shivanna and H. Ravindra

Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga -577225 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: jayalakshmipat@gmail.com

Received: May 9, 2016; Revised received: November 15, 2016; Accepted: September 5, 2017


Abstract: Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. Phytopthtora palmivora is one of the major constraints in cocoa production causes significant pod losses. P. palmivora has a complex disease cycle involving several sources of primary inoculum and several modes of dissemination of secondary inoculum. This results in explosive epidemics during favorable environmental conditions. Highest severity of Seedling blight was observed in raised bed nurseries as compared to poly bag nurseries in Shivamogga district (59.26%) followed by Chikkamagluru (53.85%) of the state Karnataka , respectively. Further, the highest incidence of 72.00, 70.83 and 70.00% of black pod rot disease was recorded in Udupi, Dakshina Kannada and Shivamogga district followed by Chikkamagaluru (65.22%), Kodagu (64.00%) and Davanagere (55.56%) district respectively. Due to continuous rain fall or high moisture conditions and the crop was grown as intercrop with arecanut is vulnerable for the attack of pathogen due to the presence of pathogenic variability.

Key words: Black pod rot Cocoa, Incidence, , Phytopthtora palmivora, Seedling blight


Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on wheat production under sub temperate climate in north western Himalayas, India

Ranbir Singh Rana1*, Ranu Pathania2, Ramesh3, Sanjay Kumar Sharma4 and Shivani Thakur5

1&2Centre for Geo- Informatics Research and Training, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 (HP), INDIA

3 Presently at Abhilashi University, Mandi (HP), INDIA

4 Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kangra, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 (HP), INDIA

5 Department of Agronomy, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 (HP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranars66@gmail.com

Received: October 22, 2016; Revised received: April 7, 2017; Accepted: September 5, 2017


Abstract: Wheat is the second most important cereal crop and plays a key role in food and nutritional security. The study examines the impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature under limited irrigations on wheat crop using crop growth simulation models under sub temperate climate. The Info Crop model was validated using the historical

data generated by the research trials of All India Coordinated Research Improvement Project at Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. The model was run for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 for Palampur weather station. The results revealed 3.6 to 4.0 percent and 1.7 to 7.5 percent increase in simulated crop yield with 420 and 470 ppm CO2 respectively. The elevated maximum and minimum temperature by 1 and 20C with 370 ppm carbon dioxide reduced the anthesis period by 5-7 and 9-11 days respectively over the sowing window of November 15th to December 30th. Similarly, days to maturity also reduced by 4-5 and 7-8 days with 1 and 20C rise in temperature respectively. The simulated crop yield showed increase by 17.9 to 63.0 and 33.2 to 133.4 percent with 1 and 20C rise in temperature at 370 ppm CO2 under limited irrigations. The simulated grain yield at 420 ppm CO2 showed an increase of 23 to 69.7 percent with 10C and 39.5 to 123.5 percent with 20C whereas at 470 ppm CO2 level the increase was 27.9 to 76.1 at 10C and 46.4 to 133.0 percent with 20C rise in maximum and minimum temperatures respectively. Hence, simulated results of elevated temperature and CO2 levels proved to be beneficial in rabi wheat with adaptations strategy of limited irrigations under sub temperate climate of North Western Himalayas

Keywords: Assessment, Adaptation, Elevated CO2, InfoCrop, Simulation, Temperatures, Wheat


Effect of paper industry effluent on enzyme activity and protein profiling of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Rajat Chaudhary1*, Anurag Mishra2, Kapil Kumar3 and Sonam Arya2

1Department of Biosciences, D.A.V. (P.G.) Collage, Muzaffarnagar-251001 (U.P.), INDIA

2Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110(U.P.), INDIA

3Department of Entomology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad- 211007 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rajatbio007@gmail.com.

Received: November 8, 2016; Revised received: May 5, 2017; Accepted: September 7, 2017


Abstract: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a legume which is mostly cultivated in India than other countries that can give significant amounts of dietary minerals and protein to humans. The effect of paper industrial effluent on chick-pea (C. arietinum L.) were analysed along with different concentration (10%, 20% 40%, 60% 80% and 100%) and pure tap water as a control to compare the effect of paper industrial effluent for one week. The amount of protein were comparable with control, their amount was increased at 40% in effluent treated seeds. The maximum activity of enzymes was found below 40% level of effluent. In this study protein profile of imbibed seeds, shoot, root and residual cotyledons were examined under the different concentration of effluent. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total protein showed that the maximum number of protein bands seen in the imbibed seeds whereas minimum number of protein bands observed in the root. SDS-PAGE revealed that less degradation and/or more rapid accumulation of proteins occurred in higher molecular weight proteins. From this study, it is clear that the industrial effluent rich in organic matter and plant nutrients are finding their use in agriculture as the cheaper way of disposal.

Keywords: Amylase, Chickpea, Imbibed seeds, Paper industry effluent, SDS-PAGE


Efficacy of botanicals and fungicides against Rhizoctonia solani inciting sheath blight disease on Rice (Oryza sativa L.)


Vipin Kumar1, V.P. Chaudhary1, Dharmendra Kumar1, Ajay Kumar1, Sushma Sagar2, Sorabh Chaudhary2
1Department of Plant Pathology, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad- 224229 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
2Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut- 250110 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA
*Corresponding author. E-mail: vipinsre489@gmail.com
Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: April 28, 2017; Accepted: September 7, 2017
Abstract: Among the fungal diseases, sheath blight, caused by multinucleate Rhizoctoniasolani Kuhn (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris Donk), a ubiquitous pathogen, is an important fungal disease of rice ranking only after blast and often rivalling it. The potential losses due to sheath blight alone in India has been up to 51.3%. In this study an attempt was made to investigate the antifungal efficacy of botanicals viz., neem (Azadirachtaindica), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), ginger (Zingiberofficinale) and various fungicides namely mancozeb, propiconazole, hexaconazole, carbendazim, and copper oxychlorideagainst Rhizoctoniasolani in vitro by poison food technique. R. solani was allowed to grow at 5%, 10% concentrations of botanicals and at 200, 500, 1000ppm of fungicides amended potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The effect of botanicals and fungicides on mycelial growth inhibition was recorded after 36, 48 and 72 post hrs inoculation (phi). It was observed that bulb extract of Allium sativum and rhizome extract of Zingier officinal suppressed the mycelial growth (80.19 and 76.32, respectively) @ 10% followed by leaf extract of Azadirachtaindica (72.78 %) after 72 phi. Among the fungicides, the complete fungal growth inhibition was observed in propiconazole and carbendazim fungicides amended medium.
Keywords: Garlic, Efficacy, Chemical fungicides, Rhizoctoniasolani, Sheath blight


Nanotechnological innovation for the production of daughter less Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

1*Harshavardhan D. Joshi,1V. K. Tiwari, 2Rupam Sharma, 3Subodh Gupta, 2W. S. Lakra and 1Upasana Sahoo

1Aquaculture Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Andheri (W), Mumbai-400061(Maharashtra), INDIA

2Fisheries Genetics & Biotechnology, Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Andheri (W), Mumbai- 400061(Maharashtra), INDIA

3Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Andheri (W), Mumbai-400061 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: harshjoshicofsn@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: April 30, 2017; Accepted: September 10, 2017

Abstract: The aim of present work was to develop a new Fadrozole (FDZ)-loaded Poly (D,L-lactide-co– glycolide) lactide:glycolide (50:50)(PLGA) nanoparticles for effective delivery of the masculinization drug, Fadrozole, as an alternative to commercially available masculinization agents like testosterone (dietary supplementation of 17 α- methyltestosterone) which are steroids and banned in most EU countries. The FDZ-loaded PLGA NPs were pre-pared by solvent displacement technique. The particle size of FDZ-loaded PLGA NPs was analyzed using LICOMP particle size analyser. It was found to be in the range of 60±66.7 nm to 560±66.7 nm with average size of 201.4±66.7 nm, where the Zeta potential was estimated to be about -20.82 mV, a series of experiments were carried out to induce masculinization using FDZ-loaded PLGA nanoparticles during the sex differentiation period. Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fry were treated with FTZ-loaded PLGA nanoparticles at dosages 5, 25, 50 and 100ppm/kg diet for 10, 15 and 30 days. The results indicated an increase in the proportion of males with dosage and duration of treatment. The male percentage was 92.35±0.86 for T7(50 ppm) at 10 days, 97.76±1.12 for T7 (100 ppm) at 15 days and 100 % for both T6 (50ppm) and T7 (100 ppm) at 30 days. This is first time done by using nanotechnology efficiently in Tilapia species which is very important Fresh water aquaculture species in present era. Which showed increase the male population with lesser dose of nano-encapsulated Fadrozole (FDZ) loaded PLGA nanoparticles drug as compared with naked control Fadrozole (FDZ) drug delivery.

Keywords: Bio-dégradable, Fadrozole, Masculinisation, Nanoparticle, PLGA, Oreochromis niloticus


Studies on variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and yield contributing characters in french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm under tarai region of Uttarakhand

Ankit Panchbhaiya, Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Vinod Jatav, Sanganamoni Mallesh and Priyanka Verma

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), India.

*Corresponding author E-mail: anki38423@gmail.com

Received: November 22, 2016; Revised received: April 15, 2017; Accepted: September 10, 2017


Abstract: Seventy four French bean germplasms were evaluated for twenty two quantitative traits to study the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance during Jan-Feb in G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. Significant differences were observed among all genotypes. Higher genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variability were observed for plant height, seed yield per plant, pod yield per plant, pod yield per hectare, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and 100 seed weight (42.45% and 43.30%, 39.72% and 42.34%, 27.59% and 32.12%, 27.59% and 32.12%, 25.01% and 28.14%, 24.56% and 26.76% and 22.65% and 22.96% respectively). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean were observed for plant height, seed yield per plant, pod yield per plant, pod yield per hectare, number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, number of pods per cluster, leaf length, single pod weight, pod diameter, pod length, number of pod clusters per plant, leaf width, seed length, number of seeds per pod and seed width (96.34% and 85.73%, 88.03% and 76.77%, 73.80% and 48.83%, 73.80% and 48.83%, 84.20% and 46.42%, 97.34% and 46.04%, 45.78% and 78.96%, 38.88% and 89.58%, 38.21% and 92.70%, 92.69% and 35.45%, 90.13% and 34.48%, 32.47% and 79.39%, 28.03% and 79.60%, 26.92% and 99.04%, 56.27% and 24.85%, and 97.82% and 24.01% respectively) indicate predominance additive gene action. Thus, there is ample scope for improving these characters through direct selection.

Keywords: French bean, GCV, Genetic variability, Heritability, PCV

Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using floating rafts a promising phyto-remedial approach: A review

Praveen Solanki1*, Maitreyie Narayan1 and R. K. Srivastava1

1Department of Environmental Science, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar -263145, INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: praveen.solanki746@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: April 18, 2017; Accepted: September 10, 2017


Abstract: Treatment of wastewater will lead to the problems again, if we will not use new more efficient alternative technologies/methods to avoid drawback of old technologies. Loss of water can be reduced through application of easy, inexpensive and eco-friendly technologies for wastewater treatment. Using Floating rafts to purify polluted wastewater is a process/method of ecological restoration at in-situ, as well as a complicated physical (attachment of pollutants to the root surface), chemical (degradation of metals into less toxic form) and biological process (microbial processes). Its core is utilizing aquatic plants such as Canna and Water lily and root attached microbes such as bac-teria, fungi and algae to absorb pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorus, degrade organic matter and accumulates heavy metals in their biomass. Phytoremediation of polluted wastewater using the Floating rafts technique is an Eco-friendly method of wastewater treatment, which is economically effective to construct, requires little maintenance and increase the biodiversity as different types of plants are used. Floating rafts technique has been applied to some water pollution control projects at domestic and abroad. However, there are some factors such as plants, temperature, seasons, hydraulic retention time, coverage and initial concentration of pollutants etc. influenced to the pollutants removal efficiency of Floating rafts. In the future, the development orientation has been subjected to plant and its combinations, the transformation of Floating rafts structure and the utilization of aquatic plants, and probed the technology of Floating rafts building and management, to implement the win-win of landscape benefit and ecological function.

Keywords: Attached microbial growth, Domestic wastewater, Floating rafts, Hydraulic retention time, Phyto-remediation


Development of stripper harvester for paddy

Girishkumar Balasaheb Bhanage, P. U. Shahare, V. V. Aware, K. G. Dhandeand P. S. Deshmukh

Department of Farm Machinery and Power, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dipole, Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: girish_agril@yahoo.co.in

Received: December 10, 2016; Revised received: May 5, 2017; Accepted: September 10, 2017


Abstract: Konkan is the coastal part of Maharashtra between Western Ghat and Arabian seacoast. Rice is a major crop grown over 3.86 lakh hectares. Stripper harvesting technology, which strips only seeds and keeps straw erect-ed in the field present bright prospect for the development of small, light, efficient mechanism by reducing number of operation with increased capacity and lesser power compared to conventional cutter bar combine harvester. The big machines like combine harvester and high capacity threshers for harvesting and threshing have limitations. A proto-type of paddy stripper harvester was developed considering the limitation of Konkan like small, fragmented land, hilly, terrace farming and high rainfall. It consisted of stripping mechanism, grain tank, hydraulic system, steering system, gear box, engine, cage wheel and chassis. The arrangement of V-belt and set of pulleys were made to transmit power from gear box to stripper rotor. The effect of forward speed and peripheral speed on shattered and un-stripped grain loss was studied. The shattered grain loss was decreased with increase in forward speed whereas decreased initially and then increased with increase in peripheral speed. The un-stripped grain loss was decreased with increase in forward and peripheral speed. The performance of the developed prototype was found better at forward speed of 2.25 km/h and peripheral speed of 19.78 m/s. During final testing of prototype, shattered and un-stripped grain loss was found 5.95 and 1.89 %, respectively. The average field capacity and field efficiency of paddy stripper harvester machine was found 0.14 ha/h and 69.38 per cent respectively.

Keywords: Grain loss, Harvester, Stripper, Stripping element


Genetic divergence analysis in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.]

C. P. Chetariya1* and M. A. Vaddoria2

1 Pulses Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), INDIA

2Vegetable Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: chetariyachana89@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2016; Revised received: March 27, 2017; Accepted: September 11, 2017


Abstract: The study was conducted during summer 2014-15 at the Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh to assess the genetic diversity among 50 genotypes of bottle gourd (Ligenaria siceraria L.). The genetic diversity analysis revealed the formation of 13 clusters suggesting the presence of wide genetic diversity. The clustering pattern indicated that geographic diversity was not associated with genetic diversity. The analysis of per cent contribution of various characters towards the expression of total genetic divergence indicated that number of fruits per vine (22.45%) followed by number of primary branches per vine (13.80%), average fruit weight (11.51%), vine length (11.18%), fruit yield per vine (10.61%), number of male flowers (7.84%), fruit length (6.45%), ratio of male to female flowers (4.82%), days to first picking (4.49%) and days to opening of first male flower (3.84%) contributed maximum towards total genetic divergence. Based on the maximum genetic distance. It is advisable to attempt crossing of the genotypes from cluster XII(GP-14) with the genotypes of cluster IV (GP-25) and XI (GP-53), which may lead to the generation of broad spectrum of favourable genetic variability for yield improvement in bottle gourd.

Keywords: Genetic divergence, D2 statistic, Lagenaria siceraria L.


Morphological characterization of Ampelomyces spp., a hyperparasite of Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) powdery mildew

K. Athira1*, N. Ragupathi2 and T. Raguchander3

1Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi- 642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Directorate of Students Welfare (DSW), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003(Tamil Nadu), INDIA

3Department of Plant Pathology, AC and RI, Valavachanur, Thiruvannamalai- 606753(Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: athirakk@gmail.com

Received: August 21, 2016; Revised received: May 4, 2017; Accepted: September 12, 2017


Abstract: Ampelomyces is a naturally occurring hyperparasite on powdery mildews. Survey was conducted in major bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) growing districts of Tamil Nadu during June 2014 to assess the incidence of powdery mildew and to collect different isolates of Ampelomyces spp. The results of the survey revealed that the disease incidence ranged from 15.54 to 63.45 %. Ten isolates of Ampelomyces spp. were collect-ed from surveyed areas of powdery mildew. Isolation of Ampelomyces spp. was done from powdery mildew infected bhendi leaf parasitized by Ampelomyces spp. using tissue segment method. All the isolates were identified by their morphological characters. The colour of the colonies in various medium was brownish black to greenish white. Most of the isolates showed radial and fluffy growth pattern with raised growth. The pycnidia of different isolates of Ampelomyces varied in their shape and were mostly ovoid, ellipsoid, cylindrical, pyriform to globose in shape. The size of pycnidia varied from 29.2-72.5×22.4-43.1 μm. The number of pycnidia was found to be more in isolates viz., TNAU-AQ101 and TNAU-AQ103. Pycnidiospores are hyaline, unicellular and guttulate in shape. The pycnidial production was higher in TNAU-AQ101 and TNAU-AQ103. Application of agrochemicals is one of the oldest and most effective methods to manage powdery mildew disease. However, incessant use of these agrochemicals has many demerits such as development of resistance to pathogens, residual toxicity and environmental pollution. Hence, search for an alternative means for disease management is envisaged. The genus Ampelomyces are the major antagonists as an alternative of Erysiphales fungi being a significant group of phytopathogens.

Keywords: Ampelomyces, Bhendi, Erysiphales, Hyperparasite, Pycnidia, Tissue segment method


Influence of different transplanting date and weed management practices on yield and quality of basmati rice (Pusa Basmati-1509)

Vikram Kumar1*, V. S. Hooda1, D. P. Nandal1, Sunil Kumar2 and Gaurendra Gupta3

1Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (UP), INDIA

3Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vikgadi@gmail.com

Received: September 11, 2016; Revised received: April 21, 2017; Accepted: September 12, 2017


Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2014 at students’ farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, college of agriculture, Kaul (Kaithal). The experiment consisted of four transplanting dates (June 15, July 5, July 25 and August 15) in main plots and six weed control treatments in sub plots treatments consisted of pre-emergence application of pretilachlor, oxadiargyl alone and sequential application of pre and post emergence herbicides viz., pretilachlor fb bispyribac, oxadiargyl fb bispyribac, weed free check and unweeded check. Based on research investigation it was observed that early transplanting dates (June 15 and July 5) produced taller plant, higher tillers/m2 and crop dry matter accumulation at all growth stages. Early transplanting produced significantly higher number of effective tillers/m2 (263) along with higher number of filled grain/ panicle (85) than delayed planting (July 25 and August 15). The 1000-grain weight was not affected by time of transplanting. The highest grain yield (4363 kg/ha) was recorded under June 15 transplanting which was statistically at par to the grain yield (4058 kg/ha) obtained under July 5 transplanting. Among the weed management practices tried, weed free check resulted in the highest values of plant height (104.2 cm), tillers/m2 (305), crop dry matter accumulation (964 g/ m2), effective tillers/m2 (271), grains length (8.5 cm), filled grains/panicle (86.3) as well as grain (4516 kg/ha) and straw yield (5506 kg/ha) which were however, comparable to pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl followed by bispyribac-sodium applied at 25 DAT and pretilachlor followed by bispribac-sodium at 25DAT.

Keywords: Bispyribac, Oxadiargyl, Pretilachlor, Quality, Transplanting date


Land characterization and soil-site suitability- evaluation of banana growing areas of South Gujarat, India

Rajkishore Kumar1, J. M. Patel2, S. L. Pawar2, Narendra singh1 and R. G. Patil2*

1Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, N.M.C.A., Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Soil and Water management research unit, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kishorerj1333@gmail.com

Received: September 20, 2016; Revised received: April 28, 2017; Accepted: September 12, 2017


Abstract: An investigation was carried out to evaluate the soil-site suitability and land characterization in some      banana growing soils of South Gujarat. The soil belongs to Vertisols, Inceptisols and Enitisols soil order. Banana growing soil (Pedon-1) of Narmada district have ochric epipedon whereas, pedon 2, 3, 4,5, 6 and 9 are placed in order Inceptisols owing to ochric epipedon followed by cambic horizon (changes in colour, structure and texture). The presence of smectite mineralogy class, hyperthermic soil moisture regime and more than 30 per cent clay (but less than 60 per cent), pedon 7 and 8 classified as Inceptisols. In respect of land characteristics, The cumulative rating index of Jhagadia (PN2), Bardoli (PN5) and Palsana (P6) coming under highly sustainable (S2). Whereas, rest of the pedon i.e., Narmada (P1), Bharuch (PN3), Kamrej (PN4) Navsari (PN7), Jalalpore (PN8) and Valsad (PN9) are sustainable under high input (S3). Considering the soil-site suitability criteria, Bharuch (PN3), Palsana (PN6) and Jalalpore (PN8) are identified as highly suitable talukas for banana cultivation. While the Narmada (PN1), Jhagadia (PN2), Kamrej (PN4), Bardoli (PN5), Navsari (PN7) and Valsad (PN9) were categorized in moderately suitable class (S2). The suitability class can be improved if the correctable limitations (soil fertility characteristics) are altered through soil amelioration measures.

Keywords: Banana, Land characteristic’s, Soil order, Soil –site suitability


Long-term application of fertilizers on chemical and biological properties of an Alfisol

R. C. Gowda, P. Veeranagappa*, B. Gayathri, D. C. Hanumanthappa and Muneshwar Singh

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, Bangalore (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: veera346@gmail.com

Received: December 6, 2016; Revised received: May 10, 2017; Accepted: September 12, 2017


Abstract: A long term fertilizer experiment (30 years) at Bengaluru had been started during 1986 with eleven treat-ments and four replications in an Alfisol on finger millet (Elusine coracana) maize (Zea mays) cropping sequence. The results of the ongoing experiment after 27 cycles of finger millet and maize on changes in soil chemical proper-ties revealed that application of inorganics alone resulted in impaired soil fertility status (soil pH, organic carbon con-tent and available nutrients in soil were decreased) over balanced fertilizer application. There was a decline in soil reaction over the initial status and the maximum decrease was observed in 100 % NP (-1.46), 100 % N (-1.20) and other treatments. Application of 100 % NPK+FYM+lime maintained the soil pH (6.2) compared to all the other treat-ments. Organic carbon content of soil in all the treatments was higher (6.46 g kg-1) compared to the initial status; however, maximum increase in organic carbon content was registered on application of NPK+FYM. Application of 10 t ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers and lime was found promising in term of sustaining crop and soil productivity.

Keywords: Alfisol, Enzyme activity, Finger millet, Fertilizers, Maize


Population dynamics of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) on maize as influenced by weather conditions

Hemant Sharma*, M. S. Jaglan and S. S. Yadav

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sharmahemant0608@gmail.com

Received: December 24, 2016; Revised received: April 14, 2017; Accepted: September 15, 2017


Abstract: A field study on population dynamics of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) on maize was carried out during rabi, 2015-2016 at the research farm of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Karnal. Studies on population dynamics revealed that the maximum number of egg masses was observed during 46th SW (standard week), 2015. The larval population increased after 45th SW and reached the maximum during the 49th SW, 2015 and then declined till 7th SW, 2016. Maximum plant infestation by larvae was recorded 19.5 per cent in inbred HKI 1128 and 21.0 per cent in hybrid HQPM 1 during the 7th SW, 2016. No larval activity of S. inferens, plant infestation and dead hearts were observed during 2nd SW to 4th SW of 2016 (second week to last week of January). It could be due to the fact that insect might have entered the hibernation. Correlation of S. inferens population with various environmental factors revealed that larval population had a significant negative correlation with maxi-mum temperature (Tmax.) and minimum temperature (Tmin.), rainfall (RF) (r= -0.4992, -0.5183 and -0.5698) on HKI 1128 and (r= -0.4872, -0.4717 and -0.5242) on HQPM 1, respectively. Multiple regression analysis of S. inferens population with weather parameters showed that there was 80 per cent (HQPM1) and 82 per cent (HKI 1128) variability in larval population due to various environmental factors. The population dynamics revealed by this study have far reaching significance in pest management strategy as integrated control measures may be focused only during the period wherein population exceeds economic threshold level (ETL).

Keywords: Population dynamics, Sesamia inferens, Maize, Weather conditions


Effect of organic source of nutrients and biofertilizers on growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

S. Datta*, J. C. Jana, P. T. Bhaisare and K. H. Nimbalkar

Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: suchanddatta@rediffmail.com

Received: December 24, 2016; Revised received: March 31, 2017; Accepted: September 15, 2017


Abstract: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) being a long crop duration, rhizomatous nature and high productivity it re-quires heavy input of fertilizers. Keeping this in view, an experiment was conducted at the Instructional farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal during 2009-10 and 2010-11 to study the effect of organic source of nutrients and biofertilizers on growth, yield and quality of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). The results revealed that application of green leaf manure (from Glyricidia maculata) @ 12tonnes/ha along with rock phosphate @ 0.2 tonnes/ha, wood ash @ 1 tonnes/ha, Azospirillum @ 5kg/ha + PSB @ 5kg/ha (T5) gave the sig-nificantly highest fresh (29.27 tonnes/ha) and dry yield (7.81 tonnes/ha) followed by vermicompost 5 tonnes/ha along with Azospirillum @ 5kg/ha + PSB @ 5kg/ha (T4) (26.30 tonnes/ha and 6.99 tonnes/ha, respectively) which was statistically at par with sole application of 30 tonnes/ha farm yard manure (T2) ( 26.00 tonnes/ha and 6.77 tonnes/ha, respectively). Next highest dry yield (6.40 tonnes/ha) was recorded in control plots (T6) of recommended dose of fertilizers at the rate of 80:80:120 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ ha along farm yard manure @ 15 tonnes/ha. The lowest fresh yield of 19.31 tonnes/ha and dry yield (5.26 tonnes/ha) was recorded in the treatment of sole application of FYM @ 15 tonnes/ha (T1). Somewhat higher dry recovery percentage was recorded in case of all the organic treatments compared to control treatment (T6). Maximum dry recovery (27.22%) and curcumin content (5.24%) was recorded in the treatment of sole application of FYM @ 15 tonnes/ha (T1). It may be concluded that the application of green leaf manure (from Glyricidia maculata) @ 12tonnes/ha along with rock phosphate @ 0.2 tonnes/ha, wood ash @ 1 tonnes/ha, Azospirillum @ 5kg/ha and PSB @ 5kg/ha was the best treatment followed by application of Vermicompost @ 5 tonnes/ha + Azospirillium @5 kg/ha + PSB @ 5 kg/ha and application of farm yard manure @ 30 tonnes/ha treatments for dry yield and quality of turmeric.

Keywords: Biofertilizer, Growth, Organic, Quality, Turmeric, Yield


Cone and seed maturity indices in Pinus wallichiana under temperate conditions of Kashmir Himalayas, India

G. M. Bhat*, A. H. Mughal, A. R. Malik, P. A. Khan, P. A. Sofi and M. A. Islam

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Kashmir, Camp Wadura, Sopore-193201 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: bhatm67@gmail.com

Received: December 31, 2016; Revised received: April 26, 2017; Accepted: September 15, 2017


Abstract: Pinus wallichiana (Blue pine) does not have a good seed every year and hence it becomes necessary to collect abundant quantity of seed during good seed year. It becomes necessary to know the exact time of seed ma-turity. To overcome this problem, the present investigation was conducted in Kashmir valley at four different altitudes and locations i.e. (1,600-2,000 masl–KFD), (2,000-2,400 masl -LFD), (2,400-2,800-PFD) and (2,800-3200 masl– SFD). The results revealed that seed collection clearly showed wide variation in the maturity of cones. Cone colour served as an indicator of maturity and it changed from light green to green and green with brown patches at maturity-ty. Seed colour changed from whitish to light brown and dark brown at maturity. The mean cone weight (118.67- 88.17gm) and specific gravity (1.13-0.90) decreased as the cones proceeded towards maturity. The mean seed weight of 21.79 to 57.13gm increased at all altitudes as the cones advanced towards maturity. Cone length, cone diameter and germination percent differed (P≤0.05) significantly between altitudes and increased when the cones advanced towards maturity. The germination per cent was recorded more at altitudinal range of 1,600-2,400 masl (67.25-70.26%) at maturity, while as it was recorded lower at higher altitudes (42.12-47.25%). It is concluded that the altitudinal range of 1,600-2,400 masl is best sites for collection of phenotypically superior seeds in terms of maxi-mum cone length (18.18cm), diameter (5.23mm) and weight (108.94gm), number of seeds per cone (117.72), seed weight (79.99) and germinability (68.75).

Keywords: Altitude, Cone characters, Germination, Maturity, Pinus wallichiana, Seeds


Biology of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) on maize, Zea mays

Hemant Sharma*, Maha Singh Jaglan and S. S. Yadav

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sharmahemant0608@gmail.com

Received: December 31, 2016; Revised received: April 2, 2017; Accepted: September 15, 2017

Abstract: Biology of pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was conducted during 2015-16 in laboratories of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Karnal on HQPM 1 (hybrid) and HKI 1128 (inbred) for two generations at room temperature. Results on biology of S. inferens in the first generation revealed that incubation period varied from 10-14 days on HQPM 1 and 11-15 days on HKI 1128. The larval duration lasted for 21-37 days on HQPM 1 and 24-39 days on HKI 1128. The adult longevity of male and female ranged from 6-7 days and 7-8 days on HQPM 1 and 5-7 days and 6-7 days on HKI 1128, respectively. The total life span ranged from 63-72 days for female and 45-58 days for male on HQPM 1 and 65-74 days for female and 49-62 days for male on HKI 1128, respectively in the first generation. The total life span in second generation ranged 94-107 days for female and 83-96 days for male on HQPM 1 and 98-112 days for female and 86-101 days for male on HKI 1128. The biology of an insect pest is a condition precedent to find out its management strategies. The biology of S. inferens on maize has not yet been studied in north western part of the country. Having regards to the fact that no systematic work on this aspect has been carried out, studies were conducted on biology of this pest for developing efficient pest management strategies.

Keyword: Biology, Sesamia inferens, Maize, Zea mays


Long-term effect of inorganic fertilizers and amendments on productivity and root dynamics under maize-wheat intensive cropping in an acid Alfisol

Shweta Shambhavi1, Rakesh Kumar2*, S. P. Sharma3, Gayatri Verma4, R. P. Sharma3 and Sanjay K. Sharma3

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agriculture University (BAU), Sabour (Bihar), INDIA

2*Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, BAU, Sabour (Bihar), INDIA

3Department of Soil Science, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur- 176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

4Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Gurdaspur (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rbinnu@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2017; Revised received: April 16, 2017; Accepted: September 15, 2017


Abstract: Study on the soil nutrient status and crop productivity under continuous use of inorganic fertilizers and amendments in an acid Alfisol after 36 years (1972-73 to 2008-09) was carried out at Palampur, HP. Results showed that application of Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (120:60:40 kg/ha to maize and 120:60:30 kg/ha to wheat) with 10 t farmyard manure/ha applied once a year for 36 years resulted in 786 and 515 per cent increase in maize and wheat yields, respectively over control. Soil acidity rose from 5.8 to 4.58 with the application of fertilizers over 36 years. Conjoint use of FYM with 100 per cent NPK substantially improved the Organic Carbon status by 4.95 g/kg as well as available P, K and S by 154.1, 14.5 and 12.5 kg/ha, respectively in soil over its initial values, thereby indicating significant contribution towards sustaining the soil health. On the other hand, there was a drastic decline in the available N status of soil in all the treatments as compared to the initial value. The various root parameters viz., root mass density (4.08 kg m-3), root volume density (10.84 m3 m-3x10-3), root length density (2.60 m m-3 x 10-4), root surface area (204.12 m2 x 10-4) and root cation exchange capacity (8.37 c mol (p+) kg-1) were found to be highest in the plots with the application of 100% NPK + FYM. Thus, balanced use of fertilizers continuously either alone or in combination with amendments is necessary for sustaining soil fertility and productivity of crops.

Keywords: Crop productivity, Long-term fertilization, Maize-wheat, Root dynamics, Soil nutrient status


Identification of heterotic cross combinations for various agromorphological and some quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Sandeep Kumar1, Pradeep Kumar2*, Vichitra Kumar Arya2, Ravi Kumar1, Gaurav Kamboj1 and S. A. Kerkhi1

1Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110 (UP), INDIA

2Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pradeeptaliyan231@gmail.com

Received: February 16, 2017; Revised received: July 24, 2017; Accepted: September 18, 2017


Abstract: A study was conducted to identify the best heterotic cross for various agromorphological and some quality traits involving 10 parents and their 45 F1s excluding reciprocals during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The higher magnitude of heterosis for all the agromorphological and quality traits was not expressed in a single cross combination. It varied from cross to cross due to diverse genetic background of their parents. The highest heterobeltiosis (35.68%, 11.11%, 11.44%), average heterosis (38.97%, 9.13%, 10.26%) and standard heterosis (31.09%, 7.84%, 10.41%) for grain yield, spikelets per spike and grains per spike respectively, was showed by HD 3095 x RAJ 4246 and this cross also showed highly significant (at <1% level of significant) heterosis for biological yield, flag leaf area, spike length and productive tillers. Whereas PBW 435 x RAJ 4246 were common for gluten content (8.52% and 7.72%), grain yield (33.11% and 33.64%), productive tillers (16.15% and 13.53%) and biological yield (36.27% and 21.98%) which showed superior average heterosis and heterobeltiosis respectively, therefore, these crosses may be exploit-ed in a national hybrid wheat breeding programme may offer genetic improvement in breeding for higher grain yield, agromorphological and quality traits in bread wheat. The presence of high heterosis for yield contributing compo-nents is not only for developing hybrids through exploitation of heterosis but also helps to produce transgressive segregants for developing of superior homozygous lines.

Keywords: Agromorphological and quality traits, Bread wheat, Diallel, Heterosis, Grain yield


Estimation of combining ability analysis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for yield, nutritional and processing quality improvement

Chandan Kumar and S. P. Singh*

ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pali-Marwar -306401 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agriculture Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221005 (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: chandankumarveg.sc@gmail.com

Received: April 15, 2016; Revised received: May 18, 2017; Accepted: September 18, 2017


Abstract: Combining ability for yield and nutritional quality traits in tomato were studied by involving 28 cross combi-nations obtained from crossing 8 diverse lines in diallel mating fashion. Based on GCA effects of parents, the varie-ties Pant T-3, Arka Alok and Sel-7 were good general combiners for most of the traits under study. The crosses viz., Pant T-3 x H-24 (1.052%), Arka Meghali x Punjab Chhuhara (0.768%) and H-88-78-1 x Azad T-5 (0.768%) were found to be high positive specific combining ability effect for yield per plant. For quality traits, the crosses Arka Me-ghali x Punjab Chhuhara and H-24 x Sel-7 were also superior specific combiner for number of seeds per fruit and ascorbic acid, while cross Punjab Chhuhara x H-88-78-1 was superior specific combiner for number of seeds per fruit (24.165%), yield per plant (0.677%) and titrable acidity (0.183%). These elite hybrids may be tested for yield and other quality traits under different agro-climatic conditions for commercial exploitation of hybrid vigour.

Keywords: Combining ability, Hybrids, Quality, Tomato, Yield


Physico-chemical changes during fruit growth and developmental stages in yellow type passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener) accessions

Arkendu Ghosh1, Koyel Dey1*, Fatik K. Bauri1 and A. N. Dey2

1Department of Fruits and Orchard Management, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Forestry, Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar- 736165(West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: koyelfruits@gmail.com

Received: September 7, 2016; Revised received: April 21, 2017; Accepted: September 18, 2017


Abstract: Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit growth, development and maturity of six yellow type passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener) accessions were studied at weekly interval after fruit set from 21 days to 91 days after fruit set and after dropping from vine also. Fruit growth of passion fruit followed a single sigmoid growth curve. Fruit length (cm), diameter (cm) and weight (g) increased continuously (25.24%, 33.13% and 75.08% respectively) (from the initial stage till maturity up to 84 days), which slightly declined at ripening stage. Fruits developed acceptable physico-chemical qualities with good colour, when harvested at 84 to 91 days after fruit set (DAF). The study further revealed that the days taken from fruit set to maturity and ripening, colour change, total soluble solids and acidity may be considered as the most reliable maturity indices for taking harvest decision in pas-sion fruit.

Keywords: Fruit growth, Maturity, Passion fruit, Physico-chemical changes


Nutritional evaluation of products prepared from fresh beans

Mamta Rani* and Darshan Punia

Department of Foods and Nutrition, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mamtarajoria12@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: May 1, 2017; Accepted: September 18, 2017


Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of products prepared from fresh beans. Four types of fresh beans powder viz. cluster bean (Cyamposis tetragonaloba), cowpea bean (Vigna unguic-ulata), french bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris) and sem bean (Dolichhos lablab) were used for dry vegetable preparation. Moisture content of beans vegetable prepared using fresh beans ranged from 76.49 to 82.25 per cent. The cowpea bean vegetable had the highest (17.19%) and sem bean vegetable had the lowest (12.67%) amount of crude pro-tein. Crude fiber content was found to be highest in cowpea bean vegetable (6.69%) followed by cluster bean vege-table (6.60%), french bean vegetable (6.41%) and sem bean vegetable (5.54%). Among the four types of beans vegetables, total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber content was found to be highest in cluster bean vegetable and the lowest in sem bean vegetable. Sem bean vegetable contained the maximum (135.81 mg/100g and 251.46 mg/100g) amount of calcium and phosphorus while french bean vegetable contained the minimum (51.03 mg/100gand 243.55 mg/100g) amount. Iron content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cluster bean vegetable and cowpea bean vegetable as compared to french bean vegetable and sem bean vegetable. Cowpea bean vegetable contained the maximum (101.51mg/100g) while sem bean contained minimum (61.19mg/100g) amount of magnesium-um. It was observed that all the four types of beans vegetable differed significantly (p≤0.05) among themselves for their potassium content. Earlier studies were conducted on raw seeds or pods of beans but information on cooked beans was scanty. This study explains about the effect of cooking on different nutritional components of fresh beans pods.

Keywords: Beans, Crude protein, Dietary fiber, Iron, Potassium


State space modelling and forecasting of sugarcane yield in Haryana, India

Suman* and Urmil Verma

Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: vermas21@hotmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: April 9, 2017; Accepted: September 20, 2017


Abstract: Box and Jenkins’ Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are widely used for analyzing and forecasting the time-series data. In this approach, the underlying parameters are assumed to be constant however the data in agriculture are generally collected over time and thus have the time-dependency in parameters. Such data can be analyzed using state space (SS) procedures by the application of Kalman filtering technique. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the usefulness of state space models in sugarcane yield forecasting and to pro-vide some empirical evidence for its superiority over the classical time-series analysis. ARIMA and state space models individually could provide the suitable relationship(s) to reliably forecast the sugarcane yield in Karnal, Ambala, Kurukshetra, Yamunanagar and Panipat districts of Haryana (India). However, the state space models with lower error metrics showed the superiority over ARIMA models for this empirical study. The sugarcane yield forecasts based on SS models in the districts under consideration showed good agreement with State Department of Agriculture (DOA) yields by showing 3-6 percent average absolute deviations.

Keywords: Autocorrelation function, Kalman filtering technique, State space procedures, Akaike’s information criterion, Sugarcane yield forecast


Effect of rice husk biochar, carpet waste, farm yard manure and plant growth promoting rhizobium on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa)

D. K. Singhal1, JanardanYadav2, Shiv Singh Meena3*, Divyesh Chandra Kala4

1, 2, 3Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.), INDIA

4Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, GBPUA &T, Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail-meenashiva20@gmail.com

Received: November 22, 2016; Revised received: April 17, 2017; Accepted: September 20, 2017


Abstract: The present investigation was aimed for improving growth and yield of crop using waste products of differ-ent activities and also useful in ecological stability of soil environment. This objective is not only an economic option for poor farmer but also an effective strategy for increasing yield. The experiment was conducted in the organic farm-ing plot of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi during kharif season of rice crop in 2014. The field experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with 10 treatments and three replications. Application of graded level of biochar, carpet waste farm yard manure (FYM) and plant growth promoting rhizobium (PGPR) was found to significantly enhance the grain and straw yield of rice by 57.70% and 56.08% over control, respectively.

Keywords: Carpet waste, FYM, PGPR, Rice, Rice husk biochar


Choice of parents for developing two line hybrids in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

V. Karpagam*1 and R. Kalaiyarasi2

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi - 642103 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

2Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: priyatnau2007@yahoo.co.in

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: May 4, 2017; Accepted: September 20, 2017


Abstract: An investigation was carried out to evaluate two line hybrids in rice for yield traits. Four TGMS lines and eleven testers were crossed in line x Tester design. Greater proportion of sca variance was observed for all the characters which revealed that preponderance of non- additive gene action governing traits concerned and selection procedures based on the accumulation of additive effects would be successful in improving these traits. The line TS09 24 and testers viz., T 2006, KDML 105, Improved white ponni and BPT 5204 were found to be good combiners for the yield and yield components. The best hybrids based on sca value, TNAU 27S x Improved white ponni was derived from low x low combiners for thousand grain weight and TS 29 X ADT 38 for the number of filled grains per panicle spikelet fertility. The best performing hybrid TS 29 x KDML 105 produced 54.25g of grain yield per plant in 128 days which was 92.89 and 85.47 per cent increase over the standard checks CORH 3 and Improved white ponni respectively. This hybrid also recorded 27.32 and 64.30 per cent increase CORH 3 and Improved white ponni for thousand grain weight. Hence, the two line hybrid breeding system, utilizing thermo sensitive genic male sterility is economically feasible as well as viable alternative to cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) based three line breeding due to much simplified hybrid seed production.

Keywords: Coryza sativa, TGM lines, Two line hybrids, SCA variance, Seed production


Studies on the effect of post harvest treatments on shelf life and quality of mango [Mangifera indica l.] cv. Amrapali

T. Mounika1, N. N. Reddy2, N. Jyothi lakshmi2*and Veena Joshi1

1College of Horticulture, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendrangar, Hyderabad- 500030 (Telangana), INDIA

2Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad-500059 (Telangana), INDIA *Corresponding author. E-mail: lakshmi.jyothi70@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: May 4, 2017; Accepted: September 20, 2017


Abstract: The physicochemical characteristics and shelf life of mango[Mangifera indica L.] fruits treated with calci- um chloride (CaCl2-1%, 2%), calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2-1%, 2%), potassium nitrate (KNO3-1%, 2%) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC - 0.5, 1%) were studied. Untreated fruits served as the control. All tested treatments indicated a significant delay in the change of weight loss (16.84%), ripening (51.66%), decaying percentage (46.66) and retained firmness (3.23 kg/cm2) of fruits and biochemical qualities viz., total soluble solids(22.33Brix), sugar accumulation (18.17%) and tritratable acidity on 16th day in mango fruits compared to control. The significant (5%) impact of treatment is found on the least decay percentage in the order of fruits treated with calcium nitrate (2%) followed by 1% Ca(NO3)2, 2% CaCl2 and 1% CaCl2. Hence, it could be concluded that post harvest chemical treatment with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride (1%, 2%) has the potential to control spoilage, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of post harvest quality of mango, presumably because of its effect on inhibition of ripening and senescence processes by lowering the respiration rate.

Keywords: Amrapali, Calcium chloride, Calcium nitrate, Mango, Shelf life


Optimization of biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

*1Rozy, 2Rouf Ahmad Dar and 3Urmila Gupta Phutela

*1,2Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University

3 School of Renewable Energy and Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rozysohni04@gmail.com

Received: December 14, 2016; Revised received: April 20, 2017; Accepted: September 25, 2017


Abstract: The present investigation reports the optimization of process parameters for biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). The different parameters like particle size, inoculum concentration, incubation temperature, metal ions and pH were optimized for biogas production. Maximum biogas was observed with water hyacinth of 1cm size, 40 % inoculum concentration. The temperature of 45°C along with neutral pH i.e. 7 was found to be most suitable for biogas production in the presence of manganese chloride (0.2 mM). Under optimized conditions, 44.9 l biogas/kg water hyacinth, 360.09 l/kg total solids and 397.95 l biogas/kg volatile solids were produced in a period of 40 days. The water hyacinth has proven to be a good source of biogas production and thus can be utilized as a potential feedstock for the biogas production.

Keywords: Biodigested slurry, Biogas, Cattle dung, Eichhornia crassipes


Effect of growth regulator treatment on bud sprouting of hardwood cutting in different ornametal plants

Ramandeep Kaur* and H. S. Grewal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E-mail: rkaur912@yahoo.com

Received: December 21, 2016; Revised received: April 8, 2017; Accepted: September 25, 2017


Abstract: The hardwood cuttings of Calliandra haematocephala, Cassia biflora, Pyrostegia venusta and Clerodendrum splendens were treated with different growth regulator concentrations and combinations (T1: NAA100 mg/l, T2: NAA 300 mg/l, T3: NAA 500 mg/l, T4: IBA100 mg/l, T5: IBA 300 mg/l, T6: IBA 500 mg/l, T7: NAA 100 mg/l + IBA 50 mg/l, T8: NAA 50 mg/l + IBA100 mg/l, T9: NAA 100 mg/l + IBA100 mg/l and T10: Control) for 12 h and planted either in polybags containing soil or in sand beds for callusing. The treatment of hardwood cuttings with T6: IBA (500 mg/l) for 12h resulted in the maximum (33.33%) mean per cent sprouting 60 days after direct planting in all the four genotypes. Among the genotypes, the per cent sprouting was significantly more in C haematocephala (47.33%), followed by P venusta (8.66%), C splendens (7.33%) and C biflora (7.33%), irrespective of the growth regulator treatment. The hard-wood cuttings, planted in the sand beds for callusing (2 weeks) exhibited the maximum (28.33%) mean per cent sprouting with T6: IBA (500 mg/l, 12h), 60 days after transplanting in the polybags in all the four genotypes. Among the geno-types, the per cent sprouting was significantly more in C haematocephala (48.67%), followed by P venusta (6.67%) and C splendens (2.67%), irrespective of the growth regulator treatment, however, the cuttings failed to exhibit sproutingin C biflora. The treatment of cutting with IBA 500 mg/l increase the sprouting percentage in C haematocephala, P venusta and C splendens which otherwise were difficult to propagate through cutting.

Keywords: Calliandra haematocephala, Growth Regulators, Hardwood cutting, IBA, NAA


Effect of pinching and spacing on growth, flowering and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under semi-arid conditions of Haryana

Sheena Nain*, B. S. Beniwal, R. P. S. Dalal and Sonu Sheoran

Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: sheenanain132@gmail.com

Received: December 27, 2016; Revised received: April 6, 2017; Accepted: September 28, 2017


Abstract: The present study was conducted at experimental orchard of Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana), India with a view to optimize pinching time and spacing in African marigold for achieving better growth, flowering and yield. Design of the experiment was factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. Experiment comprises of two levels of pinching (no pinching & pinching at 28 DAT i.e. Days After Transplanting) and three levels of spacing (40 x 40 cm, 40 x 30 cm & 30 x 30 cm) in all possible combinations. Maximum number of branches/plant (12.11), plant spread (63.59 cm), fresh weight of plant (358.79 g), number of buds/plant, duration of flowering (53.95 days), number of flowers/plant (54.54), stalk length and flower yield/plant (403.68 g) and flower yield/hectare (33.33 t) were significantly recorded in plants pinched at 28 DAT at 5% level of significance, whereas, maximum plant height (73.52 cm), flower diameter (6.38 cm), fresh weight of flower (8.93 g) was obtained in un-pinched plants. In case of spacing, maximum plant spread (64.01 cm), primary branches/plant (11.42), fresh weight of plant (370.20 g), number of buds/plant, number of flowers/plant (51.43), duration of flowering (53.98 days), flower diameter (6.42 cm), fresh weight of flower (9.03 g), flower yield/plant (460.42 g) was recorded at 40 x 40 cm, whereas, maximum plant height (71.76 cm), stalk length, flower yield/hectare (36.34 t) was observed with 30 x 30 cm. Results revealed that plants pinched at 28 DAT with widest spacing (40 x 40 cm) were found best for better growth, flowering and yield of African marigold.

Keywords: Growth and Flowering, Marigold, Pinching, Spacing, Yield


Osmolytes: Proline metabolism in plants as sensors of abiotic stress

Ashu Singh*, Manoj Kumar Sharma and R. S. Sengar

Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, S. V. Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110 (U. P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ashubiot25@gmail.com

Received: February 19, 2016; Revised received: April 18, 2017; Accepted: September 28, 2017


Abstract: Proline accumulation occurs in a large range of plant species in retaliation to the numerous abiotic
stresses. An exclusive research pattern suggests there is a pragmatic relation between proline accumulation and plant stress tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the metabolism of proline accumulation and its role in stress tolerance in plants. Pertaining to the literature cited clearly indicates that not only does it acts as an osmolyte, it also plays important roles during stress as a metal chelator and an antioxidative defence molecule. Moreover, when       applied exogenously at low concentrations, proline enhanced stress tolerance in plants. However, some reports point out adverse effects of proline when applied at higher doses. Role of proline gene in seed germination, flowering and other developmental programmes; thus creation of transgene overexpressing this gene would provide better and robust plants. In this context this review gives a detailed account of different proline gene over-expressed in all the trans-genic crops so far.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Osmoprotectant, Proline, ROS, Transgenic


Effect of growth and yield parameters on Indian-mustard genotypes under varying environmental conditions in western Haryana


Yogesh Kumar1*, Raj Singh1, Anil Kumar1 and A. K. Dhaka2

1Department of Agricultural Meteorology College of Agriculture (COA), CCSHAU, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA.

2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture (COA), CCSHAU, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding Author. E-mail: yogeshgujjar62@gmail.com

Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: May 2, 2017; Accepted: September 28, 2017


Abstract: An experiment was conducted in Rabi season of year 2014-15 at Research Farm, Department of Agril. Meteorology, CCSHAU Hisar, Haryana and field area was adjacent to agrometeorological observatory at 290 10' N latitude, 750 46' E longitude and altitude of 215.2 m with Split Plot Design as main plot treatments consisted of three date of sowing viz.26thOctober, 5thNovember, and 15th November and sub-plots consisted of three varieties (Kranti, RH 406 and RH 0749) with four replications. Various growth and yield parameters such as plant height, LAI, dry matter accumulation, partitioning and yield attributes were higher in 26thOctober sown crop as compared to 5th and 15th November at all the growth intervals. The crop sown on 26th October (1870.3 kg/ha) produced highest seed yield as compared to 5th (1525.5 kg/ha) and 15th November (1099.8 kg/ha). Among varieties, RH0749 recorded highest seed yield because LAI, biomass accumulates were performed better as compared to RH 406 and Kranti. There was significant interaction between growing environment and varieties with respect to growth and yield parameters. From the above study it was concluded that normal or early sowing of Indian mustard may be practisized for achieving higher seed yield and improved growth and yield attributes in western Haryana conditions.

Keywords: Growth intervals, Indian mustard, Sowing dates, Yield and yield attributes

Studies on pyrolytic conversion of waste plastic carry bags into plastic crude oil


B. Prabha*, D. Ramesh and S. Kamaraj

Department of Bioenergy, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: prabha_026@yahoo.co.in

Received: June 26, 2016; Revised received: May 20, 2017; Accepted: September 30, 2017


Abstract: The utilization of plastic carry bags in our modern life is increasing every year and also increasing pressure on safe disposal of these bags. Worldwide the disposal of these kinds of plastic wastes is becoming serious issue due to their non-degradable nature. The main aim of this study is to exploit the potential of waste plastic carry bags for the production of plastic crude oil by using non-electric pyrolytic unit. The heat required for pyrolysis process supplied from biomass gas stove and coconut shell used as combustible fuel. To optimize the heating conditions for higher plastic crude oil recovery, different quantities of coconut shell were utilized and the maximum recovery of plastic crude oil was recorded. The yield of crude oil ranged from 34.5 to 40.7 per cent for the reaction temperature ranged from 457 to 517 °C. For 4 kg fuel supplied as heating source, the crude oil recovered was 40.7 per cent at a reaction temperature of 486 oC and residence time of 58 min. The calorific value of the waste plastic carry bags and plastic crude oil was found to be 34.4 and 38.6 MJ/kg, respectively.

Keywords: Biomass gas stove, Coconut Shell, Crude oil, Pyrolysis, Waste plastic carry bags


Suppression of soil borne fungal pathogens associated with apple replant disease by cyclic application of native strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Ranjna Sharma*, Joginder Pal, Sheetal Rana and Mohinder Kaur

Microbiology Section, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Forestry, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranjnassharma@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: May 223, 2017; Accepted: September 30, 2017


Abstract: Plant growth promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains An-E and An- F were used for the suppression of replant disease organisms which were isolated from replant site of apple in Shimla district of Hima-chal Pradesh. Full and half concentration of individual and consortial strains were used for the experiment. Among all the treatments, full concentration of compatible consortial strains were quite effective in decreasing the deleterious rhizobacterial (197-99 cfu/g) and fungal population (7-0 cfu/g). Total rhizobacterial count starts decreasing after each cyclic application of fluorescent P. aeruginosa strains An-E and An-F due to root colonization property of these plant growth promoting strains in the replant site of apple. Establishment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains at replant site was inversely correlated with decreasing deleterious bacterial and fungal population in the replant site. 70 per cent survival of apple rootstocks was recorded in full concentration of consortial treatment (An-E and An- F) as compared to control after three years of plantation. Four major fungal pathogens viz. Dematophor anecatrix, Phytophthora cactorum, Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum were isolated and identified from National centre for fungal taxonomy, New Delhi. These strains can be further exploited and recommended for the management of replant problem of apple.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Replant disease, Microbial count, Soil


Efficacy of traditional products on the biochemical aspects of stored mungbean infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius)


Jagtar Singh, D. K. Sharma and Jasreet Kaur*

Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jasreetgill21@gmail.com

Received: November 8, 2016; Revised received: April 30, 2017; Accepted: September 30, 2017

Abstract: The effect of traditional products viz. turmeric powder, turmeric grits, garlic powder along with standard check (7 cm layer of sand on the top of stored seed) was evaluated on the biochemical aspects of stored mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.)] infested with Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius). Treatments with garlic powder at 1.5 % concentration recorded significantly less egg laying (2.00), less larval penetration (5.00%), less adult emergence (1.02%) as compared to other treatments. Alcoholic acidity increased significantly from 0.51 to 0.59, 0.46 to 0.55 and 0.38 to 0.49 % by turmeric powder at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % concentration, respectively, as compared to control samples. Garlic powder was found to be most effective in checking uric acid at concentration of 1.5 % during four months of storage, followed by turmeric powder @ 2.0 % and turmeric grits @ 1.0 %. Order of effectiveness of used traditional products was garlic powder> turmeric powder>turmeric grits.

Keywords: Alcoholic acidity, C. maculatus, Mungbean, Storage, Traditional products


Chemistry and analytical techniques for ent-kaurene-glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni - A review


Neena Kumari1*and Suresh Kumar2

1Department of Forest Products, Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan -173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl-796004 (Mizoram), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: neenak.kashyap@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: April 28, 2017; Accepted: October 2, 2017


Abstract: The Stevia genus encompasses about 200 herbs and shrubs species. Stevia rebaudiana, one of the members has gained commercial importance as a natural low calorie sweetener, due to the presence of high con-centration of stevioside and rebaudioside - A (25% to 45% of stevioside content) in the leaves. The major processes involved in the production and quantification of steviol glycosides are extraction, purification and estimation. Various extraction methods have been used for extraction of steviol glycosides in the world. The extraction methods of
steviol glycosides mostly differed at the stage of clarification of extracts. The present study is an attempt to summarize the scattered literature and reports on a single podium. Moreover, it also depicts up to date literature regarding numerous extraction, purification and quantitative estimation methods for steviol glycosides

Keywords: Extraction, Purification, Quantitative Analysis, Rebaudioside-A, Stevia, Stevioside

Effect of microencapsulated plant extracts on mosquito repellency

Mamta Rana*, Saroj S. Jeet Singh and Saroj Yadav

Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: chauhan.mamta1986@gmail.com

Received: December 19, 2016; Revised received: April 26, 2017; Accepted: October 2, 2017

Abstract: Mosquitoes are the most important single group of insects in terms of public health importance. Mosqui-toes not only cause nuisance by their bites but also transmit deadly diseases. The activity of mosquitoes is affected by climate, light and temperature. In tropical areas like India, the population of mosquitoes is found huge day by day. Repeated use of synthetic insecticides for mosquito control has disrupted environment as well as human health. To overcome this problem, plant derived compounds may be the better alternate over synthetic insecticides. To            enhance the health and hygiene qualities by means of use of medicinal plants through effective application technique on textiles, marigold (petals) and nirgundi (leaves) methanol extract was used as mosquito repellent finish on 100 % woven cotton. For applying mosquito repellent finish on fabric, complex coacervation technique of microencapsulation was used through pad-dry-cure method. Finished cotton samples were tested against Anopheles stephensi by using laboratory cage method for their efficacy and durability to washing and sun-drying as per standard test methods. Marigold (petals)and nirgundi (leaves) extract finished fabric samples showed 96 and 94 % repellency respectively after 60 minutes of observation. It remained 56 % and 54 % (after 15 washes) and 54 and 52 % (after expo-sure in sun for 3 hours) by the application of marigold and nirgundi extracts respectively. Hence, microencapsulation technique on selected cotton textile proved effective to repel mosquitoes up to acceptable level according to WHO (1996).

Keywords: Marigold, Microencapsulation, Mosquito repellent finish, Nirgundi, Pad-dry-cure method


Biointensive integrated management of Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica spp.

Deepak Sharma, Satyapal Yadav1 and Sunita Yadav*

Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

1Regional Research Station, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Rohtak-124004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sunitayadav10@rediffmail.com

Received: January 13, 2017; Revised received: May 15, 2017; Accepted: October 2, 2017

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Regional Research station, Samargopalpur, Rohtak (Haryana) during Rabi season of the year 2015-2016 to evaluate bioefficacy of various treatments against mustard aphid, Lipaphis-erysimi on Indian mustard. Treatments were: T1Verticillium lecanii @ 108 CS/ml, T2Beauveria bassiana @ 108 CS/ml, T3 - Neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, T4 - Neem seed methanol extract @ 5%, T5 - V. lecanii @ 108 CS/ml + Clipping of infested twigs, T6 - B. bassiana @ 108 CS/ml + Clipping of infested twigs, T7 - NSKE @ 5% + Clipping of infested twigs, T8 - V. lecanii @ 108 CS/ml + NSKE @ 5%, T9 - B. bassiana @ 108 CS/ml + NSKE @ 5%, T10 - Dime-thoate 30EC @ 250 ml/acre. Dimethoate was found to be most effective in reducing the aphid population (95.03 %) followed by V. lecanii @ 108 CS/ml + NSKE @ 5% (88.52 %), NSKE @ 5% + Clipping of infested twigs (87.77 %) and B. bassiana @ 108 CS/ml + NSKE @5% (86.91 %) after ten days of spray. The highest seed yield was recorded in treatment dimethoate 30EC (1702 kg/ha) followed by V.lecanii @ 108 CS/ml +NSKE @ 5% (1635 kg/ha), NSKE @ 5% + Clipping of infested twigs (1626 kg/ha) and B.bassiana @ 108 CS/ml + NSKE @ 5% (1617 kg/ha). Dimethoate was found to be highly cost effective with highest cost benefit ratio (1:14.92) followed by NSKE @ 5% + clipping of infested twigs (1:13.81) and NSKE @ 5% (1:11.41).

Key words: Dimethoate, Lipaphis erysimi, Mustard aphid, NSKE, Seed yield


Preparation of Myrica nagi (Box myrtle) drink and effect of storage temperature on its quality


Abhimanyu Thakur*, N. S. Thakur and Pradeep Kumar

Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173230 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: abhimanyuthakurprashar@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2017; Revised received: May 1, 2017; Accepted: October 2, 2017


Abstract: Box myrtle (Myrica nagi) belongs to family Myricaceae is a sub-temperate tree found throughout the mid-Himalayas at an elevation of 1300 to 2100 meters above mean sea level. Its fruits are known for their ravishing taste and have been reported as rich source of anti-oxidants like phenols and anthocyanins. In the present study drink was prepared from box myrtle juice and quality evaluation was carried out during six months of storage of fruit drink. Different combinations of juice (8%, 10%, 12%, 14% and 16 %) and sugar syrup/TSS (Total soluble solids) (12 oB and 15 oB) were tried to standardize proper combination for drink. The drink prepared by following the best selected recipe (14 % juice and 12 oB TSS) was packed in glass and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles and stored for six months under ambient and refrigerated temperature conditions. Drink could be safely stored for a period of six months under both the storage conditions without much change in various quality characteristics. Various physico-chemical characteristics increased/decreased like TSS (12.05 to 12.48 oB), reducing sugars (7.80 to 8.69 %), titratable acidity (0.30 to 0.27 %), ascorbic acid (1.09 to 0.47 mg/100 g), total phenols (27.35 to 19.11 mg/100 g) and anthocyanins (6.14 to 3.69 mg/100 g). However, the changes in the quality characteristics of the drink were slower in refrigerated storage conditions as compared to ambient conditions. Both the packaging materials viz. PET and glass bottles were found suitable, with comparatively less changes occurring in glass bottles stored under refrigerated conditions.

Keywords: Box myrtle, Drink, Kaafal, Myrica nagi, PET, Storage


Integrated nutrition management in pigeon pea intercropping systems for enhancing production and productivity in sustainable manner– A review


Narendra Kumawat1*, Rakesh Kumar2, Jagdeesh Morya3, I.S. Tomar1 and R. S. Meena4

1Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Jhabua 457 661 (MP) INDIA

2Division of Crop Research, ICAR RC for Eastern Region Patna -800014 (Bihar), INDIA

3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhabua 457 661 (MP), INDIA

4Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar, SKRAU, Bikaner (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kumawatandy@gmail.com

Received: January 31, 2017; Revised received: May 1, 2017; Accepted: October 3, 2017


Abstract: India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world accounting for about 29 per cent of the world area and 19 per cent of the world’s production. In order to achieve self-sufficiency in pulses, the projected requirement by the year 2025 is estimated at 27.5 MT. To meet this requirement, the productivity needs to be enhanced to 1000 kg/ha, and an additional area of about 3-4 Mha has to be brought under pulses besides reducing post-harvest losses. This uphill task has to be accomplished under more severe production constraints, especially abiotic stresses, abrupt climatic changes, emergence of new species/ strains of insect-pests and diseases, and in-creasing deficiency of secondary and micronutrients in the soil. This requires a two-pronged proactive strategy, i.e. improving per unit productivity and reducing cost of production. The yield levels of pulses have remained low and stagnant, also area and total production. Among the pulses pigeon pea is second most important grain-legumes and major constraints in pigeon pea production is mostly grown in grown on marginal lands under rainfed agriculture and without nutrient management, hence are prone to abiotic stresses. Therefore, it is essential for higher production and productivity of pigeon pea, use of high yielding varieties which suitable for intercrop as well as sole cropping system with best nutrient management practices.

Keywords: Intercrop, Nutrient management practices, Pigeon pea, Productivity


Advances in role of organic acids in poultry nutrition: A review

Zulfqarul Haq, Ankur Rastogi, R. K. Sharma and Nazim Khan

Division of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, R.S. Pura, Jammu -181102 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: zulfy11@gmail.com

Received: May 8, 2016; Revised received: July 4, 2017; Accepted: October 3, 2017


Abstract: Anti microbial drug resistance concerns scientists all around the world epically one used as livestock feed additives. Feed grade antibiotics are given in non therapeutic doses which lead to survival of pathogenic microbes which in turn develop drug resistance, thus necessitating researchers to search for alternative ways to feed grade antibiotics besides doing least compromise on growth parameters. Organic acids are used in poultry to lower the pH of intestinal tract which favours good microbes which in turn suppress pathogenic microbes thus evicting the use of antibiotics. They are used in poultry diets and drinking water to elicit a positive growth response, improving nutrient digestibility, performance and immunity in poultry. Literature shows that organic acids have more or less pronounced antimicrobial activity, depending on both the concentration of the acid and the bacterial species that is exposed to the acid. The variability in response of organic acids and its possible mechanisms are discussed. Scope of this paper is to provide a view of the use of organic acids in the prevention of enteric disease in poultry, the effect on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), immunity and performance of broiler or laying hens. In the current review beneficial as-pects of organic acids along with different dose combinations are discussed to promote its optimum utilization in poultry nutrition and production.

Keywords: Broiler, Growth, Hen, Organic acids, Performance


A study on farmer’s perception on ill effects of agro chemicals in north eastern part of Karnataka


K. K. Shashidhara

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Bheemarayangudi, University of Agriculture Sciences, Raichur, (Karnataka), INDIA

E- Mail: agrishashi@gmail.com

Received: August 21, 2016; Revised received: May 5, 2017; Accepted: October 5, 2017


Abstract: The present study was conducted in Yadgir district of Karnataka to know about the perception of farmers on the ill effects of agro chemicals. One hundred and twenty farmers were interviewed personally with the help of pre-structured schedule. The results revealed that a large number of respondents had perceived delay in ripening (70.83%), less resistance to diseases (76.66 %), through emission of toxic gases (80.83%) and changes in soil organic matter decomposition (80.00%). Cent per cent respondents expressed resistance developed to pesticides by helicoverpa, spodoptera and parthenium and beneficial organisms like earth worms and predators were affected. Killing of natural enemies by pesticides affect Trichograma (80.00%) and lady bird beetle (75.00%), while handling agro chemicals cent per cent perceived it is going poison human body. The correlation indicates attitude towards chemical fertilizers, extension participation and mass media had shown positive highly significant at 1% level. Regarding factors influencing on agro chemicals land holding and education observe 50.63 per cent of variation. On the other hand farmers were suggested to make the availability of pest resistance variety by majority (83.33%) of the respondents.

Keywords: Agro chemicals, Environmental pollution, Health problems, Ill effects, Pesticides


Effect of proline and salicylic acid on germination and antioxidant enzymes at different temperatures in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds

Sandeep Kaur* and Namarta Gupta

Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana -141001 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sandeepbajwa1994@gmail.com

Received: October 15, 2016; Revised received: April 19, 2017; Accepted: October 5, 2017


Abstract: Effect of different seed treatments hydration, warm water, proline (10mM and 20mM) and salicylic acid (0.1mM and 0.5mM) was investigated on percent germination and activity of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) at different temperatures in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds. It was observed that lower temperature (20˚C) had decreased seed germination and activity of various anti-oxidant enzymes. Various seed treatments increased percent germination and activity of these enzymes as com-pared to control at both the temperatures. Proline 20mM (96.6) and SA 0.1mM (91.6) showed better results as com-pared to proline 10mM (95.0) and salicylic acid 0.5mM (86.6) respectively. Thus, proline and salicylic acid play an ameliorating role on low temperature stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and scavenging the free radicals.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Low temperature, Muskmelon, Proline, Salicylic acid


Biological relationship of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) infecting cowpea with leguminous plant species

N. Manjunatha1, K. T. Rangaswamy2, N. Nagaraju2, M. Krishna Reddy3, H. A. Prameela2 and S. H. Manjunath2

1ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (U.P.), INDIA

2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru (Karnataka), INDIA

3Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR- Indian Institute for Horticultural Research, Bengaluru (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: manju.ars@rediffmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: May 14, 2017; Accepted: October 5, 2017


Abstract: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) associated with cowpea mechanically inoculated to different legumi-nous plants. Out of nineteen including cowpea Var.C-152, the virus was easily transferred to ten different legumi-nous hosts. All other hosts assessed for the presence of BCMV were found to be uninfected. The number of days taken for symptom expression and symptoms were varied within plant species. Pole bean expressed mosaic symp-tom after long incubation period (15-18 days) whereas, shorter incubation period was observed in common bean and rice bean (7- 10 days). BCMV produced chlorosis, mosaic, leaf distortion, puckering, vein banding, vein clearing and vein netting on cowpea(C-152). A typical virus symptom, mosaic was observed in green gram, common bean, lime bean, rice bean and yard long bean, whereas, leaf rolling and leaf distortion was observed in black gram, pole bean and snap bean. The virus-host relationship was confirmed by back inoculation test to C. amaranticolor. Further symptomatic plants were subjected for Reverse Transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for molecular confirmation using BCMV coat protein (CP) specific primer pair. A PCR fragment size of 439bp was amplified for the symptomatic plants. The results generated indicated the ability of a plant to support virus expression and host speci-ficity of BMCV within the leguminous plant species.

Keywords: Biological relationship, Cowpea, Leguminous plants, Sap inoculation, Virus


Effect of chitosan and acetic acid on the shelf life of sea bass fillets stored at refrigerated temperature

Nazrin Sultana Ahmed1*, K. C. Dora2, S. Chowdhury2, S. Sarkar2 and R. Mishra2

1Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700094, INDIA

2College of Fisheries, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Berhampur-760007, (Odisha), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: calotropisnaaz@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: April 19, 2017; Accepted: October 5, 2017


Abstract: Considering the necessity on the use of chitosan and acetic acid as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, an attempt was made to study their effect on Asian sea bass fillets stored at refrigerated temperature of 4±1°C. The effectiveness of different antimicrobials (Chitosan and Acetic acid) were measured by disk diffusion method against five bacterial strains (E. coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas fragi) with 1% Acetic acid as (T1), 1% Acetic acid + 1% Chitosan as (T2), 1% Acetic acid + 2% Chi-tosan as (T3) and distilled water as control (C).T2 was more effective in inhibiting all the bacteria except Pseudomo-nas fragi. Treatment T1 was found to be more effective against it whereas the action of T3 on the bacterial strains was also effective but less than the other two treatments. Further, antioxidant property of the treatments were measured by DPPH method which indicated that T3 showed highest % of antioxidative activity (3.94%) followed by T1 (3.85%), T2 (2.62%), and C (1.788%).Thus, it is observed that the antioxidant activity was found to be increased with the increasing concentration of chitosan. Application of chitosan and acetic acid coatings on Asian sea bass ( Lates calcarifer) fillets successfully controlled the TVB-N values, PV and TBA values (p<0.05) when compared to control sample and among all the treatments T2 was found to be the best. Coating of chitosan and acetic acid on the fillets also resulted in improvement of sensory scores as well as acceptability under refrigerated condition.

Keywords: Acetic acid, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Chitosan, Seabass


Effect of dormancy breaking chemicals on microtuber production potential under in vivo conditions of central India

Murlidhar J. Sadawarti1*, K. K. Pandey3, R. K. Samadhiya1, Y. P. Singh1, R. K. Singh2, S. P. Singh1and S. Roy1

1ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Gwalior-474006 (Madhya Pradesh), INDIA

2ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla-171001 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

3ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi- 221305 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: murlidharsada@gmail.com

Received: December 6, 2016; Revised received: May 30, 2017; Accepted: October 5, 2017


Abstract: The present study was carried out at ICAR -Central Potato Research Station, Gwalior during 2012-13 to assess the effect of dormancy breaking chemicals, their dip duration and microtuber size on growth and yield          parameters. The three different size >4-6mm, >6-8mm and >8mm of variety Kufri Sindhuri were given dip treatment with six types of growth regulators/ dormancy breaking chemicals viz 1ppm gibberelic acid, 0.5 ppm gibberllic acid, 1% thiourea, 0.5 % thiourea, 1ppm gibberllic acid + 1% thiourea and 0.5 ppm gibberllic acid + 0.5 % thiourea along with water control for 30 min, 45 min and 60 min. All the treatments exhibited better growth and yield parameters over water control but significantly best at 5% was 0.5 ppm gibberllic acid treatment for growth parameters and 0.5 ppm gibberllic acid + 0.5 % thiourea treatment for yield parameters. All the dip duration 30 min, 45 min and 60 min had not significant at 5% level effect for both growth and yield parameters. The larger sized micro-tuber (>8 mm) showed significantly superior plant emergence, plant height, number of compound leaves per plant, number of stems per plant both at 50 and 75 days after planting followed by 4-8 mm grade and <4 mm grade micro-tubers. Similar trend was observed for all the yield parameters. The overall mean finding indicates that micro-tubers treated with 0.5 ppm gibberllic acid in combination with 0.5 % thiourea gave highest yield (226.0 q/ha tuber), among micro-tuber size of >8mm (295.0 q/ha tuber) and among dip duration 30 min (206.67q/ha) and 45 min (210 q/ha) resulted in significantly higher yield parameters under nucleus seed production in in vivo conditions of central India.

Keywords: Dormancy breaking chemicals, In vivo condition, Microtuber, Yield


Evaluation of bupirimate against rose powdery mildew

N. K. Adhikary1, S. Samaddar1, I. Venkatesh2, A. K. Dolai1, J. Tarafdar1 and S. K. Bhattacharyya3

1Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, INDIA

3Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Nadia –741235(West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: nayan.bckv@gmail.com

Received: December 10, 2016; Revised received: June 2, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017


Abstract: Bupirimate 25% Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) was evaluated for efficacy on Sphaerotheca pannosa, the causal agent of rose powdery mildew in vivo. In this experiment Bupirimate 25% EC 6 ml/L and 4 ml/L effectively reduced the powdery mildew infection over rest of the treatments and improved the flower yield. Moreover, application of Bupirimate 25% EC at the doses of 2, 4 and 6 ml/L and even at higher dose 8 ml/L did not show any phyto-toxic symptoms on rose plant. Thus, Bupirimate 25% EC may be considered as compared to other fungicides.

Keywords: Bupirimate, in vivo, Powdery mildew, Rose


Role of trichomes on leaves and pods for imparting resistance in chickpea [Cicer arientinum (L.)] genotypes against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)


Husandeep Singh Brar1* and Ravinder Singh2

1Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: husanbrar07@gmail.com

Received: December 16, 2016; Revised received: May 20, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017


Abstract: In chickpea, trichomes provide a potential resistance mechanism against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The present study was conducted to evaluate the trichome density and trichome length on leaves and pods on nine genotypes of chickpea. Two types of trichomes were observed, i.e. non-glandular (on leaves) and glandular (pods). Few glandular trichomes were observed on leaves and a very few non-glandular trichomes were observed on pods. Highest number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves (33.66 trichomes/mm2) were observed in chickpea genotype 5282. Minimum number of glandular trichomes were observed on pods of genotype GL 25016 (12.66 glandular trichomes per mm2). In case of leaves, genotypes ICCL 86111 and GL 25016 recorded maximum non-glandular trichome length of 347.23 and 301.53 μm, respectively. However, genotypes GL 25016, RSG 963 and 5282 rec-orded maximum glandular trichome length of 538.33, 564.97 and 432.61 μm, respectively in pods. Density of non glandular trichomes on leaves showed significant and negative correlation with number of eggs, larval population, larval survival and per cent pod damage. However, density of glandular trichomes on pods showed significant and positive correlation with number of eggs , larval population of H. armigera, larval survival and pod damage. Length of non-glandular trichomes on leaves and glandular trichomes on pods showed non-significant and negative correlation with number of eggs, larval population of H. armigera, larval survival and pod damage. Hence, genotypes with more pubescent leaves, lesser pubescent pods and longer trichomes (both on leaves and pods) should be preferred for developing H. armigera tolerant chickpea genotypes.

Keywords: Chickpea, Glandular trichomes, Helicoverpa armigera, Non-glandular trichomes

Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) genotypes based on physio-chemical quality attributes

Lokesh Bora*, A. K. Singh and C. P. Singh

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: lokeshbora36099@gmail.com

Received: December 19, 2016; Revised received: May 22, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017


Abstract: Evaluation of fruit crops has been successfully utilized for studying the performance of varieties under different agro climatic regions time to time. In the present study cultivars were characterized on the basis of their physico-biochemical attributes. “Mallika” and “Neelgoa” were found superior in terms of fruit weight (321.87 g), size (12.55 cm, 8.13 cm), pulp weight (257.91 g) and pulp stone ratio (7.71) respectively. “Mallika” excelled in terms of sugar (20.82), while “Amrapali” in carotenoids (8.38 mg/100 g). Among them, Mallika (22.41B) possessed the high-est amount of total soluble solids while lowest amount in Langra (16.90 B) whereas maximum titrable. The study shows the potential of Amrapali in terms of its quality, being late can meet the demand for later period when no other cultivar is available.

Keywords: Biochemical, Characterization, Evaluation, Mango, Physical


Effect of Homa organic farming on growth, yield and quality parameters of Okra

Rajeev Kumar1*, Adyant Kumar2, Soumyabrata Chakraborty3 and P.W. Basarkar1

1 Department of Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580005 (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

3Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur- 741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rajeevbiochem58@rediffmail.com

Received: December 27, 2016; Revised received: May 3, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017


Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2012 to study the biochemical efficacy of Homa organic farming practices in okra (Abelomoschus esculentus var. Arka Anamika) and laid out in randomized block design with 18 treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consist of control treatments i.e. conventional control and homa control; homa treatments (Agnihotra and Om Tryambakam homa) and non-homa treatments; and liquid organic manures viz, Panchagavya, Jeevamruta and Gloria Biosol for soil and foliar application. Among the control treatments, organic control recorded highest growth, yield and quality parameters than other controls. Soil and foliar application of Gloria Biosol was significantly superior over all the treatments in terms of growth, yield and quality attributes and recorded 20.28% more plant height and 21.41% more yield than organic control treatments. Ascorbic acid and free total phenol content of okra fruits in homa treatments were also significantly superior over all the treat-ments and recorded 15.45% and 5.33% more over organic control, respectively. Thus, it may be recommended that soil and foliar application of Gloria Biosol, among all the Homa organic treatments, will give the better crop produc-tivity and its produce quality.

Keywords: Agnihotra homa, Gloria Biosol, Jeevamruta, Okra, Om Tryambakam homa, Panchagavya

Effect of wheat seed dressing fungicides, botanicals and bio-control agent on Karnal bunt incidence in natural condition

Shrvan Kumar1*, Dhanbir Singh2, Subhash Dhancholia2 and Asha Sinha1

1Mycology and Plant Pathology, IAS, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (U.P.), INDIA

2Department of Plant Pathology CSK HPKV, Palampur -176062 (H.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: shrvankb@gmail.com

Received: August 27, 2016; Revised received: May 1, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017

Abstract: In this study the efficacy of four fungicides, three botanicals and one bio-control agent under field conditions revealed that all the treatments gave reduction of Karnal bunt over check at significant level (P=0.05). Maximum disease control was achieved with Tilt 25EC (48.72%) followed by Bavistin 50WP (47.08 %), Vitavax 75WP (45.30%) and Raxil 2DS (37.61%). Among botanicals L. camara was adjudged best as it gave 41.88 per cent disease control. However, seed treatment of T. viride (Ecoderma) resulted in 28.21 percent disease control. In all treatments over all disease control level was ranged between 28.21 to 48.72 per cent. For effective disease management, source of primary inoculum must be destroy. Primary inoculum of Karnal bunt is present in seed. There-fore, eco-friendly seed treatment of wheat is necessary process for diseases management.

Keywords: Karnal bunt, Neovossia indica, Triticum aestivum, T. viride (Ecoderma)


Mycotoxin management through transformations – A review

Archana Negi*, Roopali Sharma, Nandani Shukla, Sourav Kumar Modak, Manjari Negi and Bhupesh Chandra Kabdwal

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, U.S. Nagar, (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: archanagbpuat.patho@gmail.com

Received: September 30, 2016; Revised received: May 23, 2017; Accepted: October 10, 2017


Abstract: Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolic products of various fungi, mainly belonging to the genera Fusarium (Trichothecenes, Zearalenone), Aspergillus (Aflatoxin) and Penicillium (Ochratoxin) and can be found in almost 25% of the world’s agricultural commodities. These compounds are toxic to humans, animals and plants and therefore, efforts should be made to avoid mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. It has been estimated that at least 300 of these fungal metabolites are potentially toxic to animals and humans. In India 50% losses of agricultural commodities are due to postharvest losses. A number of physical and chemical approaches have already been taken to reduce the effect of mycotoxins, but due to certain limitations of physical and chemical strategies prompted search for other solutions to the mycotoxin hazards. Thus, there is an increasing public pressure for a safer and eco-friendly alternative to control these organisms. Consequently, a new approach is applied for managing mycotoxins through transformations that offer specific, efficient and eco-friendly way for detoxification of mycotoxins. This review aims to brings about the up-to-date management strategies mainly through transformation (genetic and bio) to pre-vent or reduce post harvest damages to the crops caused by storage fungi and the contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins. It will make aware of the new technologies or management methods for mycotoxins through transformation. The transformation methods may become the technology of choice, as they offer a specific, irreversible, efficient and environment friendly way of detoxification that leaves neither toxic residues nor any undesirable by-products.

Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, Mycotoxin, Ochratoxin, Trichothecenes, Zearalenone


Influence of knolkhol on quality characteristics of chicken meat balls

Ifrah Khursheed1, Julie Dogra Bandral1, Monika Sood1 and Naseer Ahmed2*

1Division of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir, University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu -180009 (J&K), INDIA

2Centre of Food Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ewsjammu@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: May 28, 2017; Accepted: October 10, 2017

Abstract: Poultry meat is a major source of high biological value protein. The incorporation of fiber in meat helps to enhance its nutritive value with added health benefits that demonstrates a relationship between a diet containing an excess of energy- dense food rich in fats and sugar and the emergence of a range of chronic disease and several others. While studying the effect of fiber incorporation on the functional parameters it was observed that cooking yield (%) and emulsion stability (%) significantly decreased and the values were 91.94 % and 91.13 % in control and 87.28 % and 87.01 % in case of T7 (18% KnolKhol powder). The physico chemical analysis revealed that with addition of Knolkhol powder (3%) level, the pH decreased from 6.31 to 6.26, TBARS from 0.39 to 0.33 (mg malonaldehyde /Kg), ash content from 2.60 to 2.52 % crude protein 17.15 to 17.10 %, whereas moisture increased from 66.06 to 67.11 %, crude fiber from 0.58 to 0.65 %. Coliform were not evident in the stored samples up to 30 days of storage, however psychrophyll count was found after 30 days of storage. The total psychrophillic count in control samples was 0.36 (log cfu/g) which increased to 0.81 (log cfu/g) with addition of 25% Sweet Corn paste.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Chicken meat, Dietary fibre,Shelf life, TBARS

Effect of altitude and seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on soil properties in dry temperate region of Himachal Pradesh

Abhay Sharma* and Virendra Singh

Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, College of Basic Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176062 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: abhayevs@gmail.com

Received: December 7, 2016; Revised received: June 10, 2017; Accepted: October 13, 2017


Abstract: Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is an ecologically and economically important plant species used for the enhancement of soil fertility, prevention of soil erosion and production of food and medicinal products in mountain ecosystem. Altitude and landuse are the major factors which conditions the nutrient status of soil. In the study six different altitudes (3390 m, 3520 m, 3560 m, 3615 m, 3790 m and 4040 m) above sea level in dry temper-ate region of Himachal Pradesh and three land use pattern viz., (seabuckthorn forest, willow forest and wasteland) were selected for the study and their impact was investigated on soil fertility. Soil properties such (pH, organic car-bon, available macronutrients N, P, K, S and exchangeable cations Ca, Mg) were determined following the standard procedures. The values of soil available nutrients under seabuckthorn varied as pH (8.2 to 7.8), organic carbon (1.05 to 2.35 per cent) N (125 to 205 kg ha-1), P (15 to 31 kg ha-1), K (94 to 284 kg ha-1), S (28 to 53 kg ha-1), ex-changeable Ca (8.56 to 10.20 cmol (p+) kg-1) and Mg (2.3 to 3.6 cmol (p+) kg-1), respectively. The soil nutrients in seabuckthorn forest were found much higher than willow forest and wasteland, especially organic carbon and availa-ble N contents. Soil nutrients were found to increase with increasing altitude and decrease with increasing soil depth. The results concluded that Hippophae rhamnoides had significant effects (p < 0.05) on soil nutrient conditions. Hence our study indicates that seabuckthorn has a big potential for soil conservation, ecological sustainability and restoration of Himalayan ecosystem.

Keywords: Altitude, Cold desert, Hippophae rhamnoides, Resource management, Soils


Development of appetizer (spiced squash) from mulberry (Morus alba L.) and its quality evaluation during storage

Hamid* and N. S. Thakur

Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan -173230 (HP), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Hamidsonu2014@gmail.com

Received: January 10, 2017; Revised received: May 4, 2017; Accepted: October 13, 2017


Abstract: The present investigations were conducted to develop a commercial appetizer (spiced squash) from mul-berry and its quality evaluation during storage. Different combinations of juice (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40%) and TSS (40 and 45 oB) were tried to standardize proper combination for appetizer. Out of 10 different treatment combinations of juice and TSS tried, appetizer recipe (A5) prepared with 40% juice, 40 oB TSS and 1.30% acid was found to be best on the basis of sensory and some physico-chemical characteristics of the product. The appetizer prepared by follow-ing the best selected recipe was packed in glass and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles and stored for six months under ambient (20-25 oC) and refrigerated temperature conditions (4-7 oC). Overall effect shows that various quality characteristics like TSS, apparent viscosity, reducing sugars, and total sugars of appetizer increased from 40.00 to 40.63, 185.08 to 193.75, 28.37 to 31.80, 37.12 to 38.53 and other chemical characteristics like acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, total phenols and sensory characteristics scores of colour, body, taste, aroma, overall acceptability score decreased from 1.30 to 1.21, 5.18 to 3.75, 8.60 to 5.75, 58.22 to 49.23, 8.15 to 7.52, 8.00 to 7.30, 8.20 to 7.26, 8.00 to 7.03, 8.10 to 7.15, respectively during storage. However, quality of the product was retained better in glass than PET bottles under refrigerated condition as compare to ambient storage condition.

Keywords: Appetizer, Mulberry, Morus alba, packaging material, Storage


The morphological and phenological performance of different cotton genotypes under different plant density

Arvind Kumar1*, A. P. Karunakar1, Anil Nath2 and Bolta Ram Meena2

1Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth Akola-444104 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: arvindbishnoi29e@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2017; Revised received: May 30, 2017; Accepted: October 13, 2017


Abstract: The field experiment conducted with different plant density and different Genotypes showed significant differences in their morphological characters and phenological characters. Among the genotypes, AKA-7 possessed higher plant height (116.4 cm), No. of sympodia (19.27 plant-1) and leaf area index (3.628) compared to other geno-types but leaf area (33.02 dm-2) and dry matter weight (103.21g/plant) were recorded higher with genotype Balwan. However, Normal plant density (100%) was registered higher plant height (102.6 cm), no of sympodia (17.33 plant-1), leaf area (27.02 dm2) and dry matter weight (58.13 g/plant) but higher leaf area index (3.430) was recorded with higher plant density (200%). Among the genotypes, AKH-081 was comparatively earlier in phenological characters i.e. first square (47.9 days), first flower (67.9 days), first boll burst (116.1 days), first picking (128.7 days) and final picking (178 days). However, Higher planting density (200%) was recorded earlier in first square (49.3 day), first flower (67.8 days), first boll burst (116.9 days), first picking (130.6 day) and final picking (179.7 days). On the basis of this experiment, genotype Balwan and normal planting density level (100%) recorded higher morphological development wherever phenological development recorded earlier with the each respective phenophase in the Gen-otype AKH-081 and highest planting density level (200%).

Keywords: Genotypes, Plant density, Plant morphology, Plant phenology


Investigation of optimum conditions for the growth of Fusarium solani EGY1 causing root rot of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

Simranjit Singh1  Upasana Rani2, U.S. Tiwana2, Devinder Pal Singh2 and Asmita

Sirari2

1Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: simran.badhan27@gmail.com

Received: January 13, 2017; Revised received: May 13, 2017; Accepted: October 15, 2017


Abstract: Guar gum (Galactomannan) is extracted from Guar (Cluster bean), which is extensively used in petroleum,

food and pharmaceutical industry. Root rot of guaris caused by Fusarium solani EGY1 under Punjab, having sub-tropical climatic conditions. This study was undertaken to evaluate different culture media, grain substrates (sorghum, maize, cowpea, guar and pearl millet), temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35oC), pH levels (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0), light and darkness for the identification of optimum conditions for the growth and sporulation of the fungus. Czapek’s dox media was found to be best for growth (84.65 mm) and sporulation (1.8 x 104microconidia and 3.0 x 104 macro conidia) of fungus. For mass multiplication of the fungus, sorghum grains proved to be the best substrate. The fungus showed maximum radial growth at temperature of 25oC (84.36 mm) and pH of 6.0 (84.43 mm) whereas sporulation

was highest at 30oC (2.0 x 104 microconidia and 3.2 x 104 macroconidia) and pH of 8.0 (1.8 x 104 microconidia and 3.1 x 104 macroconidia) respectively. Continuous light favoured radial growth (84.62 mm) whereas sporulation (1.8 x 104 microconidia and 3.1 x 104 macroconidia) was favoured by darkness.

Keywords: Fusarium solani EGY1, Light, Media, pH, Temperature

Studies on biochemical constituents of sapota (Manilkara zapota L.) at different stages of ripening during storage

Suman Bala*and Jitender Kumar

Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sumanmalika14@gmail.com

Received: February 8, 2017; Revised received: June 5, 2017; Accepted: October 15, 2017


Abstract: Sapota fruits (Var. Cricket Ball) of three different ripening stages i.e. mature(≥ 13 kg/cm2), half ripe (6-7 kg/cm2), and full ripe (2-3 kg/cm2), were packed with newspaper soaked with 3 dosages (1000 ppm, 2000 ppm and 3000 ppm) of ethylene absorbent (KMnO4) along with control and stored at normal room temperature by packing in cardboard boxes. It was observed that specific gravity, ascorbic acid and total phenols decreased whereas cumulative loss in weight and malondialdehyde content increased with increasing period of storage. Fruits packed in different concentrations of KMnO4 soaked paper had less cumulative loss and retained more content of specific gravity, ascorbic acid and total phenols in all three stages. But less malondialdehyde content was observed. The effect of KMnO4 increased with increasing concentrations of KMnO4 in all three stages. As a result, more desirable content was noted in fruits packed with 3000 ppm concentration of KMnO4in mature fruits. This work relates to enhancement of shelf life of sapote so that it may be transported to far off places.

Keywords: KMnO4, Ripening stages, Sapota, Specific gravity, Total phenols


A field study on hydraulic performance of drip irrigation system for optimization of operating pressure

Mairaj Hussain* and Sudhiranjan Prasad Gupta

Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Rajendra Agricultural University, Bihar Pusa, Samastipur - 848125, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mairajhussain321@gmail.com

Received: February 22, 2017; Revised received: June 8, 2017; Accepted: October 15, 2017


Abstract: Drip irrigation technology will undoubtedly plays an important role in the future of the agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of drip system with five operating pressure viz. I1 (0.4 kg/ cm2), I2 (0.6 kg/cm2), I3 (0.8 kg/cm2), I4 (1.0 kg/cm2), I5 (1.2 kg/cm2). It was observed that the average discharge of drippers was 1.08 lph, 1.24 lph, 1.50 lph, 1.62 lph and 1.74 lph and emission uniformity was 80.55%, 84.89%, 86.30%, 88.88% and 90.80 in each treatment respectively and coefficient of variation was observed 0.12, 0.13, 0.12, 0.11, and 0.09. Flow component was found 0.450 and the value of k was 0.572 while R2 was observed 0.986.Based on the result it can be concluded that the operation of drip irrigation system at 1.2 kg/cm2 pressure head, gives the maximum efficiency in respect of discharge, emission uniformity and coefficient of variation.

Keywords: Coefficient of Variation, Discharge Rate, Drip Irrigation, Emission Uniformity


Wasteland reclamation strategy for household timber security of tribes in Jharkhand, India

M. A. Islam1* S. M. S. Quli2 and Tahir Mushtaq1

1Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Benhama,

Ganderbal-191201 (J&K), INDIA

2Faculty of Forestry, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi-248006 (Jharkhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ajaztata@gmail.com

Received: March 12, 2017; Revised received: June 10, 2017; Accepted: October 18, 2017


Abstract: The study sought to examine the timber dependency on forests and evolve wasteland reclamation strategy to eliminate the forest dependency in Bundu block of Ranchi District in Jharkhand, India. Multi-stage random sampling technique was applied to select 164 tribal households from 9 sample villages. Data were collected using structured interviews and non-participant observations which were analyzed using descriptive statistics viz., frequency, percentage, mean and range. Results revealed that forests contributed maximum timber (136.36 m3 annum-1) followed by traditional agroforestry (69.09 m3 annum-1), community forestry (41.33 m3 annum-1) and homestead forestry (35.71 m3 annum-1). Timber extracted is mostly consumed in housing (124.66 m3 annum-1) followed by agricultural implements (82.71 m3 annum-1), furniture (35.25 m3 annum-1), carts/ carriages (17.60 m3 annum-1), fencing (10.23 m3 annum-1), cattle shed/ store house (9.10 m3 annum-1) and others (2.94 m3 annum-1). Forests were exposed to timber pressure of 136.36 m3 annum-1 (48.27%) posing ample deforestation and degradation. The strategy consisted of timber and bamboo plantations is designed which would secure 1065.60 m3 annum-1 of timber, 0.455 lakh annum-1 of bamboo culms, 568.26 tons annum-1 of bamboo leaf and agricultural products. The strategy would yield income of Rs. 34210.78 household-1 annum-1 and employment of 67.15 person-days household-1 annum-1. Financial viability of proposed interventions has been worked out by meticulous economic calculations of Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return. The execution of strategy would eliminate the current unsustainable timber extraction, safeguard the future timber predicament and ensure environmental security.

Keywords: Bamboo, Timber, Tribes, Wasteland reclamation

Organic farming: Present status, scope and prospects in northern India

Sartaj A. Wani1*, Muneeb Ahmad Wani2, Sheikh Mehraj3, Bilal A. Padder3, Subhash Chand1

*1Division of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology

of Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore –193201 (J&K), INDIA

2Division of Floriculture & Landscape Architecture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology

of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar - 190 025 (J&K), INDIA

3Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar

Srinagar - 190 025 (J&K), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drsartajsoil@gmail.com

Received: November 20, 2015; Revised received: May 19, 2017; Accepted: October 18, 2017


Abstract: Organic agriculture has emerged as an important priority area globally in view of the growing consciousness for safe and healthy food, long term sustainability and environmental concerns despite being contentious in history. Green revolution although paved way for developing countries in self-sufficiency of food but sustaining production against the limited natural resource base demands has shifted steadily from “resource degrading” chemical agriculture to “resource protective” organic agriculture. The essential concept remains the same, i.e., to go back to the arms of nature and take up organic farming to restore the loss. Organic farming emphasizes on rotating crops, managing pests, diversifying crops and livestock and improving the soil. The rainfed areas particularly north-eastern regions where least or no utilization of chemical inputs due to poor resources provides considerable opportunity for promotion of organic farming thereby reflecting its vast but unexplored scope. However, significant barriers like yield reduction, soil fertility enhancement, integration of livestock, marketing and policy etc., arise at both macroscopic and microscopic levels; making practically impossible the complete adoption of ‘pure organic farming’; rather some specific area can be diverted to organic farming and thus a blend of organic and other innovative farming systems is needed. Adoption of Integrated Green Revolution Farming can be possible to a large extent, where the basic trends of green revolution are retained with greater efficiency and closer compatibility to the environment. This review paper attempts to present the recent global and regional scenario of organic farming particularly highlighting the scope, prospects and constraints in the northern areas.

Keywords: Environment, Green revolution, INM, Organic farming, Sustainability


Sequential extraction of different pools of phosphorus in alluvial and acid soils of Uttarakhand

Pawan Kumar Pant*, Shri Ram and Aakash Mishra

Department of Soil Science, College of agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar

-263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: pwnpant5@gmail.com

Received: March 13, 2016; Revised received: March 22, 2017; Accepted: October 18, 2017


Abstract: The sequencing and availability of inorganic and organic fractions of phosphorus at different days interval in two soils after the fertilizer (SSP) application was the objective of this investigation. The study helped to obtain the sequence of dominating pool of phosphorus at different days intervals and the rate of release in the soil. This sequential fractionation was used for two native soils i) Alluvial soil and ii) Acidic soil, with 0 to 80 ppm SSP/ 100 gm soil added in a pot experiment and the soil samples were analyzed at different days intervals started from 5 days to 60 days. The result revealed that amount of maximum total P fell in the range from 325.14 to 387.30 mg kg-1 and 284.60 to 330.25 mg kg-1 for alluvial soil and acid soil, respectively up to 30 days. In case of inorganic P fractions under alluvial soil the dominating species were like Ca-P > Fe-P > Al-P >Saloid-P, while under acidic soil the following order Fe-P > Al-P > Ca-P > Saloid-P was observed. These two observations also drew the concentration of organic-P fractions in soil. The work concluded that the availability of dominant phosphorus fraction up to 30 days received the maximum Ca-P concentration in alluvial soil and Fe-P up to 60 days in acidic soils, respectively.

Keywords: Al-P, Ca-P, Fe-P, Inorganic phosphate, Organic Phosphate, P-Fixation, Phosphorus pools


A comparative analysis of phytoplankton diversity and abundance during monsoon season in selected beels (wetlands) of Assam, India

Jeetendra Kumar1*, A. K. Yadav2 and B. K. Bhattacharjya2

1ICAR- Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Regional Centre, Allahabad- 700120 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2ICAR- Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Regional Centre, Guwahati- 781006 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: jeetendrak142@gmail.com

Received: September 19, 2016; Revised received: June 19, 2017; Accepted: October 20, 2017


Abstract: Water collected from 8 selected floodplain wetlands (beels) of Brahmaputra valley basin were examined using both filtered method (FM) and sedimentation method (SM) for the assessment of phytoplankton diversity and abundance. A total 22 and 41 species were recorded by employing FM and SM, respectively. There was a significance difference (p<0.05) between FM and SM. Species and abundance of phytoplankton were lesser in FM than SM and it was due to exclusion of minute size (<25μ) from net and maximum retention of species in sedimentation method. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta and Dinophyta were recorded during study period. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta were dominant groups. Bacillariophyta was dominant group followed by Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta in FM while Chlorophyta was dominant group followed by Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta SM. Total phytoplankton densities were recorded from 35 cells L-1 to 3808 cells L-1 in FM while 1.55×104 cells L-1 to 12.33×105 cells L-1 to in SM. Diversity indices of phytoplankton were varied widely in FM and SM. Siligurijan beel and Bildora beels were considered more stable environment than other beels based on diversity indices.

Keywords: Beels, Diversity indices, Filtered method, Phytoplankton, Sedimentation method


Larvicidal action of Nux-vomica (Strychnus nux-vomica L.) against Diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella L.)

C. Selvaraj*, J. S. Kennedy and M. Suganthy

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: selvaarjun665@gmail.com

Received: October 28, 2016; Revised received: June 6, 2017; Accepted: October 22, 2017


Abstract: The present investigation reports on larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts of Nux-vomica, Strychnus nux-vomica against Diamond back moth (DBM). In this investigation shade dried and powdered nux-vomica plant sam-ples (leaves, root bark, stem bark, seed and fruit rind) were extracted with organic solvents ethanol, methanol, ace-tone, hexane and chloroform and also formulated as Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC) using surfactant and solvents. This formulated plant extracts were tested against third instar larvae of DBM for larvicidal efficacy using leaf disc bioassay method under laboratory condition. Among the five solvent extracts tested, hexane extracts of root bark 11.11 EC @ 2 % showed highest larval mortality of 76.66 % followed by seed 14.25 EC, leaf 16.66 EC, stem bark 12.50 EC and fruit rind 12.50 EC extracts exhibited maximum mortality @ 2 % concentration recording 66.66, 63.33, 56.66 and 40.00 per cent mortality respectively. Positive and negative control such as respective solvent and water showed 10.00 and 3.33 % larval mortality respectively. The results of these experiment clearly indicate that nux-vomica plant possess promising larvicidal action against diamond back moth.

Keywords: Alkaloids, larvicidal action, Nux-vomica, Solvent extracts, Plutella xylostella


Performance of garden pea varieties for their growth and yield characteristics in Vidharbha region of Maharashtra, India

Pushpendra Khichi1, Rajani Pant2 and Sandeep Upadhayay3*

1Department of Horticulture, Dr. PDKV, Akola- 444 104 (Maharashtra), INDIA

2Department of Horticulture, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar, District Udham Singh Nagar- 263145 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

3Natural Resource Management Department, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali College of Horticulture (Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry) Bharsar, District Pauri- Garhwal- 246123 (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mistersandeep@gmail.com

Received: November 2, 2016; Revised received: April 24, 2017; Accepted: October 22, 2017


Abstract: An experiment was conducted in 2013 to study the performance of different varieties of garden pea under Akola condition at Department of Horticulture Dr.Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra. Eight varieties were evaluated on black soil in replicated randomized block design and Results were found significant for all characters among these varieties. All varieties exhibited considerable variation in their performance for most of the parameters. Better growth and yield parameters in terms of plant height (cm), number of branches/plant, days to first flowering, number of green pod/plant, green pod weight, green pod length, pod yield/plant, green pod yield per plot and green pod yield per ha were noticed in all varieties. Maximum plant height was observed in Jawahar Matar-2 (72.26 cm) and minimum was in Palam Priya (28.46 cm). In case of number of pods plant-1 was maximum in PB-89 (16.43) followed by Palam Triloki (13.9) and minimum in Jawahar Matar-2 (9.83). Similarly for pod characters, average pod weight, maximum pod weight was recorded in PB-89 (6.12 g) and minimum was recorded in Arka Kartik (3.27g). Green pod yield/plant was highest in PB-89 (87.93 g), Palam Triloki (75.45 g) and Ankur (68.42 g). Whereas, maximum green pod/yield. was recorded in PB-89 (93.12q/ha) followed by Palam Triloki (76.97q/ha). Among all these varieties highest protein and Total Soluble Solid contents was recorded in Palam Triloki variety (23.06% and 17.67% respectively). PB-89, Palam Triloki and Ankur had the highest yields over the others, hence, they are recommended to farmers in semi-arid condition of Vidharba region for cultivation.

Keywords: Garden pea, Quality, Varieties, Yield


Study of physico-chemical parameters of orange (Citrus reticulate Blanco) for the development of orange wine

S. R. Patharkar*, S. N. Shendge and A. P. Khapre

College of Food Technology, Naigaon, MIT College of Food Technology, Aurangabad (M.S.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: khapreft@gmail.com

Received: November 18, 2016; Revised received: June 24, 2017; Accepted: October 23, 2017

Abstract: Physico-chemical properties are an essential factor during processing and preservation of food. The retention and changes in physico-chemical properties depends upon the processing technique. In this work, physicochemical parameters of orange like vitamin C (ascorbic acid), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), % acidity, temperature and color were studied with all the optimized conditions of fermentations for the development of orange wine. The fermentation of the fruit juice was completed within 7 days period at temperature 27oC, pH 4.5 and total soluble solids of 24oBrix with an inoculum level of 10% (v/v). Thus, orange wine with ethanol content of 8.5% (v/v) was prepared from the orange variety ‘Nagpur Santra’ (Citrus Reticulata Blanco) in controlled physico-chemical parameters.

Keywords: Alcoholic fermentation, Orange juice, Physico-chemical parameters, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wine

Applications of molecular markers for bacterial blight resistant varieties in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

A. Premkumar and Manoj Kumar

School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar-144411 (Punjab), India

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kumarap2107@gmail.com

Received: December 24, 2016; Revised received: June 15, 2017; Accepted: October 23, 2017

Abstract: Bacterial blight is one of devasting disease in almost all rice growing countries. The most effective, eco-nomic and environmental strategy for control of this disease is to develop rice varieties with genetic resistance. However, new pathotype has overcome single gene for resistance in the new cultivars. So, plant breeders are con-centrating to develop high yielding varieties with durable resistance using novel technologies. Molecular marker technology has progressed tremendously in the past decade for genetic improvement of field crops. Molecular markers can improve efficiency of breeding in different ways for trait in segregating population like identify plants with target gene in maximum recovery portion of recurrent parent. The transfer of two or three genes into single variety with the help of molecular marker is expected to lead to more durable resistance. Thus, thus review describes progress made in the development of bacterial blight resistance rice varieties using Marker Assisted Selection.

Keywords: Bacterial blight, Durable resistance, Gene pyramiding, Molecular markers, Rice

Nutrient uptake and soil fertility status after harvest of Bt cotton as influenced by graded levels of NPK fertilizers in Alfisol


T. V. Jyothi* and N. S. Hebsur

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, UAS, Dharwad- 580005 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: veeranna.jyothi@gmail.com

Received: March 11, 2017; Revised received: June 14, 2017; Accepted: October 25, 2017


Abstract: Field studies were conducted at farmer’s fields in Jodalli (Kalghatgi taluk) and Pale (Hubballi taluk) villages in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively to investigate the effect of NPK fertilizers on uptake of nutrients by Bt cotton and soil fertility status at harvest in Alfisol. Among the different treatment combinations, the application of 150:50:75 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 (N3P1K2) recorded significantly (P=0.05) higher nitrogen (132.63 kg ha-1), phosphorus (31.26 kg ha-1) and potassium (128.94 kg ha-1) uptake by cotton. The interaction effect with respect to total micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) uptake remained non significant at all the growth stages. Graded levels of fertilizers failed to exert significant impact on pH and electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon and available micronutrients during both the years of experimentation. The application of 100:50:50 kgN:P2O5:K2O ha-1 (N1P1K1) recorded significantly (P=0.05) highest available nitrogen (150.39 kg ha-1), available phosphorus (37.98 kg ha-1) and available potassium (230.99 kg ha-1) compared to rest of the treatments. The lowest available nitrogen (134.92 kg ha-1), available phosphorus (31.65 kg ha-1) and available potassium (217.63 kg ha-1) were recorded in treatment receiving 150:50:75 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 (N3P1K2).

Keywords: Alfisol, Cotton, Fertility, Fertilizers, Nutrient uptake


Bio-efficacy of Trichoderma species against Pigeonpea wilt pathogen


Balkishan Chaudhary*, Sanjeev Kumar and Shiva Kant Kushwaha

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalay, Jabalpur- 482004 (M.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: chaudharybalkishan480@gmail.com

Received: March 21, 2017; Revised received: May 30, 2017; Accepted: October 25, 2017


Abstract: Three biocontrol agent viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma harzianum were evaluated to test the antagonism against Fusarium udum under in vitro conditions. All the three biocontrol agents have the potential of parasitizing the growth of Fusarium udum in vitro. The rate of parasitism was found fastest in T. viride (61.12% over growth in 96 hrs) than T. virens and T. harzianum. The volatile compounds from Trichoderma viride suppressed the mycelial growth of Fusarium udum by 43.13% and found effective when compared to Tricho-derma virens and Trichoderma harzianum. Non-volatile compounds or culture filtrate from Trichoderma virens at 15% concentration shows complete mycelial inhibition of the test fungi. The antagonist T. virens was chosen to be the most promising bio-control agent for F. udum.

Keywords: Bio-efficacy, Fusarium udum, Pigeonpea, Trichoderma, Wilt


Non parametric measures to estimate GxE interaction of dual purpose barley genotypes for grain yield under multi-location trials

Ajay Verma*, J. Singh, V. Kumar, A. S. Kharab and G. P. Singh

Statistics and Computer center, ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal- 132001(Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: verma.dwr@gmail.com

Received: April 9, 2017; Revised received: June 14, 2017; Accepted: October 25, 2017


Abstract: GxE interaction of seventeen dual purpose barley genotypes evaluated at ten major barley locations of the country by non parametric methods. Non parametric measures had been well established and expressed ad-vantages over their counter parts i.e. parametric measures. Simple descriptive measures based on the ranks of gen-otypes i.e. Mean of ranks (MR) pointed towards RD2925 and BH1008 and standard deviation of ranks (SD) for KB1401 and UPB1054 whereas Coefficient of variation (CV) for JB322 and RD2925 as stable genotypes. Nonpara-metric measures based on original values (Si1, Si2, Si3, Si4, Si5, Si6, Si7) indicated the stable performance of NDB1650, JB322 and UPB1054 while UPB1053, RD2715, RD2927 and RD2035 were observed of unstable nature. CSi1, CSi2, CSi3, CSi4, CSi5, CSi6 and CSi7 measures based on the ranks of corrected grain yield identified JB322, RD2552, RD2925 and NDB1650 as stable genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation established highly significant positive correlation of yield with SD (0.67), Si1(0.65), Si2(0.59), Si5(0.68), Si7(0.67) whereas negative association observed for CMR (Mean of corrected ranks) (-0.62), CMed (Median of corrected ranks) (-0.60). NPi(2) expressed negative correlation with CV(-0.32), Si6 (-0.30), CMR(-0.34) and CMed(-0.48). More over NPi(3) maintained negative correlation with most of the measures though the magnitude was of low magnitude.

Keywords: GxE interaction, Non parametric methods, Rank correlation, Ward’s clustering


Effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulators on seed yield per plant and seed quality parameters in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Arpana D. Vaja*, J. B. Patel, R.N. Daki and Shital A. Chauhan

Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University (Junagadh – 362001), Gujarat, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail:vajaarpana9@gmail.com

Received: June 28, 2016; Revised received: June 27, 2017; Accepted: October 25, 2017


Abstract: The present investigation on effect of nitrogen [N0 (Control), N1 (50 kg N/ha), N2 (100 kg N/ha), and N3 (150 kg N/ ha)] and plant growth regulators [G0 (Control), G1 (50 ppm GA3), G2 (50 ppm NAA) and G3 (500 ppm Cycocel)] on seed yield per plant and seed quality parameters in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. GJB 3 was carried out at the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during kharif 2015-16. The experiment was laid out in field as per randomized block design (Factorial) with three replications. The seed harvested from 16 different treatments combinations replicated thrice from the field were analyzed in the laboratory following completely randomized design (factorial) for various seed quality parameters. Application of nitrogen @ 150 kg N/ha recorded significantly (P<0.05) highest seed yield per plant, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and vigour index – 2 (mass), while application of 100 kg N/ha resulted in significantly (P<0.05) highest germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root fresh weight and vigour index – 1 (length). Application of GA3 at 50 ppm recorded significantly the highest seed yield per plant, germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, vigour index – 1 (length) and vigour index – 2 (mass). Among the 16 different treatment combinations, nitrogen @ 150 kg/ha and GA3 50 ppm noted the maximum seed yield per plant, shoot dry weight and vigour index – 2 (mass), while significantly the maxi-mum germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight and vigour index – 1 (length) were registered in treatment combination nitrogen 100 kg N/ha and GA3 @ 50 ppm. Therefore, it is advised that application of 100-150 kg of N/ha as a nitrogenous fertilizer and spray GA3 @ 50 ppm (G1) at 45 days after transplanting helps in increasing the seed yield per plant and seed quality parameters in brinjal seed production.

Keywords: Brinjal, Nitrogen, Plant growth regulators, Seed yield, Quality parameters


Study on genetic variability in some agro-morphological traits of Brassica rapa L. (Brown sarson) germplasm characterized under rainfed conditions of Kashmir, India

Sheikh Mohammad Sultan

ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station Srinagar, Srinagar-190007(J & K), INDIA

E-mail: sheikhmsultan@gmail.com

Received: August 10, 2016; Revised received: June 10, 2017; Accepted: October 26, 2017


Abstract: 36 Brassica rapa L. (Brown sarson) genotypes were characterized during two successive seasons of 2013/14 and 2014/15 along with two national checks (Puas Kalyani and GSL-2) and one local check variety (Shalimar-1) to assess the extent of variability and amount of variation in agro-morphological traits of plant height, number of primary branches/plant, days to 50% flowering, number of seeds/siliqua, seed yield/plant and 1000-seed weight. Important traits of plant height varied from 58.35 cm - 95.36 cm, seed yield/plant from 3.840 g - 18.470 g and 1000-seed weight from 2.746 g - 4.377 g. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 0.05 level of probability among different genotypes for these characters during a particular year while differences were non-significant in all the traits excepting days to 50% flowering when data of the two years was compared. Highest variability, phenotypic coefficient of variation (33.89%) and genotypic coefficient of variation (30.99%) were recorded for the trait seed yield/plant. High heritability coupled with high to moderate per cent genetic advance was recorded for seed yield/plant and 1000-seed weight indicating that these traits can be improved through simple selection. Moderate heritability with low genetic advance was observed in all other traits suggesting greater influence of environment. Promising donor genotypes for all these traits have been identified for possible utilization in breeding programmes in the region.

Keywords: Brassica rapa L. (Brown sarson), Genetic advance, Genetic variability, Germplasm, Heritability


Efficacy of various pesticides against Red ant (Dorylus orientalis, Westwood) of potato

Nabadeep Saikia and Kapil Deb Nath*

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Assam Agricultural University, Cachar– 788025 (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kapildebnath88@gmail.com

Received: August 12, 2016; Revised received: June 13, 2017; Accepted: October 26, 2017

Abstract: Several management approaches against red ant of potato Dorylus orientalis (Westwood) were studied at farmer’s field in Cachar district of Assam (India) during 2015-16 cropping season to find out the most effective man-agement technique. Combination of Malathion 5% dust @ 40 kg per hectare and Mustard Oil Cake (MOC) @ 150 kg per hectare reduced red ant damage significantly (p ≤ 0.05) followed by Dursben 20% EC @ 5 ml per litre and Car-bofuran 3G @ 25 kg per hectare. Malathion and MOC was applied at the time of first earthing up gave the lowest infestation of red ant (9.2%) and with (64.31%) infestation reduction over control closely followed by Dursban 20% EC (13.5%) and with (59.32%) infestation reduction over control. Highest infestation (47.6%) was recorded in the control untreated plot where; only chemical fertilizers were applied at recommended dose.

Keywords: Chloropyrifos, Dorylusorientalis, Malathion, MOC, Potato, Red Ant


Nutritional attributes, bioactive components and overall acceptability of pineapple grown under different farming system

Lokesh K Mishra

Department of Basic Science and Humanities, College of Home Science, Central Agricultural University,

Tura -794005 (Meghalaya) INDIA

E-mail: lkmishra2005@gmail.com

Received: December 6, 2016; Revised received: June 24, 2017; Accepted: October 28, 2017


Abstract: Nutritional attributes, bioactive components and sensory qualities of pineapple (kew variety) grown under fertilizer based and traditional (organic by default) farming system were determined and compared in this study. The results revealed that organically grown (without adding any chemical inputs as per traditional practices) pineapple had significantly higher bioactive components (vitamin c and total soluble phenolics ranging from 23.19 % to 24.04 % and 28.69 mg/100g FW to 29.54 mg/100g fresh weight (FW) respectively for organically grown fruits and 19.84% to 20.01% and 21.32 mg/100g FW to 21.93 mg/100g FW respectively in conventionally grown in fruits). The study also reports that the organically grown pineapples had significantly higher overall acceptability (4.5 and 4.3 in 2013 and 2014 respectively) and popularity (4.26 and 4.32 in 2013 and 2014 respectively) as compared to the pineapples grown under conventional farming system using fertilizers (2.8 overall acceptability in 2013 and 2014; 2.96 and 2.86 popularity in 2013 and 2014 respectively).

Keywords: Nutritional quality, Organic farming, Pineapple, Sensory qualities

Population dynamics of natural enemies on bt / non bt cotton and their correlation with weather parameters

Roomi Rawal1*, K. K. Dahiya1, Roshan Lal1 and Adesh Kumar2

1Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125001 (Haryana), INDIA

2Punjab Agricultural University, Fruit Research Station, Jallowal- Lesriwal, Jalandhar-144303 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: roomi.rawal78@gmail.com

Received: December 20, 2016; Revised received: June 10, 2017; Accepted: October 28, 2017


Abstract: The field study was carried out at Research Farm of cotton section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India to determine the effect of environmental factors and seven cotton genotypes (Bt and non Bt) on three natural enemies namely chrysoperla, coccinellids beetle and spi-ders. Natural enemies remained active throughout the crop season (with two peaks) with little differences among them. Chrysoperla and coccinellids both were remained active from 25th to 40th SMW (June to October, 2014) while spiders were active from 25th to 41st. It was observed that highest population of Chrysoperla (1.17 eggs/plant) and spiders (1.59 adult/plant) was observed on Bt cotton cultivar namely RCH-134 and JK-1947 respectively. However, coccinellids preferred non Bt genotype (HHH-223) for their population build-up. Chrysoperla and coccinellids popula-tion was significantly negatively correlated with maximum temperature (r = -0.527 at 5% and r = -0.626 at 1% re-spectively); positively correlated with RHm, RHe; negatively correlated with minimum temperature and wind speed without significance. While, spiders population showed negative correlation with all weather parameters except sun-shine hours. It was observed that population of the natural enemies fluctuated under different environmental conditions during cotton season.

Keywords: Cotton, Natural enemies, Population dynamics, Weather parameters


Regional analysis of maximum rainfall using L-moment and TL-moment: a comparative case study for the north East India

Dhruba Jyoti Bora* and Munindra Borah

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, (Assam), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dhrubabora@tezu.ernet.in

Received: February 28, 2017; Revised received: June 24, 2017; Accepted: October 28, 2017


Abstract: In this study it has been tried to develop a suitable model for maximum rainfall frequency analysis of the North East India using best fit probability distribution. The methods of L-moment have been employed for estimation of five probability distributions, namely Generalized extreme value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), 3 parameter Log normal (LN3) and Generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions. The methods TL-moment have been used for estimating the parameters of three probability distributions namely Generalized extreme value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO) and Generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions. PE3 distribution has been selected as the best fit distribution using L-moment and GPA distribution using TL-moment method. Relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and Relative Bias (RBIAS) are employed to compare between the results found from L-moment and TL-moment analysis. It is found that PE3 distribution designated by L-moment method is the most suitable and the best fit distribution for rainfall frequency analysis of the North East India. Also the L-moment method is significantly more efficient than TL-moment.

Key words: L-moment, TL-moments, Probability distribution


Assessment of physiological indices and energetics under different system of rice intensification in north western Himalayas

Ranu Pathania1*, J. Shekhar1, S.S. Rana1 and Saurav Sharma2

1Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176083 (Himachal Pradesh), INDIA

2Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ranu44raone@gmail.com

Received: March 11, 2017; Revised received: June 15, 2017; Accepted: October 30, 2017


Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at the research farm of CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Rice and Wheat Research Centre, Malan during kharif 2013 with the objective to select the best seedling age and spacing of rice under system of rice intensification in terms of energetic and employment generation for mid hill con-dition of Himachal Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in 3 times replicated split plot design, assigning of three seedling ages (10, 17 and 24 days) and two spacings (20 cm x 20 cm and 20 cm x 15 cm) in main plots and four seedling vigours corresponding to four seeding rates (25, 30, 35 and 40 g/m2) in sub plots. The leaf area per plant was significantly greater in 10 days seedling age and decreased with increase in age (P=0.05). Seedling rate did not affect leaf area index in all stages except 40 DAS when 35 g/m2 seeding rate had maximum LAI. Seedling age did not significantly influence crop growth rate at any interval but it did relative growth rate and net assimilation rate between 40-70 and 70-100 DAS (P=0.05). 24 days old seedling resulted in significantly higher relative growth rate and net assimilation rate between 40-70 DAS followed by 17 days old seedlings. Maximum value of energy input (13.23) was recorded in 24 days seedling. The energy use efficiency (Energy output: input) varied from 10.6 to 11.1 under different treatments. Wider spacing supporting less plant population consumed 10 man days less than closer spac-ing of 20 cm x 15 cm.

Keywords: Energetics, Employment, SRI, Physiological Indices


Thermal requirements, growth and yield of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] genotypes under different agroclimatic zones of Punjab


Guriqbal Singh1*, Harpreet Kaur Virk1, Sudeep Singh2, Kulvir Singh3, Satpal Singh4and K.K. Gill5

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University , Ludhiana -141004 (Punjab), INDIA

2Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda (Punjab), INDIA

3Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Faridkot (Punjab), INDIA

4Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Gurdaspur (Punjab), INDIA

5School of Climate Change and Agricultural Meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana -

141004 (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: singhguriqbal@pau.edu

Received: April 12, 2017; Revised received: June 11, 2017; Accepted: October 30, 2017


Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at four locations i.e. Ludhiana, Bathinda, Faridkot and Gurdaspur to study the influence of diverse environments on symbiotic traits, thermal requirements, growth in terms of plant height (cm) and yield (kg/ha) of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] genotypes under different agroclimatic zones of Punjab. Results indicated that crop sown on 15 May recorded the higher grain yield than later sowing dates of 1 June and 15 June at all the locations; 15 May sowing provided 23.3, 22.1 and 46.7% higher grain yield over 1 May, 1 June and 15 June sowing, respectively. Early sown crop acquired higher agro-climatic indices than delayed sowings. The crop sown on 15 May provided the maximum gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio as evident from the additional income of Rs 13599, 13040 and 22865 Rs/ha over 1 May, 1 June and 15 June sowing, respectively. Among the genotypes, AL 201 at Ludhiana and Gurdaspur, AL 1578 at Bathinda and PAU 881 at Faridkot resulted in the highest grain yield and maximum returns. The genotype AL 201 took more days to 50% flowering and maturity at all the locations. It can be concluded that 15 May is the optimum sowing date and AL 201 and PAU 881 are the promising genotypes for providing high productivity of pigeonpea under different agroclimatic zones of Punjab.

Keywords: Genotype, Grain yield, Pigeonpea, Sowing date, Thermal requirements


Economic analysis of trout feed production in Jammu and Kashmir, India

Stanzin Gawa*, Nalini Ranjan Kumar, Swadesh Prakash, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Vinay

Maruti Hatte and Navghan Mahida

ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai – 400 061 (Maharashtra), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: gawa107@gmail.com

Received: April 18, 2017; Revised received: June 8, 2017; Accepted: October 30, 2017


Abstract: The Present study is an attempt to understand the economics of trout feed production in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Trout feed production is capital intensive business which requires high initial capital investment. The results revealed that major fixed investment required in trout feed production was feed mill itself which accounted about 71.44 percent of the total investment. The cost and return analysis showed that the variable cost accounts 59.16 percent whereas fixed cost accounted 40.84 percent of the total cost respectively. Among the variable cost raw material was found out to be single most important factor which accounted about 56.37 percent of the total cost which was about 95.28 percent of the total variable cost. The average cost of production of trout feed was Rs.84.33/kg which ranged from Rs.78.45/kg in Kokarnag trout feed mill to Rs.90.2/kg in Manasbal trout feed mill but government has fixed selling price at Rs.73/Kg for the feed to maintain reasonable price level for private trout farmers. The availability and high price of raw material were found to be major constraints faced by feed producers. Economics analysis revealed that both the feed mills are operating at suboptimal level and there is need to utilize the feed mill to its full potential and export the surplus production to neighbouring state of Himachal Pradesh and other Himalayan states like Sikkim and Arunachal which will help the state fisheries department to generate extra income which can be used in other developmental activities.

Keywords: Cost and return, Feed production, Jammu and Kashmir, Trout


Enrichment of Lassi by incorporation of peptides from whey protein concentrate


Preeti Paul* and Bikash C. Ghosh

Dairy Technology Department, Southern Regional Station, National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bengaluru – 560030, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: preetipaul.079@gmail.com

Received: April 22, 2017; Revised received: June 26, 2017; Accepted: November 1, 2017


Abstract: Lassi is a refreshing beverage which is widely consumed throughout our country by people of all age groups. It is a reservoir of nutrients which are easily assimilable by the human body. The current study was initiated to increase functionality of Lassi by incorporation of hydrolyzed whey proteins. A solution of 10% whey protein was hydrolyzed to 7 % degree of hydrolysis (DH) using Flavorzyme at 50 0C for 30 min. using 1:25 enzyme: substrate ratio. Calculated amount of cream and lactic acid were added to the hydrolyzate to bring the desired fat content and pH levels to that of Dahi. It was found that the hydrolyzate could be incorporated at 40 % v/v level in Dahi without causing any adverse effect on the sensory attributes of Lassi. It was found that addition of sugar @15% (w/w) of Lassi gave acceptable quality product. The average composition of optimized product was - 23.04 % TS, 3.78 % protein, 2.33 % fat, 0.49 % ash and 16.5 % total carbohydrates. The average composition of control Lassi was - 22.8 % TS, 1.77 % protein, 2.10% fat, 0.49 % ash and 18.44 % total carbohydrate. The presence of low molecular weight peptides in the optimized product using Tricine SDS-PAGE was confirmed. Enriched Lassi was found to have 79.67 % ACE inhibitory activity as opposed to 42.17 % activity in control sample. It was found that non-thermized enriched Lassi sample had a shelf life of 9 days at 5+2 0C compared to 14 days for thermized sample.

Keywords: ACE inhibitory activity, Hydrolyzate, Lassi, Thermization, Whey protein concentrate


Boron availability in relation to some important soil chemical properties in acid soils of Cooch Behar district, West Bengal

Dipa Kundu1*, Rubina Khanam2, Sushanta Saha1, Umalaxmi Thingujam1 and G. C. Hazra1

1Departmentof Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur,

Nadia-741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack -753006 (Odisha), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: kundudipa10@gmail.com

Received: February 25, 2016; Revised received: July 1, 2017; Accepted: November 1, 2017


Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the distribution of soil available boron and its relationship with some soil properties in the samples collected from different locations in acidic alluvial soils of Cooch Behar district in West Bengal during 2013-2014. For the study about two hundred fifty (250) georeferenced surface soil samples covering 11 blocks of the districts were collected with the help of a global positioning system (GPS). The soil results revealed that pH of the analyzed samples varied from 4.91-7.28 (mean value 5.68) which indicated that soils of the district were in the acidic to slightly acidic in reaction. Organic carbon content of the soils varied from 0.42 to 1.62 % with a mean value of 0.96 % and about 93.7 % of the samples were high whereas about 5.2 and 1.2 % of the samples analyzed were in medium and low category, respectively. Results also indicated that the available B content in the soils of the districts ranged from 0.04 to 3.87 mg kg-1 with a mean value of 0.51 mg kg-1 and about 38.26 % soil samples were classified under low, whereas, 3.58 and 0.35 % samples were categorized as medium and high in available B content. It was further indicated that the content of available B in soil was positively correlated with organic carbon (r = 0.170**) and negatively correlated with pH (r = -0.021). Organic carbon status was also found to be positively and non significantly correlated with soil pH (r = 0.062). The results of the study would be immensely helpful for the extension workers to recommended B application considering pH and organic carbon status in acidic soils of the district for a profitable crop production.

Keywords: Acid soil, Available B, Correlation, Organic carbon, West Bengal


Response of growth regulators and micronutrients on yield and physico-chemical quality of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk) cv. BAU Kul-1

Indrani Majumder1, Sayan Sau1, Bikash Ghosh1, Subhasis Kundu1, Debjit Roy1and Sukamal Sarkar2*

1Department of Fruits and Orchard Management, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

2Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur -741252 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Correspondence author. E-mail: sukamalsarkarc@yahoo.com

Received: July 12, 2016; Revised received: July 8, 2017; Accepted: November 3, 2017


Abstract: Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) is an indigenous delicious, nourishing fruit grown widely throughout the India but faces heavy fruit drop due to several biotic and abiotic stress factors resulted in declining trend of ber pro-duction over the year. Keeping these facts in foreground, replicated field experiment was conducted during 2013-14 and 2014-15 at HRS, Mondouri, BCKV, West Bengal with eleven treatments consist two different levels of NAA, GA3, 2,4-D, ZnSO4 and H3BO3 along with a control (water spray). Results of investigation revealed that application of 2,4-D @ 10 mg/l recorded highest fruit set (48.80%). Maximum fruit retention (42.83%) and total no. of fruits/tree (514) were obtained with the application of NAA @ 20 mg/l. Application of GA3 @ 20 mg/l recorded significantly (p≤0.05) higher yield (30.67 kg/tree), fruit weight (60.5 g), fruit length (5.8 cm), fruit breadth (5.1 cm), pulp to seed ratio (13.9) and specific gravity (1.104) as well as economic returns over control during both the year of experiment. Among the treatments H3BO3 at 0.4% recorded the highest TSS (11.7°Brix), total sugar (8.33%), reducing sugar (5.21%) and TSS: Acid (107.36) ratio with lowest fruit acidity (0.10 %) whereas highest vitamin-C content of fruit was recorded with GA3 at 20 mg/l (64.68 mg / 100 g) followed by NAA at 20 mg/l. Results suggest that twice spraying of GA3 @ 20 mg/l and H3BO3 at 0.4% is vital for optimizing yield components, yield and quality of ber (cv. BAU Kul-1) in trans-Gangetic plains of West Bengal.

Keywords: Ber, Growth regulators, Micronutrients, Yield, Quality


Comparative analysis of changes in leaf area index in different wheat genotypes exposed to high temperature stress by late sown condition

Kamla Dhyani, Alok Shukla* , R.S. Verma

Department of Plant Physiology and Department of Agronomy, G.B. Pant University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttrakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: Dhyani.k@rediffmail.com

Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: June 15, 2017; Accepted: November 3, 2017


Abstract: High temperature stress during grain-filling period is one of the major environmental constraints limiting the grain yield of wheat in India. Crop growth response and relative performance of yield components of 12 wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes were studied in two date of sowing in crop research center (Pantnagar) to identify the causes of yield reduction in wheat particularly Leaf Area Index and its impact in yield loss and other tolerance mech-anism and comparative study of LAI and yield attributes to identify the genotype for high temperature tolerance in late sown condition. The higher temperature enhanced plant growth, flowering, and maturation which ultimately effects the crop performance in case of yield (Leaf Area Index, grain weight/spike and test weight were drastically reduced in time under high temperature. Out of 12 diverse genotypes namely HI 1539, DBW 14, HW 5021, HS 240, PBW-574, Raj 4101, Lok 54, Raj 3765, WH 1021, K-0-307, HW 2045 and HI1544,four were (Lok54, Raj3765, HI1539 and HI1544 ) were characterized as high temperature tolerant based on their relative performance in leaf area index, grain yield and heat susceptibility index. Leaf area Index studies in context to heat stress in wheat is least studied area in heat tolerance research in wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the present study LAI is used as a screening tool for heat tolerance and effect of LAI in wheat yield.

Keywords: Genotype, Growth, HSI, Leaf area index, Tolerant yield


Growth, yield and nutrient uptake of hybrid rice as influenced by nutrient management modules and its impact on economic of the treatments

Ashish Kumar Srivastava1 and Anil Kumar Singh2*

1Department of Soil Science, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, (Narendra Nagar) Kumar-ganj, Faizabad-224 229 (Uttar Pradesh), INDIA

2Corresponding author: Present address: Assistant Professor, SMM Town PG College, Ballia- 277001, (U.P.), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: singhanil80@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2016; Revised received: July 2, 2017; Accepted: November 5, 2017


Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad to develop nutrient management modules for efficient cultivation of hybrid rice. Results showed that growth and yield characters viz. plant height, number of tilers and panicles per hills were high-est under nutrient management module of 100% NPK + 5 t press mud (T3). Significantly higher grain and straw yield was recorded under treatment T3 over all the treatment except treatment T1, T2, T4, T5 and T6 which were recorded on par. Uptake of NPKS and Zn was significantly improved under treatments having organic manure along with inorganic levels (100%, 75% and 50% NPK) of fertilizer over alone levels of inorganic fertilizer. NPKS and Zn uptake was higher in treatment module T3 followed by treatment T2 (100% NPK + 10 t FYM ha-1). The net return Rs. 27373.70 ha-1 and 26087.0 ha-1 and benefit: cost ratio (1.53 and 1.45) was maximum in treatment T3 closely followed by T2. Findings of this study warranted that treatment module T3 resulted higher growth and yield of rice crop. Net return was also higher in this treatment.

Keywords: Economic of treatments, Growth, Hybrid rice, Nutrient management modules, Nutrients uptake, Yield


Determination of genetic divergence in pointed gourd by principal component and non-hierarchical euclidean cluster analysis

Priyanka Verma, S. K. Maurya, Hridesh Yadav and Ankit Panchbhaiya

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: priyankavrm10@gmail.com

Received: December 31, 2016; Revised received: April 26, 2017; Accepted: November 3, 2017


Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at Vegetable Research Centre, Pantnagar to estimate the ge-netic divergence using Mahalanobis D2 statistics for twelve characters on 35 genotypes of pointed gourd. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the most discerning trait responsible for greater variability in the lines and on the basis of mean performance, genotypes were classified into different groups. Five principal components (PC) have been extracted using the mean performance of the genotypes and 83.23 per cent variation is yielded by the first five principal components, among them high mean positive value or higher weight age was obtained was obtained for days to first female flower anthesis and days to first fruit harvest among all the vectors, indicates that these traits are important component of genetic divergence in pointed gourd. Non- hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into seven clusters and the highest number of genotypes were found in cluster number IV i.e. eleven whereas maximum inter-cluster distance was found between the cluster III and VI i.e. 74.250, it indicates that a wide range of genetic divergence is present between the genotypes present among these two clusters. And as per contribution toward total divergence, traits like fruit yield per hectare and number of fruit per plant contributed 92.64% toward total divergence. The high diversity found in the genotypes showed its great potential for improving qualitative as well as quantitative traits in pointed gourd.

Keywords: Divergence, Non-hierarchical cluster, PCA, Principal component analysis, Pointed gourd


Analysis of genetic diversity among tropical and subtropical maize inbred lines using SSR markers

Vijay Kumar1*, S. K. Singh1, V. K. Malik1, A. K. Vishwakarma2, Vikas Gupta3 and Vinay Mahajan4

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221 005(U.P.), INDIA

2Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi -110 012, INDIA

3ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research Karnal, Haryana-132001, INDIA

4ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research, PAU Campus, Ludhiana 141004, (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: v.k9181@ gmail.com

Received: March 30, 2017; Revised received: June 20, 2017; Accepted: November 3, 2017


Abstract: Genetic diversity of 24 tropical and subtropical elite maize lines was assessed at molecular level employ-ing 42 Simple Sequence Repeats. A total of 107 alleles with an average of 2.55 alleles per locus were detected. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values of 42 SSR loci ranged from 0.08 (UMC1428) to 0.68 (UMC2189 and UMC2332) with the overall calculated PIC mean value of 0.44, whereas the Discrimination Rate (DR) value for SSR markers ranged from 0.09 (UMC2089) to 0.42 (UMC1311) with the average DR value of 0.26. Pair-wise genet-ic similarity (GS) values, calculated by Jaccard’s coefficients, ranged between 0.25 and 0.78 with a mean genetic similarity of 0.63, indicating the existence of adequate amount of genetic divergence among the genotypes selected for the study. The cluster dendrogram separated all the inbred lines into six main clusters with sub clusters based on genetic similarity. Factorial analysis also confirmed a nearly similar pattern for grouping these inbred lines as pre-sented by cluster dendrogram. In this study, SSR markers were found to be powerful tool for detection of genetic diversity in maize inbred lines. These findings could provide information for effective utilization of these materials for development of maize hybrids as well as for genetic improvement of inbred lines.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, Inbred lines, Maize, SSR markers, Polymorphism information content


Effect of potash and sulphur on yield and quality parameters under different planting methods in onion

Balvir Kaur, Paramjit Kaur Sraw*, Amanpreet Kaur and Kuldeep Singh

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalandhar, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: parampahul78@pau.edu

Received: April 5, 2017; Revised received: June 27, 2017; Accepted: November 5, 2017


Abstract: A field experiment was carried out to examine the effect of potash and sulphur on yield and quality parameters under different planting methods in onion (Allium cepa L.) during Rabi 2014 and 2015. The experiment consists of 8 treatment combinations viz. 2 planting methods (bed and flat), 4 treatments of fertilizer viz. S1-N100 P50 K0 S0 (control), S2 - N100 P50 K50 S0, S3 - N100 P50 K0S40, S4 - N100 P50 K50 S40. The experiment was laid in factorial randomized block design and replicated thrice. Uniform dose of farm Yard manure (50 t ha-1) was applied to all the treatments. Data on plant height (cm), leaves /plant (No.), neck thickness (mm), fresh bulb weight (g), fresh bulb yield (q ha-1), total soluble solids (T.S.S), sprouting (%),rotting (%) and physiological weight loss (%) at 30 and 90 days after of harvest were recorded . It has been observed that planting methods and fertilizer treatments showed significant difference at 5% level of significance for plant height (cm), neck thickness (mm), fresh bulb weight (g), fresh bulb yield (q ha-1),total soluble solids (T.S.S), sprouting(%), rotting(%) and physiological weight loss (%) at 30 days after harvest. However their interaction was significant for Neck thickness (mm), fresh bulb yield (q ha-1) and rotting (%).It was found that application of potash and sulphur with recommended dose of Nitrogen and phosphorus gave better results in relation to yield as well as quality characters. The results revealed that application of potash and sulphur with recommended dose of nitrogen and phosphorus (S4 - N100 P50 K50 S40 ) gave better results in relation to yield (339.6 q ha-1) as well as quality characters like sprouting (2.38 %) and rooting (12.18 %) and physiological weight loss at 30 and 90 days of harvest(10.22 and 20.50 % respectively).

Keywords: Onion, Potash, Sulphur, Yield and quality parameters


Herbicidal effect on the bio-indicators of soil health- A review

Sheeja K Raj and Elizabeth K Syriac

1Kerala Agricultural University, Coconut Research Station, Balaramapuram, Kalttachalkuzhy P.O,

Thiruvananthapuram-695501, INDIA

2Kerala Agricultural University, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram-

695522, INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: sheejakraj70@gmail.com

Received: April 22, 2017; Revised received: June 25, 2017; Accepted: November 5, 2017


Abstract: Soil microbial population, earth worms in soil, soil enzyme activity and organ carbon content in soil are considered as the bio indicators of soil health. They are used as indicators of soil health because of their active role in soil organic matter production, decomposition of xenobiotics and cycling of nutrients, ease of measurement and rapid response to changes in management practices. The assessment of soil health can be used to develop more sustainable crop production system. A number of herbicides have been introduced as pre and post emergence weed killer. The impact of herbicides on soil health depends on the soil type, type and concentration of herbicide used, sensitivity to non-target organisms and environmental conditions. The review elaborates the impact of herbicidal application on the biological indicators of soil health.

Keywords: Enzyme activity in soil, Earth worm population in soil, Herbicides, Soil microbial population, Soil organic

carbon content


Development and sensory evaluation of gluten free bakery products using quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa) flour

Sukhmandeep Kaur* and Navjot Kaur

Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

*Corresponding author: E-mail: sukhmani.deep20@gmail.com

Received: May 5, 2017; Revised received: June 24, 2017; Accepted: November 5, 2017


Abstract: Quinoa based gluten free bakery products were prepared by supplementing roasted quinoa flour in oats and rice flour at different substitution levels and were organoleptically evaluated using eight point hedonic rating scale for sensory attributes by a semi – trained (including Professors and Assistant Professors not a professionally sensory panel) panel of 10 judges. Substitution of roasted quinoa flour at 5, 10 and 15 percent levels showed significant difference (p≤ 0.05) at 10 percent levels for all the products namely cookies, cakes, muffins, pies and tarts for overall acceptability. The products with 10 percent level of supplementation of roasted quinoa flour (10%) with rice (45%) and oats flour (45%) were found to be highly acceptable and the scores for overall acceptability for cakes (7.54), cookies (7.46), muffins (7.32), pies (7.78) and tarts (7.56) were achieved. The pies with 10 percent level of supplementation of roasted quinoa flour were considered as best product by the judges in terms of all the sensory attributes such as appearance, colour, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability. It may be concluded that roasted quinoa flour can be utilized successfully up to 10 percent level to prepare gluten free bakery products with high nutritional value without imposing negative impact on sensory attributes which may prove a boon to celiac patients.

Keywords: Celiac disease, Quinoa, Organoleptic evaluation, Sensory attributes


Impact assessment of frontline demonstrations on green gram: Experience from rainfed condition of Rajasthan

M. L. Meena and Dheeraj Singh

ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pali-Marwar -306401 (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mlmeenacazri@gmail.com

Received: May 10, 2017; Revised received: June 21, 2017; Accepted: November 8, 2017

Abstract: Pulses being rich in quality protein, minerals and vitamins are inseparable ingredients of diet of majority of Indian population. Despite high nutritive value of pulses and their role in sustainable agriculture desired growth rate in production could not be witnessed. The domestic production of pulses is consistently below the targets and actualdomestic requirements are also higher, due to these pulses are being imported. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra Pali has carried out frontline demonstrations on green gram covering an area of 26.5 ha of farmers’ field to exhibit latest production technologies and compared it with farmer’s practice. The study in total 40 frontline demonstrations were conducted on farmers’ fields in villages viz., Kishanagar, Bedkallan, Boyal, Kushalpura and Balara of Pali district of Rajasthan state during 2014, 2015 and 2016, to demonstrate production potential and economic benefit of improved technologies comprising sowing method, nutrient management and chemical weed control and adoption of whole package of practices for the crop. After sowing of seed application of weedicide Pendimethalin (within two days after sowing) at 1.0 kg/ha in 500 liters of water used for effective control of the weeds during kharif season in rainfed condition. The findings of the study revealed that the demonstrated technology recorded a mean yield of 982 kg/ha which was 35.5% higher than obtained with farmers’ practice (755 kg/ha). Higher mean net income of Rs. 46030/ha with a Benefit: Cost ratio of 4.3 was obtained with improved technologies in comparison to farmers’ practices (Rs. 38775/ha). The frontline demonstrations conducted on green gram at the farmers’ field revealed that the adoption of improved technologies significantly increased the yield as well as yield attributing traits of crop and also the net returns higher than the farmers’ practices. So, there is a need to disseminate the improved technologies among the farmers with effective extension methods like training and demonstrations. The farmers’ should be encouraged to adopt the recommended package of practices realizing for higher returns.

Keywords: Adoption, Frontline demonstration, Green gram, Productivity


Design, development and demonstration of a Shallow solar tunnel dryer for non-electrified areas

T. V. Chavda1*, Prem Singh2, Sagar Agravat3 and S. K. Philip4

1,2,3,4Solar Energy Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), Vallabh Vidyanagar–388120 (Gujarat), INDIA

Present Address:

1Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, NAU, Dediapada, Narmada –393040 (Gujarat), INDIA

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana (Punjab), INDIA

3Renewable Energy R&D, Gujarat Energy Research & Management Institute, 1st Floor, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University Campus, Raisan, Gandhinagar (Gujarat), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: tilak_chavda@yahoo.co.in

Received: July 19, 2016; Revised received: July 7, 2017; Accepted: November 6, 2017


Abstract: This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a shallow solar tunnel dryer for agro and industrial products. In the shallow solar tunnel dryer, there are three separate units viz.: an air heating unit, drying unit and air diversion unit. Total area of the solar tunnel dryer was 21 m². The heated air from a separate solar air heating zone is passed through a product bed, and at the same time, the drying tunnel bed absorbs solar energy directly through the transparent UV stabilized plastic sheet used as covering material. This dryer was not required any external sources of the power to operate the electrical fan. The system was designed to operate at a temperature of 50 to 60oC. The system was installed at the institute and initial testing was conducted. After that the system was also demonstrated at the actual potential user’s site. The results obtained during the test period revealed that the temperatures inside the tunnel drying zone and solar air heating zone were much higher than the ambient air temperature during most hours of the day-light. The temperature rise inside the drying tunnel was up to 67.4°C at peak hour’s period (noon). The drying rat e and thermal efficiency of the collector were 1.73 kg/h and 26.0% respectively. The high outlet temperature indicated the scope of loading the dryer further.

Keywords: Demonstration, Grid independent dryer, Solar dryer, Solar PV, Tunnel dryer


Influence of crop geometry and cultivars on growth, yield and production efficiency of dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Sandeep Kumar1,2*, Manoj Kumar Singh1, Ram Swaroop Meena1,3 and Kiran Hingonia1,4

1Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, (UP) INDIA

2CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar – 125004 (Haryana), INDIA

3The Ohio State University, C-MASC, 422C Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

4Department of Agronomy, PalliSiksha Bhavana, Institute of Agriculture Science, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, Kolkata–

731236 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. Email: sandeepsihag1992@gmail.com

Received: August 21, 2016; Revised received: May 14, 2017; Accepted: November 6, 2017


Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif (summer) season of 2014, aim of the experiment was to investigate suitable crop geometry and cultivar and their influences on performance of dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.), experimental treatments were consisting of 15 treatments, namely, main plots: five cultivars (MTU 7029, NDR 97, HUR 105, HUR 4-3 and PRH-10) and sub-plots: three crop geometry’s (20 x 10, 20 x 20 and 25 x 25 cm2). All the data recorded were statistically analyzed using the standard procedures of split-plot design. The results indicated that amongst cultivars, aromatic rice hybrid PRH-10 recorded significantly more grain yield (5582.32 kg/ha) than cultivar HUR 4-3 (4612.99 kg/ha) and NDR 97 (3397.82 kg/ha), whereas; it was statistically comparable with cultivar MTU 7029 (5489.24 kg/ha) and HUR 105 (5022.03 kg/ha). The cultivar PRH-10 also registered higher gross return (105771.9 `/ha), net return (66389.08 `/ha) and production efficiency (592.76 `/ha/day) than the remaining cultivars. The higher grain yield of PRH-10 over these cultivars was due to considerable improvement in most of its yield attributing characters like panicle length (27.92 cm), a number of grains/panicle (178.70) and test weight (26.35 g). In a case of crop geometry treatment, plant spacing of 25 x 25 cm2 recorded higher grain yield as compared to remaining plant spacing while the plant spacing of 20 x 10 cm2 recorded higher gross return, net return and production efficiency as compared to 20 x 20 and 25 x 25 cm2. Plant geometry plays an imperative role towards improving the grain yield of cultivars in direct seeded rice by optimal utilization of natural resources. Therefore, for getting higher net return and production efficiency, cultivar PRH-10 at plant spacing 20 x 10 cm2 can be raised in dry direct-seeded rice in Varanasi region of Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: Crop geometry, Cultivar, Direct seeded rice, Economics, Production efficiency, Yield



Occurrence of functional single-lobed ovary in Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton,1822) brood fish from Assam, India

B. K. Bhattacharjya1, B. J. Saud1, V. K. Verma1, D. Debnath1*, D. Kumar1, A. K. Yadav1, S. Yengkokpam1, and U. K. Sarkar2

1ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Regional Centre, HOUSEFED Complex, Dispur, Guwahati – 781006 (Assam), INDIA

2ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, Kolkata – 700120 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: dipesh.debnath@gmail.com

Received: November 11, 2016; Revised received: July 8, 2017; Accepted: November 8, 2017


Abstract: Occurrence of abnormally developed gonads in fish is rather more uncommon in freshwater fish than marine fish. It is therefore worthwhile to disseminate the information of occurrence of a single-lobed ovary in Cirrhinus mrigala brood fish as an abnormal phenomenon. During April 2011 to March 2013, around 500 brood fish samples of Indian major carps (Labeo rohita, Catla and C. mrigala) were collected from different government and private fish farms of Assam and Tripura located in the Northeast of India. Among them, one C. mrigala specimen measuring 41 cm in total length and 640 g in weight collected from Ulubari fish seed farm of Guwahati, Assam during June, 2012 was found to have a single-lobed ovary instead of the normal bilobed structure. The ovary occupied the entire body cavity and the majority of ova were round and translucent. The ovary contributed substantially to the total body weight with gonado-somatic index of 32.81 which was the highest among all the mrigal specimens examined. The study indicates possibility of artificially inducing development of single-lobed ovary in C. mrigala for achieving possible higher spawn outputs in induced breeding of the cultivable species.

Keywords: Abnormal ovary, Brood fish, Cirrhinus mrigala, Single-lobed ovary, Brood fish


Performance of direct seeded rice in Tungabhadra command area of Karnataka

Y. M. Ramesha1, Manjunath Bhanuvally2 and Ashok Kumar Gaddi2

1Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rameshaym@gmail.com

Received: December 2, 2016; Revised received: May 31, 2017; Accepted: November 8, 2017


Abstract: A large scale demonstration was taken on direct seeded rice in four locations (one at ARS, and three at Farmers field in 50 acres each) in and around the Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka. Our analysis showed that, the yield performance of direct seeded rice (DSR) varied with transplanted rice (TPR) and with different locations. This may be due to variety used and crop management practices adopted by the farmers. In L2, maximum grain yield was recorded in DSR (6500 kg/ha) and TPR (6200 kg/ ha) compared to other three locations. Further, the grain yield was higher in DSR compared to TPR in all the locations. Similarly, economics of DSR varied with TPR and with different locations. This may be due to yield variation at different locations. In L2, net returns and B:C ratio were higher in DSR (` 93628/ha and 3.93, respectively) and TPR (`79868/ ha and 3.0, respectively) compared to other three locations. Further, net returns and B:C ratio were higher in DSR compared to TPR. Further, 47% of the labour requirement was saved in DSR compared to TPR. Therefore, concluded that, farmers can grow rice by direct seeding instead of planting to save the labour and the expenditure.

Keywords: Direct seeded rice, Grain yield, Labour, Net returns, Transplanted rice


Evaluation and diversity analysis in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] germplasm accessions on the basis of principal component analysis

Ram Avtar*, Manmohan, Minakshi Jattan, Babita Rani, Nisha Kumari, N. K. Thakral and R. K. Sheoran

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar –125004 (Haryana), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: ramavtarola@yahoo.in

Received: December 7, 2016; Revised received: August 10, 2017; Accepted: November 8, 2017


Abstract: Principal component analysis was carried out with 20 morphological traits (including quantitative as well as qualitative) among 96 germplasm lines of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Principal factor analysis led to the identification of eight principal components (PCs) which explained about 70.41% variability. The first principal component (PC1) explained 16.21% of the total variation. The remaining PC’s explained progressively lesser and lesser of the total variation. Varimax Rotation enabled loading of similar type of variables on a common principal factor (PF) permitting to designate them as yield factor, maturity factor and oil factor etc. Based on PF scores and cluster mean values the germplasm accessions viz., RC2, RC32 and RC51 (cluster I), RC95 and RC96 (cluster X) were found superior for seed yield/plant and yield related factors like primary and secondary branches/plant; while the accessions RC34, RC185 and RC195 (cluster III) and RC53 (cluster VIII) were found superior for oil content. These accessions may further be utilized in breeding programmes for evolving mustard varieties having high seed yield and oil content. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted into ten clusters containing two to 26 accessions. The results of cluster and principal factor analyses were in confirmation of each other.

Keywords: Cluster, Diversity, Germplasm, Indian mustard, Principal component

Ecology and conservation of golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Aazad P. Ojha, Gautam Sharma and L. S. Rajpurohit*

Animal Behavior Unit, Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: drlsrajpurohit@yahoo.co.in

Received: March 7, 2017; Revised received: June 27, 2017; Accepted: November 10, 2017


Abstract: At north-west of India there is dry, semi arid region called as The Great Indian Thar desert. It lies between 24o and 35o 5’ N latitude and 70o 7’ and 76o 2’ E. Mammals of Thar desert includes the wolf (Canis lupus), the stripped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena), golden Jackal (Canis aureus), the Indian desert fox (Vulpes v. pusilla), wild bore (Susscrofaspc.), black buck (Antilo pecervicapra), blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus), chinkara (Gazella benneti), Hanuman langur (Semenopithecus entellus) etc. Golden Jackal is unique in distribution, occurrence, and survives at different environmental conditions in India including the hot desert. Present study has been carried out at Phitkasni village, situated south-east of Jodhpur city. Large population of golden Jackal has observed and data of their homerange, territory, inter-specific relation, conflict with human and mortality has been studied. It is concluded that regular monitoring and proper conservation management is needed in this area so Jackal and other carnivore like wolf, desert fox and hyena can also be conserved.

Keywords: Conservation, Desert, Jackal, Population, Wildlife


Detection of epistasis through triple test cross (TTC) analysis in maize (Zea mays L.)

R. Pavan*, E. Gangappa, S. Ramesh, A. Mohan Rao and Hittalmani Shailaja

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore -560065 (Karnataka), INDIA

*Corresponding author E-mail: pavan_55agri@rediffmail.com

Received: May 7, 2017; Revised received: June 20, 2017; Accepted: November 10, 2017


Abstract: The present study was carried out to detect the epistasis present in two cross of maize through triple test cross (TTC) analysis. The mean squares due to total epistasis was highly significant at P≤0.01 for all the characters in both C-I and C-II, except for ear length in C-I. The i type of epistasis was highly significant for the traits such as days totasseling, days to silking, earlength, ear circumference, kernels row-1,100 grain weight and shelling percentage in C-I and in C-II, ‘i’ type was non-significant for ASI, ear length, kernels row-1and grain yield plot-1. Both j type and l type of epistasis were significant for all characters in both C-I and C-II, except for ear length in C-I and days to silking in C-II. The estimate of additive genetic component (D) was highly significant for all characters in both C-I and C-II. Epistasis played a significant role in the inheritance of all the characters in both C-I and C-II except for ear length in C-I. Both additive and dominance components of genetic variance with a predominance of dominance genetic variance played an important role in the inheritance of all the quantitative traits except ear length in C-I and kernel rows ear-1 in C-II.

Keywords: Additive, dominance, epistasis, genetic variance, Triple test cross analysis


Combining ability and heterosis analysis for fibre yield and quality parameters in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Hariom Kumar Sharma*, Shashi Bhushan Choudhary, A. Anil Kumar, R. T. Maruthi and S.K. Pandey

Crop Improvement Division, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata- 700 120 (West Bengal), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: harrygpb@gmail.com

Received: May 28, 2017; Revised received: July 15, 2017; Accepted: November 10, 2017


Abstract: Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is second important bast fibre crop after jute in India. With an aim to ex-ploit non-additive genetic variance present experiment was designed to identify good general combining parents and specific cross combination for fibre yield and fibre quality parameters (fibre fineness, fibre tenacity) in roselle. A total of 11 parents were crossed in complete diallel fashion which resulted 55 F1, 55 RF1 (reciprocal F1). Parents, F1s and RF1s were grown in randomized block design. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P< 0.01, P<0.05) among the parents and their hybrids. The parents AMV 1, AMV 5, GR 27 and AHS 160 were identified as good combiners since they recorded significant general combining ability (GCA) effects for fibre yield and quality parameters. Further, For fibre yield only three crosses (AMV 1 × AMV 4, AMV 1 × GR 27, HS 4288 × JRR 07) showed significant specific combining ability (SCA) effects from them hybrid AMV 1 × GR 27 (fibre yield=27.37g/ plant) exhibited positively significant best parent (Non bris 4, Mean fibre yield=21.16g/plant) heterosis (29.35%). Similarly, for fibre tenacity, hybrid GR 27 × JRR 07 (fibre tenacity=23.47g/tex) exhibited positively significant best parent (HS 4288; fibre tenacity=20.35g/tex) heterosis (15.30%).

Keywords: Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Fibre, Combining ability, Heterosis


Comparative development of sorghum, redgram and rice breeding population of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) feeding on cereals and split redgram dhal

S. Vijay* and K. Bhuvaneswari

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003 (Tamil Nadu), INDIA

*Corresponding author. E-mail: entovijay@gmail.com

Received: June 29, 2016; Revised received: May 18, 2017; Accepted: November 10, 2017


Abstract: Rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) mainly attacks whole grains such as wheat, corn, barley and rice and

have been found actively breeding in such foods. The host range of S. oryzae now extended to split pulses. An experiment was carried out at the Entomology Laboratory, TNAU, Coimbatore during 2014-2015 to study the comparative development of sorghum, redgram and rice breeding population of S. oryzae feeding on cereals and split redgram dhal. The assessed parameters were survival percentage, per cent mortality and F1 progeny. The per cent mortality was higher in sorghum breeding population while feeding on redgram (98.33%) and rice (44.67%). In case of redgram breeding population per cent mortality was maximum in rice (21.67%) and sorghum (19.67%). The survival percentage was maximum in sorghum population while feeding on sorghum (95 %). F1 progeny emergence of sorghum breeding population was higher while feeding on sorghum (75.67%) and rice (36.67%). In case redgram breeding population F1 progeny emergence was maximum in redgram (62.33%) and sorghum (15.33%), whereas in rice breeding population maximum progeny emergence was observed in rice (72.33%) and sorghum (65.67%). The cereal bred population did not survive on redgram, whereas redgram bred population able to survive on cereals, but the progeny emergence and their development was affected.

Keywords: Cereals and redgram breeding population, F1 progeny, Per cent mortality, Survival percentage